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Title: A classical dictionary: containing a copious account of all the proper names mentioned in ancient authors with tables of coins, weights, and measures used among the Greeks and Romans and a chronological table
Author: Lempriere, John
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "A classical dictionary: containing a copious account of all the proper names mentioned in ancient authors with tables of coins, weights, and measures used among the Greeks and Romans and a chronological table" ***

                        A CLASSICAL DICTIONARY

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                         CLASSICAL DICTIONARY

                        OF ALL THE PROPER NAMES




                         A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE


                          J. LEMPRIERE, D.D.

                      Illustration: (‡ Colophon)

                    NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON AND CO.

                  Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO.
                        At the Ballantyne Press


                       TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION.

IN the following pages it has been the wish of the author to give
the most accurate and satisfactory account of all the proper names
which occur in reading the Classics, and by a judicious collection of
anecdotes and historical facts to draw a picture of ancient times, not
less instructive than entertaining. Such a work, it is hoped, will not
be deemed a useless acquisition in the hands of the public; and while
the student is initiated in the knowledge of history and mythology,
and familiarized with the ancient situation and extent of kingdoms and
cities that no longer exist, the man of letters may, perhaps, find it
not a contemptible companion, from which he may receive information,
and be made, a second time, acquainted with many important particulars
which time, or more laborious occupations, may have erased from his
memory. In the prosecution of his plan, the author has been obliged
to tread in the steps of many learned men, whose studies have been
directed, and not without success, to facilitate the attainment of
classical knowledge, and of the ancient languages. Their compositions
have been to him a source of information, and he trusts that their
labours have now found new elucidation in his own, and that, by a
due consideration of every subject, he has been enabled to imitate
their excellences, without copying their faults. Many compositions of
the same nature have issued from the press, but they are partial and
unsatisfactory. The attempts to be concise, have rendered the labours
of one barren and uninstructive, while long and unconnected quotations
of passages from Greek and Latin writers, disfigure the page of
the other, and render the whole insipid and disgusting. It cannot,
therefore, be a discouraging employment now, to endeavour to finish
what others have left imperfect, and with the conciseness of Stephens,
to add the diffuse researches of Lloyd, Hoffman, Collier, &c. After
paying due attention to the ancient poets and historians, from whom the
most authentic information can be received, the labours of more modern
authors have been consulted, and every composition distinguished for
the clearness and perspicuity of historical narration, or geographical
descriptions, has been carefully examined. Truly sensible of what he
owes to modern Latin and English writers and commentators, the author
must not forget to make a public acknowledgment of the assistance he
has likewise received from the labours of the French. In the Siècles
Payens of l’Abbé Sabatier de Castres he has found all the information
which judicious criticism, and a perfect knowledge of heathen mythology,
could procure. The compositions of l’Abbé Banier have also been useful;
and in the Dictionnaire Historique, of a literary society, printed at
Caen, a treasure of original anecdotes, and a candid selection and
arrangement of historical facts, have been discovered.

It was the original design of the author of this Dictionary to give a
minute explanation of all the names of which Pliny and other ancient
geographers make mention; but, upon a second consideration of the
subject, he was convinced that it would have increased his volume in
bulk, and not in value. The learned reader will be sensible of the
propriety of this remark, when he recollects that the names of many
places mentioned by Pliny and Pausanias occur nowhere else in ancient
authors; and that to find the true situation of an insignificant
village mentioned by Strabo, no other writer but Strabo is to be

This Dictionary being undertaken more particularly for the use of
schools, it has been thought proper to mark the quantity of the
penultimate of every word, and to assist the student who can receive
no fixed and positive rules for pronunciation. In this the authority
of Smethius has been followed, as also Leede’s edition of Labbe’s
Catholici Indices.

As every publication should be calculated to facilitate literature,
and to be serviceable to the advancement of the sciences, the author
of this Dictionary did not presume to intrude himself upon the public,
before he was sensible that his humble labours would be of some service
to the lovers of the ancient languages. The undertaking was for the
use of schools, therefore he thought none so capable of judging of
its merit, and of ascertaining its utility, as those who preside
over the education of youth. With this view, he took the liberty to
communicate his intentions to several gentlemen in that line, not
less distinguished for purity of criticism, than for their classical
abilities, and from them he received all the encouragement which the
desire of contributing to the advancement of learning can expect. To
them, therefore, for their approbation and friendly communications,
he publicly returns his thanks, and hopes that, now his labours are
completed, his Dictionary may claim from them that patronage and that
support to which, in their opinion, the specimen of the work seemed
to be entitled. He has paid due attention to their remarks, he has
received with gratitude their judicious observations, and cannot pass
over in silence their obliging recommendations, and particularly the
friendly advice he has received from the Rev. R. Valpy, master of
Reading School.

For the account of the Roman laws, and for the festivals celebrated
by the ancient inhabitants of Greece and Italy, he is particularly
indebted to the useful collections of Archbishop Potter, of Godwyn,
and Kennet. In the tables of ancient coins, weights and measures,
which he has annexed to the body of the Dictionary, he has followed
the learned calculations of Dr. Arbuthnot. The quoted authorities have
been carefully examined, and frequently revised: and, it is hoped, the
opinions of mythologists will appear without confusion, and be found
divested of all obscurity.

Therefore, with all the confidence which an earnest desire of being
useful can command, the author offers the following pages to the
public, conscious that they may contain inaccuracies and imperfections.
A Dictionary, the candid reader is well aware, cannot be made perfect
all at once; it must still have its faults and omissions, however
cautious and vigilant the author may have been; and in every page there
may be found, in the opinion of some, room for improvement and for
addition. Before the candid, therefore, and the impartial, he lays his
publication, and for whatever observations the friendly critic may make,
he will show himself grateful, and take advantage of the remarks of
every judicious reader, should the favours and the indulgence of the
public demand a second edition.

                         CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE,
                       THE CREATION OF THE WORLD
                     THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
                     IN THE WEST, AND IN THE EAST

    ¹In the following table, I have confined myself to the more
      easy and convenient eras of before (B.C.) and after (A.D.)
      Christ. For the sake of those, however, that do not wish the
      exclusion of the Julian period, it is necessary to observe
      that, as the first year of the christian era always falls on
      the 4714th of the Julian years, the number required either
      before or after Christ will easily be discovered by the
      application of the rules of subtraction or addition. The
      era from the foundation of Rome (A.U.C.) will be found with
      the same facility, by recollecting that the city was built
      753 years before Christ; and the Olympiads can likewise be
      recurred to by the consideration that the conquest of Corœbus
      (B.C. 776) forms the first Olympiad, and that the Olympic
      games were celebrated after the revolution of four years.

  The world created in the 710th year of the Julian period     4004

  The deluge                                                   2348

  The tower of Babel built, and the confusion of languages     2247

  Celestial observations are first made at Babylon             2234

  The kingdom of Egypt is supposed to have begun under
    Misraim the son of Ham, and to have continued 1663
    years, to the conquest of Cambyses                         2188

  The kingdom of Sicyon established                            2089

  The kingdom of Assyria begins                                2059

  The birth of Abraham                                         1996

  The kingdom of Argos established under Inachus               1856

  Memnon the Egyptian said to invent letters, 15 years
    before the reign of Phoroneus                              1822

  The deluge of Ogyges, by which Attica remained waste above
    200 years, till the coming of Cecrops                      1764

  Joseph sold into Egypt by his brethren                       1728

  The chronology of the Arundelian marbles begins about this
    time, fixing here the arrival of Cecrops in Attica, an
    epoch which other writers have placed later by 26 years    1582

  Moses born                                                   1571

  The kingdom of Athens begun under Cecrops, who came from
    Egypt with a colony of Saites. This happened about 780
    years before the first Olympiad                            1556

  Scamander migrates from Crete, and begins the kingdom of
    Troy                                                       1546

  The deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly                          1503

  The Panathenæa first celebrated at Athens                    1495

  Cadmus comes into Greece, and builds the citadel of Thebes   1493

  The first Olympic games celebrated in Elis by the Idæi
    Dactyli                                                    1453

  The five books of Moses written in the land of Moab, where
    he dies the following year, aged 110                       1452

  Minos flourishes in Crete, and iron is found by the Dactyli
    by the accidental burning of the woods of Ida, in Crete    1406

  The Eleusinian mysteries introduced at Athens by Eumolpus    1356

  The Isthmian games first instituted by Sisyphus king of
    Corinth                                                    1326

  The Argonautic expedition. The first Pythian games
    celebrated by Adrastus king of Argos                       1263

  Gideon flourishes in Israel                                  1245

  The Theban war of the seven heroes against Eteocles          1225

  Olympic games celebrated by Hercules                         1222

  The rape of Helen by Theseus, and, 15 years after, by Paris  1213

  Troy taken, after a siege of 10 years. Æneas sails to Italy  1184

  Alba Longa built by Ascanius                                 1152

  Migration of the Æolian colonies                             1124

  The return of the Heraclidæ into Peloponnesus, 80 years
    after the taking of Troy. Two years after, they divide
    the Peloponnesus among themselves; and here, therefore,
    begins the kingdom of Lacedæmon under Eurysthenes and
    Procles                                                    1104

  Saul made king over Israel                                   1095

  The kingdom of Sicyon ended                                  1088

  The kingdom of Athens ended in the death of Codrus           1070

  The migration of the Ionian colonies from Greece, and their
    settlement in Asia Minor                                   1044

  Dedication of Solomon’s temple                               1004

  Samos built                                                   986

  Division of the kingdom of Judah and Israel                   975

  Homer and Hesiod flourished about this time, according to
    the marbles                                                 907

  Elias the prophet taken up into heaven                        896

  Lycurgus, 42 years old, establishes his laws at Lacedæmon,
    and, together with Iphitus and Cleosthenes, restores the
    Olympic games at Elis, about 108 years before the era
    which is commonly called the first Olympiad                 884

  Phidon king of Argos is supposed to have invented scales
    and measures, and coined silver at Ægina. Carthage built
    by Dido                                                     869

  Fall of the Assyrian empire by the death of Sardanapalus, an
    era placed 80 years earlier by Justin                       820

  The kingdom of Macedonia begins, and continues 646 years,
    till the battle of Pydna                                    814

  The kingdom of Lydia begins, and continues 249 years          797

  The triremes first invented by the Corinthians                786

  The monarchical government abolished at Corinth, and the
    Prytanes elected                                            779

  Corœbus conquers at Olympia, in the 28th Olympiad from the
    institution of Iphitus. This is vulgarly called the first
    Olympiad, about 23 years before the foundation of Rome      776

  The Ephori introduced into the government of Lacedæmon by
    Theopompus                                                  760

  Isaiah begins to prophesy                                     757

  The decennial archons begin at Athens, of which Charops is
    the first                                                   754

  Rome built on the 20th of April, according to Varro, in the
    year 3961 of the Julian period                              753

  The rape of the Sabines                                       750

  The era of Nabonassar king of Babylon begins                  747

  The first Messenian war begins, and continues 19 years, to
    the taking of Ithome                                        743

  Syracuse built by a Corinthian colony                         732

  The kingdom of Israel finished by the taking of Samaria by
    Salmanasar king of Assyria. The first eclipse of the moon
    on record March 19th, according to Ptolemy                  721

  Candaules murdered by Gyges, who succeeds to the Lydian
    throne                                                      718

  Tarentum built by the Parthenians                             707

  Corcyra built by the Corinthians                              703

  The second Messenian war begins, and continues 14 years, to
    the taking of Ira, after a siege of 11 years. About this
    time flourished the poets Tyrtæus and Archilochus           685

  The government of Athens intrusted to annual archons          684

  Alba destroyed                                                665

  Cypselus usurps the government of Corinth, and keeps it for
    30 years                                                    659

  Byzantium built by a colony of Argives or Athenians           658

  Cyrene built by Battus                                        630

  The Scythians invade Asia Minor, of which they keep
    possession for 28 years                                     624

  Draco established his laws at Athens                          623

  The canal between the Nile and the Red sea begun by king
    Necho                                                       610

  Nineveh taken and destroyed by Cyaxares and his allies        606

  The Phœnicians sail round Africa, by order of Necho. About
    this time flourished Arion, Pittacus, Alcæus, Sappho, &c.   604

  The Scythians are expelled from Asia Minor by Cyaxares        596

  The Pythian games first established at Delphi. About this
    time flourished Chilo, Anacharsis, Thales, Epimenides,
    Solon, the prophet Ezekiel, Æsop, Stersichorus              591

  Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar, 9th of June, after a
    siege of 18 months                                          587

  The Isthmian games restored and celebrated every first and
    third year of the Olympiads                                 582

  Death of Jeremiah the prophet                                 577

  The Nemæan games restored                                     568

  The first comedy acted at Athens by Susarion and Dolon        562

  Pisistratus first usurped the sovereignty at Athens           560

  Cyrus begins to reign. About this time flourished Anaximenes,
    Bias, Anaximander, Phalaris, and Cleobulus                  559

  Crœsus conquered by Cyrus. About this time flourished
    Theognis and Pherecydes                                     548

  Marseilles built by the Phocæans. The age of Pythagoras,
    Simonides, Thespis, Xenophanes, and Anacreon                539

  Babylon taken by Cyrus                                        538

  The return of the Jews by the edict of Cyrus, and the
    rebuilding of the temple                                    536

  The first tragedy acted at Athens on the waggon of Thespis    535

  Learning encouraged at Athens, and a public library built     526

  Egypt conquered by Cambyses                                   525

  Polycrates of Samos put to death                              522

  Darius Hystaspes chosen king of Persia. About this time
    flourished Confucius the celebrated Chinese philosopher     521

  The tyranny of the Pisistratidæ abolished at Athens           510

  The consular government begins at Rome after the expulsion
    of the Tarquins, and continues independent 461 years, till
    the battle of Pharsalia                                     509

  Sardis taken by the Athenians and burnt, which became
    afterwards the cause of the invasion of Greece by
    the Persians. About this time flourished Heraclitus,
    Parmenides, Milo the wrestler, Aristagoras, &c.             504

  The first dictator, Lartius, created at Rome                  498

  The Roman populace retire to mount Sacer                      493

  The battle of Marathon                                        490

  The battles of Thermopylæ, August 7th, and Salamis, October
    20th. About this time flourished Æschylus, Pindar, Charon,
    Anaxagoras, Zeuxis, Aristides, &c.                          480

  The Persians defeated at Platæa and Mycale on the same day,
    22nd September                                              479

  The 300 Fabii killed at Cremera, July 17th                    477

  Themistocles, accused of conspiracy, flies to Xerxes          471

  The Persians defeated at Cyprus, and near the Eurymedon       470

  The third Messenian war begins, and continues 10 years        465

  Egypt revolts from the Persians under Inarus, assisted by
    the Athenians                                               463

  The Romans send to Athens for Solon’s laws. About this
    time flourished Sophocles, Nehemiah the prophet, Plato
    the comic poet, Aristarchus the tragic, Leocrates,
    Thrasybulus, Pericles, Zaleucus, &c.                        454

  The first Sacred war concerning the temple of Delphi          448

  The Athenians defeated at Chæronea by the Bœotians            447

  Herodotus reads his history to the council of Athens, and
    receives public honours in the 39th year of his age.
    About this time flourished Empedocles, Hellanicus,
    Euripides, Herodicus, Phidias Artemones, Charondas, &c.     445

  A colony sent to Thurium by the Athenians                     444

  Comedies prohibited at Athens, a restraint which remained
    in force for three years                                    440

  A war between Corinth and Corcyra                             439

  Meton begins here his 19 years’ cycle of the moon             432

  The Peloponnesian war begins, May the 7th, and continues
    about 27 years. About this time flourished Cratinus,
    Eupolis, Aristophanes, Meton, Euctemon, Malachi the
    last of the prophets, Democritus, Gorgias, Thucydides,
    Hippocrates, &c.                                            431

  The history of the Old Testament finishes about this time.
    A plague at Athens for five years                           430

  A peace of 50 years made between the Athenians and
    Lacedæmonians, which is kept only during six years and
    ten months, though each continued at war with the other’s
    allies                                                      421

  The scene of the Peloponnesian war changed to Sicily. The
    Agrarian law first moved at Rome                            416

  Egypt revolts from the Persians, and Amyrtæus is appointed
    king                                                        414

  The Carthaginians enter Sicily, where they destroy Selinus
    and Himera, but they are repulsed by Hermocrates            409

  The battle of Ægospotamos. The usurpation of Dionysius        405

  Athens taken by Lysander, 24th of April. The end of the
    Peloponnesian war, and the appointment of 30 tyrants over
    the conquered city. About this time flourished Parrhasius,
    Protagoras, Lysias, Agathon, Euclid, Cebes, Telestes, &c.   404

  Cyrus the younger killed at Cunaxa. The glorious retreat
    of the 10,000 Greeks, and the expulsion of the 30 tyrants
    from Athens by Thrasybulus                                  401

  Socrates put to death                                         400

  Agesilaus of Lacedæmon’s expedition into Asia against
    the Persians. The age of Xenophon, Ctesias, Zeuxis,
    Antisthenes, Evagoras, Aristippus of Cyrene, and Archytas   396

  The Corinthian war begun by the alliance of the Athenians,
    Thebans, Corinthians, and Argives, against Lacedæmon        395

  The Lacedæmonians, under Pisander, defeated by Conon at
    Cnidus; and, a few days after, the allies are defeated
    at Coronæa, by Agesilaus                                    394

  The battle of Allia, July 17th, and the taking of Rome by
    the Gauls                                                   390

  Dionysius besieges Rhegium, and takes it after 11 months.
    About this time flourished Plato, Philoxenus, Damon,
    Pythias, Iphicrates, &c.                                    388

  The Greek cities of Asia tributary to Persia, by the peace
    of Antalcidas, between the Lacedæmonians and Persians       387

  The war of Cyprus finished by a treaty, after it had
    continued two years                                         385

  The Lacedæmonians defeated in a sea-fight at Naxos,
    September 20th, by Chabrias. About this time flourished
    Philistus, Isæus, Isocrates, Arete, Philolaus, Diogenes
    the cynic, &c.                                              377

  Artaxerxes sends an army under Pharnabazus, with 20,000
    Greeks, commanded by Iphicrates                             374

  The battle of Leuctra, July 8th, where the Lacedæmonians
    are defeated by Epaminondas the general of the Thebans      371

  The Messenians, after a banishment of 300 years, return to
    Peloponnesus                                                370

  One of the consuls at Rome elected from the plebeians         367

  The battle of Mantinea gained by Epaminondas, a year after
    the death of Pelopidas                                      363

  Agesilaus assists Tachos king of Egypt. Some of the
    governors of Lesser Asia revolt from Persia                 362

  The Athenians are defeated at Methone, the first battle
    that Philip of Macedon ever won in Greece                   360

  Dionysius the younger is expelled from Syracuse by Dion. The
    second Sacred war begins, on the temple of Delphi being
    attacked by the Phocians                                    357

  Dion put to death, and Syracuse governed seven years by
    tyrants. About this time flourished Eudoxus, Lycurgus,
    Ibis, Theopompus, Ephorus, Datames, Philomelus, &c.         354

  The Phocians, under Onomarchus, are defeated in Thessaly by
    Philip                                                      353

  Egypt is conquered by Ochus                                   350

  The Sacred war is finished by Philip taking all the cities
    of the Phocians                                             348

  Dionysius recovers the tyranny of Syracuse, after 10 years’
    banishment                                                  347

  Timoleon recovers Syracuse and banishes the tyrant            343

  The Carthaginians defeated by Timoleon near Agrigentum.
    About this time flourished Speusippus, Protogenes,
    Aristotle, Æschines, Zenocrates, Demosthenes, Phocion,
    Mamercus, Icetas, Stilpo, Demades                           340

  The battle of Cheronæa, August 2nd, where Philip defeats
    the Athenians and Thebans                                   338

  Philip of Macedon killed by Pausanius. His son Alexander,
    on the following year, enters Greece, destroys Thebes, &c.  336

  The battle of the Granicus, 22nd of May                       334

  The battle of Issus in October                                333

  Tyre and Egypt conquered by the Macedonian prince, and
    Alexandria built                                            332

  The battle of Arbela, October 2nd                             331

  Alexander’s expedition against Porus. About this time
    flourished Apelles, Callisthenes, Bagoas, Parmenio,
    Philotas, Memnon, Dinocrates, Calippus, Hyperides,
    Philetus, Lysippus, Menedemus, &c.                          327

  Alexander dies on the 21st of April. His empire is divided
    into four kingdoms. The Samian war, and the reign of the
    Ptolemies in Egypt                                          323

  Polyperchon publishes a general liberty to all the Greek
    cities. The age of Praxiteles, Crates, Theophrastus,
    Menander, Demetrius, Dinarchus, Polemon, Neoptolemus,
    Perdiccas, Leosthenes                                       320

  Syracuse and Sicily usurped by Agathocles. Demetrius
    Phalereus governs Athens for 10 years                       317

  Eumenes delivered to Antigonus by his army                    315

  Seleucus takes Babylon, and here the beginning of the era
    of the Seleucidæ                                            312

  The conquests of Agathocles in Africa                         309

  Democracy established at Athens by Demetrius Poliorcetes      307

  The title of kings first assumed by the successors of
    Alexander                                                   306

  The battle of Ipsus, where Antigonus is defeated and killed
    by Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, and Cassander. About
    this time flourished Zeno, Pyrrho, Philemon, Megasthenes,
    Crantor, &c.                                                301

  Athens taken by Demetrius Poliorcetes, after a year’s siege   296

  The first sun-dial erected at Rome by Papirius Cursor, and
    the time first divided into hours                           293

  Seleucus, about this time, built about 40 cities in Asia,
    which he peopled with different nations. The age of
    Euclid the mathematician, Arcesilaus, Epicurus, Bion,
    Timocharis, Erasistratus, Aristyllus, Strato, Zenodotus,
    Arsinoe, Lachares, &c.                                      291

  The Athenians revolt from Demetrius                           287

  Pyrrhus expelled from Macedon by Lysimachus                   286

  The Pharos of Alexandria built. The Septuagint supposed to
    be translated about this time                               284

  Lysimachus defeated and killed by Seleucus. The Tarentine
    war begins, and continues 10 years. The Achæan league
    begins                                                      281

  Pyrrhus of Epirus goes to Italy to assist the Tarentines      280

  The Gauls, under Brennus, are cut to pieces near the temple
    of Delphi. About this time flourished Dionysius the
    astronomer, Sostratus, Theocritus, Dionysius Heracleotes,
    Philo, Aratus, Lycophron, Persæus, &c.                      278

  Pyrrhus, defeated by Curius, retires to Epirus                274

  The first coining of silver at Rome                           269

  Athens taken by Antigonus Gonatas, who keeps it 12 years      268

  The first Punic war begins, and continues for 23 years. The
    chronology of the Arundelian marbles composed. About this
    time flourished Lycon, Crates, Berosus, Hermachus, Helenus,
    Clinias, Aristotimus, &c.                                   264

  Antiochus Soter defeated at Sardis by Eumenes of Pergamus     262

  The Carthaginian fleet defeated by Duilius                    260

  Regulus defeated by Xanthippus. Athens is restored to
    liberty by Antigonus                                        256

  Aratus persuades the people of Sicyon to join the Achæan
    league. About this time flourished Cleanthes, Homer
    junior, Manetho, Timæus, Callimachus, Zoilus, Duris,
    Neanthes, Ctesibius, Sosibius, Hieronymus, Hanno, Laodice,
    Lysias, Ariobarzanes                                        251

  The Parthians under Arsaces, and the Bactrians under
    Theodotus, revolt from the Macedonians                      250

  The sea-fight of Drepanum                                     249

  The citadel of Corinth taken by Aratus, 12th of August        243

  Agis king of Sparta put to death for attempting to settle
    an Agrarian law. About this period flourished Antigonus
    Carystius, Conon of Samos, Eratosthenes, Apollonius of
    Perga, Lacydes, Amilcar, Agesilaus the ephor, &c.           241

  Plays first acted at Rome, being those of Livius Andronicus   240

  Amilcar passes with an army to Spain, with Annibal his son    237

  The temple of Janus shut at Rome, the first time since Numa   235

  The Sardinian war begins, and continues three years           234

  Original manuscripts of Æschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles,
    lent by the Athenians to Ptolemy for a pledge of
    15 talents                                                  233

  The first divorce known at Rome, by Spurius Carvilius.
    Sardinia and Corsica conquered                              231

  The Roman ambassadors first appeared at Athens and Corinth    228

  The war between Cleomenes and Aratus begins, and continues
    for five years                                              227

  The colossus of Rhodes thrown down by an earthquake. The
    Romans first cross the Po, pursuing the Gauls, who had
    entered Italy. About this time flourished Chrysippus,
    Polystratus, Euphorion, Archimedes, Valerius Messala,
    C. Nævius, Aristarchus, Apollonius, Philocorus, Aristo
    Ceus, Fabius Pictor the first Roman historian, Philarchus,
    Lysiades, Agro, &c.                                         224

  The battle of Sellasia                                        222

  The Social war between the Ætolians and Achæans, assisted
    by Philip                                                   220

  Saguntum taken by Annibal                                     219

  The second Punic war begins, and continues 17 years           218

  The battle of the lake Thrasymenus, and next year that of
    Cannæ, May 21st                                             217

  The Romans begin the auxiliary war against Philip in Epirus,
    which is continued by intervals for 14 years                214

  Syracuse taken by Marcellus, after a siege of three years     212

  Philopœmen defeats Machanidas at Mantinea                     208

  Asdrubal is defeated. About this time flourished Plautus,
    Archagathus, Evander, Teleclus, Hermippus, Zeno, Sotion,
    Ennius, Hieronymus of Syracuse, Tlepolemus, Epicydes        207

  The battle of Zama                                            202

  The first Macedonian war begins and continues near four
    years                                                       200

