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Title: A handbook of library appliances: The technical equipment of libraries: fittings, furniture, charging systems, forms, recipes, etc.
Author: Brown, James D.
Language: English
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Library Association of the United Kingdom.

This Association was founded on 5th October, 1877, at the conclusion
of the International Conference of Librarians held at the London
Institution, under the presidency of the late Mr. J. Winter Jones, then
principal librarian of the British Museum.

Its objects are: (_a_) to encourage and aid by every means in its power
the establishment of new libraries; (_b_) to endeavour to secure better
legislation for rate-supported libraries; (_c_) to unite all persons
engaged or interested in library work, for the purpose of promoting
the best possible administration of libraries; and (_d_) to encourage
bibliographical research.

The Association has, by the invitation of the Local Authorities, held its
Annual Meetings in the following towns: Oxford, Manchester, Edinburgh,
London, Cambridge, Liverpool, Dublin, Plymouth, Birmingham, Glasgow,
Reading, Nottingham, and Paris.

The Annual Subscription is ONE GUINEA, payable in advance, on 1st
January. The Life Subscription is FIFTEEN GUINEAS. _Any person actually
engaged in library administration may become a member, without election,
on payment of the Subscription to the Treasurer._ Any person not so
engaged may be elected at the Monthly or Annual Meetings. Library
Assistants, approved by the Council, are admitted on payment of a
Subscription of HALF-A-GUINEA.

The official organ of the Association is _The Library_, which is issued
monthly and sent free to members. Other publications of the Association
are the _Transactions and Proceedings_ of the various Annual Meetings,
_The Library Chronicle_, 1884-1888, 5 vols., and _The Library Association
Year-Book_ (price one shilling), in which will be found full particulars
of the work accomplished by the Association in various departments.

A small Museum of Library Appliances has been opened in the Clerkenwell
Public Library, Skinner Street, London, E.C., and will be shown to
any one interested in library administration. It contains Specimens
of Apparatus, Catalogues, Forms, &c., and is the nucleus of a larger
collection contemplated by the Association.

All communications connected with the Association should be addressed
to Mr. J. Y. W. MACALISTER, 20 Hanover Square, London, W. Subscriptions
should be paid to Mr. H. R. TEDDER, Hon. Treasurer, Athenæum Club, Pall
Mall, London, W.


_This Invention is now in use in some 200 Public Libraries (30 in London
and Suburbs), and has everywhere given great satisfaction. The following
is a brief summary of its more useful features_:

=1.= Show at a glance both to borrower and Librarian the books or
magazines in or out. Also the titles can be shown to the borrower if
desired. =2.= Who has any book that is out, and how long it has been out.
=3.= The names of every borrower that has had any book since it was added
to the Library. =4.= The dates of accession, binding, or replacement
of any book. =5.= The title, author, number of volumes, and date of
publication. =6.= The book any individual has out, and every book he has
had out since joining the library. =7.= If a borrower’s ticket has been
misplaced in the indicator, it will instantly denote, if referred to,
the exact number where such ticket will be found. =8.= It will show at
a glance by a colour arrangement the number of books issued each day or
week, and consequently which are overdue. =9.= Stocktaking can be carried
out in one quarter of the time usually required, and without calling
the books in. =10.= Wherever it has been adopted the cost of labour and
losses of books have been very greatly reduced, so much so that in a very
short time it has recouped the cost of purchase. Thus all book-keeping or
other record may be entirely dispensed with.

                      SOLE AGENT AND MANUFACTURER:

Cotgreave’s Rack for Periodicals and Magazines.

_This design is now used in a large number of Libraries and Reading Rooms
with great advantage. Periodicals of any size can be kept alphabetically
arranged either in covers or without. There are no clips, springs, or
other mechanical fittings, but everything is as simple as can be._

               WAKE & DEAN, 111 LONDON ROAD, LONDON, S.E.

Cotgreave’s Solid Leather Covers for Periodicals.

_These covers are made of solid leather and will last longer than a dozen
of any other material. Several Libraries have had them in use for a dozen
years or more, without any appearance of wear._


N.B. Any special information required may be obtained from the inventor,
A. COTGREAVE, Public Libraries, West Ham, London, E.



Used and endorsed as the best everywhere. The following is one of the
strongest testimonials which could possibly be received:—



    President, JAMES W. SCOTT—Chicago Herald.
    Vice-President, E. H. WOODS—Boston Herald.
    Secretary and Treasurer, L. L. MORGAN—New Haven Register.


    W. C. BRYANT—Brooklyn Times.
    C. W. KNAPP—St. Louis Republic.
    J. A. BUTLER—Buffalo News.
    M. A. McRAE—Cincinnati Post and St. Louis Chronicle.
    A. S. PEASE—Woonsocket Reporter.

Address all communications to the Secretary, care NEW YORK OFFICE, 206

    To the Members of the American Newspaper Publishers’ Association.

                                              NEW YORK, MAY 11, 1892.


    The undersigned, a committee appointed by the President to
    investigate into the merits of the various typewriting machines
    with a view to the adoption of some machine for the use of
    members of this association, respectfully report that in their
    judgment, all things having been considered, the “Remington”
    is the machine which they would recommend for adoption,
    believing that in its superiority of design and excellence
    of workmanship, its great simplicity, durability and easy
    manipulation, it is more desirable for use in newspaper offices
    than any other. In addition, the fact that it is understood and
    operated by a great many thousands of young men and women, that
    the use of it is being taught not only in the public schools,
    but in commercial schools and colleges throughout the land,
    and, its being generally referred to as the standard: the large
    number of offices which the company have scattered throughout
    the country, making it easy to have repairs made at the least
    expense, have all had some effect in basing their judgment.

                          L. L. MORGAN, J. S. SEYMOUR, W. C. BRYANT.

                    WYCKOFF, SEAMANS _AND_ BENEDICT,
                    100 Gracechurch St., London, E.C.

                       Library Association Series


                                 No. 1.

                           LIBRARY APPLIANCES

                             JAMES D. BROWN


                     The Library Association Series


                                 No. 1.

                              A HANDBOOK OF
                           LIBRARY APPLIANCES:


                             JAMES D. BROWN

                          370 OXFORD STREET, W.

                        _PRICE ONE SHILLING NET_


The Council of the Library Association have arranged for the issue of
a series of Handbooks on the various departments of Library work and
management. Each Handbook has been entrusted to an acknowledged expert
in the subject with which he will deal—and will contain the fullest and
latest information that can be obtained.

Every branch of library work and method will be dealt with in detail, and
the series will include a digest of Public Library Law and an account
of the origin and growth of the Public Library Movement in the United

The comprehensive thoroughness of the one now issued is, the Editors
feel, an earnest of the quality of the whole series. To mere amateurs,
it may appear that it deals at needless length with matters that are
perfectly familiar; but it is just this kind of thing that is really
wanted by the people for whom Mr. Brown’s Handbook is intended. It seems
a simple matter to order a gross of chairs for a library; but only
experience teaches those little points about their construction which
make so much difference as regards economy and comfort.

With this Handbook in their possession, a new committee, the members of
which may never have seen the inside of a public library, may furnish
and equip the institution under their charge as effectively as if an
experienced library manager had lent his aid.

The second issue of the series will be on “Staff,” by Mr. Peter Cowell,
Chief Librarian of the Liverpool Free Public Libraries.

                                                             THE EDITORS.

LONDON, _August, 1892_.




This Handbook bears some analogy to the division “miscellaneous” usually
found in most library classifications. It is in some respects, perhaps,
more exposed to the action of heterogeneity than even that refuge of
doubt “polygraphy,” as “miscellaneous” is sometimes seen disguised;
but the fact of its limits being so ill-defined gives ample scope for
comprehensiveness, while affording not a little security to the compiler,
should it be necessary to deprecate blame on the score of omissions or
other faults. There is, unfortunately, no single comprehensive word or
phrase which can be used to distinguish the special sort of library
apparatus here described—“appliances” being at once too restricted or
too wide, according to the standpoint adopted. Indeed there are certain
bibliothecal sophists who maintain that anything is a library appliance,
especially the librarian himself; while others will have it that, when
the paste-pot and scissors are included, the appliances of a library
have been named. To neither extreme will this tend, but attention
will be strictly confined to the machinery and implements wherewith
libraries, public and other, are successfully conducted. It would be
utterly impossible, were it desirable, to describe, or even mention,
every variety of fitting or appliance which ingenuity and the craving
for change have introduced, and the endeavour shall be accordingly to
notice the more generally established apparatus, and their more important
modifications. It is almost needless to point out that very many of the
different methods of accomplishing the same thing, hereinafter described,
result from similar causes to those which led in former times to such
serious political complications in the kingdom of Liliput. There are
several ways of getting into an egg, and many ways of achieving one end
in library affairs, and the very diversity of these methods shows that
thought is active and improvement possible. As Butler has it—

    “Opiniators naturally differ
    From other men: as wooden legs are stiffer
    Than those of pliant joints, to yield and bow,
    Which way soe’er they are design’d to go”.

Hence it happens that all library appliances are subject to the happy
influences of disagreement, which, in course of time, leads to entire
changes of method and a general broadening of view. Many of these
differences arise from local conditions, or have their existence
in experiment and the modification of older ideas, so that actual
homogeneity in any series of the appliances described in this Handbook
must not be expected. It will be sufficient if the young librarian finds
enough of suggestion and information to enable him to devise a system of
library management in its minor details which shall be consistent and


To some extent the arrangement of fittings and furniture will be dealt
with in the Handbook on Buildings, so that it will only be necessary here
to consider their construction, variety, and uses.


Standard cases or presses, designed for what is called the “stack”
system of arrangement, are constructed with shelves on both sides, and
are intended to stand by themselves on the floor. They are without doors
or glass fronts, and their dimensions must be decided entirely by the
requirements of each library and the class of books they are to contain.
For ordinary lending libraries a very convenient double case with ten
shelves of books to the tier can be made about 9 feet 6 inches wide × 8
feet 6 inches high, including cornice and plinth × 18 inches deep—the
depth of the shelves being about 9 inches, their length 3 feet, and their
thickness, as finished, not less than ¾″ nor more than 1 inch. Such a
case will hold about 1800 volumes in 8vo and 12mo sizes, and the top
shelf can be reached by a middle-sized person from a step or stool 12
inches high. Lower cases should be provided if rapidity of service is
particularly required and there is plenty of floor space to carry the
stock. The top shelf of a case 7 feet high, including cornice and plinth,
can be reached from the floor by any one of ordinary height, small boys
and girls of course excluded. These cases are made with middle partitions
between the backs of the shelves, though some librarians prefer a simple
framework of uprights, cornice, and plinth. For the sake of security and
the necessary rigidity a central partition ought to be included, and if
this is formed of thin ¼″ boarding, double and crossing diagonally, with
a strong iron strap between screwed tight into the outer uprights, all
tendency to bulging will be obviated, and the cases will be firm and
workmanlike. The skeleton or framework cases have to be stayed in all
directions by iron rods and squares fixed in the floor, and, when empty,
look very unsightly and rickety; besides, books get pushed or tumble
over on to the adjoining shelf, and the plea of ventilation, which is
practically the only recommendation for this plan of construction, loses
much of its weight in a lending library where most of the books are in

[Illustration: FIG. 1.[1]—STANDARD BOOK-CASE.]


The shelves should have rounded edges, and ought not to exceed 3′ or 3′
6″ in length. If longer ones are used they must be thin, in order to be
easily moved, and so these become bent in course of time, especially
if heavy books are placed on them. The objection to long shelves
which are very thick is simply that they are unhandy and difficult to
move and waste valuable space. All shelves should be movable, and if
possible interchangeable. No paint or varnish should be applied to any
surface with which the books come in contact, but there is nothing to
be said against polishing. Indeed, to reduce as far as possible the
constant friction to which books are exposed in passing to and from
their resting-places, it ought to be remembered that smooth surfaces are
advantageous. Few libraries can afford leather-covered shelves like those
of the British Museum, but all can have smoothness and rounded edges.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.—LEDGED WALL BOOK-CASE.]

Reference library cases are constructed similarly to those above
described; but as folio and quarto books require storage in this
department, it is necessary to make provision for them. This is usually
done by making the cases with projecting bases, rising at least 3′
high, and in the enlarged space so obtained fair-sized folios and
quartos can be placed. Very large volumes of plates or maps should be
laid flat on shelves made to slide over hard wood runners like trays,
as they frequently suffer much damage from standing upright. A special,
many-shelved press should be constructed for books of this generally
valuable class, and each volume should be allowed a tray for itself. If
the tray is covered with leather, felt, or baize, so much the better.
Wall cases, and cases arranged in bays or alcoves, are generally much
more expensive than the plain standards just described, because, as
they are intended for architectural effect as well as for storage, they
must be ornamental, and possibly made from superior woods. The plan
of arranging books round the walls has been almost entirely abandoned
in modern lending libraries, but there are still many librarians and
architects who prefer the bay arrangement for reference departments. The
matter of arrangement is one, however, which depends largely upon the
shape and lighting of rooms, means of access, and requirements of each
library, and must be settled accordingly.