  The battle of Panius, where Antiochus defeats Scopas          198

  The battle of Cynoscephale, where Philip is defeated          197

  The war of Antiochus the Great begins, and continues three
    years                                                       192

  Lacedæmon joined to the Achæan league by Philopœmen           191

  The luxuries of Asia brought to Rome in the spoils of
    Antiochus                                                   189

  The laws of Lycurgus abrogated for a while at Sparta by
    Philopœmen                                                  188

  Antiochus the Great defeated and killed in Media. About this
    time flourished Aristophanes of Byzantium, Asclepiades,
    Tegula, C. Lælius, Aristonymus, Hegesinus, Diogenes
    the stoic, Critolaus, Massinissa, the Scipios, the Gracchi,
    Thoas, &c.                                                  187

  A war, which continues for one year, between Eumenes and
    Prusias, till the death of Annibal                          184

  Philopœmen defeated and killed by Dinocrates                  183

  Numa’s books found in a stone coffin at Rome                  179

  Perseus sends his ambassadors to Carthage                     175

  Ptolemy’s generals defeated by Antiochus, in a battle
    between Pelusium and mount Cassius. The second Macedonian
    war                                                         171

  The battle of Pydna, and the fall of the Macedonian empire.
    About this period flourished Attalus the astronomer,
    Metrodorus, Terence, Crates, Polybius, Pacuvius,
    Hipparchus, Heraclides, Carneades, Aristarchus, &c.         168

  The first library erected at Rome, with books obtained from
    the plunder of Macedonia                                    167

  Terence’s Andria first acted at Rome                          166

  Time measured out at Rome by a water-machine, invented
    by Scipio Nasica, 134 years after the introduction of
    sun-dials                                                   159

  Andriscus the Pseudophilip assumes the royalty of Macedonia   152

  Demetrius king of Syria defeated and killed by Alexander
    Balas                                                       150

  The third Punic war begins. Prusias king of Bithynia put to
    death by his son Nicomedes                                  149

  The Romans make war against the Achæans, which is finished
    the next year by Mummius                                    148

  Carthage is destroyed by Scipio, and Corinth by ♦Mummius      147

      ♦ ‘Mummus’ replaced with ‘Mummius’

  Viriathus is defeated by Lælius, in Spain                     146

  The war of Numantia begins, and continues for eight years     141

  The Roman army of 30,000, under Mancinus, is defeated by
    4000 Numantines                                             138

  Restoration of learning at Alexandria, and universal
    patronage offered to all learned men by Ptolemy Physcon.
    The age of Satyrus, Aristobulus, Lucius Accius, Mnaseas,
    Antipater, Diodorus the peripatetic, Nicander, Ctesibius,
    Sarpedon, Micipsa, &c.                                      137

  The famous embassy of Scipio, Metellus, Mummius, and
    Panætius, into Egypt, Syria, and Greece                     136

  The history of the Apocrypha ends. The Servile war in
    Sicily begins, and continues for three years                135

  Numantia taken. Pergamus annexed to the Roman empire          133

  Antiochus Sidetes killed by Phraates. Aristonicus defeated
    by Perpenna                                                 130

  Demetrius Nicator defeated at Damascus by Alexander Zebina    127

  The Romans make war against the pirates of the Beleares.
    Carthage is rebuilt by order of the Roman senate            123

  Caius Gracchus killed                                         121

  Dalmatia conquered by Metellus                                118

  Cleopatra assumes the government of Egypt. The age of
    Erymnæus, Athenion, Artemidorus, Clitomachus, Apollonius,
    Herodicus, Lucius Cælius, Castor, Menecrates, Lucilius, &c. 116

  The Jugurthine war begins, and continues for five years       111

  The famous sumptuary law at Rome, which limited the expenses
    of eating every day                                         110

  The Teutones and Cimbri begin their war against Rome, and
    continue it for eight years                                 109

  The Teutones defeat 80,000 Romans on the banks of the Rhone   105

  The Teutones defeated by Caius Marius at Aquæ Sextiæ          102

  The Cimbri defeated by Marius and Catulus                     101

  Dolabella conquers Lusitania                                   99

  Cyrene left by Ptolemy Apion to the Romans                     97

  The Social war begins, and continues three years, till
    finished by Sylla                                            91

  The Mithridatic war begins, and continues 26 years             89

  The civil wars of Marius and Sylla begin, and continue six
    years                                                        88

  Sylla conquers Athens, and sends its valuable libraries to
    Rome                                                         86

  Young Marius is defeated by Sylla, who is made dictator        82

  The death of Sylla. About this time flourished Philo,
    Charmidas, Asclepiades, Apellicon, Lucius Sisenna,
    Alexander Polyhistor, Plotius Gallus, Diotimus, Zeno,
    Hortensius, Archias, Posidonius, Geminus, &c.                78

  Bithynia left by Nicomedes to the Romans                       75

  The Servile war, under Spartacus, begins, and, two years
    after, the rebel general is defeated and killed by Pompey
    and Crassus                                                  73

  Mithridates and Tigranes defeated by Lucullus                  69

  Mithridates conquered by Pompey in a night battle. Crete is
    subdued by Metellus, after a war of two years                66

  The reign of the Seleucidæ ends in Syria, on the conquest of
    the country by Pompey                                        65

  Catiline’s conspiracy detected by Cicero. Mithridates kills
    himself                                                      63

  The first triumvirate in the person of Julius Cæsar, Pompey,
    and Crassus. About this time flourished Apollonius of
    Rhodes, Terentius Varro, Tyrannion, Aristodemus of Nysa,
    Lucretius, Dionysius the grammarian, Cicero, Antiochus,
    Spurinus, Andronicus, Catullus, Sallust, Timagenes,
    Cratippus, &c.                                               60

  Cicero banished from Rome, and recalled the next year          58

  Cæsar passes the Rhine, defeats the Germans, and invades
    Britain                                                      55

  Crassus is killed by Surena, in June                           53

  Civil war between Cæsar and Pompey                             50

  The battle of Pharsalia about May 12th                         48

  Alexander taken by Cæsar                                       47

  The war of Africa. Cato kills himself. This year is called
    the year of confusion, because the calendar was corrected
    by Sosigenes, and the year made to consist of 15 months,
    or 445 days                                                  46

  The battle of Munda                                            45

  Cæsar murdered                                                 44

  The battle of Mutina. The second triumvirate in Octavius,
    Antony, and Lepidus. Cicero put to death. The age of
    Sosigenes, Cornelius Nepos, Diodorus Siculus, Trogus
    Pompey, Didymus the scholiast, Varro the poet, &c.           43

  The battle of Philippi                                         42

  Pacorus general of Parthia defeated by Ventidius, 14 years
    after the disgrace of Crassus, and on the same day           39

  Pompey the younger defeated in Sicily by Octavius              36

  Octavius and Antony prepare for war                            32

  The battle of Actium, 2nd September. The era of the Roman
    emperors properly begins here                                31

  Alexander taken, and Egypt reduced into a Roman province       30

  The title of Augustus given to Octavius                        27

  The Egyptians adopt the Julian year. About this time
    flourished Virgil, Manilius, Dioscorides, Asinius Pollio,
    Mæcenas, Agrippa, Strabo, Horace, Macer, Propertius, Livy,
    Musa, Tibullus, Ovid, Pylades, Bathyllus, Varius, Tucca,
    Vitruvius, &c.                                               25

  The conspiracy of Muræna against Augustus                      22

  Augustus visits Greece and Asia                                21

  The Roman ensigns recovered from the Parthians by Tiberius     20

  The secular games celebrated at Rome                           17

  Lollius defeated by the Germans                                16

  The Rhæti and Vindelici defeated by Drusus                     15

  The Pannonians conquered by Tiberius                           12

  Some of the German nations conquered by Drusus                 11

  Augustus corrects the calendar, by ordering the 12 ensuing
    years to be without intercalation. About this time
    flourished Damascenus, Hyginus, Flaccus the grammarian,
    Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and Dionysius the geographer      8

  Tiberius retires to Rhodes for seven years                      6

  Our Saviour is born, four years before the vulgar era, in the
    year 4709 of the Julian period, A.U.C. 749, and the fourth
    of the 193rd Olympiad                                         4

  Tiberius returns to Rome                                        2

  The leap year corrected, having formerly been every third
    year                                                          4

  Ovid banished to Tomos                                          9

  Varus defeated and killed in Germany by Arminius               10

  Augustus dies at Nola, August 19th, and is succeeded by
    Tiberius. The age of Phædrus, Asinius Gallus, Velleius
    Paterculus, Germanicus, Cornel. Celsus, &c.                  14

  Twelve cities in Asia destroyed by an earthquake               17

  Germanicus, poisoned by Piso, dies at Antioch                  19

  Tiberius goes to Capreæ                                        26

  Sejanus disgraced                                              31

  Our Saviour crucified, Friday, April 3rd. _This is put four
    years earlier by some chronologists_                         33

  St. Paul converted to Christianity                             35

  Tiberius dies at Misenum, near Baiæ, March 16th, and is
    succeeded by Caligula. About this time flourished Valerius
    Maximus, Columella, Pomponius Mela, Appion, Philo Judæus,
    Artabanus, and Agrippina                                     37

  St. Matthew writes his Gospel                                  39

  The name of christians first given, at Antioch, to the
    followers of our Saviour                                     40

  Caligula murdered by Chæreas, and succeeded by Claudius        41

  The expedition of Claudius into Britain                        43

  St. Mark writes his Gospel                                     44

  Secular games celebrated at Rome                               47

  Caractacus carried in chains to Rome                           51

  Claudius succeeded by Nero                                     54

  Agrippina put to death by her son Nero                         59

  First persecution against the christians                       64

  Seneca, Lucan, and others put to death                         65

  Nero visits Greece. The Jewish war begins. The age of
    Persius, Quintus Curtius, Pliny the elder, Josephus,
    Frontinus, Burrhus, Corbulo, Thrasea, Boadicea, &c.          66

  St. Peter and St. Paul put to death                            67

  Nero dies, and is succeeded by Galba                           68

  Galba put to death. Otho, defeated by Vitellius, kills
    himself. Vitellius is defeated by Vespasian’s army           69

  Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus                         70

  The Parthians revolt                                           77

  Death of Vespasian, and succession of Titus. Herculaneum
    and Pompeii destroyed by an eruption of mount Vesuvius,
    November 1st                                                 79

  Death of Titus, and succession of Domitian. The age of
    Silius Italicus, Martial, Apollon. Tyanæus, Valerius
    Flaccus, Solinus, Epictetus, Quintilian, Lupus, Agricola,
    &c.                                                          81

  Capitoline games instituted by Domitian, and celebrated
    every fourth year                                            86

  Secular games celebrated. The war with Dacia begins, and
    continues 15 years                                           88

  Second persecution of the christians                           95

  Domitian put to death by Stephanus, &c., and succeeded by
    Nerva. The age of Juvenal, Tacitus, Statius, &c.             96

  Nerva dies, and is succeeded by Trajan                         98

  Pliny proconsul of Bithynia sends Trajan an account of the
    christians                                                  102

  Dacia reduced to a Roman province                             103

  Trajan’s expedition against Parthia. About this time
    flourished Florus, Suetonius, Pliny junior, Philo Biblius,
    Dion, Prusæus, Plutarch, &c.                                106

  Third persecution of the christians                           107

  Trajan’s column erected at Rome                               114

  Trajan dies, and is succeeded by Adrian                       117

  Fourth persecution of the christians                          118

  Adrian builds a wall in Britain                               121

  Adrian visits Asia and Egypt for seven years                  126

  He rebuilds Jerusalem, and raises there a temple to Jupiter   130

  The Jews rebel, and are defeated after a war of five years,
    and all banished                                            131

  Adrian dies, and is succeeded by Antoninus Pius. In the
    reign of Adrian flourished Teon, Phavorinus, Phlegon,
    Trallian, Aristides, Aquila, Salvius Julian, Polycarp,
    Arian, Ptolemy, &c.                                         138

  Antoninus defeats the Moors, Germans, and Dacians             145

  The worship of Serapis brought to Rome                        146

  Antoninus dies, and is succeeded by Marcus Aurelius and
    Lucius Verus, the last of whom reigned nine years.
    In the reign of Antoninus flourished Maximus Tyrius,
    Pausanias, Diophantus, Lucian, Hermogenes, Polyænus,
    Appian, Artemidorus, Justin the martyr, Apuleius, &c.       161

  A war with Parthia, which continues three years               162

  A war against the Marcomanni, which continues five years      169

  Another, which continues three years                          177

  Marcus Aurelius dies, and Commodus succeeds. In the last
    reign flourished Galen, Athenagoras, Tatian, Athenæus,
    Montanus, Diogenes, Laërtius                                180

  Commodus makes peace with the Germans                         181

  Commodus put to death by Martia and Lætus. He is succeeded
    for a few months by Pertinax, who is murdered 193; and
    four rivals arise, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger,
    Severus, and Albinus. Under Commodus flourished Julius
    Pollux, Theodotion, St. Irenæus, &c.                        192

  Niger is defeated by Severus at Issus                         194

  Albinus defeated in Gaul, and killed at Lyons, February 19th  198

  Severus conquers the Parthians                                200

  Fifth persecution against the christians                      202

  Severus visits Britain, and two years after builds a wall
    there across from the Frith of Forth                        207

  Severus dies at York, and is succeeded by Caracalla and
    Geta. In his reign flourished Tertullian, Minutius
    Felix, Papinianus, Clemens of Alexandria, Philostratus,
    Plotianus, and Bulas                                        211

  Geta killed by his brother Caracalla                          212

  The Septuagint discovered. Caracalla murdered by Macrinus.
    Flourished Oppian                                           217

  Opilius ♦Macrinus killed by the soldiers, and succeeded by
    Heliogabalus                                                218

      ♦ ‘Macrinius’ replaced with ‘Macrinus’

  Alexander Severus succeeds Heliogabalus. The Goths then
    exacted an annual payment not to invade or molest the
    Roman empire. The age of Julius Africanus                   222

  The Arsacidæ of Parthia are conquered by Artaxerxes king
    of Media, and their empire destroyed                        229

  Alexander defeats the Persians                                234

  The sixth persecution against the christians                  235

  Alexander killed and succeeded by Maximinus. At that time
    flourished Dion Cassius, Origen, and Ammonius               235

  The two Gordians succeeded Maximinus, and are put to death
    by Pupienus, who soon after is destroyed, with Balbinus,
    by the soldiers of the younger Gordian                      236

  Sarbinianus defeated in Africa                                240

  Gordian marches against the Persians                          242

  He is put to death by Philip, who succeeds, and makes peace
    with Sapor the next year. About this time flourished
    Censorius, and Gregory Thaumaturgus                         244

  Philip killed, and succeeded by Decius. Herodian flourished   249

  The seventh persecution against the christians                250

  Decius succeeded by Gallus                                    251

  A great pestilence over the empire                            252

  Gallus dies, and is succeeded by Æmilianus, Valerianus, and
    Gallienus. In the reign of Gallus flourished St. Cyprian
    and Plotinus                                                254

  The eighth persecution against the christians                 257

  The empire is harassed by 30 tyrants successively             258

  Valerian is taken by Sapor and flayed alive                   260

  Odenatus governs the east for Gallienus                       264

  The Scythians and Goths defeated by Cleodamus and Athenæus    267

  Gallienus killed, and succeeded by Claudius. In this reign
    flourished Longinus, Paulus Samosatenus, &c.                268

  Claudius conquers the Goths, and kills 300,000 of them.
    Zenobia takes possession of Egypt                           269

  Aurelian succeeds                                             270

  The ninth persecution against the christians                  272

  Zenobia defeated by Aurelian at Edessa                        273

  Dacia ceded to the Barbarians by the emperor                  274

  Aurelian killed, and succeeded by Tacitus, who died after a
    reign of six months, and was succeeded by Florianus, and,
    two months after, by Probus                                 275

  Probus makes an expedition into Gaul                          277

  He defeats the Persians in the east                           280

  Probus is put to death, and succeeded by Carus, and his
    sons Carinus and Numerianus                                 282

  Diocletian succeeds                                           284

  The empire attacked by the Barbarians of the north.
    Diocletian takes Maximianus as his imperial colleague       286

  Britain recovered, after a tyrant’s usurpation of 10 years.
    Alexandria taken by Diocletian                              296

  The tenth persecution against the christians, which
    continues 10 years                                          303

  Diocletian and Maximianus abdicate the empire, and live in
    retirement, succeeded by Constantius Chlorus and Galerius
    Maximianus the two Cæsars. About this period flourished
    Julius Capitolinus, Arnobius, Gregory and Hermogenes the
    lawyers, Ælius Spartianus, Hierocles, Flavius Vopiscus,
    Trebellius Pollio, &c.                                      304

  Constantius dies, and is succeeded by his son                 306

  At this time there were four emperors, Constantine,
    Licinius, Maximianus, and Maxentius                         308

  Maxentius defeated and killed by Constantine                  312

  The emperor Constantine begins to favour the christian
    religion                                                    319

  Licinius defeated and banished by Constantine                 324

  The first general Council of Nice, composed of 318 bishops,
    who sit from June 19th to August 25th                       325

  The seat of the empire removed from Rome to Constantinople    328

  Constantinople solemnly dedicated by the emperor on the
    11th of May                                                 330

  Constantine orders all the heathen temples to be destroyed    331

  The death of Constantine, and succession of his three sons,
    Constantinus, Constans, and Constantius. In the reign of
    Constantine flourished Lactantius, Athanasius, Arius, and
    Eusebius                                                    337

  Constantine the younger defeated and killed by Constans at
    Aquilea                                                     340

  Constans killed in Spain by Magnentius                        350

  Gallus put to death by Constantius                            354

  One hundred and fifty cities of Greece and Asia ruined by
    an earthquake                                               358

  Constantius and Julian quarrel, and prepare for war; but
    the former dies the next year, and leaves the latter
    sole emperor. About this period flourished Ælius Donatus,
    Eutropius, Libanius, Ammian. Marcellinus, Jamblicus,
    St. Hilary, &c.                                             360

  Julian dies, and is succeeded by Jovian. In Julian’s reign
    flourished Gregory Nazienzen, Themistius, Aurelius Victor,
    &c.                                                         363

  Upon the death of Jovian, and the succession of Valens
    and Valentinian, the empire is divided, the former being
    emperor of the east, and the other of the west              364

  Gratian taken as partner in the western empire by
    Valentinian                                                 367

  Firmus tyrant of Africa defeated                              373

  Valentinian II. succeeds Valentinian I.                       375

  The Goths permitted to settle in Thrace, on being expelled
    by the Huns                                                 376

  Theodosius the Great succeeds Valens in the eastern empire.
    The Lombards first leave Scandinavia and defeat the
    Vandals                                                     379

  Gratian defeated and killed by Andragathius                   383

  The tyrant Maximus defeated and put to death by Theodosius    388

  Eugenius usurps the western empire, and is two years after
    defeated by Theodosius                                      392

  Theodosius dies, and is succeeded by his sons, Arcadius
    in the east and Honorius in the west. In the reign of
    Theodosius flourished Ausonius, Eunapius, Pappus, Theon,
    Prudentius, St. Austin, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, &c.        395

  Gildo, defeated by his own brother, kills himself             398

  Stilicho defeats 200,000 of the Goths at Fesulæ               405

  The Vandals, Alani, and Suevi permitted to settle in Spain
    and France by Honorius                                      406

  Theodosius the younger succeeds Arcadius in the east,
    having Isdegerdes king of Persia as his guardian,
    appointed by his father                                     408

  Rome plundered by Alaric king of the Visigoths, August 24th   410

  The Vandals begin their kingdom in Spain                      412

  The kingdoms of the Burgundians is begun in Alsace            413

  The Visigoths found a kingdom at Toulouse                     415

  The Alani defeated and extirpated by the Goths                417

  The kingdom of the French begins on the Lower Rhine           420

  The death of Honorius, and succession of Valentinian III.
    Under Honorius flourished Sulpicius Severus, Macrobius,
    Anianus, Panodorus, Stobæus, Servius the commentator,
    Hypatia, Pelagius, Synesius, Cyrill, Orosius, Socrates,
    &c.                                                         423

  Theodosius establishes public schools at Constantinople,
    and attempts the restoration of learning                    425

  The Romans take leave of Britain and never return             426

  Pannonia recovered from the Huns by the Romans. The Vandals
    pass into Africa                                            427

  The French defeated by Ætius                                  428

  The Theodosian code published                                 435

  Genseric the Vandal takes Carthage, and begins the kingdom
    of the Vandals in Africa                                    439

  The Britons, abandoned by the Romans, make their celebrated
    complaint to Ætius against the Picts and Scots, and
    three years after the Saxons settle in Britain, upon the
    invitation of Vortigern                                     446

  Attila king of the Huns ravages Europe                        447

  Theodosius II. dies, and is succeeded by Marcianus. About
    this time flourished Zozimus, Nestorius, Theodoret,
    Sozomen, Olympiodorus, &c.                                  450

  The city of Venice first began to be known                    452

  Death of Valentinian III., who is succeeded by Maximus for
    two months, by Avitus for 10, and, after an interregnum
    of 10 months, by Majorianus                                 454

  Rome taken by Genseric in July. The kingdom of Kent first
    established                                                 455

  The Suevi defeated by Theodoric on the Ebro                   456

  Marcianus dies, and is succeeded by Leo, surnamed the
    Thracian. Vortimer defeated by Hengist at Crayford, in
    Kent                                                        457

  Severus succeeds in the western empire                        461

  The paschal cycle of 532 years invented by Victorius of
    Aquitain                                                    463

  ♦Anthemius succeeds in the western empire, after an
    interregnum of two years                                    467

      ♦ ‘Athemius’ replaced with ‘Anthemius’

  Olybrius succeeds Anthemius, and is succeeded, the next
    year, by Glycerius, and Glycerius by Nepos                  472

  Nepos is succeeded by Augustulus. Leo junior, son of
    Ariadne, though an infant, succeeds his grandfather
    Leo in the eastern empire, and, some months after, is
    succeeded by his father Zeno                                474

  The western empire is destroyed by Odoacer king of the
    Heruli, who assumes the title of king of Italy. About
    this time flourished Eutyches, Prosper, Victorius,
    Sidonius Apollinaris                                        476

  Constantinople partly destroyed by an earthquake, which
    lasted 40 days at intervals                                 480

  The battle of Soissons and victory of Clovis over Siagrius
    the Roman general                                           485

  After the death of Zeno in the east, Ariadne married
    Anastasius, surnamed the Silentiary, who ascends the
    vacant throne                                               491

  Theodoric king of the Ostrogoths revolts about this time,
    and conquers Italy from the Heruli. About this time
    flourished Boethius and Symmachus                           493

  Christianity embraced in France by the baptism of Clovis      496

  The Burgundian laws published by king Gondebaud               501

  Alaric defeated by Clovis at the battle of Vorcillè near
    Poitiers                                                    507

  Paris made the capital of the French dominions                510

  Constantinople besieged by Vitalianus, whose fleet is
    burned with a brazen speculum by Proclus                    514

  The computing of time by the christian era, introduced
    first by Dionysius                                          516

  Justin I., a peasant of Dalmatia, makes himself emperor       518

  Justinian I. nephew of Justin succeeds. Under his glorious
    reign flourished Belisarius, Jornandes, Paul the
    Silentiary, Simplicius, Dionysius, Procopius, Proclus,
    Narses, &c.                                                 527

  Justinian publishes his celebrated code of laws, and four
    years after his digest                                      529

  Conquest of Africa by Belisarius, and that of Rome, two
    years after                                                 534

  Italy is invaded by the Franks                                538

  The Roman consulship suppressed by Justinian                  542

  A great plague, which arose in Africa, and desolated Asia
    and Europe                                                  543

  The beginning of the Turkish empire in Asia                   545

  Rome taken and pillaged by Totila                             547

  The manufacture of silk introduced from India into Europe
    by monks                                                    551

  Defeat and death of Totila the Gothic king of Italy           553

  A dreadful plague over Africa, Asia, and Europe, which
    continues for 50 years                                      558

  Justin II., son of Vigilantia the sister of Justinian,
    succeeds                                                    565

  Part of Italy conquered by the Lombards from Pannonia, who
    form a kingdom there                                        568

  Tiberius II., an officer of the imperial guards, is adopted,
    and soon after succeeds                                     578

  Latin ceases to be the language of Italy about this time      581

  Maurice the Cappadocian, son-in-law of Tiberius, succeeds     582

  Gregory I., surnamed the Great, fills St. Peter’s chair at
    Rome. The few men of learning who flourished the latter
    end of this century were Gildas, Agathias, Gregory of
    Tours the father of French history, Evagrius, and St.
    Augustin the monk                                           590

  Augustin the monk, with 40 others, comes to preach
    christianity in England                                     597

  About this time the Saxon heptarchy began in England          600

  Phocas, a simple centurion, is elected emperor after the
    revolt of the soldiers, and the murder of Maurice and of
    his children                                                602

  The power of the popes begins to be established by the
    concessions of Phocas                                       606

  Heraclius, an officer in Africa, succeeds, after the murder
    of the usurper Phocas                                       610

  The conquests of Chosroes king of Persia, in Syria, Egypt,
    Asia Minor, and afterwards his siege of Rome                611

  The Persians take Jerusalem with the slaughter of 90,000
    men, and the next year they overrun Africa                  614

  Mahomet, in his 53rd year, flies from Mecca to Medina,
    on Friday, July 16th, which forms the first year of the
    Hegira, the era of the Mahometans                           622

  Constantinople is besieged by the Persians and Arabs          626

  Death of Mahomet                                              632

  Jerusalem taken by the Saracens, and three years after
    Alexandria and its famous library destroyed                 637

  Constantine III. son of Heraclius, in partnership with
    Heracleonas, his brother by the same father, assumes
    the imperial purple. Constantine reigns 103 days, and
    after his death, his son. Constantine’s son Constans is
    declared emperor, though Heracleonas, with his mother
    Martina, wished to continue in possession of the supreme
    power                                                       641

  Cyprus taken by the Saracens                                  648

  The Saracens take Rhodes, and destroy the Colossus            653

  Constantine IV., surnamed Pogonatus, succeeds, on the
    murder of his father in Sicily                              668

  The Saracens ravage Sicily                                    669

  Constantinople besieged by the Saracens, whose fleet is
    destroyed by the Greek fire                                 673

  Justinian II. succeeds his father Constantine. In his
    exile of 10 years the purple was usurped by Leontius
    and Absimerus Tiberius. His restoration happened 704.
    The only men of learning in this century were Secundus,
    Isidorus, Theophylactus, Georgius Pisides, Callinicus,
    and the venerable Bede                                      685

  Pepin engrosses the power of the whole French monarchy        690

  Africa finally conquered by the Saracens                      709

  Bardanes, surnamed Philippicus, succeeds at Constantinople,
    on the murder of Justinian                                  711

  Spain is conquered by the Saracens. Accession of Artemius,
    or Anastasius II., to the throne                            713

  Anastasius abdicates, and is succeeded by Theodosius III.,
    who, two years after, yields to the superior influence of
    Leo III., the first of the Isaurian dynasty                 715

  Second, but unsuccessful, siege of Constantinople by the
    Saracens                                                    717

  Tax called Peter-pence begun by Ina king of Wessex, to
    support a college at Rome                                   727

  Saracens defeated by Charles Martel between Tours and
    Poitiers in October                                         732

  Constantine V., surnamed Copronymus, succeeds his father
    Leo                                                         741

  Dreadful pestilence for three years over Europe and Asia      746

  The computation of years from the birth of Christ first
    used in historical writings                                 748

  Learning encouraged by the race of Abbas caliph of the
    Saracens                                                    749

  The Merovingian race of kings ends in France                  750

  Bagdad built, and made the capital of the caliphs of the
    house of Abbas                                              762

  A violent frost for 150 days from October to February         763

  Monasteries dissolved in the east by Constantine              770

  Pavia taken by Charlemagne, which ends the kingdom of the
    Lombards, after a duration of 206 years                     774

  Leo IV. son of Constantine succeeds, and, five years after,
    is succeeded by his wife Irene and his son Constantine VI.  775

  Irene murders her son and reigns alone. The only men
    of learning in this century were Johannes Damascenus,
    Fredegaire, Alcuinus, Paulus Diaconus, and George the
    monk                                                        797

  Charlemagne is crowned emperor of Rome and of the western
    empire. About this time the popes separate themselves
    from the princes of Constantinople                          800

  Egbert ascends the throne of England, but the total
    reduction of the Saxon heptarchy is not effected till
    26 years after                                              801

  Nicephorus I., great treasurer of the empire, succeeds        802

  Stauracius son of Nicephorus, and Michael I., surnamed
    Rhangabe, the husband of Procopia sister of Stauracius,
    assume the purple                                           811

  Leo V. the Armenian, though but an officer of the palace,
    ascends the throne of Constantinople                        813

  Learning encouraged among the Saracens by Almanon, who
    made observations on the sun, &c.                           816

  Michael II. the Thracian, surnamed the Stammerer, succeeds,
    after the murder of Leo                                     821

  The Saracens of Spain take Crete, which they call Candia      823

  The Almagest of Ptolemy translated into Arabic by order of
    Almanon                                                     827

  Theophilus succeeds his father Michael                        829

  Origin of the Russian monarchy                                839

  Michael III. succeeds his father Theophilus with his mother
    Theodora                                                    842

  The Normans get possession of some cities in France           853

  Michael is murdered, and succeeded by Basil I. the
    Macedonian                                                  867

  Clocks first brought to Constantinople from Venice            872

  Basil is succeeded by his son Leo VI. the philosopher.
    In this century flourished Mesué, the Arabian physician
    Eginhard, Rabanus, Albumasar, Godescalchus, Hincmarus,
    Odo, Photius, John Scotus, Anastasius the librarian,
    Alfraganus, Albategni, Reginon, John Asser                  886

  Paris besieged by the Normans, and bravely defended by
    bishop Goslin                                               887

  Death of Alfred king of England, after a reign of 30 years    900

  Alexander brother of Leo succeeds, with his nephew
    Constantine VII., surnamed Porphyrogenitus                  911

  The Normans establish themselves in France under Rollo        912

  Romanus I., surnamed Lecapenus, general of the fleet,
    usurps the throne, with his three sons, Christopher,
    Stephen, and Constantine VIII.                              919

  Fiefs established in France                                   923

  Saracen empire divided by usurpation into seven kingdoms      936

  Naples seized by the eastern emperors                         942

  The sons of Romanus conspire against their father, and
    the tumults this occasioned produced the restoration of
    Porphyrogenitus                                             945

  Romanus II. son of Constantine VII., by Helena the daughter
    of Lecapenus, succeeds                                      959

  Romanus, poisoned by his wife Theophana, is succeeded
    by Nicephorus Phocas II., whom the empress, unable to
    reign alone under the title of protectress of her young
    children, had married                                       963

  Italy conquered by Otho, and united to the German empire      964

  Nicephorus, at the instigation of Theophana, is murdered by
    John Zimisces, who assumes the purple                       969

  Basil II., and Constantine IX., the two sons of Romanus by
    ♦Theophana, succeed on the death of Zimisces                975

      ♦ ‘Theopana’ replaced with ‘Theophana’

  The third or Capetian race of kings in France begins July
    3rd                                                         987

  Arithmetical figures brought into Europe from Arabia by the
    Saracens                                                    991

  The empire of Germany first made elective by Otho III. The
    learned men of this century were Eudes de Cluni, Azophi,
    Luitprand, Alfarabius, Rhazes, Geber, Abbo, Aimoin,
    Gerbert                                                     996

  A general massacre of the Danes in England, Nov. 13th        1002

  All old churches about this time rebuilt in a new manner
    of architecture                                            1005

  Flanders inundated in consequence of a violent storm         1014

  Constantine becomes sole emperor on the death of his
    brother                                                    1025

  Romanus III., surnamed Argyrus, a patrician, succeeds by
    marrying Zoe the daughter of the late monarch              1028

  Zoe, after prostituting herself to a Paphlagonian
    money-lender, causes her husband Romanus to be poisoned,
    and afterwards marries her favourite, who ascends the
    throne under the name of Michael IV.                       1034

  The kingdoms of Castile and Arragon begin                    1035

  Zoe adopts for her son Michael V., the trade of whose
    father (careening vessels) had procured him the surname
    of Calaphates                                              1041

  Zoe and her sister Theodora are made sole empresses by the
    populace, but after two months Zoe, though 60 years old,
    takes for her third husband Constantine X., who succeeds   1042

  The Turks invade the Roman empire                            1050

  After the death of Constantine, Theodora recovers the
    sovereignty, and, 19 months after, adopts, as her
    successor, Michael VI., surnamed Stratioticus              1054

  Isaac Commenus I. chosen emperor by the soldiers             1057

  Isaac abdicates, and when his brother refuses to succeed
    him, he appoints his friend Constantine XI., surnamed
    Ducas                                                      1059

  Jerusalem conquered by the Turks from the Saracens           1065

  The crown of England is transferred from the head of Harold
    by the battle of Hastings, October the 14th, to William
    the Conqueror, duke of Normandy                            1066

  On the death of Ducas, his wife Eudocia, instead of
    protecting his three sons, Michael, Andronicus, and
    Constantine, usurps the sovereignty, and marries
    Romanus III., surnamed Diogenes                            1067

  Romanus being taken prisoner by the Turks, the three young
    princes ascend the throne, under the name of Michael
    Parapinaces VII., Andronicus I., and Constantine XII.      1071

  The general Nicephorus Botaniates III. assumes the purple    1078

  Doomsday-book begun to be compiled from a general survey
    of the estates of England, and finished in six years       1080

  Alexius Commenus I. nephew of Isaac I. ascends the throne.
    His reign is rendered illustrious by the pen of his
    daughter, the princess Anna Commena. The Normans, under
    Robert of Apulia, invade the eastern empire                1081

  Asia Minor finally conquered by the Turks                    1084

  Accession of William II. to the English throne               1087

  The first crusade                                            1096

  Jerusalem taken by the crusaders 15th July. The only
    learned men of this century were Avicenna, Guy d’Arezzo,
    Glaber, Hermannus, Franco, Peter Damiani, Michael
    Celularius, George Cedrenus, Berenger, Psellus, Marianus
    Scotus, Arzachel, William of Spires, Suidas, Peter the
    Hermit, Sigebert                                           1099

  Henry I. succeeds to the throne of England                   1100

  Learning revived at Cambridge                                1110

  John, or Calojohannes, son of Alexius, succeeds at
    Constantinople                                             1118

  Order of Knights Templars instituted                         1118

  Accession of Stephen to the English crown                    1135

  Manuel son of John succeeds at Constantinople                1143

  The second crusade                                           1147

  The canon law composed by Gratian, after 24 years’ labour    1151

  The party names of Guelfs and Gibbelines begin in Italy      1154

  Henry II. succeeds in England                                1154

  The Teutonic order begins                                    1164

  The conquest of Egypt by the Turks                           1169

  The famous council of Clarendon in England, January 25th.
    Conquest of Ireland by Henry II.                           1172

  Dispensing of justice by circuits first established in
    England                                                    1176

  Alexius II. succeeds his father Manuel                       1180

  English laws digested by Glanville                           1181

  From the disorders of the government, on account of the
    minority of Alexius, Andronicus the grandson of the great
    Alexius is named Guardian, but he murders Alexius, and
    ascends the throne                                         1183

  Andronicus is cruelly put to death, and Isaac Angelus,
    a descendant of the great Alexius by the female line,
    succeeds                                                   1185

  The third crusade, and siege of Acre                         1188

  Richard I. succeeds his father Henry in England              1189

  Saladin defeated by Richard of England in the battle of
    Ascalon                                                    1192

  Alexius Angelus brother of Isaac revolts, and usurps the
    sovereignty by putting out the eyes of the emperor         1195

  John succeeds to the English throne. The learned men
    of this century were Peter Abelard, Anna Commena,
    St. Bernard, Averroes, William of Malmesbury, Peter
    Lombard, Otho ♦Frisingensis, Maimonides, Humenus,
    Wernerus, Gratian, Jeoffry of Monmouth, Tzetzes,
    Eustathius, John of Salisbury, Simeon of Durham, Henry
    of Huntingdon, Peter Comestor, Peter of Blois, Ranulph
    Glanville, Roger Hoveden, Campanus, William of Newburgh    1199

      ♦ ‘Trisingensis’ replaced with ‘Frisingensis’

  Constantinople is besieged and taken by the Latins, and
    Isaac is taken from his dungeon and replaced on the
    throne with his son Alexius. This year is remarkable
    for the fourth crusade                                     1203

  The father and son are murdered by Alexius Mourzoufle,
    and Constantinople is again besieged and taken by
    the French and Venetians, who elect Baldwin count of
    Flanders emperor of the east. In the mean time, Theodore
    Lascaris makes himself emperor of Nice; Alexius grandson
    of the tyrant Andronicus becomes emperor of Trebizond;
    and Michael, an illegitimate child of the Angeli, founds
    an empire in Epirus                                        1204

  The emperor Baldwin is defeated by the Bulgarians, and
    next year is succeeded by his brother Henry                1205

  Reign and conquests of the great Zingis Khan first emperor
    of the Moguls and Tartars, till the time of his death,
    1227                                                       1206

  Aristotle’s works imported from Constantinople are
    condemned by the council of Paris                          1209

  Magna Charta granted to the English barons by king John      1215

  Henry III. succeeds his father John on the English throne    1216

  Peter of Courtenay, the husband of Yolanda sister of the
    two last emperors, Baldwin and Henry, is made emperor by
    the Latins                                                 1217

  Robert son of Peter Courtenay succeeds                       1221

  Theodore Lascaris is succeeded on the throne of Nice by
    his son-in-law John Ducas Vataces                          1222

  John of Brienne, and Baldwin II. son of Peter, succeeded
    on the throne of Constantinople                            1228

  The inquisition which had been begun 1204 is now trusted
    to the Dominicans                                          1233

  Baldwin alone                                                1237

  Origin of the Ottomans                                       1240

  The fifth crusade                                            1248

  Astronomical tables composed by Alphonso XI. of Castile      1253

  Ducas Vataces is succeeded on the throne of Nice by his
    son Theodore Lascaris II.                                  1255

  Lascaris succeeded by his son John Lascaris, a minor         1259

  Michael Palæologus son of the sister of the queen of
    Theodore Lascaris ascends the throne, after the murder
    of the young prince’s guardian                             1260

  Constantinople is recovered from the Latins by the Greek
    emperors of Nice                                           1261

  Edward I. succeeds on the English throne                     1272

  The famous Mortmain act passes in England                    1279

  Eight thousand French murdered during the Sicilian vespers,
    30th of March                                              1282

  Wales conquered by Edward and annexed to England             1283

  Michael Palæologus dies, and his son Andronicus, who had
    already reigned nine years conjointly with his father,
    ascends the throne. The learned men of this century are
    Gervase, Diceto, Saxo, Walter of Coventry, Accursius,
    Anthony of Padua, Alexander Halensis, William of Paris,
    Peter de Vignes, Matthew Paris, Grosseteste, Albertus,
    Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventura, John Joinville, Roger Bacon,
    Cimabue, Durandus, Henry of Ghent, Raymond Lulli, Jacob
    Voragine, Albertet, Duns Scotus, Thebit                    1293

  A regular succession of English parliaments from this time   1293

  The Turkish empire begins in Bithynia                        1298

  The mariner’s compass invented or improved by Flavio         1302

  The Swiss cantons begin                                      1307

  Edward II. succeeds to the English crown                     1307

  Translation of the holy see to Avignon, which alienation
    continues 68 years, till the return of Gregory XI.         1308

  Andronicus adopts, as his colleagues, Manuel, and his
    grandson the younger Andronicus. Manuel dying, Andronicus
    revolts against his grandfather, who abdicates             1320

  Edward III. succeeds in England                             ♦1327

      ♦ ‘1337’ replaced with ‘1327’

  First comet observed, whose course is described with
    exactness, in June                                         1337

  About this time flourished Leo Pilatus, a Greek professor
    at Florence, Barlaam, Petrarch, Boccace, and Manuel
    Chrysoloras, where may be fixed the era of the revival
    of Greek literature in Italy                               1339

  Andronicus is succeeded by his son John Palæologus in the
    ninth year of his age. John Cantacuzene, who had been
    left guardian of the young prince, assumes the purple.
    First passage of the Turks into Europe                     1341

  The knights and burgesses of parliament first sit in the
    same house                                                 1342

  The battle of Crecy, August 26th                             1346

  Seditions of Rienzi at Rome, and his elevation to the
    tribuneship                                                1347

  Order of the Garter in England established April 23rd        1349

  The Turks first enter Europe                                 1352

  Cantacuzene abdicates the purple                             1355

  The battle of Poictiers, September 19th                      1356

  Law pleadings altered from French into English as a favour
    from Edward III. to his people, in his 50th year           1362

  Rise of Timour, or Tamerlane, to the throne of Samarcand,
    and his extensive conquests till his death, after a reign
    of 35 years                                                1370

  Accession of Richard II. to the English throne               1377

  Manuel succeeds his father John Palæologus                   1391

  Accession of Henry IV. in England. The learned men of
    this century were Peter Apono, Flavio, Dante, Arnoldus
    Villa, Nicholas Lyra, William Occam, Nicephoras Gregoras,
    Leontius Pilatus, Matthew of Westminster, Wickliff,
    Froissart, Nicholas Flamel, &c.                            1399

  Henry IV. is succeeded by his son Henry V.                   1413

  Battle of Agincourt, October 25th                            1415

  The island of Madeira discovered by the Portuguese           1420

  Henry VI. succeeds to the throne of England. Constantinople
    is besieged by Amurath II. the Turkish emperor             1422

  John Palæologus II. succeeds his father Manuel               1424

  Cosmo de Medici recalled from banishment, and rise of that
    family at Florence                                         1434

  The famous pragmatic sanction settled in France              1439

  Printing discovered at Mentz, and improved gradually in
    22 years                                                   1440

  Constantine, one of the sons of Manuel, ascends the throne
    after his brother John                                     1448

  Mahomet II. emperor of the Turks besieges and takes
    Constantinople on the 29th of May. Fall of the eastern
    empire. The captivity of the Greeks, and the extinction
    of the imperial families of the Commeni and Palæologi.
    About this time the House of York in England began to
    aspire to the crown, and, by their ambitious views, to
    deluge the whole kingdom in blood. The learned men of
    the 15th century were Chaucer, Leonard Aretin, John Huss,
    Jerome of Prague, Poggio, Flavius Blondus, Theodore Gaza,
    Frank Philelphus, Georgius Trapezuntius, Gemistus Pletho,
    Laurentius Valla, Ulugh Beigh, John Guttemberg, John
    Faustus, Peter Schoeffer, Wesselus, Peurbachius, Æneas
    Sylvius, Bessarion, Thomas à Kempis, Argyropulus,
    Regiomontanus, Platina, Agricola, Pontanus, Ficinus,
    Lascaris, Tiphernas, Annius of Viterbo, Merula, Savonarola,
    Picus, Politian, Hermolaus, Grocyn, Mantuanus, John Colet,
    Reuchlin, Lynacre, Alexander ab Alexandro, Demetrius
    Chalcondyles, &c.                                          1453

                        A CLASSICAL DICTIONARY,
                              ETC., ETC.


=ABA= and =Abæ=, a town of Phocis, famous for an oracle of Apollo,
  surnamed Abæus. The inhabitants, called Abantes, were of Thracian
  origin. After the ruin of their country by Xerxes, they migrated
  to Eubœa, which from them was called Abantis. Some of them passed
  afterwards from Eubœa into Ionia. _Herodotus_, bk. 8, ch. 33.――
  _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 55.――――A city of Caria.――――Another of
  Arabia Felix.――――A mountain near Smyrna. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 24.――
  _Strabo_, bk. 10.

=Abacēne=, a country of Sicily near Messana. _Diodorus_, bk. 14.

=Abălus=, an island in the German ocean, where, as the ancients
  supposed, the amber dropped from the trees. If a man was drowned
  there, and his body never appeared above the water, propitiatory
  sacrifices were offered to his manes during a hundred years. _Pliny_,
  bk. 37, ch. 2.

=Abāna=, a place of Capua. _Cicero_, _De Lege Agraria contra Rullum_.

=Abantes=, a warlike people of Peloponnesus, who built a town in
  Phocis called Aba, after their leader Abas, whence also their
  name originated. They afterwards went to Eubœa. _See:_ Abantis.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 146.

=Abantias= and =Abantiădes=, a patronymic given to the descendants
  of Abas king of Argos, such as Acrisius, Danae, Perseus, Atalanta,
  &c. _Ovid._

=Abantĭdas=, made himself master of Sicyon, after he had murdered
  Clinias the father of Aratus. He was himself soon after assassinated,
  B.C. 251. _Plutarch_, _Aratus_.

=Abantis=, or =Abantias=, an ancient name of the island of Eubœa,
  received from the Abantes, who settled in it from Phocis. _Pliny_,
  bk. 4, ch. 12.――――Also a country of Epirus. _Pausanias_, bk. 5,
  ch. 22.

=Abarbarea=, one of the Naiades, mother of Æsepus and Pedasus by
  Bucolion, Laomedon’s eldest son. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 6, li. 23.

=Abarīmon=, a country of Scythia, near mount Imaus. The inhabitants
  were said to have their toes behind their heels, and to breathe no
  air but that of their native country. _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 2.

=Abăris=, a man killed by Perseus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5,
  li. 86.――――A Rutulian killed by Euryalus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9,
  li. 344.――――A Scythian, son of Seuthes, in the age of Crœsus, or
  the Trojan war, who received a flying arrow from Apollo, with which
  he gave oracles, and transported himself wherever he pleased. He
  is said to have returned to the Hyperborean countries from Athens
  without eating, and to have made the Trojan Palladium with the bones
  of Pelops. Some suppose that he wrote treatises in Greek; and it
  is reported, that there is a Greek manuscript of his epistles to
  Phalaris, in the library of Augsburg. But there were probably two
  persons of that name. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 36.――_Strabo_, bk. 7.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 33.

=Abārus=, an Arabian prince, who perfidiously deserted Crassus in his
  expedition against Parthia. _Appian_, _Parthia_.――――He is called
  Mezeres by _Florus_, bk. 3, ch. 11, and Ariamnes by _Plutarch_,

=Abas=, a mountain in Syria, where the Euphrates rises.――――A river
  of Armenia Major, where Pompey routed the Albani. _Plutarch_,
  _Pompey_.――――A son of Metanira, or Melaninia, changed into a lizard
  for laughing at Ceres. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable 7.
  ――――The 11th king of Argos, son of Belus, some say of Lynceus and
  Hypermnestra, was famous for his genius and valour. He was father to
  Prœtus and Acrisius, by Ocalea, and built Abæ. He reigned 23 years,
  B.C. 1384. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 16; bk. 10, ch. 35.――_Hyginus_,
  fable 170, &c.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 2.――――One of Æneas’s
  companions, killed in Italy. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 170.――――
  Another lost in the storm which drove Æneas to Carthage. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 125.――――A Latian chief, who assisted Æneas
  against Turnus, and was killed by Lausus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10,
  li. 170, &c.――――A Greek, son of Eurydamus, killed by Æneas during
  the Trojan war. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 286.――_Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 5, li. 150.――――A centaur, famous for his skill in hunting.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 12, li. 306.――――A soothsayer, to
  whom the Spartans erected a statue in the temple of Apollo, for
  his services to Lysander. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 9.――――A son of
  Neptune. _Hyginus_, fable 157.――――A sophist who wrote two treatises,
  one on history, the other on rhetoric. The time in which he lived
  is unknown.――――A man who wrote an account of Troy. He is quoted by
  Servius in _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9.

=Abāsa=, an island in the Red sea, near Æthiopia. _Pausanias_, bk. 6,
  ch. 26.

=Abasītis=, a part of Mysia in Asia. _Strabo._

=Abassēna=, or =Abassinia=. _See:_ Abyssinia.

=Abassus=, a town of Phrygia. _Livy_, bk. 38, ch. 15.

=Abastor=, one of Pluto’s horses.

=Abătos=, an island in the lake near Memphis in Egypt, abounding with
  flax and papyrus. Osiris was buried there. _Lucan_, bk. 10, li. 323.

=Abdalonīmus=, one of the descendants of the kings of Sidon, so poor,
  that to maintain himself, he worked in a garden. When Alexander
  took Sidon, he made him king, in the room of Strato the deposed
  monarch, and enlarged his possessions on account of the great
  disinterestedness of his conduct. _Justin_, bk. 11, ch. 10.――
  _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 1.――_Diodorus_, bk. 17.

=Abdēra=, a town of Hispania Bætica, built by the Carthaginians.
  _Strabo_, bk. 3.――――A maritime city of Thrace, built by Hercules,
  in memory of Abderus, one of his favourites. The Clazomenians
  and Teians beautified it. Some suppose that Abdera the sister of
  Diomedes built it. The air was so unwholesome, and the inhabitants
  of such a sluggish disposition, that stupidity was commonly called
  _Abderitica mens_. It gave birth, however, to Democritus, Protagoras,
  Anaxarchus, and Hecatæus. _Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 2.――_Cicero_, _Letters
  to Atticus_, bk. 4, ltr. 16.――_Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 186.――_Martial_,
  bk. 10, ltr. 25.

=Abdēria=, a town of Spain. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 5.

=Abderītes=, a people of Pæonia, obliged to leave their country on
  account of the great number of rats and frogs which infested it.
  _Justin_, bk. 15, ch. 2.

=Abdērus=, a man of Opus in Locris, arm-bearer to Hercules, torn to
  pieces by the mares of Diomedes, which the hero had entrusted to his
  care when going to war against the Bistones. Hercules built a city,
  which, in honour of his friend, he called Abdera. _Apollodorus_,
  bk. 2, ch. 5.――_Philostratus_, bk. 2, ch. 25.

=Abeătæ=, a people of Achaia, probably the inhabitants of Abia.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 30.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 6.

=Abella=, a town of Campania, whose inhabitants were called Abellani.
  Its nuts, called _avellanæ_, and also its apples, were famous.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 740.――_Justin_, bk. 20, ch. 5.――_Silius
  Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 544.

=Abelux=, a noble of Saguntum, who favoured the party of the Romans
  against Carthage. _Livy_, bk. 22, ch. 22.

=Abenda=, a town of Caria, whose inhabitants were the first who raised
  temples to the city of Rome. _Livy_, bk. 45, ch. 6.

=Abia=, formerly _Ire_, a maritime town of Messenia, one of the seven
  cities promised to Achilles by Agamemnon. It is called after Abia,
  daughter of Hercules and nurse of Hyllus. _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 30.
  ――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 9, li. 292.

=Abii=, a nation between Scythia and Thrace. They lived upon milk,
  were fond of celibacy, and enemies to war. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 13,
  li. 6.――According to _Curtius_, bk. 7, ch. 6, they surrendered to
  Alexander, after they had been independent since the reign of Cyrus.

=Abĭla=, or =Abyla=, a mountain of Africa, in that part which is
  nearest to the opposite mountain called Calpe, on the coast of Spain,
  only eighteen miles distant. These two mountains are called the
  columns of Hercules, and were said formerly to be united, till
  the hero separated them, and made a communication between the
  Mediterranean and Atlantic seas. _Strabo_, bk. 3.――_Mela_, bk. 1,
  ch. 5; bk. 2, ch. 6.――_Pliny_, bk. 3.