The question of material is very important, but of course it depends
altogether upon the amount which is proposed to be spent on the fittings.
It is very desirable that the cases should be made durable and handsome,
as it is not pleasant to have bad workmanship and ugly fittings in a
centre of “sweetness and light”. For the standards previously mentioned
there can be nothing better or cheaper than sound American or Baltic
yellow pine, with, in reference cases, oak ledges. This wood is easily
worked, wears very well, and can be effectively stained and varnished
to look like richer and more expensive woods. Of course if money is
no object, oak, mahogany, or walnut can be used; but the cost of such
materials usually works out to nearly double that of softer woods. Cases
with heavily moulded cornices should be boarded over the top, and not
left with huge empty receptacles for dust and cobwebs. This caution is
tendered, because joiners very often leave the space made by the cornice
vacant and exposed.


[Illustration: FIG. 4.—METAL SHELF FITTING.]

Shelf fittings for wooden book-presses are required in all modern
libraries where movable shelves are almost universally used. Cases
with fixed shelves are much cheaper than those fitted with one of the
button or other spacing arrangements now in the market, but the serious
disadvantage of having to size the books to fit the shelves disposes
of any argument that can be urged on behalf of fixtures. There are
many varieties of shelf fitting designed to assist in the necessary
differential spacing of shelves, from the old-fashioned, and by no means
cheap, wooden ratchet and bar arrangement to the comparatively recent
metal stud. The fitting which is most often adopted in new libraries is
that of Messrs. E. Tonks, of Birmingham. It consists of metal strips,
perforated at 1-inch intervals, let into the uprights of the cases
and small gun-metal studs for supporting the shelves. As is shown in
the illustration, the studs fit into the perforations and support the
shelves on little points which sink into the wood, and prevent tilting
or sliding. The strips should not go either to the top or bottom of
the uprights, and at least two feet can be saved in every division by
stopping 6 inches from both ends. Though rather more expensive than
pegs, or the studs mentioned below, it is very desirable to have Tonks’
fittings, because of their superiority to all others in the matters of
convenience and ease in adjusting. Another form of stud often used is
the one shaped like this [Illustration] which fits into holes drilled
in the uprights and supports the shelf on the lower rectangular part.
These are most effective in operation when let into grooves as broad as
the studs, otherwise the shelves must be cut shorter than the width of
the divisions; and in that case end spaces are caused and security is
considerably sacrificed. The peg part of this stud is very apt in course
of time, to enlarge the wooden holes, and when any series of shelves
have to be frequently moved, the result of such enlargement is to make
the studs drop out. If perforated metal strips are used, of course the
price immediately goes up, and there is then no advantage over the Tonks’
fitting. Another form of peg for use in the same kind of round hole is
that similar in shape to the pegs used for violins, and, like them,
demanding much judicious _thumbing_ before they can be properly adjusted.
There are many other kinds of shelf fitting in the market, but none of
them are so well known or useful as those just described.


The iron book-cases manufactured by Messrs. Lucy & Co. of Oxford are
very convenient, and in buildings designed as fire-proof, in basements,
or in certain cases where much weight is wanted to be carried, they
should be useful. They can be fitted up as continuous wall-cases, or
supplied as standards holding books on both sides. The size B, 7′ 6″
high × 4′ 1″ wide × 1′ 3″ deep, will hold about 640 demy 8vo books, and
the ironwork costs £4, shelves £1 4s. Other sizes are made, and the
continuous wall-shelving is charged per yard run—7 feet high, £3 3s.;
shelves of wood, 12 inches deep, 5s. each; if iron, felt covered, 4s. 6d.
each. The durability of these cases is beyond question, and the expense
is not great when their security, strength, and neatness are considered.
The arrangement for spacing the shelves is convenient and effective. The
sliding iron book-cases swung in the galleries of the British Museum,
and their prototype[3] at Bethnal Green Free Library, London, have been
so often and so fully described elsewhere[4] that it is needless to do
more here than to briefly refer to them. The British Museum pattern,
the invention of Mr. Jenner of the Printed Books Department, consists
of a double case suspended from strong runners, which can be pushed
against the permanent cases when not in use, or pulled out when books
are required. Only libraries with very wide passages between the cases
could use them, and only then by greatly strengthening the ordinary
wooden presses in existence.[5] The revolving wooden book-cases now so
extensively used for office purposes, and in clubs or private libraries,
can be bought for £3 and upwards. They should not be placed for public
use in ordinary libraries to which all persons have access, though there
is no reason why subscription libraries and kindred institutions should
not have them for the benefit of their members.

Other fittings connected with book-cases are press and shelf numbers,
contents or classification frames, blinds, and shelf-edging. The press
marks used in the fixed location are sometimes painted or written in gold
over the cases, but white enamelled copper tablets, with the numbers or
letters painted in black or blue, are much more clear and effective.
They cost only a few pence each. The numbering of shelves for the
movable location, or their lettering for the fixed location, is usually
done by means of printed labels. These are sold in sheets, gummed and
perforated, and can be supplied in various sizes in consecutive series
at prices ranging from 2s. 6d. per 1000 for numbers, and 1d. or 2d. each
for alphabets. Shelf numbers can also be stamped on in gold or written
with paint, and brass numbers are also made for the purpose, but the
cost is very great. The little frames used for indicating the contents
of a particular case or division are usually made of brass, and have
their edges folded over to hold the cards. Some are made like the sliding
_carte-de-visite_ frames, but the object in all is the same, namely—to
carry descriptive cards referring to the contents or classification of
book-cases. They are most often used in reference libraries where readers
are allowed direct access to the shelves, and are commonly screwed to the
uprights. A convenient form is that used with numbered presses, and the
card bears such particulars as these—

  |SHELF.|      CASE 594.       |
  |  A   |Buffon’s Nat. Hist.   |
  |  B   |Geological Rec.       |
  |  C   |Sach’s Bot.; Bot. Mag.|
  |  D   |&c.                   |
  |  E   |&c.                   |
  |  F   |&c.                   |

Others bear the book numbers, while some simply refer to the shelf
contents as part of a particular scheme of classification, viz.:—

  941·1 Northern Scotland.

To keep these contents-cards clean it is usual to cover them with little
squares of glass.

Glazed book-cases are not recommended, wire-work being much better
in cases where it is necessary to have locked doors. The mesh of the
wire-work should be as fine as possible, because valuable bindings
are sometimes nail-marked and scratched by inquisitive persons poking
through at the books. It is only in very special circumstances that
locked presses are required, such as when they are placed in a public
reading-room or in a passage, and though glazed book-cases are a
tradition among house furnishers, no librarian will have them if it can
possibly be avoided. Their preservative value is very questionable, and
books do very well in the open, while there can be no two opinions as
to their being a source of considerable trouble. Blinds concealed in
the cornices of book-cases are sometimes used, their object being to
protect the books from dust during the night, but they do not seem to be
wanted in public libraries. In regard to the various shelf-edgings seen
in libraries, leather is only ornamental, certainly not durable; while
scalloped cloth, though much more effective, may also be dispensed with.


To the practical librarian a good counter is a source of perennial
joy. It is not only the theatre of war, and the centre to which every
piece of work undertaken by the library converges, but it is a barrier
over which are passed most of the suggestions and criticisms which
lead to good work, and from which can be gleaned the best idea of the
business accomplished. For these reasons alone a first-class counter
is very desirable. As in every other branch of library management,
local circumstances must govern the size and shape of the counter to be
provided. Lending libraries using indicators require a different kind
of counter than those which use ledgers or card-charging systems, and
reference libraries must have them according to the plan of arrangement
followed for the books. A lending library counter where no indicator
is used need not be a very formidable affair, but it ought to afford
accommodation for at least six persons standing abreast, and have space
for a screened desk and a flap giving access to the public side. On
the staff side should be plenty of shelves, cupboards, and drawers,
and it may be found desirable to place in it a locked till also for
the safe-keeping of money received for fines, catalogues, &c. All
counter-tops should project several inches beyond the front to keep back
the damage-working toes of the public, and on the staff side a space of
at least 3 inches should be left under the pot-board. A height of 3 feet
and a width of 2 feet will be found convenient dimensions for reference
and non-indicator lending library counters. Where indicators are used a
width of 18 inches and a height of 30 of 32 inches will be found best. If
the counter is made too high and wide neither readers nor assistants can
conveniently see or reach the top numbers. As regards length, everything
will depend on the indicator used and the size of the library. An idea
of the comparative size of some indicators may be got from the following

  Counter space required for 12,000 numbers  Cotgreave 15 feet.
         ”            ”            ”         Elliot (small) 16 feet.
         ”            ”            ”         Duplex (small) 22 feet.
         ”            ”            ”           ”    (full) 32 feet.
         ”            ”            ”         Elliot (full) 36 feet.

Allowing 12 feet of counter space for service of readers, 2 feet for desk
space, and 2 feet for flap, a Cotgreave indicator for 12,000 numbers
would mean a counter 31 feet long, a small Elliot 32 feet, a small Duplex
38 feet, a full Duplex 48 feet, and a full Elliot 52 feet. For double the
quantity of numbers the smallest indicator would require a counter 46
feet long, and the largest one 88 feet. These are important points to
bear in mind when planning the counter; though it must be said generally
that, in nearly every instance where a Library Committee has proceeded
with the fitting of a new building before appointing a librarian, they
are over-looked, because the architect invariably provides a counter
about 6 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 3 feet high, with a carved front of
surpassing excellence! What has been already said respecting materials
applies with equal force to this class of fitting; but it should be
added that a good hard-wood counter will likely last for ever. Some
librarians who use card catalogues prefer to keep them in drawers opening
to the public side of the reference library counter. This point is worth
remembering in connection with the fitting of the reference department.

In addition to the store cupboards provided behind the counters there
should be plenty of wall or other presses fixed in convenient places for
holding stationery, supplies of forms, &c. Locked store presses are also
useful; and every large library should have a key-press, in which should
be hung every public key belonging to the building, properly numbered
and labelled to correspond with a list pasted inside the press itself.
These useful little cabinets are infinitely superior to the caretaker’s
pocket, and much inconvenience is avoided by their use. Desks for the
staff use should be made with a beading all round the top and at bottom
of slope to prevent papers, pens, and ink from falling or being pushed
over. Superintendents’ desks should be made large, and to stand on a
double pedestal of drawers, so that they may be high enough for useful
oversight and capacious enough for stationery or other supplies. There is
an admirable specimen of a superintendent’s desk in the Mitchell Library,


[Illustration: FIG. 5.[6]]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

Tables for reading or writing at are best made in the form of a double
desk, [Illustration] which gives readers the most convenience, and
affords an effective but unobtrusive means of mutual oversight. The
framing and rails should be as shallow as possible, so as not to
interfere with the comfort of readers, and elaborately turned or carved
legs should be avoided, because certain to harbour dust, and likely
to form resting-places for feet. Tables with flat tops resting on
central pedestals, and without side rails, are very useful in general
reading-rooms, the free leg space being a decided advantage. Long tables
are not recommended, nor are narrow ones which accommodate readers on
one side only. The former are obstructive, and the latter are neither
economical as regards the seating of readers, nor of much use for the
necessary mutual oversight which ought to be promoted among the public.
Very good dimensions for reading-room tables are 8 to 10 feet long by
3 to 3 feet 6 inches wide by 2 feet 6 inches high. But the librarian
who wishes to consult the varying requirements of his readers will
have his tables made different heights—some 29, some 30, and some 32
inches high. Whatever materials may be used for the framing and legs
of tables, let the tops be hard-wood, like American or English oak,
mahogany, or walnut. Teak is handsome and very durable, but its cost is
much more than the better known woods. Yellow pine is too soft and looks
common, and should not be used for tops unless the most rigid economy is
absolutely necessary. Heavy tables, like those used in clubs, are not
recommended. Ink wells, if provided at all, should be let in flush with
the tops of the desk tables, and ought to have sliding brass covers, with
thumb-notches for moving instead of knobs. Two common forms of library
tables are shown in the annexed illustrations. The one on pedestals
need not have such large brackets, and the ends can easily be allowed
to project at least 18 inches from the pedestals in order to admit of
readers sitting at them. In connection with tables there are various
kinds of reading slopes made for large books, of which those with movable
supporters working in a ratcheted base are the most useful. But there are
endless varieties of such reading desks or stands in existence, and some
invalid-appliance makers manufacture many different kinds.