=Abisăres=, an Indian prince, who offered to surrender to Alexander.
  _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 12.

=Abisăris=, a country beyond the Hydaspes in India. _Arrian._

=Abisontes=, some inhabitants of the Alps. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 20.

=Ablētes=, a people near Troy. _Strabo._

=Abnoba=, a mountain of Germany. _Tacitus_, _Germania_, ch. 1.

=Abobrĭca=, a town of Lusitania. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 20.――――Another in

=Abœcrĭtus=, a Bœotian general, killed with a thousand men, in a
  battle at Chæronea, against the Ætolians. _Plutarch_, _Aratus_.

=Abolāni=, a people of Latium, near Alba. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 5.

=Abōlus=, a river of Sicily. _Plutarch_, _Timoleon_.

=Aboniteichos=, a town of Galatia. _Arrian_, _Periplus of the Euxine

=Aborāca=, a town of Sarmatia.

=Aborigĭnes=, the original inhabitants of Italy; or, according
  to others, a nation conducted by Saturn into Latium, where they
  taught the use of letters to Evander the king of the country. Their
  posterity was called Latini, from Latinus, one of their kings. They
  assisted Æneas against Turnus. Rome was built in their country.――The
  word signifies _without origin_, or whose _origin is not known_,
  and is generally applied to the original inhabitants of any country.
  _Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 1, &c.――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 10.――_Justin_, bk. 43, ch. 1.――_Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 5.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 5.

=Aborras=, a river of Mesopotamia. _Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Abradātes=, a king of Susa, who, when his wife Panthea had been taken
  prisoner by Cyrus, and humanely treated, surrendered himself and
  his troops to the conqueror. He was killed in the first battle he
  undertook in the cause of Cyrus, and his wife stabbed herself on
  his corpse. Cyrus raised a monument on their tomb. _Xenophon_,
  _Cyropædia_, bks. 5, 6, &c.

=Abrentius=, was made governor of Tarentum by Annibal. He betrayed his
  trust to the enemy to gain the favours of a beautiful woman, whose
  brother was in the Roman army. _Polyænus_, bk. 8.

=Abrocŏmas=, son of Darius, was in the army of Xerxes, when he
  invaded Greece. He was killed at Thermopylæ. _Herodotus_, bk. 7,
  ch. 224.――_Plutarch_, _Cleomenes_.

=Abrodiætus=, a name given to Parrhasius the painter, on account of
  the sumptuous manner of his living. _See:_ Parrhasius.

=Abron=, an Athenian, who wrote some treatises on the religious
  festivals and sacrifices of the Greeks. Only the titles of his
  works are preserved. _Suidas._――――A grammarian of Rhodes, who taught
  rhetoric at Rome.――――Another who wrote a treatise on Theocritus.――――A
  Spartan, son of Lycurgus the orator. _Plutarch_, _Decem Oratorum_.
  ――――A native of Argos, famous for his debauchery.

=Abronius Silo=, a Latin poet in the Augustan age. He wrote some
  fables. _Seneca._

=Abronycus=, an Athenian, very serviceable to Themistocles in his
  embassy to Sparta. _Thucydides_, bk. 1, ch. 91.――_Herodotus_, bk. 8,
  ch. 21.

=Abrŏta=, the wife of Nisus, the youngest of the sons of Ægeus. As
  a monument to her chastity, Nisus, after her death, ordered the
  garments which she wore to become the models of fashion in Megara.
  _Plutarch_, _Quæstiones Græcæ_.

=Abrotŏnum=, the mother of Themistocles. _Plutarch_, _Themistocles_.
  ――――A town of Africa, near the Syrtes. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 4.――――A
  harlot of Thrace. _Plutarch_, _Aratus_.

=Abrus=, a city of the Sapæi. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 10.

=Abrypŏlis=, an ally of Rome, driven from his possessions by Perseus,
  the last king of Macedonia. _Livy_, bk. 42, chs. 13 & 41.

=Abseus=, a giant, son of Tartarus and Terra. _Hyginus_, preface to

=Absinthii=, a people on the coasts of Pontus, where there is also a
  mountain of the same name. _Herodotus_, bk. 6, ch. 34.

=Absŏrus=, =Absyrtis=, =Absyrtides=, islands in the Adriatic, or near
  Istria, where Absyrtus was killed, whence their name. _Strabo_,
  bk. 7.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――_Lucan_, bk. 3, li. 190.

=Absyrtos=, a river falling into the Adriatic sea, near which Absyrtus
  was murdered. _Lucan_, bk. 3, li. 190.

=Absyrtus=, a son of Æetes king of Colchis, and Hypsea. His sister
  Medea, as she fled away with Jason, tore his body to pieces, and
  strewed his limbs in her father’s way, to stop his pursuit. Some
  say that she murdered him in Colchis, others, near Istria. It is
  said by others, that he was not murdered, but that he arrived safe
  in Illyricum. The place where he was killed has been called Tomos,
  and the river adjoining to it Absyrtos. _Lucan_, bk. 3, li. 190.――
  _Strabo_, bk. 7.――_Hyginus_, fable 23.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 9.――_Flaccus_, bk. 8, li. 261.――_Ovid_, _Tristia_, bk. 3,
  poem 9.――_Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 3, ch. 19.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 3, chs. 21 & 26.

=Abulītes=, governor of Susa, betrayed his trust to Alexander, and
  was rewarded with a province. _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 2.――_Diodorus_,
  bk. 17.

=Abydēnus=, a disciple of Aristotle, too much indulged by his master.
  He wrote some historical treatises on Cyprus, Delos, Arabia, and
  Assyria. _Philo Judæus._――_Josephus_, _Against Apion_.

=Abȳdos=, a town of Egypt, where was the famous temple of Osiris.
  _Plutarch_, on _De Iside et Osiride_.――――A city of Asia, opposite
  Sestos in Europe, with which, from the narrowness of the Hellespont,
  it seemed, to those who approach it by sea, to form only one town.
  It was built by the Milesians, by permission of king Gyges. It
  is famous for the amours of Hero and Leander, and for the bridge
  of boats which Xerxes built there across the Hellespont. The
  inhabitants, being besieged by Philip the father of Perseus, devoted
  themselves to death with their families, rather than fall into the
  hands of the enemy. _Livy_, bk. 31, ch. 18.――_Lucan_, bk. 2, li. 674.
  ――_Justin_, bk. 2, ch. 13.――_Musæus_, _Hero & Leander_.――_Flaccus_,
  bk. 1, li. 285.

=Abȳla.= _See:_ Abila.

=Abȳlon=, a city of Egypt.

=Abyssinia=, a large kingdom of Africa, in Upper Æthiopia, where
  the Nile takes its rise. The inhabitants are said to be of Arabian
  origin, and were little known to the ancients.

=Acacallis=, a nymph, mother of Philander and Phylacis by Apollo.
  These children were exposed to the wild beasts in Crete; but a goat
  gave them her milk, and preserved their life. _Pausanias_, bk. 10,
  ch. 16.――――A daughter of Minos, mother of Cydon by Mercury, and of
  Amphithemis by Apollo. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 53.――_Apollonius_,
  bk. 4, li. 1493.

=Acacēsium=, a town of Arcadia, built by Acacus son of Lycaon.
  Mercury, surnamed Acacesius, because brought up by Acacus as his
  foster-father, was worshipped there. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, chs. 3,
  36, &c.

=Acacius=, a rhetorician in the age of the emperor Julian.

=Acadēmia=, a place near Athens surrounded with high trees, and
  adorned with spacious covered walks, belonging to Academus,
  from whom the name is derived. Some derive the word from ἑκας
  δημος, _removed from the people_. Here Plato opened his school of
  philosophy, and from this, every place sacred to learning has ever
  since been called _Academia_. To exclude from it profaneness and
  dissipation, it was even forbidden to laugh there. It was called
  _Academia vetus_, to distinguish it from the _second Academy_,
  founded by Arcesilaus, who made some few alterations in the Platonic
  philosophy, and from the _third_ which was established by Carneades.
  _Cicero_, _de Divinatione_, bk. 1, ch. 3.――_Diogenes Laërtius_,
  bk. 3.――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 3, ch. 35.

=Acadēmus=, an Athenian, who discovered to Castor and Pollux where
  Theseus had concealed their sister Helen, for which they amply
  rewarded him. _Plutarch_, _Theseus_.

=Acalandrus=, or =Acalyndrus=, a river falling into the bay of
  Tarentum. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 11.

=Acalle=, a daughter of Minos and Pasiphae. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3,
  ch. 1.

=Acamarchis=, one of the Oceanides.

=Acămas=, son of Theseus and Phædra, went with Diomedes to demand Helen
  from the Trojans after her elopement from Menelaus. In his embassy
  he had a son called Munitus, by Laodice the daughter of Priam. He
  was concerned in the Trojan war, and afterwards built the town of
  Acamantium in Phrygia, and on his return to Greece called a tribe
  after his own name at Athens. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 26.――_Quintus
  Smyrnæus_, bk. 12.――_Hyginus_, fable 108.――――A son of Antenor in
  the Trojan war. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 11, li. 60, &c.――――A Thracian
  auxiliary of Priam in the Trojan war. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 11.

=Acampsis=, a river of Colchis. _Arrian._

=Acantha=, a nymph loved by Apollo, and changed into the flower

=Acanthus=, a town near mount Athos, belonging to Macedonia, or,
  according to others, to Thrace. It was founded by a colony from
  Andros. _Thucydides_, bk. 4, ch. 84.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 2.――――
  Another in Egypt near the Nile, called also Dulopolis. _Pliny_,
  bk. 5, ch. 28.――――An island mentioned by _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 32.

=Acăra=, a town of Pannonia.――――Another in Italy.

=Acaria=, a fountain of Corinth, where Iolas cut off the head of
  Eurystheus. _Strabo_, bk. 8.

=Acarnania=, anciently Curetis, a country of Epirus, at the north of
  the Ionian sea, divided from Ætolia by the Achelous. The inhabitants
  reckoned only six months in the year; they were luxurious, and
  addicted to pleasure, so that _porcus Acarnas_ became proverbial.
  Their horses were famous. It received its name from Acarnas.
  _Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 90.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 3.――_Strabo_, bks. 7
  & 9.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 24.――_Lucian_, _Dialogi Meretricii_.

=Acarnas= and =Amphoterus=, sons of Alcmæon and Callirhöe. Alcmæon
  being murdered by the brothers of Alphesibœa his former wife,
  Callirhöe obtained from Jupiter, that her children, who were still
  in the cradle, might, by a supernatural power, suddenly grow up to
  punish their father’s murderers. This was granted. _See:_ Alcmæon.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 24.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9,
  fable 10.

=Acarnas= and =Acarnan=, a stony mountain of Attica. _Seneca_,
  _Hippolytus_, li. 20.

=Acasta=, one of the Oceanides. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 356.

=Acastus=, son of Pelias king of Thessaly by Anaxibia, married
  Astydamia or Hippolyte, who fell in love with Peleus son of Æacus,
  when in banishment at her husband’s court. Peleus, rejecting the
  addresses of Hippolyte, was accused before Acastus of attempts upon
  her virtue, and soon after, at a chase, exposed to wild beasts.
  Vulcan, by order of Jupiter, delivered Peleus, who returned to
  Thessaly, and put to death Acastus and his wife. _See:_ Peleus and
  Astydamia. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, li. 306; _Heroides_,
  poem 13, li. 25.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9, &c.――――The second
  archon at Athens.

=Acathantus=, a bay in the Red sea.――_Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Acca Laurentia=, the wife of Faustulus shepherd of king Numitor’s
  flocks, who brought up Romulus and Remus, who had been exposed on
  the banks of the Tiber. From her wantonness, she was called _Lupa_,
  prostitute, whence the fable that Romulus was suckled by a she-wolf.
  _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 1, ch. 18.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 4.
  ――_Aulus Gellius_, bk. 6, ch. 7.――――The Romans yearly celebrated
  certain festivals [_See:_ Laurentalia] in honour of another
  prostitute of the same name, which arose from this circumstance:
  the keeper of the temple of Hercules, one day playing at dice,
  made the god one of the number, on condition that if Hercules was
  defeated, he should make him a present, but if he conquered he
  should be entertained with an elegant feast, and share his bed with
  a beautiful female. Hercules was victorious, and accordingly Acca
  was conducted to the bed of Hercules, who in reality came to see her,
  and told her in the morning to go into the streets, and salute with
  a kiss the first man she met. This was Tarrutius, an old unmarried
  man, who, not displeased with Acca’s liberty, loved her, and made
  her the heiress of all his possessions. These, at her death, she
  gave to the Roman people, whence the honours paid to her memory.
  _Plutarch_, _Quæstiones Romanæ_, _Romulus_.――――A companion of
  Camilla. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 820.

=Accia=, or =Atia=, daughter of Julia and Marcus Atius Balbus, was the
  mother of Augustus, and died about 40 years B.C. _Dio Cassius._――
  _Suetonius_, _Augustus_, ch. 4.――――Variola, an illustrious female,
  whose cause was eloquently pleaded by Pliny. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 33.

=Accĭla=, a town of Sicily. _Livy_, bk. 24, ch. 35.

=Lucius Accius=, a Roman tragic poet, whose roughness of style
  Quintilian has imputed to the unpolished age in which he lived. He
  translated some of the tragedies of Sophocles, but of his numerous
  pieces only some of the names are known; and among these his Nuptiæ,
  Mercator, Neoptolemus, Phœnice, Medea, Atreus, &c. The great marks
  of honour which he received at Rome may be collected from this
  circumstance: that a man was severely reprimanded by a magistrate
  for mentioning his name without reverence. Some few of his verses
  are preserved in Cicero and in other writers. He died about 180
  years B.C. _Horace_, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 56.――_Ovid_, _Amores_, bk. 1,
  poem 15, li. 19.――_Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――_Cicero_, _Letters
  to Atticus_ & _Brutus or de Claris Oratoribus_, bk. 3, ch. 16.――――A
  famous orator of Pisaurum in Cicero’s age.――――Labeo, a foolish poet
  mentioned _Persius_, bk. 1, li. 50.――――Tullius, a prince of the
  Volsci, very inimical to the Romans. Coriolanus, when banished by
  his countrymen, fled to him, and led his armies against Rome. _Livy_,
  bk. 2, ch. 37.――_Plutarch_, _Coriolanus_.

=Acco=, a general of the Senones in Gaul. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 6,
  chs. 4 & 44.――――An old woman who fell mad on seeing her deformity in
  a looking-glass. _Hesychius._

=Accua=, a town in Italy. _Livy_, bk. 24, ch. 20.

=Ace=, a town in Phœnicia, called also Ptolemais, now Acre. _Cornelius
  Nepos_, _Datames_, ch. 5.――――A place of Arcadia near Megalopolis,
  where Orestes was cured from the persecution of the furies, who had
  a temple there. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 34.

=Acerātus=, a soothsayer, who remained alone at Delphi when the
  approach of Xerxes frightened away the inhabitants. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 8, ch. 37.

=Acerbas=, a priest of Hercules at Tyre, who married Dido. _See:_
  Sichæus. _Justin_, bk. 18, ch. 4.

=Acerīna=, a colony of the Brutii in Magna Græcia, taken by Alexander
  of Epirus. _Livy_, bk. 8, ch. 24.

=Acerræ=, an ancient town of Campania, near the river Clanius. It
  still subsists; and the frequent inundations from the river which
  terrified its ancient inhabitants, are now prevented by the large
  drains dug there. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 2, li. 225.――_Livy_,
  bk. 8, ch. 17.

=Acersecŏmes=, a surname of Apollo, which signifies _unshorn_.
  _Juvenal_, satire 8, li. 128.

=Aces=, a river of Asia. _Herodotus_, bk. 3, ch. 117.

=Acesia=, part of the island of Lemnos, which received this name from
  Philoctetes, whose wound was cured there. _Philostratus._

=Acesīnes=, a river of Sicily. _Thucydides_, bk. 4, ch. 25.

=Acesīnus=, or =Acesīnes=, a river of Persia falling into the Indus.
  Its banks produce reeds of such an uncommon size, that a piece of
  them, particularly between two knots, can serve as a boat to cross
  the water. _Justin_, bk. 12, ch. 9.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 12.

=Acesius=, a surname of Apollo, in Elis and Attica, as god of medicine.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 24.

=Acesta=, a town of Sicily, called after king Acestes, and known also
  by the name of Segesta. It was built by Æneas, who left there part
  of his crew, as he was going to Italy. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 5,
  li. 746, &c.

=Acestes=, son of Crinisus and Egesta, was king of the country near
  Drepanum in Sicily. He assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and kindly
  entertained Æneas during his voyage, and helped him to bury his
  father on mount Eryx. In commemoration of this, Æneas built a city
  there called Acesta, from Acestes. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 5, li. 746.

=Acestium=, a woman who saw all her relations invested with the sacred
  office of torch-bearer in the festivals of Ceres. _Pausanias_, bk. 1,
  ch. 37.

=Acestodōrus=, a Greek historian, who mentions the review which
  Xerxes made of his forces before the battle of Salamis. _Plutarch_,

=Acestorĭdes=, an Athenian archon.――――A Corinthian, governor of
  Syracuse. _Diodorus_, bk. 19.

=Acetes=, one of Evander’s attendants. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11,
  li. 30.

=Achabȳtos=, a lofty mountain in Rhodes, where Jupiter had a temple.

=Achæa=, a surname of Pallas, whose temple in Daunia was defended by
  dogs which fawned upon the Greeks, but fiercely attacked all other
  persons. _Aristotle_, _de Mirabilibus_.――――Ceres was called Achæa,
  from her _lamentations_ (ἀχεα) at the loss of Proserpine. _Plutarch_,
  _De Iside et Osiride_.

=Achæi=, the descendants of Achæus, at first inhabited the country near
  Argos, but being driven by the Heraclidæ, 80 years after the Trojan
  war, they retired among the Ionians, whose 12 cities they seized
  and kept. The names of these cities are Pellene, Ægira, Æges, Bura,
  Tritæa, Ægion, Rhypæ, Olenos, Helice, Patræ, Dyme, and Pharæ. The
  inhabitants of these three last began a famous confederacy, 284
  years B.C., which continued formidable upwards of 130 years, under
  the name of the _Achæan league_, and was most illustrious whilst
  supported by the splendid virtues and abilities of Aratus and
  Philopœmen. Their arms were directed against the Ætolians for three
  years, with the assistance of Philip of Macedon, and they grew
  powerful by the accession of neighbouring states, and freed their
  country from foreign slavery, till at last they were attacked by
  the Romans, and, after one year’s hostilities, the Achæan league
  was totally destroyed, B.C. 147. The Achæans extended the borders
  of their country by conquest and even planted colonies in Magna
  Græcia.――――The name of _Achæi_ is generally applied to all the
  Greeks, indiscriminately, by the poets. _See:_ Achaia. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 145; bk. 8, ch. 36.――_Statius_, _Thebaid_, bk. 2, li. 164.
  ――_Polybius._――_Livy_, bks. 27, 32, &c.――_Plutarch_, _Philopœmen_.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 5.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4, li. 605.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 1, &c.――――Also a people of Asia on the
  borders of the Euxine. _Ovid_, _Ex Ponto_, bk. 4, poem 10, li. 27.

=Achæium=, a place of Troas, opposite Tenedos. _Strabo_, bk. 8.

=Achæmĕnes=, a king of Persia, among the progenitors of Cyrus the
  Great; whose descendants were called Achæmenides, and formed a
  separate tribe in Persia, of which the kings were members. Cambyses,
  son of Cyrus, on his death-bed, charged his nobles, and particularly
  the Achæmenides, not to suffer the Medes to recover their former
  power, and abolish the empire of Persia. _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 125;
  bk. 3, ch. 65; bk. 7, ch. 1.――_Horace_, bk. 2, ode 12, li. 21.――――A
  Persian, made governor of Egypt by Xerxes, B.C. 484.

=Achæmenia=, part of Persia, called after Achæmenes. Hence Achæmenius.
  _Horace_, _Epodes_, poem 13, li. 12.

=Achæmenĭdes=, a native of Ithaca, son of Adramastus, and one of
  the companions of Ulysses, abandoned on the coast of Sicily, where
  Æneas, on his voyage to Italy, found him. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3,
  li. 624.――_Ovid_, _Ibis_, li. 417.

=Achæorum littus=, a harbour in Cyprus. _Strabo._――――In Troas,――――in
  Æolia,――――in Peloponnesus,――――on the Euxine. _Pausanias_, bk. 4,
  ch. 34.

=Achæorum statio=, a place on the coast of the Thracian Chersonesus,
  where Polyxena was sacrificed to the shades of Achilles, and where
  Hecuba killed Polymnestor, who had murdered her son Polydorus.

=Achæus=, a king of Lydia, hung by his subjects for his extortion.
  _Ovid_, _Ibis_.――――A son of Xuthus of Thessaly. He fled, after the
  accidental murder of a man, to Peloponnesus; where the inhabitants
  were called from him, Achæi. He afterwards returned to Thessaly.
  _Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 1.――――A tragic poet of
  Eretria, who wrote 43 tragedies, of which some of the titles are
  preserved, such as Adrastus, Linus, Cycnus, Eumenides, Philoctetes,
  Pirithous, Theseus, Œdipus, &c.; of these only one obtained the
  prize. He lived some time after Sophocles.――――Another of Syracuse,
  author of 10 tragedies.――――A river which falls into the Euxine.
  _Arrian_, _Periplus of the Euxine Sea_.――――A relation of Antiochus
  the Great, appointed governor of all the king’s provinces beyond
  Taurus. He aspired to sovereign power, which he disputed for eight
  years with Antiochus, and was at last betrayed by a Cretan. His
  limbs were cut off, and his body, sewed in the skin of an ass, was
  exposed on a gibbet. _Polybius_, bk. 8.

=Achaia=, called also _Hellas_, a country of Peloponnesus at the north
  of Elis on the bay of Corinth, which is now part of Livadia. It was
  originally called Ægialus (_shore_) from its situation. The Ionians
  called it Ionia, when they settled there; and it received the name
  of Achaia, from the Achæi, who dispossessed the Ionians. _See:_
  Achæi.――――A small part of Phthiotis was also called Achaia, of which
  Alos was the capital.

=Achaicum bellum.= _See:_ Achæi.

=Achăra=, a town near Sardis. _Strabo_, bk. 14.

=Acharenses=, a people of Sicily near Syracuse. _Cicero_, _Against
  Verres_, bk. 3.

=Acharnæ=, a village of Attica. _Thucydides_, bk. 2, ch. 19.

=Achātes=, a friend of Æneas, whose fidelity was so exemplary that
  _Fidus Achates_ became a proverb. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li.
  316.――――A river of Sicily.

=Achĕlōĭdes=, a patronymic given to the Sirens as daughters of
  Achelous. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable 15.

=Achelorium=, a river of Thessaly. _Polyænus_, bk. 8.

=Achelōus=, the son of Oceanus or Sol by Terra or Tethys, god of the
  river of the same name in Epirus. As one of the numerous suitors
  of Dejanira daughter of Œneus he entered the lists against Hercules
  and being inferior, changed himself into a serpent, and afterwards
  into an ox. Hercules broke off one of his horns, and Achelous being
  defeated, retired in disgrace into his bed of waters. The broken
  horn was taken up by the nymphs, and filled with fruits and flowers,
  and after it had for some time adorned the hand of the conqueror, it
  was presented to the goddess of plenty. Some say that he was changed
  into a river after the victory of Hercules. This river is in Epirus,
  and rises in mount Pindus, and after dividing Acarnania from Ætolia,
  falls into the Ionian sea. The sand and mud which it carries down,
  have formed some islands at its mouth. This river is said by some
  to have sprung from the earth after the deluge. _Herodotus_, bk. 2,
  ch. 10.――_Strabo_, bk. 10.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, fable 5;
  bk. 9, fable 1; _Amores_, bk. 3, poem 6, li. 35.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 1, chs. 3 & 7; bk. 2, ch. 7.――_Hyginus_, preface to fables.――――A
  river of Arcadia falling into the Alpheus.――――Another flowing from
  mount Sipylus. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 38.

=Acherdus=, a tribe of Attica; hence _Acherdusius_, _Demosthenes_.

=Acherĭmi=, a people of Sicily. _Cicero_, bk. 3, _Against Verres_.

=Achĕron=, a river of Thesprotia, in Epirus, falling into the bay of
  Ambracia. Homer called it, from the dead appearance of its waters,
  one of the rivers of hell, and the fable has been adopted by all
  succeeding poets, who make the god of the stream to be the son of
  Ceres without a father, and say that he concealed himself in hell
  for fear of the Titans, and was changed into a bitter stream, over
  which the souls of the dead are at first conveyed. It receives,
  say they, the souls of the dead, because a deadly languor seizes
  them at the hour of dissolution. Some make him son of Titan, and
  suppose that he was plunged into hell by Jupiter, for supplying the
  Titans with water. The word Acheron is often taken for hell itself.
  _Horace_, bk. 1, ode 3, li. 36.――_Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 2, li.
  292; _Æneid_, bk. 2, li. 295, &c.――_Strabo_, bk. 7.――_Lucan_, bk. 3,
  li. 16.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 2.――_Sylvæ_, poem 6, li. 80.――_Livy_,
  bk. 8, ch. 24.――――A river of Elis in Peloponnesus.――――Another on the
  Riphæan mountains. _Orpheus._――――Also a river in the country of the
  Brutii in Italy. _Justin_, bk. 12, ch. 2.

=Acherontia=, a town of Apulia on a mountain, thence called _Nidus_ by
  _Horace_, bk. 3, ode 4, li. 14.

=Acherūsia=, a lake of Egypt near Memphis, over which, as Diodorus,
  bk. 1, mentions, the bodies of the dead were conveyed, and received
  sentence according to the actions of their life. The boat was called
  Baris, and the ferryman Charon. Hence arose the fable of Charon
  and the Styx, &c., afterwards imported into Greece by Orpheus, and
  adopted in the religion of the country.――――There was a river of the
  same name in Epirus, and another in Italy in Calabria.

=Acherūsias=, a place or cave in Chersonesus Taurica, where Hercules,
  as is reported, dragged Cerberus out of hell. _Xenophon_, _Anabasis_,
  bk. 6.

=Achetus=, a river of Sicily. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 14.

=Achillas=, a general of Ptolemy, who murdered Pompey the Great.
  _Plutarch_, _Pompey_.――_Lucan_, bk. 8, li. 538.

=Achillēa=, a peninsula near the mouth of the Borysthenes. _Mela_,
  bk. 2, ch. 1.――_Herodotus_, bk. 4, chs. 55 & 76.――――An island at the
  mouth of the Ister, where was the tomb of Achilles, over which it is
  said that birds never flew. _Pliny_, bk. 10, ch. 29.――――A fountain
  of Miletus, whose waters rise salted from the earth, and afterwards
  sweeten in their course. _Athenaeus_, bk. 2, ch. 2.

=Achilleienses=, a people near Macedonia. _Xenophon_, _Hellenica_,
  bk. 3.

=Achillēis=, a poem of Statius, in which he describes the education
  and memorable actions of Achilles. This composition is imperfect.
  The poet’s premature death deprived the world of a valuable history
  of the life and exploits of this famous hero. _See:_ Statius.

=Achilles=, the son of Peleus and Thetis, was the bravest of all the
  ♦Greeks in the Trojan war. During his infancy, Thetis plunged him
  in the Styx, and made every part of his body invulnerable, except
  the heel, by which she held him. His education was entrusted to the
  centaur Chiron, who taught him the art of war and made him master of
  music, and by feeding him with the marrow of wild beasts, rendered
  him vigorous and active. He was taught eloquence by Phœnix, whom he
  ever after loved and respected. Thetis, to prevent him from going to
  the Trojan war, where she knew he was to perish, privately sent him
  to the court of Lycomedes, where he was disguised in a female dress,
  and, by his familiarity with the king’s daughters, made Deidamia
  mother of Neoptolemus. As Troy could not be taken without the aid
  of Achilles, Ulysses went to the court of Lycomedes, in the habit of
  a merchant, and exposed jewels and arms to sale. Achilles, choosing
  the arms, discovered his sex, and went to the war. Vulcan, at the
  entreaties of Thetis, made him a strong suit of armour, which was
  proof against all weapons. He was deprived by Agamemnon of his
  favourite mistress, Briseis, who had fallen to his lot at the
  division of the booty of Lyrnessus, and for this affront, he refused
  to appear in the field till the death of his friend Patroclus
  recalled him to action, and to revenge. _See:_ Patroclus. He slew
  Hector the bulwark of Troy, tied the corpse by the heels to his
  chariot, and dragged it three times round the walls of Troy. After
  thus appeasing the shades of his friend, he yielded to the tears and
  entreaties of Priam, and permitted the aged father to ransom and to
  carry away Hector’s body. In the 10th year of the war, Achilles was
  charmed with Polyxena; and as he solicited her hand in the temple of
  Minerva, it is said that Paris aimed an arrow at his vulnerable heel,
  of which wound he died. His body was buried at Sigæum, and divine
  honours were paid to him, and temples raised to his memory. It is
  said, that after the taking of Troy, the ghost of Achilles appeared
  to the Greeks, and demanded of them Polyxena, who accordingly was
  sacrificed on his tomb by his son Neoptolemus. Some say that this
  sacrifice was voluntary, and that Polyxena was so grieved at his
  death that she killed herself on his tomb. The Thessalians yearly
  sacrificed a black and a white bull on his tomb. It is reported
  that he married Helen after the siege of Troy; but others maintain,
  that this marriage happened after his death, in the island of Leuce,
  where many of the ancient heroes lived, as in a separate elysium.
  _See:_ Leuce. When Achilles was young, his mother asked him, whether
  he preferred a long life, spent in obscurity and retirement, or a
  few years of military fame and glory? and that, to his honour, he
  made choice of the latter. Some ages after the Trojan war, Alexander
  going to the conquest of Persia, offered sacrifices on the tomb
  of Achilles, and admired the hero who had found a Homer to publish
  his fame to posterity. _Xenophon_, _On Hunting_.――_Plutarch_,
  _Alexander_; _De facie in orbe Lunæ_; _De Musica_; _De amicorum
  multitudine_; _Quæstiones Græcæ_.――_Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 18,
  &c.――_Diodorus_, bk. 17.――_Statius_, _Achilleid_.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 12, fable 3, &c.; _Tristia_, bk. 3, poem 5,
  li. 37, &c.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, lis. 472, 488; bk. 2, li. 275;
  bk. 6, li. 58, &c.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 13.――_Hyginus_, fables
  96 & 110.――_Strabo_, bk. 14.――_Pliny_, bk. 35, ch. 15.――_Maximus of
  Tyre_, Oration 27.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 8; bk. 2, odes 4 & 16; bk.
  4, ode 6; bk. 2, ltr. 2, li. 42.――_Homer_, _Iliad_ & _Odyssey_.――
  _Dictys Cretensis_, bks. 1, 2, 3, &c.――_Dares Phrygius._――_Juvenal_,
  satire 7, li. 210.―― _Apollonius_, bk. 4, _Argonautica_, li. 869.――――
  There were other persons of the same name. The most known were――a
  man who received Juno when she fled from Jupiter’s courtship――――the
  preceptor of Chiron the centaur――――a son of Jupiter and Lamia,
  declared by Pan to be fairer than Venus――――a man who instituted
  ostracism at Athens――――Tatius, a native of Alexandria, in the
  age of the emperor Claudius, but originally a pagan, converted
  to Christianity, and made a bishop. He wrote a mixed history of
  great men, a treatise on the sphere, tactics, a romance on the loves
  of Clitophon and Leucippe, &c. Some manuscripts of his works are
  preserved in the Vatican and Palatinate libraries. The best edition
  of his works is that in 12mo, Leiden, 1640.

      ♦ ‘Geeeks’ replaced with ‘Greeks’

=Achillēum=, a town of Troas near the tomb of Achilles, built by the
  Mityleneans. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 30.

♦=Achilleus=, or =Aquileus=, a Roman general in Egypt, in the reign of
  Diocletian, who rebelled, and for five years maintained the imperial
  dignity at Alexandria. Diocletian at last marched against him; and
  because he had supported a long siege, the emperor ordered him to be
  devoured by lions.

      ♦ Placed in alphabetical order

=Achīvi=, the name of the inhabitants of Argos and Lacedæmon before
  the return of the Heraclidæ, by whom they were expelled from
  their possessions 80 years after the Trojan war. Being without a
  home, they drove the Ionians from Ægialus, seized their 12 cities,
  and called the country Achaia. The Ionians were received by the
  Athenians. The appellation of _Achivi_ is indiscriminately applied
  by the ancient poets to all the Greeks. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 1,
  &c. _See:_ Achaia.

=Achladæus=, a Corinthian general, killed by Aristomenes. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 4, ch. 19.

=Acholōe=, one of the Harpies. _Hyginus_, fable 14.

=Acichōrius=, a general with Brennus in the expedition which the Gauls
  undertook against Pæonia. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 10.

=Acidālia=, a surname of Venus, from a fountain of the same name in
  Bœotia, sacred to her. The Graces bathed in the fountain. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 720.――_Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 4, li. 468.

=Acidāsa=, a river of Peloponnesus, formerly called Jardanus.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 5.

=Acilia=, a plebeian family at Rome, which traced its pedigree up to
  the Trojans.――――The mother of Lucan.

=Acilia lex=, was enacted, A.U.C. 556, by Acilius the tribune, for the
  plantation of five colonies in Italy. _Livy_, bk. 32, ch. 29.――――
  Another called also Calpurnia, A.U.C. 684, which enacted, that no
  person convicted of _ambitus_, or using bribes at elections, should
  be admitted in the senate, or hold an office.――――Another concerning
  such as were guilty of extortion in the provinces.

=Marcus Acilius Balbus=, was consul with Portius Cato, A.U.C. 640. It
  is said that during his consulship, milk and blood fell from heaven.
  _Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 56.――――Glabrio, a tribune of the people, who
  with a legion quelled the insurgent slaves in Etruria. Being consul
  with Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, A.U.C. 563, he conquered
  Antiochus at Thermopylæ, for which he obtained a triumph, and
  three days were appointed for public thanksgiving. He stood for
  the censorship against Cato, but desisted on account of the false
  measures used by his competitor. _Justin_, bk. 31, ch. 6.――_Livy_,
  bk. 30, ch. 40; bk. 31, ch. 50; bk. 33, ch. 10, &c.――――The son of
  the preceding, erected a temple to Piety, which his father had vowed
  to this goddess when fighting against Antiochus. He raised a golden
  statue to his father, the first that appeared in Italy. The temple
  of piety was built on the spot where once a woman had fed with her
  milk her aged father, whom the senate had imprisoned, and excluded
  from all aliments. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 2, ch. 5.――――The enactor
  of a law against bribery.――――A prætor in the time that Verres was
  accused by Cicero.――――A man accused of extortion, and twice defended
  by Cicero. He was proconsul of Sicily, and lieutenant to Cæsar in
  the civil wars. _Cæsar_, _Civil War_, bk. 3, ch. 15.――――A consul,
  whose son was killed by Domitian, because he fought with wild beasts.
  The true cause of this murder was, that young Glabrio was stronger
  than the emperor, and therefore envied. _Juvenal_, satire 4, li. 94.

=Acilla=, a town of Africa, near Adrumetum. Some read Acolla. _Cæsar_,
  _African War_, ch. 33.

=Acis=, a shepherd of Sicily, son of Faunus and the nymph Simæthis.
  Galatæa passionately loved him; upon which his rival Polyphemus,
  through jealousy, crushed him to death with a piece of a broken rock.
  The gods changed Acis into a stream, which rises from mount Ætna.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, fable 8.

=Acmon=, a native of Lyrnessus, who accompanied Æneas into Italy. His
  father’s name was Clytus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 128.

=Acmonĭdes=, one of the Cyclops. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 4, li. 288.

=Acœtes=, the pilot of the ship whose crew found Bacchus asleep, and
  carried him away. As they ridiculed the god, they were changed into
  sea monsters, but Acœtes was preserved. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 3, fable 8, &c. _See:_ Acetes.

=Acontes=, one of Lycaon’s 50 sons. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 8.

=Aconteus=, a famous hunter changed into a stone by the head of Medusa,
  at the nuptials of Perseus and Andromeda. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 5, li. 201.――――A person killed in the wars of Æneas and Turnus,
  in Italy. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 615.

=Acontius=, a youth of Cea, who, when he went to Delos to see the
  sacrifice of Diana, fell in love with Cydippe, a beautiful virgin,
  and being unable to obtain her, on account of the obscurity of his
  origin, wrote these verses on an apple, which he threw into her

            _Juro tibi sanctæ per mystica sacra Dianæ,
            Me tibi venturam comitem, sponsamque futuram._

  Cydippe read the verses, and being compelled by the oath she had
  inadvertently made, married Acontius. _Ovid_, _Heroides_, poem 20.
  ――――A mountain of Bœotia. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 7.

=Acontobūlus=, a place of Cappadocia, under Hyppolyte queen of the
  Amazons. _Apollonius_, _Argonautica_, bk. 2.

=Acōris=, a king of Egypt, who assisted Evagoras king of Cyprus
  against Persia. _Diodorus_, bk. 15.

=Acra=, a town in Italy,――――Eubœa,――――Cyprus,――――Acarnania,――――
  Sicily, ――――Africa,――――Sarmatia, &c.――――A promontory of Calabria,
  now Capo di Leuca.

=Acradīna=, the citadel of Syracuse, taken by Marcellus the Roman
  consul. _Plutarch_, _Marcellus_.――_Cicero_, _Against Verres_, bk. 4.

=Acræ=, a mountain in Peloponnesus. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 34.

=Acræa=, a daughter of the river Asterion.――――A surname of Diana, from
  a temple built to her by Melampus, on a mountain near Argos.――――A
  surname of Juno. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 17.

=Acræphnia=, a town in Bœotia; whence Apollo is called Acraæphnius.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 8, ch. 135.

=Acragallĭdæ=, a dishonest nation living anciently near Athens.
  _Æschines_, _Against Ctesiphon_.

=Acrăgas.= _See:_ Agragas.

=Acrātus=, a freedman of Nero, sent into Asia to plunder the temples
  of the gods. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 15, ch. 45; bk. 16, ch. 23.

=Acrias=, one of Hippodamia’s suitors. _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 21.――――
  He built Acriæ, a town of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 21.

=Acridophăgi=, an Æthiopian nation, who fed upon locusts, and lived
  not beyond their 40th year. At the approach of old age swarms of
  winged lice attacked them, and gnawed their belly and breast, till
  the patient, by rubbing himself, drew blood, which increased their
  number, and ended in his death. _Diodorus_, bk. 3.――_Pliny_, bk. 11,
  ch. 29.――_Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Acrīon=, a Pythagorean philosopher of Locris. _Cicero_, _De Finibus_,
  bk. 5, ch. 29.

=Acrisioneus=, a patronymic applied to the Argives, from Acrisius, one
  of their ancient kings, or from Acrisione, a town of Argolis, called
  after a daughter of Acrisius of the same name. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 7, li. 410.

=Acrisioniădes=, a patronymic of Perseus, from his grandfather Acrisius.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, li. 70.

=Acrisius=, son of Abas king of Argos, by Ocalea daughter of Mantineus.
  He was born at the same birth as Prœtus, with whom it is said that
  he quarrelled even in his mother’s womb. After many dissensions,
  Prœtus was driven from Argos. Acrisius had Danae by Eurydice
  daughter of Lacedæmon; and being told by an oracle, that his
  daughter’s son would put him to death, he confined Danae in a
  brazen tower, to prevent her becoming a mother. She, however,
  became pregnant, by Jupiter changed into a golden shower; and though
  Acrisius ordered her, and her infant called Perseus, to be exposed
  on the sea, yet they were saved; and Perseus soon after became so
  famous for his actions, that Acrisius, anxious to see so renowned
  a grandson, went to Larissa. Here Perseus, wishing to show his
  skill in throwing a quoit, killed an old man who proved to be his
  grandfather, whom he knew not, and thus the oracle was unhappily
  fulfilled. Acrisius reigned about 31 years. _Hyginus_, fable
  63.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4, fable 16.――_Horace_, bk. 3,
  ode 16.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 2, &c.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2,
  ch. 16, &c.――_See:_ Danae, Perseus, Polydectes.

=Acrītas=, a promontory of Messenia, in Peloponnesus. _Pliny_, bk. 4,
  ch. 5.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 3.

=Acroāthon=, or =Acrothoos=, a town on the top of mount Athos,
  whose inhabitants lived to an uncommon old age. _Mela_, bk. 2,
  ch. 2.――_Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 10.

=Acroceraunium=, a promontory of Epirus, with mountains called
  Acroceraunia, which project between the Ionian and Adriatic seas.
  The word comes from ἀκρος, _high_, and κεραυνος, _thunder_; because,
  on account of their great height, they were often struck with thunder.
  _Lucretius_, bk. 6, li. 420.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 1. ――_Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 506.――_Strabo_, bk. 6.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 3,
  li. 20.

=Acrocorinthus=, a lofty mountain on the isthmus of Corinth, taken
  by Aratus, B.C. 243. There is a temple of Venus on the top, and
  Corinth is built at the bottom. _Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2,
  ch. 4.――_Plutarch_, _Aratus_.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 7, li. 106.

=Acron=, a king of Cenina, killed by Romulus in single combat, after
  the rape of the Sabines. His spoils were dedicated to Jupiter
  Feretrius. _Plutarch_, _Romulus_.――――A physician of Agrigentum,
  B.C. 430, educated at Athens with Empedocles. He wrote physical
  treatises in the Doric dialect, and cured the Athenians of a plague
  by lighting a fire near the houses of the infected. _Pliny_, bk. 29,
  ch. 1.――_Plutarch_, _De Iside et Osiride_.――――One of the friends of
  Æneas, killed by Mezentius. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 719.

=Acropātos=, one of Alexander’s officers, who obtained part of Media
  after the king’s death. _Justin_, bk. 13, ch. 4.

=Acropŏlis=, the citadel of Athens, built on a rock, and accessible
  only on one side. Minerva had a temple at the bottom. _Pausanias_,

=Acrotătus=, son of Cleomenes king of Sparta, died before his father,
  leaving a son called Areus. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 13; bk. 3,
  ch. 6.――――A son of Areus, who was greatly loved by Chelidonis wife
  of Cleonymus. This amour displeased her husband, who called Pyrrhus
  the Epirot to avenge his wrongs. When Sparta was besieged by Pyrrhus,
  Acrotatus was seen bravely fighting in the middle of the enemy, and
  commended by the multitude, who congratulated Chelidonis on being
  mistress to such a warlike lover. _Plutarch_, _Pyrrhus_.

=Acrothoos.= _See:_ Acroathon.

=Acta=, or =Acte=, a country of Attica. This word signifies _shore_,
  and is applied to Attica, as being near the sea. It is derived by
  some writers from Actæus, a king, from whom the Athenians have been
  called Actæi. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1, li. 312.――_Virgil_,
  _Eclogues_, poem 2, li. 23.

=Acta=, a place near mount Athos, on the Ægean sea. _Thucydides_,
  bk. 4, ch. 109.

=Actæa=, one of the Nereides. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 250.――_Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 18, li. 41.――――A surname of Ceres.――――A daughter of
  Danaus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Actæon=, a famous huntsman, son of Aristæus and Autonoe daughter of
  Cadmus, whence he is called _Autonoeius heros_. He saw Diana and
  her attendant, bathing near Gargaphia, for which he was changed into
  a stag, and devoured by his own dogs. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 2.
  ――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 3, fable 3.――――A beautiful youth,
  son of Melissus of Corinth, whom Archias, one of the Heraclidæ,
  endeavoured to debauch and carry away. He was killed in the struggle
  which in consequence of this happened between his father and
  ravisher. Melissus complained of the insult, and drowned himself;
  and soon after, the country being visited by a pestilence, Archias
  was expelled. _Plutarch_, _Amatoriæ narrationes_.

=Actæus=, a powerful person who made himself master of a part of
  Greece, which he called Attica. His daughter Agraulos married
  Cecrops, whom the Athenians called their first king, though Actæus
  reigned before him. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, chs. 2 & 14.――――The word is
  of the same signification as _Atticus_, an inhabitant of Attica.

=Acte=, a mistress of Nero, descended from Attalus. _Suetonius_,
  _Nero_, ch. 28.――――One of the Horæ. _Hyginus_, fable 183.

=Actia=, the mother of Augustus. As she slept in the temple of
  Apollo, she dreamt that a dragon had lain with her. Nine months
  after she brought forth, having previously dreamt that her bowels
  were scattered all over the world. _Suetonius_, _Augustus_, ch. 94.
  ――――Games sacred to Apollo, in commemoration of the victory of
  Augustus over Marcus Antony at Actium. They were celebrated every
  third, sometimes fifth, year, with great pomp, and the Lacedæmonians
  had the care of them. _Plutarch_, _Antonius_.――_Strabo_, bk. 7.――
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 280; bk. 8, li. 675.――――A sister of
  Julius Cæsar. _Plutarch_, _Cicero_.

=Actis=, son of Sol, went from Greece into Egypt, where he taught
  astrology, and founded Heliopolis. _Diodorus_, bk. 5.

=Actisănes=, a king of Æthiopia who conquered Egypt, and expelled king
  Amasis. He was famous for his equity, and his severe punishment of
  robbers, whose noses he cut off, and whom he banished to a desert
  place, where they were in want of all aliment, and lived only upon
  crows. _Diodorus_, bk. 1.

=Actium=, now _Azio_, a town and promontory of Epirus, famous for the
  naval victory which Augustus obtained over Antony and Cleopatra, the
  2nd of September, B.C. 31, in honour of which the conqueror built
  there the town of Nicopolis, and instituted games. _See:_ Actia.
  _Plutarch_, _Antonius_.――_Suetonius_, _Augustus_.――――A promontory of
  Corcyra. _Cicero_, _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 7, ltr. 2.

=Actius=, a surname of Apollo, from Actium, where he had a temple.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 704.――――A poet. _See:_ Accius.――――A
  prince of the Volsci. _See:_ Accius.

=Actius Navius=, an augur, who cut a loadstone in two with a razor,
  before Tarquin and the Roman people, to convince them of his skill
  as an augur. _Florus_, bk. 1, ch. 5.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 36.――――
  Labeo. _See:_ Labeo.

=Actor=, a companion of Hercules in his expedition against the Amazons.
  ――――The father of Menœtius by Ægina, whence Patroclus is called
  _Actorides_. _Ovid_, _Tristia_, bk. 1, poem 8.――――A man called also
  Aruncus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 12, li. 93.――――One of the friends
  of Æneas. _Æneid_, bk. 9, li. 500.――――A son of Neptune by Agameda.
  _Hyginus_, fable 14.――――A son of Deion and Diomede. _Apollodorus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 9.――――The father of Eurytus, and brother of Augeas.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 7.――――A son of Acastus, one of the
  Argonauts. _Hyginus_, fable 14.――――The father of Astyoche. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 2.――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 37.――――A king of Lemnos.
  _Hyginus_, fable 102.

=Actorĭdes=, a patronymic given to Patroclus grandson of Actor. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, fable 1.――――Also to Erithus son of Actor.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable 3.――――Two brothers so fond of
  each other, that in driving a chariot, one generally held the reins,
  and the other the whip; whence they are represented with two heads,
  four feet, and one body. Hercules conquered them. _Pindar._

=Actŏris=, a maid of Ulysses. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 23.

=Marcus Actorius Naso=, a Roman historian. _Suetonius_, _Julius_,
  ch. 9.

=Caius Aculeo=, a Roman lawyer celebrated as much for the extent of his
  understanding, as for his knowledge of law. He was uncle to Cicero.
  _Cicero_, _On Oratory_, bk. 1, ch. 43.

=Acūphis=, an ambassador from India to Alexander. _Plutarch_,

=Acusilāus= and =Damagētus=, two brothers of Rhodes, conquerors at the
  Olympic games. The Greeks strewed flowers upon Diagoras their father,
  and called him happy in having such worthy sons. _Pausanias_, bk. 6,
  ch. 7.

=Acusilāus=, an historian of Argos, often quoted by Josephus. He wrote
  on genealogies, in a style simple and destitute of all ornament.
  _Cicero_, _On Oratory_, bk. 2, ch. 29.――_Suidas._――――An Athenian who
  taught rhetoric at Rome under Galba.

=M. Acutĭcus=, an ancient comic writer whose plays were known under
  the names of Leones, Gemini, Anus, Bœotia, &c.

=Ada=, a sister of queen Artemisia, who married Hidricus. After her
  husband’s death, she succeeded to the throne of Caria; but being
  expelled by her younger brother, she retired to Alindæ, which she
  delivered to Alexander after adopting him as her son. _Curtius_,
  bk. 2, ch. 8.――_Strabo_, bk. 14.

=Adad=, a deity among the Assyrians, supposed to be the sun.

=Adæus=, a native of Mitylene, who wrote a Greek treatise on
  statuaries. _Athenæus_, bk. 13.

=Adamantæa=, Jupiter’s nurse in Crete, who suspended him in his cradle
  to a tree, that he might be found neither in the earth, the sea,
  nor in heaven. To drown the infant’s cries, she had drums beat and
  cymbals sounded around the tree. _Hyginus_, fable 139.

=Adămas=, a Trojan prince, killed by Merion. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 13,
  li. 560.――――A youth who raised a rebellion on being emasculated by
  Cotys king of Thrace. _Aristotle_, _Politics_, bk. 5, ch. 10.

=Adamastus=, a native of Ithaca, father of Achæmenides. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 614.

=Adaspii=, a people at the foot of mount Caucasus. _Justin_, bk. 12,
  ch. 5.

=Addephagia=, a goddess of the Sicilians. _Ælian_, bk. 1, _Varia
  Historia_, ch. 27.

=Addua=, now _Adda_, a river of Cisalpine Gaul, falling into the Po
  near Cremona. _Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 103.

=Adelphius=, a friend of Marcus Antoninus, whom he accompanied in
  his expedition into Parthia, of which he wrote the history. _Strabo_,
  bk. 11.

=Adēmon=, raised a sedition in Mauritania to avenge his master Ptolemy,
  whom Caligula had put to death. _Suetonius_, _Caligula_, ch. 35.

=Ades=, or =Hades=, the god of hell among the Greeks, the same as the
  Pluto of the Latins. The word is derived from _α_ and ειδειν [_non
  videre_], because hell is deprived of light. It is often used for
  hell itself by the ancient poets.

=Adgandestrius=, a prince of Gaul who sent to Rome for poison to
  destroy Arminius, and was answered by the senate, that the Romans
  fought their enemies openly, and never used perfidious measures.
  _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 2, ch. 88.

=Adherbal=, son of Micipsa, and grandson of Masinissa, was besieged at
  Cirta, and put to death by Jugurtha, after vainly imploring the aid
  of Rome, B.C. 112. _Sallust_, _Jugurthine War_.

=Adherbas=, the husband of Dido. _See:_ Sichæus.

=Adiante=, a daughter of Danaus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 11.

=Adiatōrix=, a governor of Galatia, who, to gain Antony’s favour,
  slaughtered, in one night, all the inhabitants of the Roman colony
  of Heraclea, in Pontus. He was taken at Actium, led in triumph by
  Augustus, and strangled in prison. _Strabo_, bk. 12.