Librarians are not unanimous as regards the treatment of the current
numbers of periodicals. Some maintain that they should be spread all over
the tables of the reading-room in any order, to ensure that all shall
receive plenty of attention at the _hands_ of readers, whether they are
wanted or not for perusal. Others hold the opinion that the periodicals
in covers should be spread over the tables, but in some recognised order,
alphabetical or otherwise. Yet another section will have it that this
spreading should be accompanied by fixing, and that each cover should
be fastened in its place on the table. Finally, many think that the
magazines, &c., should be kept off the tables entirely, and be arranged
in racks where they will be accessible without littering the room, and at
the same time serve as a sort of indicator to periodicals which are in or
out of use. For the unfixed alphabetical arrangement several appliances
have been introduced. At Manchester the periodicals are arranged on
raised desks along the middle of the tables. In the Mitchell Library,
Glasgow, each table is surmounted by a platform raised on brackets which
carries the magazine covers, without altogether obstructing the reader’s
view of the room and his neighbours. Each periodical is given a certain
place on the elevated carriers, and this is indicated to the reader by a
label fixed on the rail behind the cover. On the cover itself is stamped
the name of the periodical and its table number. Each table has a list of
the periodicals belonging to it shown in a glazed tablet at the outer end
of the platform support. Wolverhampton and St. Martin’s, London, furnish
very good examples of the fixed arrangement. In the former library each
periodical is fastened to its table by a rod, and has appropriated to it
a chair, so that removal and disarrangement cannot occur. In the latter
those located in the newsroom are fastened on stands where chairs cannot
be used, and the arrangement is more economical as regards space than at
Wolverhampton. The periodicals in the magazine room are fixed by cords
to the centre of the table and signboards indicate the location of each
periodical. This seems to be the best solution of the difficulty after
all. Every periodical in this library is fixed, more or less, and it is
therefore easy to find out if a periodical is in use.

The rack system has many advocates, and can be seen both in libraries
and clubs in quite a variety of styles. At the London Institution there
is an arrangement of rails and narrow beaded shelves on the wall, which
holds a large number of periodicals not in covers, and seems to work
very well. The rails are fastened horizontally about two inches from the
walls at a distance above the small shelf sufficient to hold and keep
upright the periodicals proposed to be placed on it, and a small label
bearing a title being fixed on the rail, the corresponding periodical
is simply dropped behind it on to the shelf, and so remains located. A
similar style of rail-rack has been introduced for time-tables, &c.,
in several libraries, and has been found very useful. Another style
of periodical-rack is that invented by Mr. Alfred Cotgreave, whereby
periodicals are displayed on two sides of a large board, and secured in
their places by means of clips. The same inventor has also an arrangement
similar to that described as in the London Institution for magazines in
covers. The ordinary clip-rack used largely by newsvendors has been often
introduced in libraries where floor space was not available, and is very
convenient for keeping in order the shoals of presented periodicals,
which live and die like mushrooms, and scarcely ever justify the
expense of a cover. An improvement on the usual perpendicular wall-rack
just mentioned is that used in the National Liberal Club, London,
which revolves on a stand, and can be made to hold two or three dozen
periodicals or newspapers, according to dimensions.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.—PERIODICAL RACK.]

The racks just mentioned are all designed to hold periodicals without
covers, but there are several kinds in existence for holding them in
their covers. Among such are the table supports, in metal and wood, on
the same principle as shelf book-holders, in which the magazines lie in
their cases on their fore-edges, and are distinguished by having the
titles lettered along the back or otherwise. Probably the best of all the
racks devised for periodicals in their cases is that on the system of
overlapping sloping shelves, shown in the illustration. The idea of this
rack is simply that the covers should lie on the shelves with only the
title exposed. They are retained in place by a beading just deep enough
to afford a catch for one cover, and so avoid the chance of their being
hidden by another periodical laid above. These racks can also be made
single to stand against the wall if floor space is not available. Oak,
walnut, and mahogany are the best woods to use, but pitch or ordinary
yellow pine may also be used.


[Illustration: FIG. 8.—NEWSPAPER STAND.]

The day has not yet come when octavo-sized newspapers will obviate the
necessity for expensive and obstructive stands on which the day’s news
is spread in the manner least conducive to the comfort of readers. The
man who runs and reads has no necessity for much study, while he who
stands and reads does so with the consciousness that at any moment he may
be elbowed from his studies by impatient news-seekers, and be subjected
to the added discomfort of being made a leaning pillar for half-a-dozen
persons to embrace. Meanwhile it is necessary to provide convenient
reading desks for the broadsheets which are issued. It is cheaper to have
double stands, holding four spread papers, than single ones, holding only
two, though there is certainly less comfort to readers with the larger
size. The illustration shows a single stand, but it should be remembered
that the design can be made much heavier and richer. The dimensions
should be for double stands 7′ 6″ long, 2′ 6″ high for slope, and about
3′ from floor to bottom of slope. Single ones should be 4′ long, with the
other measurements as before. Half-stands for going against the wall have
only the slope to the front, and are generally made in long lengths to
cover the whole side of a room. The slope should not in any case be made
either too steep or too great—the former always causing the papers to
droop, and the latter placing the upper parts beyond the sight of short
persons. Before adopting any type of stand, it is advisable to visit a
few other libraries and examine their fittings. It is so much easier to
judge what is liked best by actual examination. Fittings for holding
the newspapers in their places are generally made of wood or brass, and
there are many different kinds in use. The wooden ones usually consist
of a narrow oak bar, fitted with spikes to keep the paper up, hinged
at top and secured at bottom of the slope by a staple and padlock, or
simply by a button. The brass ones include some patented fittings, such
as Cummings’, made by Messrs. Denison of Leeds, and Hills’, invented by
the library superintendent of Bridgeport, Connecticut. The former is a
rod working on an eccentric bed, and is turned with a key to tighten
or loosen it; the latter works on a revolving pivot secured in the
middle of the desk, and is intended more particularly for illustrated
periodicals, like the _Graphic_, &c., which require turning about to suit
the pictures. The “Burgoyne” spring rod made by the North of England
School Furnishing Co., Darlington and London, is very effective, neat,
and comparatively inexpensive. It is secured by a catch, which requires a
key to open it, but it is simply snapped down over the paper when changes
are made. Other varieties of brass holders are those secured by ordinary
locks or strong thumb-screws. In cases where the rods have no spikes
(which are not recommended) or buttons, or which do not lie in grooves,
it is advisable to have on them two stout rubber rings, which will keep
the papers firmly pressed in their places, and so prevent slipping. A
half-inch beading along the bottom of the slope is sometimes useful in
preventing doubling down and slipping. The names of the papers may be
either gilded or painted on the title-board, or they may be done in black
or blue letters on white enamelled title-pieces and screwed to the head
board. These latter are very cheap, durable, and clear. Some librarians
prefer movable titles; and in this case grooved holders or brass frames
must be provided to hold the names, which can be printed on stiff cards,
or painted on wood or bone tablets. The brass rail at the foot of the
slope, shown in the illustration, is meant to prevent readers from
leaning on the papers with their arms. By some librarians it is thought
quite unnecessary, by others it is considered essential; but it is really
a matter for the decision of every individual librarian.


The chairs made in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire are the best and
cheapest in the market, and more satisfaction will result from orders
placed direct with the makers than from purchasing at an ordinary
furniture dealer’s. It is better to have small chairs made with the
back and back legs all in one piece, thus, [Illustration] rather than
with legs and back rails all separately glued into the seat like this,
[Illustration]. The reason is of course that by the former plan of
construction greater strength is obtained, and future trouble in the way
of repairs will be largely obviated. Avoid showy chairs, and everything
that smacks of the cheap furniture market. It will strengthen the chairs
to have hat rails as well as ordinary side rails, and be a convenience
to readers as well. They should cross from the bottom side rail, thus,
[Illustration]. Arm-chairs should be provided at discretion. In magazine
rooms where there is a rack, tables can be largely dispensed with if
arm-chairs are used. If neither wood-block flooring nor linoleum is
used, the chairs may with great advantage be shod with round pieces of
sole leather screwed through a slightly sunk hole to the ends of the
legs. These deaden the noise of moving greatly, and are more durable
than india-rubber. Two or three dozen of chairs _more_ than are actually
required should be ordered. Umbrella stands are best patronised when
attached to the tables, like ordinary pew ones. An umbrella stand close
to the door is such an obvious temptation to the thief that careful
readers never use them on any consideration. Of rails for fixing to
the tables there are many kinds, but probably the hinged pew variety,
plain rail, or rubber wheel, all with water-pans, will serve most
purposes. Many libraries make no provision at all either of hat rails
or umbrella stands, for the simple reason that 50% of the readers do
not enter to stay, while 99% never remove their hats. In proprietary
libraries everything is different, and an approach to comforts of the
sort indicated must be made. The standard hat rack and umbrella stand
combined, like that used in clubs, schools, the House of Commons, &c., is
the best for such institutions.

Show-cases ought to be well made by one of the special firms who make
this class of fitting. Glass sides and sliding trays, with hinged and
_locked_ backs, are essential. For museum purposes all sorts of special
cases are required, and the only way to find out what is best is to visit
one or two good museums for the purpose.


CHARGING SYSTEMS AND INDICATORS.—The charging of books includes every
operation connected with the means taken to record issues and returns,
whether in lending or reference libraries. Although the word “charging”
refers mainly to the actual entry or booking of an issue to the account
of a borrower, it has been understood in recent years to mean the whole
process of counter work in circulating libraries. It is necessary to
make this explanation at the outset, as many young librarians understand
the meaning of the word differently. For example, one bright young man
on being asked what was the system of “charging” pursued in his library
responded: “Oh! just a penny for the ticket!” And another equally
intelligent assistant replied to the same question: “We don’t charge
anything unless you keep books more than the _proscribed_ time!” Before
proceeding to describe some of the existing systems it may be wise to
impress on assistants in libraries the advisability of trying to think
for themselves in this matter. There is nothing more discouraging than
to find young librarians slavishly following the methods bequeathed by
their predecessors, because in no sphere of public work is there a
larger field for substantial improvement, or less reason to suppose that
readers are as easily satisfied as they were thirty years ago. The truth
is that every library method is more or less imperfect in matters of
detail, and there are numerous directions in which little improvements
tending to greater homogeneity and accuracy can be effected. It is all
very well, and likewise easy, to sit at the feet of some bibliothecal
Gameliel, treasuring his dicta as incontrovertible, and at the same
time assuming that the public is utterly indifferent to efficiency and
simplicity of system. But it ought to be seriously considered that
everything changes, and that the public knowledge of all that relates
to their welfare increases every day; so that the believer in a _dolce
far niente_ policy must be prepared for much adverse criticism, and
possibly for improvements being effected in his despite, which is very
unpleasant. In libraries conducted for profit, everything likely to lead
to extension of business, or to the increased convenience of the public,
is at once adopted, and it is this sort of generous flexibility which
ought to be more largely imported into public library management. A
suitable reverence for the good work accomplished in the past should be
no obstacle to improvement and enlargement of ideas in the future.


The present state of the question of charging turns largely on the
respective merits of indicator and non-indicator systems, or, in other
words, whether the burden of ascertaining if books are _in_ or _out_
should be placed on readers or the staff. There is much to be said on
both sides, and reason to suppose that the final solution lies with
neither. The non-indicator systems come first as a matter of seniority.
The advantages of all ledger and card-charging systems are claimed to be
that readers are admitted directly to the benefit of intercourse with the
staff; that they are saved the trouble of discovering if the numbers they
want are in; that they are in very many cases better served, because more
accustomed to explain their wants; that less counter space is required;
that the initial expense of an indicator is saved; and, finally, that
with a good staff borrowers can be more quickly attended to. Some of
these statements may be called in question, but they represent the views
of librarians who have tried both systems. From the readers’ point of
view there can hardly be a doubt but that the least troublesome system
is the most acceptable; and it is only fair to the non-indicator systems
to assert that they _are_ the least troublesome to borrowers. The
original method of charging, still used in many libraries, consisted in
making entries of all issues in a day-book ruled to show the following

                            DATE OF ISSUE.

       1         2        3     4     5      6        7       8       9
  Progressive|Title of| Class |    |     |Date of| Name of | No. ||
      No.    | Book.  |Letter.|No. |Vols.|Return.|Borrower.| of  || Fines.
             |        |       |    |     |       |         |Card.||
       1     |        |       |    |     |       |         |     ||  |  |
             |        |       |    |     |       |         |     ||  |  |
       2     |        |       |    |     |       |         |     ||  |  |
             |        |       |    |     |       |         |     ||  |  |
       3     |        |       |    |     |       |         |     ||  |  |

But after a time certain economies were introduced, columns 2, 7, and
9 being omitted, and day-books in this later form, perhaps with the
arrangement slightly altered, are in common use now. Of course it is
plain that a book on issue was entered in the first vacant line of the
day-book, and the progressive number, borrower’s number, and date were
carried on to its label. On return, the particulars on the label pointed
out the day and issue number, and the book was duly marked off. It will
at once be seen that this form of ledger only shows what books are out,
but cannot readily show the whereabouts of any particular volume without
some trouble. As to what book any reader has is another question which
cannot be answered without much waste of time. A third disadvantage is
that as borrowers retain their tickets there is very little to prevent
unscrupulous persons from having more books out at one time than they
should. A fourth weakness of this ledger is that time is consumed in
marking off, and books are not available for re-issue until they are
marked off. For various reasons some librarians prefer a system of
charging direct to each borrower instead of journalising the day’s
operations as above described. These records were at one time kept in
ledgers, each borrower being apportioned a page or so, headed with full
particulars of his name, address, guarantor, date of the expiry of his
borrowing right, &c. These ledgers were ruled to show date of issue,
number of book, and date of return, and an index had to be consulted at
every entry. Now-a-days this style of ledger is kept on cards arranged
alphabetically or numerically, and is much easier to work. Subscription
and commercial circulating libraries use the system extensively. The main
difficulty with this system was to find out who had a particular book;
and “overdues” were hard to discover, and much time was consumed in the
process. To some extent both these defects could be remedied by keeping
the borrowers’ cards and arranging them in dated trays, so that as books
were returned and the cards gradually weeded out from the different days
of issue, a deposit of overdue borrowers’ cards pointing to their books
would result. Another form of ledger is just the reverse of the last, the
reader being charged to the book instead of the book to the reader. This
is a specimen:—

                  K 5942. WOOD—EAST LYNNE.

  Date of|Borrowers’|Date of||Date of|Borrowers’|Date of||
  Issue. |   No.    |Return.||Issue. |   No.    |Return.||
  4 May  |   395    |18 May ||       |          |       ||
         |          |       ||       |          |       ||
  6 June |   3421   |       ||       |          |       ||
         |          |       ||       |          |       ||

Every book has a page or more, according to popularity, and there can
hardly be a doubt of its superiority to the personal ledger, because the
question of a book’s whereabouts is more often raised than what book a
given reader has. Dates of issue and return are stamped, and all books
are available for issue on return. The borrowers’ cards, if kept in dated
trays as above, show at once “overdues” and who have books out. But the
“overdues” can be ascertained also by periodical examination of the
ledger. In this system book ledgers are as handy as cards. In both of
the ledger systems above described classified day sheets for statistical
purposes are used. They are generally ruled thus:—


  | A | B | C | D | E | F |
  |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |   |   |   |   |   |   |

and the issues are recorded by means of strokes or other figures. At
one time it was considered an ingenious arrangement to have a series of
boxes lettered according to classes, with locked doors and apertures at
the top, in which a pea could be dropped for every issue in any class;
but this seems to have been now completely abandoned. Certainly neither
the sheet-stroking nor pea-dropping method of getting at the number of
daily issues can be recommended, because in both cases the account is at
the mercy of assistants, who may either neglect to make such charges, or
register some dozen issues at a time to account for intervals spent in
idling. An application slip is the best solution of the difficulty. This
can either be filled up by the assistants or the borrowers. In certain
libraries these slips are of some permanence, being made of stout paper
in long narrow strips, on which borrowers enter their ticket-numbers
and the numbers and classes of the books they would like. The assistant
stamps the current date against the book had out, and the slips, after
the statistics are compiled from them, are sorted in order of borrowers’
numbers and placed in dated trays. Of course when the borrower returns
the book, his list is looked out, and the name of the returned book
heavily cancelled and another work procured as before. There are various
kinds of ticket-books issued for this purpose, some with counterfoils
and detachable cheques, and others with similar perforated slips and
ruled columns for lists of books wanted to read. Messrs. Lupton & Co. of
Birmingham, Mr. Ridal of Rotherham Free Library, and Messrs. Waterston &
Sons, stationers, Edinburgh, all issue different varieties of call-books,
or lists of wants. Some libraries provide slips of paper, on which the
assistant jots down the book-number after the borrower hands it in with
his ticket-number written in thus:—

  | 5963  | C 431 |

These are simply filed at the moment of service, and become the basis
of the statistical entry for each day’s operations. Such slips save the
loss of time which often arises when careful entries have to be made on
day-sheets or books, and there can be no question as to their greater
accuracy. These are the main points in connection with the most-used
class of day-books and ledgers.


Somewhat akin to the ledger systems are the various card- and
pocket-charging methods which work without the intervention of an
indicator. There are several of such systems in existence both in Britain
and the United States, most of them having features in common, but all
distinguished by differences on points of detail. At Bradford a pocket
system has long been in use. It is worked as follows: Every book has
attached to one of the inner sides of its boards a linen pocket, with a
table of months for dating, and an abstract of the lending rules. Within
this pocket is a card on which are the number and class of the book, its
title and author. To each reader is issued on joining a cloth-covered
card and a pocket made of linen, having on one side the borrower’s
number, name, address, &c., and on the other side a calendar. The pockets
are kept in numerical order at the library, and the readers retain their
cards. When a borrower wishes a book, he hands in a list of numbers and
his card to the assistant, who procures the first book he finds in. He
next selects from the numerical series of pockets the one bearing the
reader’s number. The title card is then removed from the book and placed
in the reader’s numbered pocket, and the date is written in the date
column of the book pocket. This completes the process at the time of
service. At night the day’s issues are classified and arranged in the
order of the book numbers, after the statistics are made up and noted in
the sheet ruled for the purpose, and are then placed in a box bearing the
date of issue. When a book is returned the assistant turns up its date
of issue, proceeds to the box of that date, and removes the title card,
which he replaces in the book. The borrower’s pocket is then restored
to its place among its fellows. The advantages of this plan are greater
rapidity of service as compared with the ledger systems, and a mechanical
weeding out of overdues somewhat similar to what is obtained by the
“Duplex” indicator system described further on. Its disadvantages are the
absence of permanent record, and the danger which exists of title cards
getting into the wrong pockets.

A system on somewhat similar lines is worked at Liverpool and Chelsea,
the difference being that in these libraries a record is made of the
issues of books. It has the additional merit of being something in the
nature of a compromise between a ledger and an indicator system, so that
to many it will recommend itself on these grounds alone. The Cotgreave
indicator is in this system used for fiction and juvenile books only, and
as the records of issues are made on cards, the indicator is simply used
to show books _out_ and _in_. Mr. George Parr, of the London Institution,
is the inventor of an admirable card-ledger, and though it has been in
use for a number of years its merits do not seem to be either recognised
or widely known. The main feature of this system, which was described at
the Manchester meeting of the L.A.U.K. in 1879, is a fixed alphabetical
series of borrowers’ names on cards, behind which other cards descriptive
of books issued are placed. The system is worked as follows: Every book
has a pocket inside the board somewhat similar to that used at Bradford
and Chelsea, in which is a card bearing the title and number of the
book. When the book is issued the card is simply withdrawn and placed,
with a coloured card to show the date, behind the borrower’s card in the
register. When it is returned the title card is simply withdrawn from
behind the borrower’s card, replaced in the book, and the transaction
is complete. This is the brief explanation of its working, but Mr. Parr
has introduced many refinements and devices whereby almost any question
that can be raised as regards who has a book, when it was issued, and
what book a given person has, can be answered with very little labour.
This is accomplished by means of an ingenious system of projecting guides
on the cards, together with different colours for each 1000 members,
and with these aids a ready means is afforded of accurately finding the
location in the card-ledger of any given book or borrower. As regards
its application to a popular public library, the absence of a permanent
record would in most cases be deemed objectionable, but there seems no
reason why, with certain modifications, it could not be adapted to the
smaller libraries, where neither pocket systems nor indicators are in
use. This very ingenious and admirable system suggests what seems in
theory a workable plan for any library up to 10,000 volumes. Instead of
making a fixed alphabet of borrowers, as in Mr. Parr’s model, a series of
cards might be prepared, one for each book in the library, in numerical
order, distributed in hundreds and tens, shown by projections to
facilitate finding. A label would be placed in each book, ruled to take
the borrower’s number and date of issue, and a borrower’s card like that
used for Mr. Elliot’s indicator, ruled to take the book numbers only.
When a book is asked for, all that the assistant has to do is to write
its number in the borrower’s card, the number of the borrower’s card and
the date on the book label, and then to issue the book, having left the
borrower’s card in the register. The period of issue could be indicated
by differently coloured cards to meet the overdue question, and a simple
day-sheet ruled for class letters and numbers of books issued would serve
for statistical purposes. The register of book-numbers could be used as
an indicator by the staff in many cases, and such a plan would be as
easily worked, as economical, and as accurate as most of the charging
systems in use in small libraries.

There are many other card-charging systems in use, but most of them are
worked only in the United States. A large number of British libraries,
especially those established under the “Public Libraries Acts,” use one
or other of the various indicators which have been introduced since 1870,
and it now becomes necessary to describe some of these.


[Illustration: FIG. 9.[7]—ELLIOT’S INDICATOR.]

The first indicator of any practical use was that invented by Mr.
John Elliot, of Wolverhampton, in 1870. Previous to that date various
make-shift contrivances had been used to aid the staff in finding what
books were in or out without the trouble of actually going to the
shelves, chief among which was a board drilled with numbered holes
to receive pegs when the books represented by the numbers were out.
Elliot’s indicator is a large framework of wood, divided, as shown in the
engraving, into ten divisions by wooden uprights, on which are fastened
printed columns of numbers 1 to 100, 101 to 200, &c., representing
volumes in the library. Between each number, in the spaces between the
uprights, are fastened small tin slides, forming a complete series of
tiny shelves for the reception of borrowers’ tickets, which are placed
against the numbers of the books taken out. The numbers are placed on
both sides of the indicator, which is put on the counter, with one side
glazed to face the borrowers. Its working is simple: Every borrower
receives on joining a ticket in the shape of a book, having spaces ruled
to show the numbers of books and dates of issue, with the ends coloured
red and green. On looking at the indicator the borrower sees so many
vacant spaces opposite numbers, and so many occupied by cards, and if the
number he wishes is shown blank he knows it is in and may be applied for.
He accordingly does so, and the assistant procures the book, writes in
the borrower’s card the number and date of issue, and on the issue-label
of the book the reader’s ticket-number and date. When the book is
returned the assistant simply removes the borrower’s card from the space
and returns it, and the transaction is complete. A day-sheet is commonly
used for noting the number of issues; but, of course, application forms
can also be used. The coloured ends of the borrowers’ tickets are used to
show overdue books, red being turned outwards one fortnight, or whatever
the time allowed may be, and green the next. Towards the end of the
second period the indicator is searched for the first colour, and the
“overdues” noted. The main defect of the Elliot indicator lies in the
danger which exists of readers’ tickets being placed in the wrong spaces,
when they are practically lost.