=Adimantus=, a commander of the Athenian fleet, taken by the Spartans.
  All the men of the fleet were put to death, except Adimantus,
  because he had opposed the designs of his countrymen, who intended
  to mutilate all the Spartans. _Xenophon_, _Hellenica_. Pausanias
  says, bk. 4, ch. 17; bk. 10, ch. 9, that the Spartans had bribed
  him.――――A brother of Plato. _Laërtius_, bk. 3.――――A Corinthian
  general who reproached Themistocles with his exile.――――A king struck
  with thunder for saying that Jupiter deserved no sacrifices. _Ovid_,
  _Ibis_, li. 337.

=Admēta=, a daughter of Eurystheus, was priestess of Juno’s temple at
  Argos. She expressed a wish to possess the girdle of the queen of
  the Amazons, and Hercules obtained it for her. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2,
  ch. 23.――――One of the Oceanides. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 349.

=Admētus=, son of Pheres and Clymene, king of Pheræ in Thessaly,
  married Theone daughter of Thestor, and, after her death, Alceste
  daughter of Pelias. Apollo when banished from heaven, is said to
  have tended his flocks for nine years, and to have obtained from the
  Parcæ, that Admetus should never die, if another person laid down
  his life for him; a proof of unbounded affection, which his wife
  Alceste cheerfully exhibited by devoting herself voluntarily to
  death. Admetus was one of the Argonauts, and was at the hunt of
  the Calydonian boar. Pelias promised his daughter in marriage only
  to him who could bring him a chariot drawn by a lion and a wild
  boar; and Admetus effected this by the aid of Apollo, and obtained
  Alceste’s hand. Some say that Hercules brought him back Alceste from
  hell. _Seneca_, _Medeâ_.――_Hyginus_, fables 50, 51, & 243.――_Ovid_,
  _Amores_, bk. 3.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, chs. 8 & 9, &c.――_Tibullus_,
  bk. 2, poem 3.――_Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 17.――――A king of the
  Molossi, to whom Themistocles fled for protection. _Cornelius Nepos_,
  _Themistocles_, ch. 8.――――An officer of Alexander, killed at the
  siege of Tyre. _Diodorus_, bk. 17.

=Adōnia=, festivals in honour of Adonis, first celebrated at Byblos
  in Phœnicia. They lasted two days, the first of which was spent
  in howlings and lamentations, the second in joyful clamours, as if
  Adonis was returned to life. In some towns of Greece and Egypt they
  lasted eight days; the one half of which was spent in lamentations,
  and the other in rejoicings. Only women were admitted, and such as
  did not appear were compelled to prostitute themselves for one day;
  and the money obtained by this shameful custom was devoted to the
  service of Adonis. The time of the celebration was supposed to be
  very unlucky. The fleet of Nicias sailed from Athens to Sicily on
  that day, whence many unfortunate omens were drawn. _Plutarch_,
  _Nicias_.――_Ammianus_, bk. 22, ch. 9.

=Adōnis=, son of Cinyras by his daughter Myrrha [_See:_ Myrrha],
  was the favourite of Venus. He was fond of hunting, and was often
  cautioned by his mistress not to hunt wild beasts, for fear of being
  killed in the attempt. This advice he slighted, and at last received
  a mortal bite from a wild boar which he had wounded, and Venus,
  after shedding many tears at his death, changed him into a flower
  called anemone. Proserpine is said to have restored him to life, on
  condition that he should spend six months with her, and the rest of
  the year with Venus. This implies the alternate return of summer and
  winter. Adonis is often taken for Osiris, because the festivals of
  both were generally begun with mournful lamentations, and finished
  with a revival of joy as if they were returning to life again.
  Adonis had temples raised to his memory, and is said by some to
  have been beloved by Apollo and Bacchus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3,
  ch. 14.――_Propertius_, bk. 2, poem 13, li. 53.――_Virgil_, _Eclogues_,
  poem 10, li. 18.――_Bion_, _Adonis_.――_Hyginus_, fables 58, 164, 248,
  &c.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 10, fable 10.――_Musæus_, _Hero &
  Leander_.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 20; bk. 9, ch. 41.――――A river of
  Phœnicia, which falls into the Mediterranean, below Byblus.

=Adramyttium=, an Athenian colony on the sea coast of Mysia, near the
  Caycus. _Strabo_, bk. 13.――_Thucydides_, bk. 5, ch. 1.

=Adrāna=, a river in Germany. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 1, ch. 56.

=Adrānum=, a town of Sicily, near Ætna, with a river of the same name.
  The chief deity of the place was called Adranus, and his temple was
  guarded by 1000 dogs. _Plutarch_, _Timoleon_.

=Adrasta=, one of the Oceanides who nursed Jupiter. _Hyginus_,
  fable 182.

=Adrastia=, a fountain of Sicyon. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 15.――――A
  mountain. _Plutarch_, _Lucullus_.――――A country near Troy called
  after Adrastus, who built there a temple to Nemesis. Here Apollo had
  an oracle. _Strabo_, bk. 13.――――A daughter of Jupiter and Necessity.
  She is called by some Nemesis, and is the punisher of injustice.
  The Egyptians placed her above the moon, whence she looked down upon
  the actions of men. _Strabo_, bk. 13.――――A daughter of Melisseus,
  to whom some attribute the nursing of Jupiter. She is the same as
  Adrasta. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 1.

=Adrastii Campi=, a plain near the Granicus, where Alexander first
  defeated Darius. _Justin_, bk. 11, ch. 6.

=Adrastus=, son of Talaus and Lysimache, was king of Argos. Polynices,
  being banished from Thebes by his brother Eteocles, fled to Argos,
  where he married Argia daughter of Adrastus. The king assisted
  his son-in-law, and marched against Thebes with an army headed by
  seven of his most famous generals. All perished in the war except
  Adrastus, who, with a few men saved from slaughter, fled to Athens,
  and implored the aid of Theseus against the Thebans, who opposed
  the burying of the Argives slain in battle. Theseus went to his
  assistance, and was victorious. Adrastus, after a long reign, died
  through grief, occasioned by the death of his son Ægialeus. A temple
  was raised to his memory at Sicyon, where a solemn festival was
  annually celebrated. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 5.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 6, li. 480.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 3, ch. 7.――
  _Statius_, _Thebiad_, bks. 4 & 5.――_Hyginus_, fables 68, 69, & 70.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 39; bk. 8, ch. 25; bk. 10; ch. 90.――
  _Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 67, &c.――――A peripatetic philosopher,
  disciple to Aristotle. It is supposed that a copy of his treatise
  on harmonics is preserved in the Vatican.――――A Phrygian prince, who
  having inadvertently killed his brother, fled to Crœsus, where he
  was humanely received, and entrusted with the care of his son Atys.
  In hunting a wild boar, Adrastus slew the young prince, and in his
  despair, killed himself on his grave. _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 35,
  &c.――――A Lydian, who assisted the Greeks against the Persians.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 5.――――A soothsayer in the Trojan war, son
  of Merops. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bks. 2 & 6.――The father of Eurydice,
  who married Ilus the Trojan. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 12.――――A king
  of Sicyon, who reigned four years, B.C. 1215.――――A son of Hercules.
  _Hyginus_, fable 242.

=Adria=, =Adriānum=, or =Adriatĭcum mare=, a sea lying between
  Illyricum and Italy, now called the gulf of Venice, first made
  known to the Greeks by the discoveries of the Phocæans. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 1.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 33; bk. 3, odes 3 & 9.――_Catullus_,
  poems 4, 6.

=Adrianopŏlis=, a town of Thrace on the Hebrus.――――Another in Ætolia,
  ――――in Pisidia,――――and Bithynia.

=Adriānus=, or =Hadrianus=, the 15th emperor of Rome. He is represented
  as an active, learned, warlike, and austere general. He came to
  Britain, where he built a wall between the modern towns of Carlisle
  and Newcastle, 80 miles long, to protect the Britons from the
  incursions of the Caledonians. He killed in battle 500,000 Jews who
  had rebelled, and built a city on the ruins of Jerusalem, which he
  called Ælia. His memory was so retentive, that he remembered every
  incident of his life, and knew all the soldiers of his army by name.
  He was the first emperor who wore a long beard, and this he did to
  hide the warts on his face. His successors followed his example, not
  through necessity but for ornament. Adrian went always bare-headed,
  and in long marches generally travelled on foot. In the beginning
  of his reign, he followed the virtues of his adopted father and
  predecessor Trajan; he remitted all arrears due to his treasury for
  16 years, and publicly burnt the account-books, that his word might
  not be suspected. His peace with the Parthians proceeded from a wish
  of punishing the other enemies of Rome, more than from the effects
  of fear. The travels of Adrian were not for the display of imperial
  pride, but to see whether justice was distributed impartially:
  and public favour was courted by a condescending behaviour, and
  the meaner familiarity of bathing with the common people. It is
  said that he wished to enrol Christ among the gods of Rome; but
  his apparent lenity towards the Christians was disproved, by the
  erection of a statue to Jupiter on the spot where Jesus rose from
  the dead, and one to Venus on mount Calvary. The weight of diseases
  became intolerable. Adrian attempted to destroy himself; and when
  prevented, he exclaimed, that the lives of others were in his hands,
  but not his own. He wrote an account of his life, and published it
  under the name of one of his domestics. He died of a dysentery at
  Baiæ, July 10, A.D. 138, in the 72nd year of his age, after a reign
  of 21 years. _Dio Cassius._――――An officer of Lucullus. _Plutarch_,
  _Lucullus_.――――A rhetorician of Tyre in the age of Marcus Antoninus,
  who wrote seven books of metamorphoses, besides other treatises now

=Adrimētum=, a town of Africa, on the Mediterranean, built by the
  Phœnicians. _Sallust_, _Jugurthine War_.

=Aduataca=, a town of Belgic Gaul, now Tongres, on the Maese.

=Adŭla=, a mountain among the Rhætian Alps, near which the Rhine takes
  its rise, now St. Gothard.

=Adulis=, a town of Upper Egypt.

=Adyrmachīdæ=, a maritime people of Africa, near Egypt. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 4, ch. 168.

=Æa=, a huntress changed into an island of the same name by the gods,
  to rescue her from the pursuit of her lover, the river Phasis. It
  had a town called Æa, which was the capital of Colchis. _Flaccus_,
  bk. 5, li. 420.――――A town of Thessaly,――――of Africa.――――A fountain
  of Macedonia near Amydon.

=Æacēa=, games at Ægina, in honour of Æacus.

=Æacĭdas=, a king of Epirus, son of Neoptolemus and brother to
  Olympias. He was expelled by his subjects for his continual wars
  with Macedonia. He left a son, Pyrrhus, only two years old, whom
  Chaucus king of Illyricum educated. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 11.

=Æacĭdes=, a patronymic of the descendants of Æacus, such as Achilles,
  Peleus, Telamon, Pyrrhus, &c. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 103, &c.

=Æăcus=, son of Jupiter by Ægina daughter of Asopus, was king of the
  island of Œnopia, which he called by his mother’s name. A pestilence
  having destroyed all his subjects, he entreated Jupiter to repeople
  his kingdom; and according to his desire, all the ants which were in
  an old oak were changed into men, and called by Æacus _myrmidons_,
  from μυρμηξ, _an ant_. Æăcus married Endeis, by whom he had Telamon
  and Peleus. He afterwards had Phocus by Psamathe, one of the Nereids.
  He was a man of such integrity that the ancients have made him
  one of the judges of hell, with Minos and Rhadamanthus. _Horace_,
  bk. 2, ode 13; bk. 4, ode 8.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 44; bk. 2,
  ch. 29.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 7, fable 25; bk. 13, li. 25.
  ――_Propertius_, bk. 4, poem 12.――_Plutarch_, _de Consolatio ad
  Apollonium_.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 12.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.

=Ææ=, =Æa=, or =Ææa=, an island of Colchis, in the Phasis. _See:_ Æa.
  _Apollonius_, bk. 3.

=Ææa=, a name given to Circe, because born at Ææ. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 3, li. 386.

=Æantēum=, a city of Troas, where Ajax was buried. _Pliny_, bk. 5,
  ch. 30.――――An island near the Thracian Chersonesus. _Pliny_, bk. 4,
  ch. 12.

=Æantĭdes=, a tyrant of Lampsacus, intimate with Darius. He married
  a daughter of Hippias tyrant of Athens. _Thucydides_, bk. 6, ch. 59.
  ――――One of the seven poets called Pleiades.

=Æantis=, an Athenian tribe. _Plutarch_, _Convivium Septem Sapientium_,
  ch. 2.

=Æas=, a river of Epirus falling into the Ionian sea. In the
  fable of Io, Ovid describes it as falling into the Peneus, and
  meeting other rivers at Tempe. This some have supposed to be a
  geographical mistake of the poet. _Lucan_, bk. 6, li. 361.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1, li. 580.

=Æātus=, son of Philip, and brother of Polyclea, was descended from
  Hercules. An oracle having said that whoever of the two touched
  the land after crossing the Achelous, should obtain the kingdom,
  Polyclea pretended to be lame, and prevailed upon her brother to
  carry her across on his shoulders. When they came near the opposite
  side, Polyclea leaped ashore from her brother’s back, exclaiming
  that the kingdom was her own. Æatus joined her in her exclamation,
  and afterwards married her, and reigned conjointly with her. Their
  son Thessalus gave his name to Thessaly. _Polyænus_, bk. 8.

=Æchmacŏras=, a son of Hercules by Phyllone daughter of Alcimedon.
  When the father heard that his daughter had had a child, he exposed
  her and the infant in the woods to wild beasts, where Hercules,
  conducted by the noise of a magpie which imitated the cries of a
  child, found and delivered them. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 12.

=Æchmis=, succeeded his father Polymnestor on the throne of Arcadia,
  in the reign of Theopompus of Sparta. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 5.

=Ædepsum=, a town of Eubœa. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 12.――_Strabo_, bk. 10.

=Ædessa=, or =Edessa=, a town near Pella. Caranus king of Macedonia
  took it by following goats that sought shelter from the rain, and
  called it from that circumstance (αἰγας, _capras_) Ægeas. It was the
  burying place of the Macedonian kings; and an oracle had said, that
  as long as the kings were buried there, so long would their kingdom
  subsist. Alexander was buried in a different place; and on that
  account some authors have said that the kingdom became extinct.
  _Justin_, bk. 7, ch. 1.

=Ædicŭla Ridiculi=, a temple raised to the god of mirth, from the
  following circumstance: after the battle of Cannæ, Hannibal marched
  to Rome, whence he was driven back by the inclemency of the weather;
  which caused so much joy in Rome, that the Romans raised a temple to
  the god of mirth. This deity was worshipped at Sparta. _Plutarch_,
  _Lycurgus_, _Agis_, & _Cleomenes_. Pausanias also mentions a θεος

=Ædīles=, Roman magistrates, that had the care of all buildings, baths,
  and aqueducts, and examined the weights and measures, that nothing
  might be sold without its due value. There were three different
  sorts: the Ædiles _Plebeii_, or _Minores_; the _Majores_ Ædiles, and
  the Ædiles _Cereales_. The plebeian ediles were two, first created
  with the tribunes; they presided over the more minute affairs of the
  state, good order, and the reparation of the streets. They procured
  all the provisions of the city, and executed the decrees of the
  people. The Majores and Cereales had greater privileges, though they
  at first shared in the labour of the plebeian ediles; they appeared
  with more pomp, and were allowed to sit publicly in ivory chairs.
  The office of an edile was honourable, and was always the primary
  step to greater dignities in the republic. The ediles were chosen
  from the plebeians for 127 years, till A.U.C. 338. _Varro_, _De
  Lingua Latina_, bk. 4, ch. 14.――_Cicero_, _De Legibus_, bk. 3.

=Ædipsus=, a town in Eubœa, now Dipso, abounding in hot baths.

=Valerius Ædituus=, a Roman poet before the age of Cicero, successful
  in amorous poetry and epigrams.

=Ædon=, daughter of Pandarus, married Zethus brother to Amphion,
  by whom she had a son called Itylus. She was so jealous of her
  sister Niobe, because she had more children than herself, that she
  resolved to murder the elder, who was educated with Itylus. She by
  mistake killed her own son, and was changed into a goldfinch as she
  attempted to kill herself. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 19, li. 518.

=Ædui=, or =Hedui=, a powerful nation of Celtic Gaul, known for their
  valour in the wars of Cæsar. When their country was invaded by this
  celebrated general, they were at the head of a faction in opposition
  to the Sequani and their partisans, and they had established their
  superiority in frequent battles. To support their cause, however,
  the Sequani obtained the assistance of Ariovistus king of Germany,
  and soon defeated their opponents. The arrival of Cæsar changed the
  face of affairs; the Ædui were restored to the sovereignty of the
  country, and the artful Roman, by employing one faction against the
  other, was enabled to conquer them all, though the insurrection of
  Ambiorix, and that more powerfully supported by Vercingetorix, shook
  for a while the dominion of Rome in Gaul, and checked the career of
  the conqueror. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_.

=Æēta=, or =Æētes=, king of Colchis, son of Sol and Perseis daughter
  of Oceanus, was father of Medea, Absyrtus, and Chalciope, by Idya,
  one of the Oceanides. He killed Phryxus son of Athamas, who had fled
  to his court on a golden ram. This murder he committed to obtain
  the fleece of the golden ram. The Argonauts came against Colchis,
  and recovered the golden fleece by means of Medea, though it was
  guarded by bulls that breathed fire, and by a venomous dragon. Their
  expedition has been celebrated by all the ancient poets. _See:_
  Jason, Medea, and Phryxus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 7, fable 1, &c.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 3.
  ――_Justin_, bk. 42, ch. 2.――_Flaccus_ & _Orpheus_, _Argonautica_.

=Æetias=, a patronymic given to Medea, as daughter of Æetes. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 7, li. 9.

=Æga=, an island of the Ægean sea, between Tenedos and Chios.

=Ægēas=, a town whose inhabitants are called Ægeates. _See:_ Ædessa.

=Ægæ=, a city of Macedonia, the same as Ædessa. Some writers make
  them different, but Justin proves this to be erroneous, bk. 7,
  ch. 1.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 10.――――A town of Eubœa, whence Neptune
  is called Ægæus. _Strabo_, bk. 9.

=Ægææ=, a town and seaport of Cilicia. _Lucan_, bk. 3, li. 227.

=Ægæon=, one of Lycaon’s 50 sons. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 8.――――The
  son of Cœlus, or of Pontus and Terra, the same as Briareus. _See:_
  Briareus. It is supposed that he was a notorious pirate, chiefly
  residing at Æga, whence his name; and that the fable about his
  100 hands arises from his having 100 men to manage his oars in his
  piratical excursions. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 565.――_Hesiod_,
  _Theogony_, li. 149.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 10, li. 404.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, li. 10.

=Ægæum mare=, now Archipelago, part of the Mediterranean, dividing
  Greece from Asia Minor. It is full of islands, some of which are
  called Cyclades, others Sporades, &c. The word Ægæum is derived by
  some from Ægæ, a town of Eubœa; or from the number of islands which
  it contains, that appear above the sea, as αἰγες, goats; or from the
  promontory Æga, or from Ægea, a queen of the Amazons; or from Ægeus,
  who is supposed to have drowned himself there. _Pliny_, bk. 4,
  ch. 11.――_Strabo_, bk. 7.

=Ægæus=, a surname of Neptune, from Ægæ in Eubœa. _Strabo_, bk. 9.
  ――――A river of Corcyra.――――A plain in Phocis.

=Ægaleos=, or =Ægaleum=, a mountain of Attica opposite Salamis, on
  which Xerxes sat during the engagement of his fleet with the Grecian
  ships in the adjacent sea. _Herodotus_, bk. 8, ch. 90.――_Thucydides_,
  bk. 2, ch. 19.

=Ægan= [_Greek_ αἰγαν or αἰγαων], the Ægean sea. _Statius_, _Thebiad_,
  bk. 5, li. 56.

=Ægas=, a place of Eubœa.――――Another near Daunia in Italy. _Polybius_,
  bk. 3.

=Ægātes=, a promontory of Æolia.――――Three islands opposite Carthage,
  called Aræ by _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, near which the Romans
  under Catulus, in the first Punic war, defeated the Carthaginian
  fleet under Hanno, 242 B.C. _Livy_, bk. 21, chs. 10 & 41; bk. 22,
  ch. 54.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 7.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 1, li. 61.

=Ægēleon=, a town of Macedonia taken by king Attalus. _Livy_, bk. 31,
  ch. 46.

=Ægēria.= _See:_ Egeria.

=Ægesta=, the daughter of Hippotes, and mother of Ægestus, called
  Acestes. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 554.――――An ancient town of
  Sicily near mount Eryx, destroyed by Agathocles. It was sometimes
  called Segesta and Acesta. _Diodorus_, bk. 10.

=Ægeus=, king of Athens, son of Pandion, being desirous of having
  children, went to consult the oracle, and in his return, stopped
  at the court of Pittheus king of Trœzene, who gave him his daughter
  Æthra in marriage. He left her pregnant, and told her, that if she
  had a son, to send him to Athens as soon as he could lift a stone
  under which he had concealed his sword. By this sword he was to be
  known to Ægeus, who did not wish to make any public discovery of
  a son, for fear of his nephews, the Pallantides, who expected his
  crown. Æthra became mother of Theseus, whom she accordingly sent to
  Athens with his father’s sword. At the time, Ægeus lived with Medea
  the divorced wife of Jason. When Theseus came to Athens, Medea
  attempted to poison him; but he escaped, and upon showing Ægeus
  the sword he wore, discovered himself to be his son. When Theseus
  returned from Crete after the death of the Minotaur, he forgot,
  agreeably to the engagement made with his father, to hoist up
  white sails as a signal of his success: and Ægeus, at the sight of
  black sails, concluding that his son was dead, threw himself from a
  high rock into the sea; which, from him, as some suppose, has been
  called the Ægean. Ægeus reigned 48 years, and died B.C. 1235. He is
  supposed to have first introduced into Greece the worship of Venus
  Urania, to render the goddess propitious to his wishes in having a
  son. _See:_ Theseus, Minotaurus, and Medea. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1,
  chs. 8, 9; bk. 3, ch. 15.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, chs. 5, 22, 38; bk. 4,
  ch. 2.――_Plutarch_, _Theseus_.――_Hyginus_, fables 37, 43, 79, & 173.

=Ægiăle=, one of Phaeton’s sisters changed into poplars, and their
  tears into amber. They are called Heliades.――――A daughter of
  Adrastus, by Amphitea daughter of Pronax. She married Diomedes, in
  whose absence, during the Trojan war, she prostituted herself to
  her servants, and chiefly to Cometes, whom the king had left master
  of his house. At his return, Diomedes, being told of his wife’s
  wantonness, went to settle in Daunia. Some say that Venus implanted
  those vicious and lustful propensities in Ægiale, to revenge herself
  on Diomedes, who had wounded her in the Trojan war. _Ovid_, _Ibis_,
  li. 350.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 5, li. 412.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 9.――_Statius_, bk. 3, _Sylvæ_, poem 5, li. 48.

=Ægiălea=, an island near Peloponnesus, in the Cretan sea.――――Another
  in the Ionian sea, near the Echinades. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 12.――
  _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 107.――――The ancient name of Peloponnesus.
  _Strabo_, bk. 12.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 7.

=Ægialeus=, son of Adrastus by Amphitea or Demoanassa, was one of the
  Epigoni, _i.e._ one of the sons of those generals who were killed in
  the first Theban war. They went against the Thebans, who had refused
  to give burial to their fathers, and were victorious. They all
  returned home safe, except Ægialeus, who was killed. That expedition
  is called the war of the Epigoni. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, chs. 43, 44;
  bk. 2, ch. 20; bk. 9, ch. 5.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 3,
  ch. 7.――――The same as Absyrtus brother to Medea. _Justin_, bk. 42,
  ch. 3.――_Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 3.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.

=Ægiălus=, son of Phoroneus, was entrusted with the kingdom of Achaia
  by king Apis going to Egypt. Peloponnesus was called Ægialea from
  him.――――A man who founded the kingdom of Sicyon, 2091 before the
  christian era, and reigned 52 years.

=Ægialus=, a name given to part of Peloponnesus. _See:_ Achaia.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 1; bk. 7, ch. 1.――――An inconsiderable town
  of Pontus.――――A city of Asia Minor.――――A city of Thrace near the
  river Strymon.――――A mountain of Galatia.――――Another in Æthiopia.

=Ægīdes=, a patronymic of Theseus. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 1, li. 265.

=Ægĭla=, a place in Laconia, where Aristomenes was taken prisoner by
  a crowd of religious women whom he had attacked. _Pausanias_, bk. 4,
  ch. 17.

=Ægilia=, an island between Crete and Peloponnesus.――――A place in
  Eubœa. _Herodotus_, bk. 6, ch. 101.

=Ægimius=, an old man who lived, according to Anacreon, 200 years.
  _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 48.――――A king of Doris, whom Hercules assisted
  to conquer the Lapithæ. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 7.

=Ægimōrus=, or =Ægimūrus=, an island near Libya, supposed by some to
  be the same which Virgil mentions under the name of Aræ. _Pliny_,
  bk. 5, ch. 7.