The “Cotgreave” indicator, invented by Mr. Alfred Cotgreave, now
librarian of West Ham, London, differs from the Elliot in principle and
appearance, and is more economical in the space required. It consists of
an iron frame, divided into columns of 100 by means of wooden uprights
and tin slides; but has numbered blank books in every space, instead of
an alternation of numbered uprights and spaces. Into each space is fitted
a movable metal case, cloth-covered, containing a miniature ledger ruled
to carry a record of borrowers’ numbers and dates of issue. These cases
are turned up at each end, thus [Illustration], and the book-number
appears at one end on a red ground and at the other on a blue ground.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.[8]—COTGREAVE’S INDICATOR]

The blue end is shown to the public to indicate books _in_, and the
red end to indicate books _out_. The ordinary method of working it is
as follows: The borrower, having found the number of the book wanted
indicated _in_ (blue), asks for it by number at the counter, and hands
over his ticket. The assistant, having procured the book, next withdraws
the indicator-book and enters in the first blank space the reader’s
ticket-number and the date, reverses the little ledger to show the
number _out_, and leaves in it the borrower’s card; stamps or writes
the date on the issue-label of the book, and gives it to the reader. On
return the indicator number is simply turned round, and the borrower
receives back his card. “Overdues” can be shown by means of coloured
clips, or by having the borrowers’ cards shaped or coloured, and issues
are recorded on day-sheets, or by means of application forms. There
are, however, endless ways of working both the Elliot and Cotgreave
indicators, though there is only space to describe the most elementary
forms. Like every other department of library work, the working of an
indicator-charging system will bear careful thought, and leave room
for original developments. The “Duplex” indicator, invented by Mr. A.
W. Robertson, librarian of Aberdeen, has several novel features which
call for attention. A full-sized Duplex indicator occupies 5 ft. 4 in.
of counter space for every 2000 numbers, while a smaller pattern for a
similar number occupies 3 ft. 8 in. of counter space, both being 4 ft.
high, and is a frame fitted with slides in the manner of the Cotgreave
and Elliot indicators. It is also a catalogue, and the numbers and
titles of books are given on the blocks which fit into numbered spaces.
Each block has a removable and reversible sheet for carrying a record
consisting of borrower’s number, number in ticket-register, and date of
issue. The borrowers’ cards are made of wood, and also bear a removable
slip for noting the numbers of books read. When a book is asked for the
assistant proceeds first to the indicator and removes the block, which
bears on its surface the location marks and accession number of the
book, and on one end the number and title of the book; the other being
coloured red to indicate _out_, but also bearing the number. He then
carries the reader’s number on to the block, and having got and issued
the book, leaves the block and card on a tray. This is all that is done
at the moment of issue, and it is simple enough, all the registration
being postponed till another time. The assistant who does this takes a
tray of blocks and cards and sits down in front of the ticket-register,
which is a frame divided into compartments, consecutively numbered up
to five hundred or more, and bearing the date of issue. He then selects
a card and block, carries the book-number on to the borrower’s card,
and the number of the first vacant ticket-register compartment, with
the date, on to the book block, and leaves the borrower’s card in the
register. Probably the statistical returns will also be made up at this
time. The blocks are then placed reversed in the indicator, and so are
shown out to the public. When a book is returned, the assistant proceeds
to the indicator to turn the block, and while doing so notes the date and
register number, and then removes and returns the borrower’s card. By
this process the ticket-register is gradually weeded, till on the expiry
of the period during which books can be kept without fine, all tickets
remaining are removed to the overdue register, which bears the same
date, and are placed in its compartments according to the order of the
ticket-register. A slip bearing those numbers is pinned down the side of
the overdue register so that defaulters can easily be found.

These are the principal points in the three best indicators yet
invented, and it only remains to note their differences. The Elliot
indicator system makes the charge to the borrower, and preserves no
permanent record of book issues apart from the label in the book itself.
The Cotgreave system charges the borrower to the book, and _does_ keep
a permanent record of the issues. The “Duplex” system shows who has
had a certain book, what books a certain reader has had, in addition
to a record on the book itself similar to that kept with the Elliot
and Cotgreave systems, but only in a temporary manner. So far as
permanency of record is concerned the Cotgreave is the only indicator
which keeps this in itself. The reading done by borrowers is not shown
in a satisfactory manner by any of the three systems, as worked in
their elementary stages, and the Elliot and Duplex records are only
available when the readers’ tickets are in the library _and their places
known_. Much difference of opinion exists among librarians as regards
the necessity for a double entry charging system, many experienced
men holding that a simple record of the issues of a book is all that
is required. Others are equally positive that a separate record of a
borrower’s reading is only a logical outcome of the spirit of public
library work, which aims at preserving, as well as compiling, full
information touching public use and requirements. In this view the
writer agrees, and strongly recommends every young librarian to avoid
the slipshod, and go in heart and soul for thoroughness. A simple double
record of borrowers’ reading and books read, which will give as little
trouble to the public as possible, is much required, and will repay the
attention bestowed on it by the young librarian. Where application slips
are used, which give book- and borrower-numbers, it is a simple matter
compiling a daily record of the reading done by each borrower. At several
libraries where Cotgreave’s indicator is used, it is done by the process
of pencilling the number of the book taken out on to a card bearing the
reader’s number. These cards form a numerical register of borrowers, and
are posted up from the application forms.

Before leaving the subject of charging systems let it again be strongly
urged that no system of charging should be adopted without a careful
thinking-out of the whole question; giving due consideration of the
matters before raised, at counters (p. 10) and above, touching space and
public convenience in the use of indicators. Though it is claimed for
the indicator that it reduces friction between assistant and public,
facilitates service, and secures impartiality, it should be remembered
that it is expensive; occupies much space; abolishes most of the helpful
relations between readers and staff; quickens service only to the staff;
and after all is not infallible in its working, especially when used
without any kind of cross-check such as is afforded by application forms
and separate records of issues to borrowers.

Reference library charging is usually accomplished by placing the
reader’s application in the place vacated by the book asked for, and
removing and signing it on return. In some libraries these slips are kept
for statistical purposes; in others they are returned to the reader as a
sort of receipt; and in others, again, the form has a detachable portion
which is used for the same purpose. In some libraries two different
colours of slips are used to facilitate the examination of the shelves on
the morning after the issues.


In this section will be noticed only catalogue-holders, or
accession-frames, together with any mechanical apparatus used in the
production of catalogues. Cabinets for holding card-catalogues are made
in a variety of styles, some being drawers fitted into the fronts of
counters, and others being independent stands of drawers. The usual style
of cabinet at present used provides for the cards being strung through
oval or rounded holes on to brass rods, which are fixed, to prevent
readers from removing them and so upsetting the order of the cards. The
drawers themselves are made to pull out only as far as necessary, in
order to prevent careless users from pulling them out altogether and
working destruction to both fittings and arrangement. The construction
of these cabinets should only be entrusted to skilled workmen, and only
oak, walnut, or other hard woods should be used. As every librarian has
his or her own opinion as to how such cabinets should be made and their
contents safeguarded, it will be best to refer inquirers to examples
of such catalogues in actual work, in different styles, at Liverpool,
Newcastle-on-Tyne, Nottingham; the Royal College of Surgeons, Guildhall,
Battersea, St. Martin-in-the-Fields, and Clerkenwell, London, and
elsewhere. A special cabinet is made by Messrs. Stone of Banbury, Oxon.,
but its safeguards require to be improved. A half-falling front locked on
to the rod which secures the cards is a very simple and effective plan
of keeping order in isolated cabinets. In cases where the backs of the
drawers are get-at-able from the staff side of the counter, even more
simple methods of securing the cards, while giving every facility in the
way of making additions, can be adopted. Projecting guides to show in
index style the whereabouts of particular parts of the alphabet should be
made either of tin or linen-mounted cards. Tin lasts best, although the
lettering sometimes rubs off. Nothing will satisfy a librarian, who has a
card-catalogue in contemplation, so much as the comparison of the kinds
adopted in different libraries. The chief objection to card cabinets
or drawers is the insurmountable one of limitation to public use being
fixed by the number of drawers or cabinets. With drawers in a counter
front one consulter monopolises one drawer, while with tiers of three
or four drawers in cabinet form never more than two persons can use it
with any comfort. The exposure of only one title at a time is another
serious drawback, while the peculiar daintiness of touch requisite for
the proper manipulation of the cards makes the use of the catalogue a
labour and a perplexity to working people with hardened finger-tips. We
think it likely, therefore, that catalogues in a large series of handy
guard-books, or in volumes or boxes provided with an arrangement for
inserting slips of additions, will in the future come to be recognised
as that best adapted for general use. A card-catalogue for staff use
ought in any case to be kept, either in boxes or covered trays. Another
catalogue appliance is the accession-frame, or device for making public
all recent additions to the library. Of these there are several, but
we need only mention a few as typical of the rest. At some libraries
a glazed case with shelves is placed on the counter, and in this new
books are displayed with their titles towards the public. It seems to
work very well, and has been used with success at Birmingham, Lambeth,
and elsewhere, to make known different classes of literature which are
not so popular as they should be. Liverpool has, or had, a series of
frames in which were movable blocks carrying the titles of additions,
and at Rotherham a somewhat similar plan has been adopted. Cardiff
shows additions in a frame holding title cards which can be removed by
readers and handed over the counter as demand notes. Guard-books like
those in use at the British Museum are common, both for additions and
general catalogues; while cards or leaves in volumes laced on cords or
rods have been used at Manchester, in Italy, and generally in Europe
and America. A neat box with falling sides for holding catalogue cards
is used in the University Library of Giessen in Germany, and seems well
adapted for staff use, or for private and proprietary libraries. Latest
of all is the ingenious cylindrical catalogue-holder or stand invented by
Mr. Mason, of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London. It consists of a broad
revolving cylinder, upon the outer rim of which are placed a number of
wooden bars, each wide enough to take a written or printed author and
title entry. These bars are movable, being designed to slide round the
whole circumference of the cylinder, so that additions can be inserted
at any part of the alphabet. Each bar represents a book-title, and the
plan of using is that the titles of additions should be mounted on the
bars, leaving spaces for additions, and so afford a convenient and easily
worked accession list in strict alphabetical order. The cylinder is
intended to be fixed in a counter front or special stand, and to be all
covered in with the exception of a portion about equal to the size of
a demy octavo page, which will show under glass. The reader turns the
cylinder round to the part of the alphabet he wants by simply turning
a handle, and so the whole is shown to him without any waste of public


Typewriters for cataloguing or listing purposes are making slow progress
in public libraries; but it is unquestionable that before long they will
be introduced into every large library. Their advantages are many, among
them being greater speed, neatness, and clearness; not to speak of the
attention always bestowed by the public on printed titles or notices as
compared with written ones. If many copies of a list of “books wanted”
should be required, the typewriter will make a stencil on waxed paper
from which can be printed hundreds of copies. If three or six copies of
any title or document are required the typewriter will print them all
at once. For card-catalogues it is better to print two or three copies
of a title at once, and mount them on cards afterwards, making one the
author and another the subject entry. The best machines are those called
“type-bar” writers, the principle of which is that a circle or row of
rods carrying types at the ends, operated by a key like a pianoforte,
is made to strike on a common centre, so that a piece of paper fastened
at the point of contact is printed by being simply jerked along. The
various mechanical devices employed to achieve the different requirements
of printing are ingenious, but vary more or less in every machine. The
following machines are recommended for trial before a choice is made:
the Bar-lock, the Caligraph, the Hammond, the Remington, and the Yost.
Any of the manufacturers or agents will allow a week or fortnight’s
free trial of the machines, and this is the most satisfactory way of
deciding. Recommendations of friends and agents alike should be ignored,
and the librarian should trust to his own liking in the matter. After
all is said, there is really very little difference, as regards cost and
manipulation, in the best machines, and the matter resolves itself into a
question of meeting the requirements of a particular operator or purpose.
In the Bar-lock the type-bars strike downwards through a narrow inked
ribbon. There is a separate key for each type. In the Caligraph the bars
strike upwards through a broad ink ribbon, and the key-board is arranged
with capitals down each side and the lower case letters in the middle.
The Hammond is not a type-bar machine, but has two sizes of type on
different holders which are exchangeable and is operated by keys carrying
the names of two or three letters. The type-holder is struck by a striker
working from behind, and the letter is impressed on the paper through
an inked ribbon. The keys alter the position of the holder to bring the
proper letter or figure against the striker. Cards can be printed more
easily by the Hammond than by the other machines. The Remington, which
has had the longest career, has a single key-board, each key representing
two letters or figures. The bars strike upwards, and the construction of
the instrument is excellent. The Yost is a light and compact machine,
which prints direct from an ink pad on to the paper. It has a separate
key for each type, and a very good arrangement for spacing or inserting
missed letters.

Other copying or manifolding machines for manuscript are the Cyclostyle,
Mimeograph, and Trypograph. The two former are perhaps most useful in
libraries; the Mimeograph being best for manifolding along with the
typewriter. The ordinary screw letter copying press is a necessary
adjunct of every librarian’s office, but in libraries with small incomes
an “Anchor” copying press, costing about 12s. 6d., will be found to serve
all ordinary purposes.


Letter files are made in a great variety of styles, from the spiked
wire to the elaborate and systematic index of the Amberg and Shannon
Companies. A useful series of cheap document files are made by Messrs.
John Walker & Co. of London, and comprise manilla paper and cloth
envelope, and box files for alphabetical arrangement, to hold papers
about 11 × 9 inches, &c. The collapsing accordion files are also made by
this firm. Single alphabetical files to hold some hundreds of documents
are supplied by the Amberg and Shannon File Companies in neat box form at
a small cost; and both these makers can supply file-cabinets of any size
or for any purpose, so far as the preservation of documents is concerned.
Any of the above-named are preferable to the ordinary wire and binder
files which pierce and tear documents without keeping them in get-at-able
order. Sheet-music and prints are best preserved in flat boxes with lids
and falling fronts, though the former, if kept at all, is best bound in
volumes. Print boxes are preferable to portfolios because they are not
so apt to crush their contents, and certainly afford a better protection
from dust. Pamphlet boxes are made in many styles: some with hinged lids
and falling fronts as in the illustration, Fig. 11; some with book-shaped
backs and hinged ends, and others in two parts.

Most librarians prefer the cloth-covered box with hinged lid and falling
front, which can be made in any form by all box-makers. The kind shown
in the illustration above are manufactured by Messrs. Fincham & Co.
of London; but others with a uniformly-sized rim are made in Glasgow,
Bradford, and Manchester. Messrs. Marlborough & Co. of London supply
boxes made in two parts. For filing unbound magazines and serials the
cloth-covered boxes with lids and flaps are most convenient. They
should be made of wood when intended for large periodicals like the
_Graphic_ or _Era_. American cloth or canvas wrappers are sometimes used
for preserving periodicals previous to binding, but boxes will, in the
long run, be found most economical, cleanly and easily used. There are
various kinds of binders made for holding a year’s numbers of certain
periodicals, in which the parts are either laced with cords or secured by
wires to the back. The difficulty with these seems to be that necessary
expansion is not always provided against by the appliances supplied.
Newspapers intended for binding are usually kept on racks and protected
from dust by American cloth or pasteboard wrappers. In other cases a
month’s papers are laced on perforated wooden bars and kept in rolls.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

Stitching machines are sometimes used for periodicals, and though
probably quicker than ordinary needle and thread sewing, have certain
drawbacks which make their use worthy of some deliberation. In the first
place a good machine is expensive and somewhat liable to get out of
order, and in the second place the wires used for the stitching very
often rust, and cause much trouble to the binder both because of the
tearing of the periodicals and the difficulty of their removal.

[Illustration: FIGS. 13-14.]

Reference might be made here to the “Fauntleroy” magazine case designed
by Mr. Chivers of Bath, in which an ingenious and neat brass fastener is
substituted for elastic or leather thongs.

[Illustration: FIGS. 15-16.]

Application forms are sometimes strung in bundles and left hanging or
lying about, but boxes made to their size and provided with thumb-holes
in the sides will be found more convenient and tidy. Various sorts of
holders are made for keeping books erect on the shelves or on tables,
among which the kinds illustrated above are probably best known. The
one shown in Fig. 12, manufactured by Walker & Co. of London, makes
an extremely useful device for arranging cards or slips, as it can be
adjusted to any space from ¼ of an inch. The others are best adapted
for ordinary shelf use. Figs. 13-14 are made by Messrs. Braby & Co.
of Deptford, London, and Messrs. Lewis & Grundy of Nottingham. Figs.
15-16 were designed by Mr. Mason, one of the secretaries of the Library
Association, and are supplied by Messrs. Wake & Dean of London.


In addition to labels on the boards, it is usual in public libraries to
stamp the name of the institution on certain fixed places throughout
books, in order to simplify identification in cases of loss, and to deter
intending pilferers from stealing. Metal and rubber ink stamps have
been in use for a long time, and are doubtless the simplest to apply
and cheapest to procure. The ordinary aniline inks supplied with these
stamps are not reliable, as they can be quite easily removed by the aid
of various chemicals. The best ink for the purpose which can be used is
printing ink, but unfortunately it is difficult to apply and takes a very
long time to dry thoroughly. The best substitute appears to be the ink
for rubber stamps manufactured by Messrs. Stephens of London, which is
not by any means so easily removed as the purely aniline kinds. Embossing
stamps are perhaps more satisfactory as regards indelibility than any
of those just mentioned, but they are generally somewhat clumsy in make
and slow in application. The best method of marking books to indicate
proprietorship and to insure impossibility of removal is by the use
of a perforating stamp, which will bite several pages at once without
disfiguring the book. Most of the kinds at present made are rather
awkward, but there seems no reason why a handy perforator in the shape of
a pair of pincers should not be well within the mechanical abilities of
the average embossing stamp maker. The difficulty with perforating stamps
will always be that of having sufficient points to make the letters clear
without being too large. Dating stamps for lending library labels can
be had in revolving form for continuous use, or in small galleys which
can be altered from day to day. The latter are cheaper and more easily
applied. Seals for public library Boards which are incorporated can be
procured of any engraver at prices ranging from £5 to £50 according to
design and elaboration. Those in lever presses are just as effective as
those in screw presses.


Ladders should always be shod with rubber or leather at the foot to
prevent slipping, and an arrangement like that shown in the illustration
will be found of service in preventing books from being pushed back
in the shelves. The hinged top and top shelf are the invention of Mr.
MacAlister, one of the secretaries of the Library Association, and the
shelf for the books being replaced or taken down was first used at the
Kensington Public Library, London. If steps are used instead of ladders
they should be made with treads on both sides so that assistants need
not turn them about before using. Lightness is a very desirable quality
both in steps and ladders, and should be aimed at before durability.
There is nothing more tiresome than having to drag about a heavy pair
of steps, and the assistants who are entirely free from them have to be

[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

In some large libraries trucks are used for the conveyance of heavy
volumes. The light truck, covered with leather on the surfaces where
books rest, such as is used in the British Museum, will be found very
useful. Reference might be made here to the ingenious carrier invented
by Miss James of the People’s Palace Library, London, for the purpose of
conveying books from the galleries to the service counter in the middle
of the floor. This consists of a box running on a wire cable, and worked
by means of an endless cord and a wheel. For the peculiar purpose for
which it was designed it seems to be very satisfactory. There are many
other forms of lifts in use for lowering books from galleries, but very
few of them are of general application. In certain parishes in London
enamelled iron tablets directing to the library have been suspended from
the ladder-bars of the street lamps, to show strangers the whereabouts
of the institution. These are effective as a means of advertising the
library, and might be used for a similar purpose in all large towns.


For maintaining a permanent register of the different kinds of work
accomplished in libraries a great number of books are used, the varieties
of which are as numerous as charging systems. It would serve no useful
purpose to describe all of these books, much less their variations,
and so we shall content ourselves by taking a few typical specimens as
representative of all the rest. As the names of these various books
sufficiently describe their purpose, it will only be necessary to briefly
indicate the uses of the more obscure kinds and give occasional rulings
in explanation of the others.

The =minute book= contains a complete history of the work of the library
as far as the proceedings of the Library Board is concerned, and in many
cases it is really a succinct record of all the most important operations
of the institution. It should be well bound in morocco or other strong
leather, and should consist of good quality paper ruled faint and margin,
and paged. The =agenda book= forms the necessary accompaniment of the
minutes, and is a sort of draft minute book in which all the business to
come before the meeting is entered. A plain foolscap folio book, ruled
faint only, will serve for this purpose. The business is generally
entered on one side of the folio and the resolutions of the meeting on
the other. To save possible misunderstandings the chairman ought to enter
the decisions of the Board himself, after reading them over, and the
minutes should be compiled from this record rather than from separate
notes made by the clerk. The business books of public libraries are not
often kept by the librarian, except in London where the duties of clerk
are usually conjoined. For that reason it is perhaps needless to do more
than name the cash book, ledger, petty cash book, cash receipt book, and
postage book as the principal records maintained for financial purposes.
Many librarians unite their issue and receipts from fines books, while
others keep separate records; but it is best for beginners to keep their
cash affairs strictly apart, and in the ordinary fashion of good business
houses. The =donation book= is the record of all books, prints, maps,
or other gifts to the library, ruled to show the following particulars:
Author and Title | Vols. and Date | Name and Address of Donor | Date of
Receipt | Date of Acknowledgment | and, sometimes, the library number.
Some libraries have this book with a counterfoil, in which a double
entry is made, and the detachable portion is torn off to form a thanks
circular. This is a very convenient style of register.

=Proposition book= and =suggestion book=. In many cases these are nothing
more than plain faint ruled folio volumes, in which readers are allowed
to enter suggestions of new books or on the management of the library.
Often, however, the proposition book is ruled to carry the following
particulars: Book proposed | Publisher and Price | Date of Publication |
Name and Address of Proposer | Decision of Committee | Date or Number of
Order |. In other cases a form is supplied to readers desirous of making
suggestions of any sort. =Contract= or =estimate books= are not always
used, but the young librarian will find it of the greatest convenience
to keep a chronological record of every estimate received for work to
be done in the library. A guard book in which can be pasted the various
tenders received, or an ordinary plain ruled one in which they can be
entered, will be found a perfect treasury of assistance in many cases.
An index at the beginning or end can easily be made. =Inventory books=
are intended to furnish a complete record of all the library property,
showing when, from whom, and at what cost every item of furniture,
fitting, stationery, &c., was procured. It can be kept in a specially
ruled book, or in a faint ruled folio, classified to show the different
kinds of supplies. When re-ordering or reckoning up the duration of
supplies, this book will be found of the greatest use. As a record of
prices it is also valuable. =Invoice books= are sometimes kept in two
forms: first, as mere guard books in which paid invoices are pasted;
and second, as chronological records of every lot of books received by
purchase or donation. This very often saves much trouble in fixing the
routine in which books should be dealt with when being prepared for
public use. The ordinary ruling is as follows: Date of Receipt | Name of
Donor or Vendor | First Word of Invoice | No. of Vols. | Total Cost |
Remarks |. In addition to these columns some librarians add spaces for
marking with initials when every process connected with the preparation
of the books has been finished. =Location books= are used only with the
movable system of shelving books and are long narrow volumes ruled to
hold 50 lines on a folio, with the numbers written or printed down one
side, generally running from 1 to 10,000. The specimen ruling will show
this plainly.


  | No. |   Location.   |   Author and Title.   |
  | 501 |               |                       |
  |  02 |               |                       |
  |  03 |               |                       |

The first new book awaiting treatment of course receives the first
unappropriated number. Some location books give additional particulars,
such as a column for the date of accession of books, which is often
required when spaces are left for continued sets of a series. The =stock
book= in most libraries forms a numerical catalogue of accessions in the
order of their receipt; giving particulars of edition, binding, vendor or
donor, price, and other information. It is, therefore, the most valuable
record kept by the library, if the minute book is excepted. Some are
classified, others classify the books in separate columns, while a few
keep the classification in a different book. The following selection
of headings will show the variety of rulings in use. At Bradford a
classified stock book is used, and it is ruled thus:—

      850-899.                     CLASS.
  | DATE. | BOOK ||   TITLE.    AUTHOR.   | STOCK  |
  |       |  NO. ||                       |BOOK NO.|
  |       | 850  ||                       |        |
  |       | 851  ||                       |        |
  |       | 852  ||                       |        |
  |       |      ||                       |        |
  |       |      ||                       |        |
  |       |      ||                       |        |

The last column refers to a book in which purchases are entered with a
consecutive numbering, and is an index to the accession of the volumes,
while the stock book shown above is primarily a _place_ book. It is thus
rather a shelf register than a record of accession of stock. The Mitchell
Library, Glasgow, uses the following headings: Date of Receipt | Author
and Title | Language | Number | Class Letter | Number of Vols. | New Work
or Continuation | Book or Pamphlet | Size | Place of Publication | Date
of Publication | Condition when Received | Donor, if Presented | Price,
if Purchased | Discount | Vendor | Collation | Special Collections |
Remarks |. Various Modifications of this stock book are used in different
libraries. At Manchester a much briefer description is given, namely:
Date when Received | Author | Title | No. of Vols. | No. of Pamphlets |
Class | Size | Place of Publication | Date when Published | Condition
when Received | Donor, if Presented | Price, if Purchased | Vendor, if
Purchased | Remarks |. In this book no provision seems to be made for the
number which directs to the place of books or their order of accession.
The stock book used at Lambeth classifies as it goes along, and has
headings as follows:

  | Stock Number | Shelf Number | Author and Title | Volumes | Condition |
  |     7501     |    B 1874    |                  |         |           |

                  |       |         How Acquired       |
                  |       +--------+-------+-----------+
  Vendor or Donor | Price | Bought | Given | News Room |

       Classification.       |         |
  A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. | Remarks |

This is intended for lending library books. For reference libraries the
dates of publication and other particulars of edition would be given. At
Liverpool and Chelsea a cumulative system of classifying is used, which
is shown in the following sample: | Date Received | Author | Title | No.
of Vols. | Size | Place of Publication | Date of Publication | Bound in
| Class | Number | Donor or Vendor | Price | Net Total | Class Accession
Number | Accession Number | Remarks |.