=Ægīna=, daughter of Asopus, had Æacus by Jupiter changed into a flame
  of fire. She afterwards married Actor son of Myrmidon, by whom she
  had some children, who conspired against their father. Some say that
  she was changed by Jupiter into the island which bears her name.
  _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 12.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 7.――
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 3, ch. 12.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2,
  chs. 5 & 29.――――An island formerly called Œnopia, and now Engia, in
  a part of the Ægean sea, called Saronicus Sinus, about 22 miles in
  circumference. The inhabitants were once destroyed by a pestilence,
  and the country was repeopled by ants changed into men by Jupiter,
  at the prayer of king Æacus. They were once a very powerful nation
  by sea, but they cowardly gave themselves up to Darius when he
  demanded submission from all the Greeks. The Athenians under
  Pericles made war against them; and after taking 70 of their ships
  in a naval battle, they expelled them from Ægina. The fugitives
  settled in Peloponnesus, and after the ruin of Athens by Lysander,
  they returned to their country, but never after rose to their former
  power or consequence. _Herodotus_, bks. 5, 6, & 7.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 29; bk. 8, ch. 44.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Ælian_, _Varia
  Historia_, bk. 12, ch. 10.

=Æginēta Paulus=, a physician born in Ægina. He flourished in the 3rd,
  or, according to others, the 7th century, and first deserved to be
  called man-midwife. He wrote _De Re Medicâ_, in seven books.

=Ægīnētes=, a king of Arcadia, in whose age Lycurgus instituted his
  famous laws. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 5.

=Ægiŏchus=, a surname of Jupiter, from his being brought up by the
  goat Amalthæa, and using her skin instead of a shield, in the war of
  the Titans. _Diodorus_, bk. 5.

=Ægĭpan=, a name of Pan, because he had goat’s feet.

=Ægīra=, a town between Ætolia and Peloponnesus.――――A town of Achaia.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 26.――_Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 145.

=Ægiroessa=, a town of Ætolia. _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 149.

=Ægis=, the shield of Jupiter, ἀπο της αἰγος, _a goat’s skin_. This
  was the goat Amalthæa, with whose skin he covered his shield. The
  goat was placed among the constellations. Jupiter gave this shield
  to Pallas, who placed upon it Medusa’s head, which turned into
  stones all those who fixed their eyes upon it. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 8, lis. 352 & 435.

=Ægisthus=, king of Argos, was son of Thyestes by his daughter Pelopea.
  Thyestes being at variance with his brother Atreus, was told by
  the oracle that his wrongs could be revenged only by a son born of
  himself and his daughter. To avoid such an incest, Pelopea had been
  consecrated to the service of Minerva by her father, who some time
  after met her in a wood, and ravished her, without knowing who she
  was. Pelopea kept the sword of her ravisher, and finding it to be
  her father’s, exposed the child she had brought forth. The child
  was preserved, and when grown up presented with the sword of his
  mother’s ravisher. Pelopea soon after this melancholy adventure had
  married her uncle Atreus, who received into his house her natural
  son. As Thyestes had debauched the first wife of Atreus, Atreus sent
  Ægisthus to put him to death; but Thyestes, knowing the assassin’s
  sword, discovered that he was his own son, and fully to revenge his
  wrongs, sent him back to murder Atreus. After this murder Thyestes
  ascended the throne, and banished Agamemnon and Menelaus, the
  sons, or as others say, the grandsons of Atreus. These children
  fled to Polyphidus of Sicyon; but as he dreaded the power of
  their persecutors, he permitted the protection of them to Œneus
  king of Ætolia. By their marriage with the daughters of Tyndarus
  king of Sparta, they were empowered to recover the kingdom of
  Argos, to which Agamemnon succeeded, while Menelaus reigned in his
  father-in-law’s place. Ægisthus had been reconciled to the sons of
  Atreus; and when they went to the Trojan war, he was left guardian
  of Agamemnon’s kingdom, and of his wife Clytemnestra. Ægisthus
  fell in love with Clytemnestra, and lived with her. On Agamemnon’s
  return, these two adulterers murdered him, and, by a public marriage,
  strengthened themselves on the throne of Argos. Orestes, Agamemnon’s
  son, would have shared his father’s fate, had not his sister Electra
  privately sent him to his uncle Strophius king of Phocis, where he
  contracted the most intimate friendship with his cousin Pylades.
  Some time after, Orestes came to Mycenæ the residence of Ægisthus,
  and resolved to punish the murderers of his father, in conjunction
  with Electra, who lived in disguise in the tyrant’s family. To
  effect this more effectually, Electra publicly declared that her
  brother Orestes was dead; upon which Ægisthus and Clytemnestra went
  to the temple of Apollo to return thanks to the god for his death.
  Orestes, who had secretly concealed himself in the temple, attacked
  them, and put them both to death, after a reign of seven years.
  They were buried without the city walls. _See:_ Agamemnon, Thyestes,
  Orestes, Clytemnestra, Pylades, and Electra. _Ovid_, _de Remedia
  Amoris_, li. 161; _Tristia_, bk. 2, li. 396.――_Hyginus_, fables 87
  & 88.――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 12, ch. 42.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 16, &c.――_Sophocles_, _Electra_.――_Aeschylus_ & _Seneca_,
  _Agamemnon_.――_Homer_, _Odyssey_, bks. 3 & 11.――_Lactantius
  [Placidus]_ on [Statius’] _Thebaid_, bk. 1, li. 684.――――Pompey used
  to call Julius Cæsar, Ægisthus, on account of his adultery with
  his wife Mutia, whom he repudiated after she had borne him three
  children. _Suetonius_, _Julius Cæsar_, ch. 50.

=Ægĭtum=, a town of Æolia, on a mountain eight miles from the sea.
  _Thucydides_. Bk. 3, ch. 97.

=Ægium=, a town on the Corinthian isthmus, where Jupiter was said to
  have been fed by a goat, whence the name. _Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Livy_,
  bk. 28, ch. 7.

=Ægle=, the youngest daughter of Æsculapius and Lampetie.――――A
  nymph, daughter of Sol and Neæra. _Virgil_, _Eclogues_, poem 6, li.
  20.――――A nymph, daughter of Panopeus, beloved by Theseus after he
  had left Ariadne. _Plutarch_, _Theseus_.――――One of the Hesperides.
  ――――One of the Graces.――――A prostitute. _Martial_, bk. 1, ltr. 95.

=Ægles=, a Samian wrestler, born dumb. Seeing some unlawful measures
  pursued in a contest, he broke the string which held his tongue,
  through the desire of speaking, and ever after spoke with ease.
  _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 1, ch. 8.

=Æglētes=, a surname of Apollo.

=Æglŏge=, a nurse of Nero. _Suetonius_, _Nero_, ch. 50.

=Ægobolus=, a surname of Bacchus at Potnia, in Bœotia.

=Ægocĕros=, or =Capricornus=, an animal into which Pan transformed
  himself when flying before Typhon in the war with the giants.
  Jupiter made him a constellation. _Lucretius_, bk. 1, li. 613.

=Ægon=, a shepherd. _Virgil_, _Eclogues_.――_Theocritus_, _Idylls_.
  ――――A promontory of Lemnos.――――A name of the Ægean sea. _Flaccus_,
  bk. 1, li. 628.――――A boxer of Zacynthus, who dragged a large bull
  by the heel from a mountain into the city. _Theocritus_, _Idylls_,
  poem 4.

=Ægospotămos=, i.e. _the goat’s river_, a town in the Thracian
  Chersonesus, with a river of the same name, where the Athenian fleet,
  consisting of 180 ships, was defeated by Lysander, on the 13th Dec.,
  B.C. 405, in the last year of the Peloponnesian war. _Mela_, bk. 2,
  ch. 2.――_Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 58.――_Pausanias_, bk. 3, chs. 8 & 11.

=Ægosāgæ=, an Asiatic nation under Attalus, with whom he conquered
  Asia, and to whom he gave a settlement near the Hellespont.
  _Polybius_, bk. 5.

=Ægus= and =Roscillus=, two brothers amongst the Allobroges, who
  deserted from Cæsar to Pompey. _Cæsar_, _Civil War_, bk. 3, ch. 59.

=Ægūsa=, the middle island of the Ægates, near Sicily.

=Ægy=, a town near Sparta, destroyed because its inhabitants were
  suspected by the Spartans of favouring the Arcadians. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 3, ch. 2.

=Ægypānes=, a nation in the middle of Africa, whose body is human
  above the waist, and that of a goat below. _Mela_, bk. 1, chs. 4 & 8.

=Ægypsus=, a town of the Getæ, near the Danube. _Ovid_, _ex Ponto_,
  bk. 1, ltr. 8; bk. 4, ltr. 7.

=Ægypta=, a freedman of Cicero. _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 8.

=Ægyptii=, the inhabitants of Egypt. _See:_ Ægyptus.

=Ægyptium mare=, that part of the Mediterranean sea which is on the
  coast of Egypt.

=Ægyptus=, son of Belus, and brother to Danaus, gave his 50 sons
  in marriage to the 50 daughters of his brother. Danaus, who had
  established himself at Argos, and was jealous of his brother, who,
  by following him from Egypt into Greece, seemed envious of his
  prosperity, obliged all his daughters to murder their husbands the
  first night of their nuptials. This was executed; but Hypermnestra
  alone spared her husband Lynceus. Even Ægyptus was killed by his
  niece Polyxena. _See:_ Danaus, Danaides, Lynceus. Ægyptus was
  king, after his father, of a part of Africa, which from him has
  been called Ægyptus. _Hyginus_, fables 168, 170.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 2, ch. 1.――_Ovid_, _Heroides_, poem 14.――_Pausanias_, bk. 7,
  ch. 21.――――An extensive country of Africa, watered by the Nile,
  bounded on the east by Arabia, and on the west by Libya. Its name
  is derived from Ægyptus brother to Danaus. Its extent, according
  to modern calculation, is 180 leagues from north to south, and
  it measures 120 leagues on the shore of the Mediterranean; but
  at the distance of 50 leagues from the sea, it diminishes so much
  as scarce to measure seven or eight leagues between the mountains
  on the east and west. It is divided into lower, which lies near
  the Mediterranean, and upper, which is towards the south. Upper
  Egypt was famous for the town of Thebes, but Lower Egypt was the
  most peopled, and contained the Delta, a number of large islands,
  which, from their form, have been called after the fourth letter
  of the Greek alphabet. This country has been the mother of arts
  and sciences. The greatest part of Lower Egypt has been formed by
  the mud and sand carried down by the Nile. The Egyptians reckoned
  themselves the most ancient nation in the universe [_See:_
  Psammetichus], but some authors make them of Æthiopian origin. They
  were remarkable for their superstition; they paid as much honour to
  the cat, the crocodile, the bull, and even to onions, as to Isis.
  Rain never or seldom falls in this country; the fertility of the
  soil originates in the yearly inundations of the Nile, which rises
  about 25 feet above the surface of the earth, and exhibits a large
  plain of waters, in which are scattered here and there the towns and
  villages, as the Cyclades in the Ægean sea. The air is not wholesome,
  but the population is great, and the cattle very prolific. It is
  said that Egypt once contained 20,000 cities, the most remarkable of
  which were Thebes, Memphis, Alexandria, Pelusium, Coptos, Arsinoe,
  &c. It was governed by kings who have immortalized themselves by
  the pyramids they have raised and the canals they have opened. The
  priests traced the existence of the country for many thousand years,
  and fondly imagined that the gods were their first sovereigns, and
  that their monarchy had lasted 11,340 years according to Herodotus.
  According to the calculation of Constantine Manasses, the kingdom of
  Egypt lasted 1663 years from its beginning under Misraim the son of
  Ham, 2188 B.C., to the conquest of Cambyses, 525 B.C. Egypt revolted
  afterwards from the Persian power, B.C. 414, and Amyrtæus then
  became king. After him succeeded Psammetichus, whose reign began
  408 B.C.: Nephereus, 396: Acoris, 389: Psammuthis, 376: Nepherites,
  4 months, and Nectanebis, 375: Tachos, or Teos, 363: Nectanebus,
  361. It was conquered by Ochus, 350 B. C.; and after the conquest
  of Persia by Alexander, Ptolemy refounded the kingdom, and began to
  reign 323 B.C.: Philadelphus, 284: Evergetes, 246: Philopater, 221:
  Epiphanes, 204: Philomater, 180 and 169, conjointly with Evergetes
  II. or Physcon, for six years: Evergetes II. 145: Lathurus Soter,
  and his mother Cleopatra, 116: Alexander of Cyprus, and Cleopatra,
  106: Lathurus Soter restored, 88: Cleopatra II. six months, with
  Alexander II. 19 days, 81: Ptolemy, surnamed Alexander III. 80:
  Dionysius, surnamed Auletes, 65: Dionysius II. with Cleopatra III.
  51: Cleopatra III. with young Ptolemy, 46, and in 30 B.C. it was
  reduced by Augustus into a Roman province. The history of Egypt,
  therefore, can be divided into three epochas: the first beginning
  with the foundation of the empire, to the conquest of Cambyses; the
  second ends at the death of Alexander; and the third comprehends
  the reign of the Ptolemies, and ends at the death of Cleopatra,
  in the age of Augustus.――_Justin_, bk. 1.――_Hirtius_, _Alexandrine
  War_, ch. 24.――_Macrobius_, _Somnium Scipionis_, bk. 1, chs. 19 &
  21.――_Herodian_, bk. 4, ch. 9.――_Strabo_, bk. 17.――_Herodotus_, bks.
  2, 3, & 7.――_Theocritus_, _Idylls_, poem 17, li. 79.――_Polybius_,
  bk. 15.――_Diodorus_, bk. 1.――_Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 1; bk. 14, ch. 7.――
  _Marcellinus_, bk. 22, ch. 40.――_Justin_, bk. 1.――_Cornelius Nepos_,
  _Pausanias_, bk. 3; _Iphicrates_; _Datames_, ch. 3.――_Curtius_,
  bk. 4, ch. 1.――_Juvenal_, satire 15, li. 175.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1,
  ch. 14.――_Plutarch_, _de Facie in Orbe Lunæ_; _de Iside et Osiride_;
  _Ptolemy_, _Alexander_.――_Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2,
  chs. 1 & 5.――――A minister of Mausolus king of Caria. _Polyænus_,
  bk. 6.――――The ancient name of the Nile. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, ♦bk. 14,
  li. 258.――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 40.

      ♦ ‘ξ’ replaced with ‘bk. 14’

=Ægys.= _See:_ Ægy.

=Ægysthus.= _See:_ Ægisthus.

=Ælia=, the wife of Sylla. _Plutarch_, _Sulla_.――――The name of some
  towns built or repaired by the emperor Adrian.

=Ælia lex=, enacted by Ælius Tubero the tribune, A.U.C. 559, to
  send two colonies into the country of the Brutii. _Livy_, bk. 34,
  ch. 53.――――Another A.U.C. 568, ordaining that, in public affairs,
  the augurs should observe the appearance of the sky, and the
  magistrates be empowered to postpone the business.――――Another called
  Ælia Sexta, by _Ælius Sextus_, A.U.C. 756, which enacted, that all
  slaves who bore any marks of punishment received from their masters,
  or who had been imprisoned, should be set at liberty, but not rank
  as Roman citizens.

=Ælia Petina=, of the family of Tubero, married Claudius Cæsar, by
  whom she had a son. The emperor divorced her to marry Messalina.
  _Suetonius_, _Claudius_, ch. 26.

=Æliānus Claudus=, a Roman sophist of Præneste, in the reign of Adrian.
  He first taught rhetoric at Rome; but being disgusted with his
  profession, he became author, and published treatises on animals in
  17 books, on various history in 14 books, &c., in Greek, a language
  which he preferred to Latin. In his writings he shows himself very
  fond of the marvellous, and relates many stories which are often
  devoid of elegance and purity of style; though Philostratus has
  commended his language as superior to what could be expected from
  a person who was neither born nor educated in Greece. Ælian died in
  the 60th year of his age, A.D. 140. The best editions of his works
  collected together are that of Conrad Gesner, folio, printed Tigurii,
  1556, though now seldom to be met with, and that of Kuenius, 2 vols.,
  8vo, Lipscomb, 1780. Some attribute the treatise on the tactics of
  the Greeks to another Ælian.

=Ælius= and =Ælia=, a family in Rome, so poor that 16 lived in a small
  house, and were maintained by the produce of a little field. Their
  poverty continued till Paulus conquered Perseus king of Macedonia,
  and gave his son-in-law Æl. Tubero five pounds of gold from the
  booty. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 4, ch. 4.

=Ælius Adriānus=, an African, grandfather to the emperor
  Adrian.――――Gallus, a Roman knight, the first who invaded Arabia
  Felix. He was very intimate with Strabo the geographer, and sailed
  on the Nile with him to take a view of the country. _Pliny_, bk. 6,
  ch. 28.――――Publius, one of the first questors chosen from the
  plebeians at Rome. _Livy_, bk. 4, ch. 54.――――Quintus Ælius Pætus,
  son of Sextus or Publius. As he sat in the senate house, a
  woodpecker perched on his head; upon which a soothsayer exclaimed,
  that if he preserved the bird, his house would flourish, and Rome
  decay; and if he killed it, the contrary must happen. Hearing this,
  Ælius, in the presence of the senate, bit off the head of the bird.
  All the youths of his family were killed at Cannæ, and the Roman
  arms were soon attended with success. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 5,
  ch. 6.――――Saturninus, a satirist, thrown down from the Tarpeian rock
  for writing verses against Tiberius.――――Sejānus. _See:_ Sejanus.
  ――――Sextus Catus, censor with Marcus Cethegus. He separated the
  senators from the people in the public spectacles. During his
  consulship, the ambassadors of the Ætolians found him feasting in
  earthen dishes, and offered him silver vessels, which he refused,
  satisfied with the earthen cups, &c., which, for his virtues, he had
  received from his father-in-law, Lucius Paulus, after the conquest
  of Macedonia. _Pliny_, bk. 33, ch. 11.――_Cicero_, _On Oratory_,
  bk. 1.――――Spartiānus, wrote the lives of the emperors Adrian,
  Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. He flourished A.D. 240.
  ――――Tubero, grandson of Lucius Paulus, was austere in his morals,
  and a formidable enemy to the Gracchi. His grandson was accused
  before Cæsar, and ably defended by Cicero. _Cicero_, _Letters to
  Brutus_.――――Verus Cæsar, the name of Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus,
  after Adrian had adopted him. He was made pretor and consul by the
  emperor, who was soon convinced of his incapacity in the discharge
  of public duty. He killed himself by drinking an antidote; and
  Antoninus, surnamed Pius, was adopted in his place. Ælius was father
  to Antoninus Verus, whom Pius adopted.――――A physician mentioned by
  Galen.――――Lucius Gallus, a lawyer, who wrote 12 books concerning the
  signification of all law words.――――Sextus Pætus, a lawyer, consul at
  Rome, A.U.C. 566. He is greatly commended by Cicero for his learning,
  and called _cordatus homo_ by Ennius for his knowledge of law.
  _Cicero_, _On Oratory_, bk. 1, ch. 48; _Brutus_, ch. 20.――――Stilo,
  a native of Lanuvium, master to Marcus Terentius Varro, and author
  of some treatises.――――Lamia. Lamia.

=Aello=, one of the Harpies (from ἑλουσα ἀλλο, _alienum tollens_,
  or ἀελλα, _tempestas_). _Flaccus_, bk. 4, li. 450.――_Hesiod_,
  _Theogony_, li. 267.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, li. 710.
  ――――_See:_ One of Actæon’s dogs. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 3,
  li. 220.

=Ælurus= (_a cat_), a deity worshipped by the Egyptians; and after
  death embalmed and buried in the city of Bubastis. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 2, ch. 66, &c.――_Diodorus_, bk. 1.――_Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_,
  bk. 1.――_Aulus Gellius_, bk. 20, ch. 7.――_Plutarch_, _Pyrrhus_.

=Æmathion= and =Æmathia=. _See:_ Emathion.

=Æmilia lex=, was enacted by the dictator Æmilius, A.U.C. 309. It
  ordained that the censorship, which was before quinquennial, should
  be limited to one year and a half. _Livy_, bk. 9, ch. 33.――――Another
  in the second consulship of Æmilius Mamercus, A.U.C. 391. It gave
  power to the eldest pretor to drive a nail in the capitol on the
  ides of September. _Livy_, bk. 7, ch. 3.――The driving of a nail
  was a superstitious ceremony, by which the Romans supposed that a
  pestilence could be stopped, or an impending calamity averted.

=Æmiliānus C. Julius=, a native of Mauritania, proclaimed emperor
  after the death of Decius. He marched against Gallus and Valerian,
  but was informed that they had been murdered by their own troops.
  He soon after shared their fate.――――One of the thirty tyrants who
  rebelled in the reign of Gallienus.

=Æmilius.= _See:_ Æmylius.

=Æmnestus=, tyrant of Enna, was deposed by Dionysius the elder.
  _Diodorus_, bk. 14.

=Æmon.= _See:_ Hæmon.

=Æmŏna=, a large city of Asia. _Cicero_, _for Flaccus_.

=Æmŏnia=, a country of Greece which received its name from Æmon,
  or Æmus, and was afterwards called Thessaly. Achilles is called
  _Æmonius_, as being born there. _Ovid_, _Tristia_, bk. 3, poem 11;
  bk. 4, poem 1.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 37. It was also called Pyrrha,
  from Pyrrha, Deucalion’s wife, who reigned there.――――The word has
  been indiscriminately applied to all Greece by some writers. _Pliny_,
  bk. 4, ch. 7.

=Æmŏnĭdes=, a priest of Apollo in Italy, killed by Æneas. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 537.

=Æmus=, an actor in Domitian’s reign. _Juvenal_, satire 6, li. 197.

=Æmylia=, a noble family in Rome, descended from Mamercus son of
  Pythagoras, who, for his humanity, was called Αἱμυλος, _blandus_.
  ――――A vestal who rekindled the fire of Vesta, which was extinguished,
  by putting her veil over it. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 1, ch. 1.
  ――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 2.――――The wife of Africanus the
  elder, famous for her behaviour to her husband, when suspected of
  infidelity. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 6, ch. 7.――――Lepĭda, daughter
  of Lepidus, married Drusus the younger, whom she disgraced by her
  wantonness. She killed herself when accused of adultery with a slave.
  _Tacitus_, bk. 6, ch. 40.――――A part of Italy, called also Flaminia.
  _Martial_, bk. 6, ltr. 85.――――A public road leading from Placentia
  to Ariminum; called after the consul Æmylius, who is supposed to
  have made it. _Martial_, bk. 3, ltr. 4.

=Æmyliānus=, a name of Africanus the younger, son of Publius Æmylius.
  In him the families of the Scipios and Æmylii were united. Many of
  that family bore the same name. _Juvenal_, satire 8, li. 2.

=Æmylii=, a noble family in Rome, descended from Æmylius the son of
  Ascanius. _Plutarch_ says, that they are descended from Mamercus the
  son of Pythagoras, surnamed Æmylius from the sweetness of his voice,
  in _Numa_ & _Aemilius Paulus_.――The family was distinguished in the
  various branches of the Lepidi, Mamerci, Mamercini, Barbulæ, Pauli,
  and Scauri.

=Æmylius=, a beautiful youth of Sybaris, whose wife met with the
  same fate as Procris. _See:_ Procris.――――Censorinus, a cruel tyrant
  of Sicily, who liberally rewarded those who invented new ways of
  torturing. Paterculus gave him a brazen horse for this purpose, and
  the tyrant made the first experiment upon the donor. _Plutarch_,
  _de Fortuna Romanorum_.――――Lepidus, a youth who had a statue in the
  capitol, for saving the life of a citizen in a battle. _Valerius
  Maximus_, bk. 4, ch. 1.――――A triumvir with Octavius. _See:_ Lepidus.
  ――――Macer, a poet of Verona in the Augustan age. He wrote some poems
  upon serpents, birds, and, as some suppose, on bees. _See:_ Macer.
  ――――Marcus Scaurus, a Roman who flourished about 100 B.C., and
  wrote three books concerning his own life. _Cicero_, _Brutus_.――――A
  poet in the age of Tiberius, who wrote a tragedy called Atheus, and
  destroyed himself.――――Sura, another writer on the Roman year.――――
  Mamercus, three times dictator, conquered the Fidenates, and took
  their city. He limited to one year and a half the censorship which
  before his time was exercised during five years. _Livy_, bk. 4,
  chs. 17, 19, &c.――――Papiniānus, son of Hostilius Papiniānus, was in
  favour with the emperor Severus, and was made governor to his sons
  Geta and Caracalla. Geta was killed by his brother, and Papiniānus,
  for upbraiding him, was murdered by his soldiers. From his school
  the Romans have had many able lawyers, who were called Papiniānists.
  ――――Pappus, a censor, who banished from the senate Publius Cornelius
  Ruffinus, who had been twice consul, because he had at his table 10
  pounds of silver plate, A.U.C. 478. _Livy_, bk. 14.――――Porcina, an
  elegant orator. _Cicero_, _Brutus_.――――Rectus, a severe governor
  of Egypt under Tiberius. _Dio Cassius._――――Regillus, conquered the
  general of Antiochus at sea, and obtained a naval triumph. _Livy_,
  bk. 37, ch. 31.――――Scaurus, a noble but poor citizen of Rome. His
  father, to maintain himself, was a coal-merchant. He was edile,
  and afterwards pretor, and fought against Jugurtha. His son Marcus
  was son-in-law to Sylla, and in his edileship he built a very
  magnificent theatre. _Pliny_, bk. 36, ch. 15.――――A bridge at Rome,
  called also Sublicius. _Juvenal_, satire 6, li. 22.

=Ænăria=, an island in the bay of Puteoli, abounding with cypress
  trees. It received its name from Æneas, who is supposed to have
  landed there on his way to Latium. It is called Pithecusa by the
  Greeks, and now Ischia, and was famous once for its mineral waters.
  _Livy_, bk. 8, ch. 22.――_Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 6; bk. 31, ch. 2.――
  _Statius_, bk. 3, _Sylvæ_, poem 5, li. 104.

=Ænarium=, a forest near Olenos in Achaia, sacred to Jupiter.