With stock books of the Glasgow pattern a classification book is
commonly used, in which are entered abstracts of classes, books,
pamphlets, purchases, gifts, works as distinguished from volumes, special
collections, totals, &c., page by page. Accuracy is almost inevitable
by this method, owing to the numerous cross checks provided. In some
libraries separate stock books are kept for periodicals and annual
publications, but the principle in all is similar to the ordinary
stock book. It only remains to add that, as stock books are records of
some importance and permanency, they ought to be made of the very best
materials. The =shelf register=, as the name indicates, is the volume
in which a list of the books is kept, in the order of their arrangement
on the shelves. Such registers are only required for the fixed plan of
location. The most elementary form simply gives the | Press Mark | Author
and Title | No. of Vols. | Stock, Progressive, or Consecutive Number |;
the last referring to the entry in the accessions or stock book. Others
are much more elaborate, being really varieties of classified stock
books, and giving particulars of edition, price, &c. The main uses of
the shelf catalogue or register are to fix the numbers of new books, and
to afford a ready means of taking stock. The varieties of this book are
practically endless, and we shall only give two other specimens:—

                                                Press No. _________________
                                                Shelf Letter ______________

  |  Date of   | Shelf  | Progressive | Author. | Short  | Place. | Date. |
  | Accession. | Order. |   Number.   |         | Title. |        |       |
  |            |        |             |         |        |        |       |
  |            |        |             |         |        |        |       |


  | Remarks. | Number. | Author. | Title of Book. | Admitted. |
  |          |         |         |                |           |
  |          |         |         |                |           |

=Duplicate registers= give particulars of the accession of duplicate
books, and their destination if sold or exchanged. =Order= and =letter
books= are usually just separate copying books, but frequently the former
are kept with counterfoils, and sometimes separate ruled forms are used,
and simply copied into an ordinary tissue letter book. =Binding books=
or sheets record the volumes sent out for binding or repair, and usually
note the following particulars:—

  Manchester.       Date of Sending.

  | Press Mark | Title of Book for Lettering | Date of Return |
  Binder’s Charge |.

  Bradford.      Date of Sending.

  | Style | Book Number | Title | Price |.

  Mitchell Library, Glasgow.      Date of Sending.

  | Instruction | Lettering | Date of Return |.

=Borrowers’= and =guarantors’ registers= are sometimes kept in books,
but often on cards, which are the most convenient. They register names,
addresses, period of borrowing right, and guarantors in one case, and
names, addresses, and persons guaranteed in the other. In some libraries
a record of each borrower’s reading is posted on to his card from the
book application forms.

=Periodical receipt and check books= are for marking off the current
numbers of newspapers and magazines as received from the newsagent,
and for checking them each morning as they lie on the tables or racks.
Ruled sheets and cards are also used for the same purpose. They usually
consist of lists of monthly, weekly, daily, and other periodicals,
with rulings to show dates of receipt or finding covering a period of
one to six months. =Issue books=, for recording the issues of books in
libraries, are designed in many styles, each having reference to the
particular requirements of a certain institution. Generally, however, the
particulars preserved include: | Date | No. of Vols. Issued by Classes |
Totals | Weekly or Monthly Average |. Many give the number of visits to
newsrooms and reading-rooms, while others include the amounts received
from fines, sale of catalogues, &c. One issue book is usually ruled to
show the work accomplished in every department, but many libraries keep
separate registers for lending and reference departments. In towns where
there are a number of branch libraries the returns of issues, &c.,
are often recorded in a very elaborate and complete fashion. The day
book or issue ledger has already been referred to under ledger charging
systems, but in addition to these there is an endless variety of daily
issue sheets, some simple and some very complex. It would be useless to
give patterns of these, as the whole question of their adoption hinges
on the main system by which each library is managed. =Work books=,
=time book= and =sheets=, =scrap books=, and =lost and found registers=
are sufficiently described by their names. The two first are for staff
management, and in large libraries are absolutely necessary; the work
book for noting the duties of each assistant, and the time book or sheet
for recording times of arrival and departure from duty. Lost and found
registers record thefts, mutilations, or other abstractions of library
property, and dates and descriptions of articles found on the premises.
These are, roughly speaking, the most necessary books of record required
in the administration of a public library, but many others exist which
have been designed for special purposes. The Museum of the Association
contains specimens of many of the books above named, and librarians
are, as a rule, glad to show what they have in the way of novelties or
variations from standard patterns.


Here again selection is difficult, owing to the perplexing quantity and
variety of forms, and we shall, with as little comment as possible,
merely give specimens or indicate uses.

_Precept forms_ are the requisitions for the library rate presented by
London Commissioners to the Local Boards or Vestries.

_Public notices_, _rules_, &c., should be boldly printed and displayed in
glazed frames.

Requisition forms are in use in a few of the larger libraries. They
are filled up and submitted to the Library Committee when supplies are
wanted. They seem rather a useless formality where an agenda book is kept.

_Thanks circulars_ or _acknowledgment forms_ usually bear the arms of the
library, and are engraved on quarto sheets of good paper. Many libraries
use a simple post-card with a very curt acknowledgment. Others use
perforated receipt books or donation books with counterfoils, like those
previously described.

_Labels_ and _book-plates_ for the inside of the boards of books in
addition to the name and arms of the library often bear location marks
and book numbers, or the names of donors. Paste holds them better
than gum, and is much cleaner. An engraved bookplate of any artistic
pretension should be dated and signed by designer and engraver. It is
to be regretted that more of our large reference libraries do not use
photographic or other reproductions of views of their best rooms for this
purpose. The town’s arms are inappropriate and meaningless, while the
library interior is of historical interest and germane to the object held
in view, namely, marking suitably to indicate ownership.

_Issues_ and _rule-labels_ are chiefly used in lending libraries, though
some reference libraries have labels on which the dates of issues are
noted. The issue-labels must be ruled to suit the system of charging
adopted, the ledger systems as a rule requiring something more than mere
date slips. The rule-labels usually bear an abstract of the library rules
applicable to the borrowing of books.

_Vouchers_ for lending library borrowers must, of course, be arranged
according to the general rules of the library; but in every case the
agreement should take the form of a declaration: “I, the undersigned,” or
“I, ________, do hereby,” or “I, ________ of ________, ratepayer in the
________, do hereby”. A large selection of all kinds of these vouchers
and applications for the right of borrowing are preserved in the Museum
of the Library Association. Most librarians bind the vouchers when filled
up and numbered in convenient volumes, or mount them in blank books.

_Borrowers’ tickets_ or _cards_ also are entirely governed by the system
of charging as regards shape, size, and material. Millboard, pasteboard,
leather, wood, and cloth are all used. In cases where borrowers are
allowed to retain their cards when they have books out it is advisable to
have them rather strongly made, or else provide cases, especially when
the right of borrowing extends over two years.

_Receipts for fines_, &c., may either be in books of numbered and priced
tickets—1d., 2d., 3d., 6d., &c.—or in perforated counterfoil books with
running numbers. Both kinds are extensively used, as well as tissue books
with carbonised paper, similar to those seen in drapers’ shops.

_Application forms for books_ exist in many varieties, but chiefly in
connection with reference libraries. The number of lending libraries
which use the application slips is as yet comparatively small, but there
are indications pointing to a more general adoption of this appliance,
especially where indicators are used. Some reference libraries have an
elaborate application in duplicate, one part being retained when the
transaction is complete, and the other returned to the borrower. The plan
adopted in the British Museum of charging assistants with issues, and
returning the readers’ applications, is not recommended for imitation.
The very special arrangements of the Museum require special means of
working, which are not suitable for general adoption. On reference
library applications, in addition to the usual admonitory sentences as
to books being only for use on the premises, &c., it is customary to ask
for the book number or its press mark, author and title, volumes wanted,
reader’s name and address, and date. In addition most libraries include a
space for the initials of the assistant who issues and replaces the book,
while some ask for the ages and professions of readers. Lending library
applications need be no more elaborate than this:—

  |             ________ PUBLIC LIBRARY.            |
  |                     |                           |
  |                     |                           |
  |                     |                           |
  |                     |           DATE.           |
  |                     |                           |

Or this:—

                    ________ PUBLIC LIBRARY.

                       LENDING DEPARTMENT.

              |                                |
              |                                |
              |                                |
              |                                |
              |             DATE.              | VOLS. ISSUED.

Renewal slips and post-cards, and bespoke cards or forms require no

_Information circulars_ and _readers’ handbooks_ are becoming more and
more general, and many useful documents of the kind have been issued.
The object of all is to direct attention to the library, its uses, and
contents, while making more public the rules, newspapers taken, hours of
opening, &c. The little handbooks issued from Manchester, Boston (U.S.),
Glasgow, and elsewhere, are models.

The barest reference will suffice for such articles as book-marks,
cloth or paper, overdue notices and post-cards, issue returns, branch
library returns, infectious diseases notification forms, and stock-taking
returns, all of which are almost explained by their names. It should be
stated as a curious fact that very many persons object to having notices
of overdue books or defaulting borrowers sent on post-cards, while others
think a charge for the postage of such notices an imposition. Any young
librarian desirous of obtaining specimens of these or any other forms
will always be sure to get them on application at the various libraries.
The Museum, as before stated, contains a number of all kinds of forms.

As regards ordinary STATIONERY it is hardly necessary to say much.
Note-paper is usually stamped with the library arms, and envelopes
with the name on the flap. Pens, ink, pencils, rulers, date-cases,
paper-knives, &c., are all so familiar that it would be waste of time to
consider them separately. Any intelligent librarian will find endless
suggestion and profit from a visit to a large stationer’s warehouse, and
may even pick up wrinkles of some value by keeping his eyes open to the
adaptability of many articles of manufactured stationery.


_Pastes._ Ordinary flour paste is made by mixing flour and water to the
consistency of a thin cream, taking care that all knots are rubbed out,
and boiling over a slow fire with constant stirring until it becomes
translucent. It can be made of almost any thickness and toughness, and
by the admixture of a little glue very strong paste is obtained. A few
drops of oil of cloves, creasote, or corrosive sublimate, or a few grains
of salicylic acid will preserve flour paste for a long time if it is
kept in closely covered vessels. The office paste called “Stickphast” is
a variety of this preparation, and is much better than gum. There are a
number of firms in London and elsewhere who make flour pastes which will
keep, and these may be had through any bookbinder or direct from the
makers at a cost as small as the home-made kinds, and of a much superior
quality. There are various preparations of starch also used as paste, but
they are best adapted for mounting photographs. A clean compound called
“gloy” used to be sold in bottles, and was found useful for mounting fine
plates or for office purposes. Mr. Zaehnsdorf recommends a paste made of
rice flour, mixed with cold water and gently boiled, as one admirably
adapted for delicate work. For all purposes of book patching which can be
accomplished by the library staff Le Page’s soluble glue will be found
handier and better than the ordinary kinds.

_Stains_ caused by writing-ink may be removed by (1) Equal quantities of
lapis calaminaris, common salt, and rock alum, boiled in white wine for
half-an-hour, and applied with a brush or sponge. (2) A small quantity
of oxalic or muriatic acid diluted with water, applied with a camel’s
hair brush, and dried with clean white blotting paper—two applications.
(3) Solution of oxalic acid and water, after which the leaves should be
dipped in a weak solution of chloride of lime and water, and thoroughly
dried, after washing in clean water. (4) Aniline ink stains can be
sponged off with warm water, or completely removed by a bath of alcohol.
Grease spots or oil stains can be removed by (1) washing or dabbing
the part with ether or benzoline, and afterwards placing between white
blotting paper, over which pass a hot iron. Keep the ether and benzoline
away from burning lights. (2) Put the leaf between two pieces of white
blotting paper and carefully apply a hot iron to both sides. (3) When the
stain is caused by a slice of bacon having been used as a book-mark, or
by contact with a paraffin lamp, the borrower should be asked to remove
it and supply a new copy of the work! (4) In general oxalic, citric,
and tartaric acids are safe agents to use for removing stains in books,
as they do not affect the letter-press. (5) Water and damp stains are
removable by the application of boiling water and alum. (6) Foxing may
be removed by dipping the leaves in a weak solution of hydrochloric
acid, half ounce of acid to one pint of hot water, or by a weak bath of
chlorine water. (7) Mud stains will yield to washing in cold water, then
in a weak solution of muriatic acid, and finally in a weak solution of
chloride of lime; dry well. For many practical hints on these and other
subjects, see the admirable _Art of Bookbinding_, by J. W. Zaehnsdorf,
issued as one of Bell’s “Technological Handbooks”. The receipts given
in Power’s _Handy Book about Books_, Brannt and Wahl’s _Techno-Chemical
Receipt Book_, and Cooley’s _Cyclopædia of Practical Receipts_ will also
repay a little study.

_To repair torn leaves_: lay the torn leaf upon a piece of tissue paper
of the same colour as the leaf itself. Touch the edges of the torn
pieces, lightly, with good paste, _applied by the finger_,—bring them
carefully together in proper position and place on top another piece of
tissue paper; then put the volume under a heavy weight or in a press and
leave it till next day. Finally, with great care, tear off the tissue
paper which will adhere wherever it has touched the paste. The fibres of
the tissue which remain, together with the paste, result in an almost
invisible union of the torn fragments.


[1] For Figures 1, 3, and 7 we are indebted to Mr. Thomas Greenwood, in
whose work on Public Libraries they appear.

[2] For Figures 2 and 4 we have to thank Messrs. Wake & Dean, library
furnishers, London.

[3] We believe the credit of this really most ingenious invention
belongs to the late Dr. Tyler, one of the founders of Bethnal Green Free

[4] See _Library Chronicle_, vol. iv. p. 88; Library Notes (American);
and _The Library_, vol. III. p. 414.

[5] An ingenious adaptation of this invention is suggested and described
by Mr. Lymburn, Librarian of Glasgow University Library—in _The Library_
for July-August, 1892—EDITORS.

[6] Figures 5, 6, and 8 are inserted by kind permission of Messrs. Hammer
& Co., library furnishers, London.

[7] For Figures 9, 11, 13, 14, and 17 we are indebted to Mr. Greenwood’s
work on Public Libraries.

[8] We are obliged to Messrs. Wake & Dean for the Figures Nos. 10, 15 and


  Accession frames, 34.

  Accessions book, 44;
    (order book), 44.

  Acknowledgment forms, 48.

  Advertising whereabouts of libraries, 42.

  Agenda book, 42.

  Alphabetical files, 37.

  Amberg files, 37.

  Anchor copying press, 37.

  Application form boxes, 39.

  Application forms for books, 49;
    (lending), 24;
    (reference), 33.

  Arm-chairs, 19.

  Assistants’ time-book, 48.

  Bar-lock typewriter, 36.

  Battersea P. L. card catalogue, 33.

  Bespoke cards and forms, 51.

  Bethnal Green L. (sliding cases), 9.

  Binder files, 37.

  Binding (order) books and sheets, 47.

  Birmingham Public Library accession shelves, 34.

  Blanks, 48.

  Book-cases, 2-6.

  Book-cases (arrangement), 6;
    (blinds), 10;
    (British Museum sliding), 8;
    (double), 2;
    (glazed), 10;
    (iron), 8;
    (locked), 10;
    (materials), 6;
    (reference library), 5;
    (revolving), 9;
    (single with ledge), 6;
    (skeleton), 4;
    (wire fronts), 10.

  Book-holders, 39.

  Book-marks, 51.

  Book-plates, 48.

  Booking systems, 20.

  Books of record, 42.

  Borrowers (applications), 24;
    (register), 47;
    (tickets), 49.

  Boxes for pamphlets, &c., 37.

  Braby & Co.’s book-support, 40.

  Bradford P. L. (accessions book), 45;
    (binding order book), 47;
    (charging system), 25.

  Branch library returns, 48.

  British Museum (issue system), 50;
    (sliding cases), 8.

  Burgoyne newspaper holder, 18.

  Business books, 43.

  Caligraph typewriter, 36.

  Call slips, 24.

  Card catalogues, 33.

  Card-charging systems, 25.

  Cardiff P. L. accession frame, 34.

  Cards for press classification, 10.

  Cases for books, 2-6.

  Catalogue cabinets, 33.

  Cataloguing apparatus, 33.

  Chairs, 19.

  Charging systems, 20-33.

  Chelsea P. L. (charging system), 26;
    (stock book), 46.

  Chivers’ magazine case, 39.

  Circulars of information, 51.

  Classification book, 46.

  Classification frames, 9-10.

  Clerkenwell P. L. card catalogue, 33.

  Cloth-covered boxes, 37.

  Contents frames, 9-10.

  Contract book, 43.

  Copying machines, 35.

  Cotgreave’s indicator, 29;
    (periodical rack), 15.

  Counters, 10-12.

  Counters (card catalogues in), 12;
    (sizes), 11;
    (tills), 11.

  Cumming’s newspaper holder, 18.

  Cupboards, 12.

  Cyclostyle copying machine, 36.

  Cylindrical catalogue holder, 35.

  Daily issue sheets, 48.

  Date-labels, 49.

  Dating stamps, 40.

  Day books, 21.

  Day issue sheets, 20.

  Demand notes, 24.

  Desk-tables, 12.

  Desks (reading), 14;
    (staff), 12.

  Document files, 37.

  Donation book, 43.

  Drawers for card catalogues, 33.

  Duplex indicator, 30.

  Duplicate registers, 47.

  Dust protectors, 10.

  Elliot’s indicator, 27.

  Embossing stamps for books, 40.

  Enamelled iron lamp tablets, 42.

  Enamelled title labels, 9, 18.

  Estimate book, 43.

  Fauntleroy magazine case, 39.

  Files, 37.

  Fineham & Co.’s pamphlet boxes, 37.

  Fine receipt books, 43, 49.

  Fittings, 2.

  Forms, 48.

  Found property register, 48.

  Foxing of plates, to remove, 52.

  Furniture, 12.

  Giessen University catalogue case, 35.

  Glass-fronted book-cases, 10.

  Glass show-cases, 20.

  Gloy paste, 52.

  Glue (Le Page’s soluble), 52.

  Grease stains, to remove, 52.

  Guarantor’s register, 47.

  Guard-book catalogues, 35.

  Guides for card catalogues, 34.

  Guildhall Library card catalogue, 33.

  Hammond typewriter, 36.

  Hat racks, 20;
    (rails on chairs), 19.

  Hill’s newspaper holder, 18.

  Holders for newspapers, 18.

  Indicators, 27-33.

  Information circulars, 51.

  Ink stamps for books, 40.

  Ink wells, 14.

  Inventory book, 43.

  Invoice book, 44.

  Iron book-cases, 8.

  Issue book, 47;
    (labels), 46-49;
    (recording systems), 20;
    (stamps), 24.

  James’ book carrier, 42.

  Journal charging system, 22.

  Kensington Public Library ladder, 41.

  Key cupboards, 12.

  Labels for books, 48.

  Ladders, 41.

  Lambeth Public Library (accession shelves), 34;
    (stock book), 45.

  Leather for chair legs, 19.

  Ledger charging systems, 21.

  Lending library application forms, 50.

  Lending systems, 20.

  Letter book, 47.

  Letter copying presses, 37.

  Lewis and Grundy’s book-holder, 40.

  Lists of wants, 24.

  Liverpool Public Library (accession frame), 34;
    (card catalogue), 33;
    (charging system), 26;
    (stock book), 46.

  Location book, 44.

  London Institution, 15, 26.

  Lost property register, 48.

  Lucy & Co.’s iron book shelves, 8.

  Lupton’s borrowers’ note-book, 24.

  MacAlister’s shelved ladder, 41.

  Magazine racks, 14-17.

  Manchester P.L. (binding order book), 47;
    (card catalogue), 35;
    (readers’ handbook), 51;
    (stock book), 45;
    (periodical arrangement), 15.

  Manifolding machines, 35-36.

  Marlborough pamphlet cases, 37.

  Mason’s book-holder, 40;
    (catalogue holder), 35.

  Mimeograph copying machine, 36, 37.

  Minute book, 42.

  Mitchell Library, Glasgow, 12, 15;
    (binding order book), 47;
    (stock book), 45.

  Movable location finding register, 44.

  Museum cases, 20.

  Museum of Library Association, 48, 51.

  Music boxes, 37.

  National Liberal Club, London, 16.

  Newspapers (holders), 18;
    (stands), 17-19.

  Notices to the public, 48.

  Nottingham P. L. card catalogue, 33.

  Numbers for shelves, 9.

  Order book, 47.

  Overdue books, detection of, 22, 23, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33;
    (notices), 51.

  Pamphlet boxes, 37.

  Parr’s card-charging system, 26.

  Paste for mending, 51.

  Pedestal tables, 14.

  Pegs for shelves, 8.

  Perforating stamps for books, 40.

  Periodicals (arrangement), 14-15;
    (binders), 37;
    (check book), 47;
    (files), 37;
    (racks), 14-17;
    (receipt book), 47;
    (stock book), 46.

  Precept form, 48.

  Press marks, 9-10.

  Presses for books, 2-6.

  Print boxes, 37.

  Proposition book, 43.

  Racks (periodicals), 14-17;
    (hats, &c.), 20.

  Readers’ handbooks, 51.

  Reading slopes, 14.

  Reading stands (newspapers), 17.

  Receipts for fines, 49.

  Recipes for paste, stain-removal, &c., 51.

  Records of library work, 42.

  Reference library (application forms), 50;
    (charging), 33.

  Remington typewriter, 36.

  Renewal forms for books, 51.

  Requisition forms (staff), 48.

  Revolving book-cases, 9.

  Revolving catalogue holder, 35.

  Robertson’s indicator, 30.

  Rotherham P. L. note-book, 24.

  Routine (invoice) book, 44.

  Royal College of Surgeons, London, 33.

  Rubber stamp ink (Stephens’), 40.

  Rubber stamps, 24.

  Rubber stamps for books, 40.

  Rule-labels, 49.

  Rules and regulations, 48.

  St. Martin’s Public Library, 15.

  Screw newspaper holder, 18.

  Seals for Library Boards, 40.

  Shannon files, 37.

  Shelf-edging, 10;
    (fittings), 7;
    (numbers), 9;
    (registers), 46.

  Shelves, 5.

  Show cases, 20.

  Stains, to remove, 52.

  Stamps for books, 40;
    (dating), 40;
    (issues), 21.

  Stationery, 48-51.

  Stationery cupboards, 12.

  Steps for libraries, 41.

  Stickphast paste, 52.

  Stitching machines, 38.

  Stock book, 44.

  Stone’s card catalogue cabinet, 34.

  Store presses, 12.

  Studs for shelves, 8.

  Suggestion book, 43.

  Superintendents’ desks, 12.

  Tables, 12-14.

  Tablets for directing to libraries, 42.

  Technical appliances, 20.

  Thanks circulars, 43, 48.

  Ticket-books, 24.

  Tickets for borrowers, 49.

  Time (assistants’) book, 48.

  Tonks’ shelf fitting, 7.

  Tray book-cases, 6.

  Trucks for books, 42.

  Trypograph copying machine, 37.

  Typewriters, 35-36.

  Umbrella stands, 19.

  Voucher forms, 49.

  Wake and Dean’s book-holder, 40.

  Walker’s book-rack, 39.

  Waterston’s borrowers’ note-book, 24.

  Wire-fronted book-cases, 10.

  Wire-stitching machines, 38.

  Wolverhampton Public Library, 15.

  Work book, 48.

  Yost typewriter, 36.

  Zaehnsdorf’s paste, 52.



School, Church, & Library Furniture Manufacturers.


[Illustration: GOLD MEDAL, LONDON, 1885.


Manufacturers to Her Majesty’s Stationery Office and War Office.



Book-Shelves and Book-Cases, Reading Tables, Counters, Seats and Chairs,
Newspaper Stands, Screens, Librarians’ Tables, Periodical Racks, And
every description of Fittings for Public & other Libraries.



  CHRISTCHURCH                ”     Blackfriars.
  CAMBERWELL                  ”     Peckham.
  CAMBERWELL                  ”     Dulwich.
  HAMMERSMITH                 ”     Hammersmith.
  PETERBOROUGH                ”
  BERMONDSEY                  ”     Bermondsey.
  CHISWICK                    ”     Acton Green.
  GOLDSMITHS’                 ”     New Cross.
  DURNING (Lambeth)           ”     Kennington.
  STOKE NEWINGTON             ”     Stoke Newington.
  WATFORD                     ”     Watford.
  KENDAL                      ”

_Also all the Book-cases and Cupboards in the offices of the London
School Board, and 300 Museums to the different Schools._

Catalogues and Special Designs on Application.


Sole Manufacturers of Mason’s Improved Book-holder.

                 =WAKE & DEAN=, Public Library Fitters,
                      111 LONDON ROAD, LONDON, S.E.
                       STEAM FACTORY, BATH STREET.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A handbook of library appliances: The technical equipment of libraries: fittings, furniture, charging systems, forms, recipes, etc." ***

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