=Ænasius=, one of the Ephori at Sparta. _Thucydides_, bk. 9, ch. 2.

=Ænēa=, or =Æneia=, a town of Macedonia, 15 miles from Thessalonica,
  founded by Æneas. _Livy_, bk. 40, ch. 4; bk. 44, ch. 10.

=Æneădes=, a town of Chersonesus, built by Æneas. Cassander destroyed
  it, and carried the inhabitants to Thessalonica, lately built.
  _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 1.

=Ænĕădæ=, a name given to the friends and companions of Æneas by
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 161.

=Ænēas=, a Trojan prince, son of Anchises and the goddess Venus. The
  opinions of authors concerning his character are different. His
  infancy was intrusted to the care of a nymph, and at the age of five
  he was recalled to Troy. He afterwards improved himself in Thessaly
  under Chiron, a venerable sage whose house was frequented by the
  young princes and heroes of the age. Soon after his return home
  he married Creusa, Priam’s daughter by whom he had a son called
  Ascanius. During the Trojan war he behaved with great valour, in
  defence of his country, and came to an engagement with Diomedes and
  Achilles. Yet Strabo, Dictys of Crete, Dionysius of Halicarnassus,
  and Dares of Phrygia accuse him of betraying his country to the
  Greeks, with Antenor, and of preserving his life and fortune by this
  treacherous measure. He lived at variance with Priam, because he
  received not sufficient marks of distinction from the king and his
  family, as _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 13, says. This might have provoked
  him to seek revenge by perfidy. Authors of credit report, that when
  Troy was in flames, he carried away upon his shoulders his father
  Anchises, and the statues of his household gods, leading in his hand
  his son Ascanius, and leaving his wife to follow behind. Some say
  that he retired to mount Ida, where he built a fleet of 20 ships,
  and set sail in quest of a settlement. Strabo and others maintain
  that Æneas never left his country, but rebuilt Troy, where he
  reigned, and his posterity after him. Even Homer, who lived 400
  years after the Trojan war, says, _Iliad_, bk. 20, li. 30, &c., that
  the gods destined Æneas and his posterity to reign over the Trojans.
  This passage Dionysius of Halicarnassus explained, by saying that
  Homer meant the Trojans who had gone over to Italy with Æneas, and
  not the actual inhabitants of Troy. According to Virgil and other
  Latin authors, who, to make their court to the Roman emperors,
  traced their origin up to Æneas, and described his arrival into
  Italy as indubitable, he with his fleet first came to the Thracian
  Chersonesus, where Polymnestor, one of his allies, reigned. After
  visiting Delos, the Strophades, and Crete, where he expected to find
  the empire promised him by the oracle, as in the place where his
  progenitors were born, he landed in Epirus, and Drepanum, the court
  of king Acestes, in Sicily, where he buried his father. From Sicily
  he sailed for Italy, but was driven on the coasts of Africa and
  kindly received by Dido queen of Carthage, to whom, on his first
  interview he gave one of the garments of the beautiful Helen. Dido,
  being enamoured of him, wished to marry him; but he left Carthage by
  order of the gods. In his voyage he was driven to Sicily, and from
  thence he passed to Cumæ, where the Sibyl conducted him to hell,
  that he might hear from his father the fates which attended him and
  all his posterity. After a voyage of seven years, and the loss of
  13 ships, he came to the Tyber. Latinus, the king of the country,
  received him with hospitality, and promised him his daughter Lavinia,
  who had been before betrothed to king Turnus by her mother Amata. To
  prevent this marriage, Turnus made war against Æneas: and after many
  battles, the war was decided by a combat between the two rivals, in
  which Turnus was killed. Æneas married Lavinia, in whose honour he
  built the town of Lavinium, and succeeded his father-in-law. After a
  short reign Æneas was killed in a battle against the Etrurians. Some
  say that he was drowned in the Numicus, and his body weighed down by
  his armour; upon which the Latins, not finding their king, supposed
  that he had been taken up to heaven, and therefore offered him
  sacrifices as to a god. Dionysius of Halicarnassus fixes the arrival
  of Æneas in Italy in the 54th olympiad. Some authors suppose that
  Æneas after the siege of Troy, fell to the share of Neoptolemus,
  together with Andromache, and that he was carried to Thessaly,
  whence he escaped to Italy. Others say that, after he had come
  to Italy, he returned to Troy, leaving Ascanius king in Latium.
  Æneas has been praised for his piety, and submission to the will
  of the gods. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bks. 13 & 20; _Hymn to Aphrodite_.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 12.――_Diodorus_, bk. 3.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 33; bk. 3, ch. 22; bk. 10, ch. 25.――_Plutarch_, _Romulus_
  & _Coriolanus_; _Quæstiones Romanæ_.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 8.――_Florus_, bk. 1, ch. 1.――_Justin_, bk. 20, ch. 1; bk. 31,
  ch. 8; bk. 43, ch. 1.――_Dictys Cretensis_, bk. 5.――_Dares Phrygius_,
  ch. 6.――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 1, ch. 11.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 13.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 1.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_.――_Aurelius
  Victor._――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 8, ch. 22.――_Propertius_,
  bk. 4, poem 1, li. 42.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 14, fable 3,
  &c.; _Tristia_, bk. 4, li. 798.――――A son of Æneas and Lavinia,
  called Sylvius, because his mother retired with him into the woods
  after his father’s death. He succeeded Ascanius in Latium, though
  opposed by Julius the son of his predecessor. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 6, li. 770.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 3.――――An ambassador sent by
  the Lacedæmonians to Athens, to treat of peace, in the 8th year of
  the Peloponnesian war.――――An ancient author who wrote on tactics,
  besides other treatises, which, according to Ælian, were epitomized
  by Cineas the friend of Pyrrhus.――――A native of Gaza, who, from a
  Platonic philosopher, became a Christian, A.D. 485, and wrote a
  dialogue called _Theophrastus_, on the immortality of the soul and
  the resurrection.

=Ænēia=, or =Ænia=, a place near Rome, afterwards called Janiculum.
  ――――A city of Troas. _Strabo_, bk. 17.――――A city of Macedonia.
  _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 1.

=Æneides=, a patronymic given to Ascanius, as son of Æneas. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 9, li. 653.

=Ænēis=, a poem of Virgil, which has for its subject the settlement
  of Æneas in Italy. The great merit of this poem is well known. The
  author has imitated Homer, and, as some say, Homer is superior to
  him only because he is more ancient, and is an original. Virgil
  died before he had corrected it, and at his death desired it might
  be burnt. This was happily disobeyed, and Augustus saved from the
  flames a poem which proved his family to be descended from the kings
  of Troy. The Æneid had engaged the attention of the poet for 11
  years, and in the first six books it seems that it was Virgil’s
  design to imitate Homer’s Odyssey, and in the last the Iliad. The
  action of the poem comprehends eight years, one of which only, the
  last, is really taken up by action, as the seven first are merely
  episodes, such as Juno’s attempts to destroy the Trojans, the loves
  of Æneas and Dido, the relation of the fall of Troy, &c. In the
  first book of the Æneid, the hero is introduced, in the seventh year
  of his expedition, sailing in the Mediterranean, and shipwrecked
  on the African coast, where he is received by Dido. In the second,
  Æneas, at the desire of the Phœnician queen, relates the fall of
  Troy, and his flight through the general conflagration to mount Ida.
  In the third, the hero continues his narration, by a minute account
  of the voyage through the Cyclades, the places where he landed, and
  the dreadful storm with the description of which the poem opened.
  Dido, in the fourth book, makes public her partiality to Æneas,
  which is slighted by the sailing of the Trojans from Carthage,
  and the book closes with the suicide of the disappointed queen.
  In the fifth book, Æneas sails to Sicily, where he celebrates the
  anniversary of his father’s death, and thence pursues his voyage to
  Italy. In the sixth, he visits the Elysian fields, and learns from
  his father the fate which attends him and his descendants, the
  Romans. In the seventh book, the hero reaches the destined land of
  Latium, and concludes a treaty with the king of the country, which
  is soon broken by the interference of Juno, who stimulates Turnus to
  war. The auxiliaries of the enemy are enumerated; and in the eighth
  book, Æneas is assisted by Evander, and receives from Venus a shield
  wrought by Vulcan, on which are represented the future glory and
  triumphs of the Roman nation. The reader is pleased, in the ninth
  book, with the account of battles between the rival armies, and the
  immortal friendship of Nisus and Euryalus. Jupiter, in the tenth,
  attempts a reconciliation between Venus and Juno, who patronized the
  opposite parties; the fight is renewed, Pallas killed, and Turnus
  saved from the avenging hand of Æneas, by the interposition of Juno.
  The eleventh book gives an account of the funeral of Pallas, and of
  the meditated reconciliation between Æneas and Latinus, which the
  sudden appearance of the enemy defeats. Camilla is slain, and the
  combatants separated by the night. In the last book, Juno prevents
  the single combat agreed upon by Turnus and Æneas. The Trojans are
  defeated in the absence of their king; but on the return of Æneas,
  the battle assumes a different turn, a single combat is fought by
  the rival leaders, and the poem is concluded by the death of king
  Turnus. _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 30, &c.

=Ænesidēmus=, a brave general of Argos. _Livy_, bk. 32, ch. 25.――――A
  Cretan philosopher, who wrote eight books on the doctrine of his
  master Pyrrho. _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Pyrrhonists_.

=Ænēsius=, a surname of Jupiter from mount Ænum.

=Ænētus=, a victor at Olympia, who, in the moment of victory, died
  through excess of joy. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 18.

=Ænia.= _See:_ Æneia.

=Ænicus=, a comic writer at Athens.

=Æniŏchi=, a people of Asiatic Sarmatia. _Lucan_, bk. 2, li. 591.

=Ænobarbus=, or =Ahenobarbus=, the surname of Domitius. When Castor
  and Pollux acquainted him with a victory, he discredited them;
  upon which they touched his chin and beard, which instantly became
  of a brazen colour, whence the surname given to himself and his

=Ænŏcles=, a writer of Rhodes. _Athenæus._

=Ænos=, now _Eno_, an independent city of Thrace, at the eastern mouth
  of the Hebrus, confounded with Æneia, of which Æneas was the founder.
  _Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 2.

=Ænum=, a town of Thrace――――of Thessaly.――――A mountain in Cephallenia.
  _Strabo_, bk. 7.――――A river and village near Ossa.――――A city of
  Crete, built by Æneas.

=Ænȳra=, a town of Thasos. _Herodotus_, bk. 6, ch. 47.

=Æŏlia=, a name given to Arne. Sappho is called _Æolia puella_, and
  lyric poetry _Æolium carmen_, because of Alcæus and Sappho, natives
  of Lesbos in Æolia. _Horace_, bk. 4, ode 3, li. 12, and ode 9,
  li. 12.

=Æŏlia=, or =Æolis=, a country of Asia Minor, near the Ægean sea.
  It has Troas at the north, and Ionia at the south. The inhabitants
  were of Grecian origin, and were masters of many of the neighbouring
  islands. They had 12, others say 30, considerable cities, of which
  Cumæ and Lesbos were the most famous. They received their name from
  Æolus son of Hellenus. They migrated from Greece about 1124 B.C.,
  80 years before the migration of the Ionian tribes. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 26, &c.――_Strabo_, bks. 1, 2, & 6.――_Pliny_, bk. 5,
  ch. 30.――_Mela_, bk. 1, chs. 2 & 18.――――Thessaly has been anciently
  called Æolia. Bœotus son of Neptune, having settled there, called
  his followers Bœotians, and their country Bœotia.

=Æoliæ= and =Æolĭdes=, seven islands between Sicily and Italy, called
  Lipara, Hiera, Strongyle, Didyme, Ericusa, Phœnicusa, and Euonymos.
  They were the retreat of the winds; and _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1,
  li. 56, calls them Æolia, and the kingdom of Æolus the god of
  storms and winds. They sometimes bear the name of _Vulcaniæ_ and
  _Hephæstides_, and are known now among the moderns under the general
  appellation of Lipari islands. _Lucan_, bk. 5, li. 609.――_Justin_,
  bk. 4, ch. 1.

=Æolĭda=, a city of Tenedos.――――Another near Thermopylæ. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 8, ch. 35.

=Æolĭdes=, a patronymic of Ulysses, from Æolus; because Anticlea, his
  mother, was pregnant by Sisyphus the son of Æolus, when she married
  Laertes. It is also given to Athamas and Misenus, as sons of Æolus.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4, li. 511; bk. 13, li. 31.――_Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 6, lis. 164 & 529.

=Æŏlus=, the king of storms and winds, was the son of Hippotas. He
  reigned over Æolia; and because he was the inventor of sails, and a
  great astronomer, the poets have called him the god of the wind. It
  is said that he confined in a bag, and gave Ulysses all the winds
  that could blow against his vessel, when he returned to Ithaca.
  The companions of Ulysses untied the bag, and gave the winds their
  liberty. Æolus was indebted to Juno for his royal dignity, according
  to Virgil. The name seems to be derived from αἰολος, _varius_,
  because the winds, over which he presided, are ever varying.――――
  There were two others, a king of Etruria, father to Macareus and
  Canace, and a son of Hellenus, often confounded with the god of the
  winds. This last married Enaretta, by whom he had seven sons and
  five daughters. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 7.――_Homer_, _Odyssey_,
  bk. 10, li. 1.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 11, li. 478; bk. 14,
  li. 224.――_Apollonius_, bk. 4, _Argonautica_.――_Flaccus_, bk. 1,
  li. 556.――_Diodorus_, bks. 4 & 5.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 56,

=Æōra=, a festival at Athens, in honour of Erigone.

=Æpālius=, a king of Greece, restored to his kingdom by Hercules,
  whose son Hyllus he adopted. _Strabo_, bk. 9.

=Æpēa=, a town of Crete, called Solis, in honour of Solon. _Plutarch_,

=Æpŭlo=, a general of the Istrians, who drank to excess, after he
  had stormed the camp of Acidinus Manlius the Roman general. Being
  attacked by a soldier, he fled to a neighbouring town, which the
  Romans took, and killed himself for fear of being taken. _Florus_,
  bk. 2, ch. 10.

=Æpy=, a town of Elis, under the dominion of Nestor. _Statius_, bk. 4,
  _Thebiad_, li. 180.

=Æpy̆tus=, king of Mycenæ, son of Chresphontes and Merope, was educated
  in Arcadia with Cypselus his mother’s father. To recover his kingdom,
  he killed Polyphontes, who had married his mother against her will,
  and usurped the crown. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 6.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 4, ch. 8.――――A king of Arcadia, son of Elatus.――――A son of
  Hippothous, who forcibly entered the temple of Neptune, near
  Mantinea, and was struck blind by the sudden eruption of salt water
  from the altar. He was killed by a serpent in hunting. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 8, chs. 4 & 5.

=Æqui=, or =Æquicŏli=, a people of Latium, near Tibur. They were great
  enemies to Rome in its infant state, and were conquered with much
  difficulty. _Florus_, bk. 1, ch. 11.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 32; bk. 2,
  ch. 30; bk. 3, ch. 2, &c.――_Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 4.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 7, li. 747; bk. 9, li. 684.――_Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 93.――
  _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 2, ch. 19.

=Æquimelium=, a place in Rome where the house of Melius stood, who
  aspired to sovereign power, for which crime his habitation was
  levelled to the ground. _Livy_, bk. 4, ch. 16.

=Ærias=, an ancient king of Cyprus, who built the temple of Paphos.
  _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 2, ch. 3.

=Ærŏpe=, wife of Atreus, committed adultery with Thyestes her
  brother-in-law, and had by him twins, who were placed as food before
  Atreus. _Ovid_, _Tristia_, bk. 2, li. 391.――――A daughter of Cepheus,
  ravished by Mars. She died in child-bed: her child was preserved,
  and called Æropus. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 44.

=Ærŏpus=, a general of Epirus in the reign of Pyrrhus.――――A person
  appointed regent to Orestes the infant son of Archelaus king of
  Macedonia.――――An officer of king Philip, banished for bringing a
  singer into his camp. _Polyænus_, bk. 4, ch. 2.――――A mountain of
  Chaonia. _Livy_, bk. 31, ch. 5.

=Æsăcus=, a river of Troy, near Ida.――――A son of Priam by Alexirhoo:
  or according to others by Arisba. He became enamoured of Hesperia,
  whom he pursued into the woods. The nymph threw herself into the sea,
  and was changed into a bird. Æsacus followed her example, and was
  changed into a cormorant by Tethys. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 11,
  fable 11.

=Æsāpus=, a river of Mysia in Asia, falling into the Hellespont.
  _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 32.

=Æsar=, or =Æsāras=, a river of Magna Græcia, falling into the sea
  near Crotona. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15, li. 28.

=Æschĭnes=, an Athenian orator, who flourished about 342 B.C., and
  distinguished himself by his rivalship with Demosthenes. His
  father’s name was Atrometus, and he boasted of his descent from a
  noble family, though Demosthenes reproached him as being the son
  of a courtesan. The first open signs of enmity between the rival
  orators appeared at the court of Philip, where they were sent as
  ambassadors; but the character of Æschines was tarnished by the
  acceptance of a bribe from the Macedonian prince, whose tyranny
  had hitherto been the general subject of his declamation. When the
  Athenians wished to reward the patriotic labours of Demosthenes with
  a golden crown, Æschines impeached Ctesiphon, who proposed it; and
  to their subsequent dispute we are indebted for the two celebrated
  orations _de coronâ_. Æschines was defeated by his rival’s superior
  eloquence, and banished to Rhodes; but as he retired from Athens,
  Demosthenes ran after him, and nobly forced him to accept a present
  of silver. In his banishment, the orator repeated to the Rhodians
  what he had delivered against Demosthenes; and after receiving
  much applause, he was desired to read the answer of his antagonist.
  It was received with greater marks of approbation; but, exclaimed
  Æschines, how much more would your admiration have been raised,
  had you heard Demosthenes himself speak it! Æschines died in the
  75th year of his age, at Rhodes, or, as some suppose, at Samos. He
  wrote three orations, and nine epistles, which, from their number,
  received the name, the first of the graces, and the last of the
  muses. The orations alone are extant, generally found collected with
  those of Lysias. An oration which bears the name of _Deliaca lex_,
  is said not to be his production, but that of Æschines, another
  orator of that age. _Cicero_, _On Oratory_, bk. 1, ch. 24; bk. 2,
  ch. 53; _Brutus_, ch. 17.――_Plutarch_, _Demosthenes_.――_Diogenes
  Laërtius_, bks. 2 & 3.――_Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 30. Diogenes Laërtius
  mentions seven more of the same name.――――A philosopher, disciple
  of Socrates, who wrote several dialogues, some of which bore the
  following titles: Aspasia, Phædon, Alcibiades, Draco, Erycia,
  Polyænus, Telauges, &c. The dialogue entitled Axiochus, and ascribed
  to Plato, is supposed to be his composition. The best editions are
  that of Leovard, 1718, with the notes of Horræus, in 8vo, and that
  of Fischer, 8vo, Lipscomb, 1766.――――A man who wrote on oratory.
  ――――An Arcadian.――――A Mitylenean.――――A disciple of Melanthius.――――A
  Milesian writer.――――A statuary.

=Æschrion=, a Mitylenean poet, intimate with Aristotle. He accompanied
  Alexander in his Asiatic expedition.――――An Iambic poet of Samos.
  _Athenæus._――――A physician commended by Galen. A treatise of his own
  husbandry has been quoted by _Pliny_.――――A lieutenant of Archagathus,
  killed by Hanno. _Diodorus_, bk. 20.

=Æschylīdes=, a man who wrote a book on agriculture. _Ælian_, _Nature
  of Animals_, bk. 15.

=Æschy̆lus=, an excellent soldier and poet of Athens, son of Euphorion,
  and brother to Cynægirus. He was in the Athenian army at the battles
  of Marathon, Salamis, and Platæa. But the most solid fame he has
  obtained, is the offspring less of his valour in the field of battle
  than of his writings. Of 90 tragedies, however, the fruit of his
  ingenious labours, 40 of which were rewarded with the public prize,
  only seven have come safe to us: _Prometheus vinctus_, _Septem
  duces apud Thebas_, _Persæ_, _Agamemnon_, _Chœphori_, _Eumenides_,
  _Supplices_. Æschylus is the first who introduced two actors on the
  stage, and clothed them with dresses suitable to their character.
  He likewise removed murder from the stage. It is said that, when
  he composed, his countenance betrayed the greatest ferocity;
  and according to one of his scholiasts, when his Eumenides were
  represented, many children died through fear, and several pregnant
  women actually miscarried in the house, at the sight of the horrible
  masks that were introduced. The imagination of the poet was strong
  and comprehensive, but disorderly and wild: fruitful in prodigies,
  but disdaining probabilities. His style is obscure, and the labours
  of an excellent modern critic have pronounced him the most difficult
  of all the Greek classics. A few expressions of impious tendency in
  one of his plays, nearly proved fatal to Æschylus; he was condemned
  to death, but his brother Amynias, it is reported, reversed his
  sentence, by uncovering an arm, of which the hand had been cut off
  at the battle of Salamis in the service of his country, and the poet
  was pardoned. Æschylus has been accused of drinking to excess, and
  of never composing except when in a state of intoxication. In his
  old age he retired to the court of Hiero in Sicily. Being informed
  that he was to die by the fall of a house, he became dissatisfied
  with the fickleness of his countrymen, and withdrew from the city
  into the fields, where he sat down. An eagle, with a tortoise in
  her bill, flew over his bald head, and supposing it to be a stone,
  dropped her prey upon it to break the shell, and Æschylus instantly
  died of the blow, in the 69th year of his age, 456 B. C. It is
  said that he wrote an account of the battle of Marathon, in elegiac
  verses. The best editions of his works are that of Stanley, folio,
  London, 1663, that of Glasgow, 2 vols. in 12mo, 1746, and that
  of Schutz, 2 vols., 8vo, Halæ, 1782.――_Horace_, _Art of Poetry_,
  li. 278.――_Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――_Pliny_, bk. 10, ch. 3.――
  _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 9, ch. 12.――――The 12th perpetual archon
  of Athens.――――A Corinthian, brother-in-law to Timophanes, intimate
  with Timoleon. _Plutarch_, _Timoleon_.――――A Rhodian set over Egypt
  with Peucestes of Macedonia. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 8.――――A native of
  Cnidus, teacher of rhetoric to Cicero. _Cicero_, _Brutus_.

=Æsculāpius=, son of Apollo by Coronis, or as some say, by Larissa
  daughter of Phlegias, was god of medicine. After his union with
  Coronis, Apollo set a crow to watch her, and was soon informed that
  she admitted the caresses of Ischys of Æmonia. The god, in a fit of
  anger, destroyed Coronis with lightning, but saved the infant from
  her womb, and gave him to be educated to Chiron, who taught him the
  art of medicine. Some authors say, that Coronis left her father to
  avoid the discovery of her pregnancy, and that she exposed her child
  near Epidaurus. A goat of the flocks of Aresthanas gave him her milk,
  and the dog which kept the flock stood by him to shelter him from
  injury. He was found by the master of the flock, who went in search
  of his stray goat, and saw his head surrounded with resplendent rays
  of light. Æsculapius was physician to the Argonauts, and considered
  so skilled in the medicinal power of plants, that he was called the
  inventor as well as the god of medicine. He restored many to life,
  of which Pluto complained to Jupiter, who struck Æsculapius with
  thunder, but Apollo, angry at the death of his son, killed the
  Cyclops who made the thunderbolts. Æsculapius received divine
  honours after death, chiefly at Epidaurus, Pergamus, Athens, Smyrna,
  &c. Goats, bulls, lambs, and pigs were sacrificed on his altars, and
  the cock and the serpent were sacred to him. Rome, A.U.C. 462, was
  delivered of a plague, and built a temple to the god of medicine,
  who, as was supposed, had come there in the form of a serpent, and
  hid himself among the reeds in an island of the Tyber. Æsculapius
  was represented with a large beard, holding in his hand a staff,
  round which was wreathed a serpent: his other hand was supported on
  the head of a serpent. Serpents are more particularly sacred to him,
  not only as the ancient physicians used them in their prescriptions;
  but because they were the symbols of prudence and foresight, so
  necessary in the medical profession. He married Epione, by whom
  he had two sons, famous for their skill in medicine, Machaon and
  Podalirus; and four daughters, of whom Hygiea, goddess of health,
  is the most celebrated. Some have supposed that he lived a short
  time after the Trojan war. Hesiod makes no mention of him. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 4, li. 193; _Hymn to Æsculapius_.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3,
  ch. 10.――_Apollonius_, bk. 4, _Argonautica_.――_Hyginus_, fable 49.
  ――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, fable 8.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, chs.
  11 & 27; bk. 7, ch. 23, &c.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.――_Pindar_, _Pythian_,
  poem 3.――_Lucian_, _Dialogi de Saltatione_.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk.
  1, ch. 8.――_Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 3, ch. 22, says there
  were three of this name; the first, a son of Apollo, worshipped in
  Arcadia; second, a brother of Mercury; third, a man who first taught

=Æsēpus=, a son of Bucolion. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 6, li. 21.――――A
  river. _See:_ Æsapus.

=Æsernia=, a city of the Samnites, in Italy. _Livy_, bk. 27,
  ch. 12.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 567.

=Æsīon=, an Athenian, known for his respect for the talents of
  Demosthenes. _Plutarch_, _Demosthenes_.

=Æsis=, a river of Italy, which separates Umbria from Picenum.

=Æson=, son of Cretheus, was born at the same birth as Pelias. He
  succeeded his father in the kingdom of Iolchos, but was soon exiled
  by his brother. He married Alcimeda, by whom he had Jason, whose
  education he entrusted to Chiron, being afraid of Pelias. When
  Jason was grown up, he demanded his father’s kingdom from his uncle,
  who gave him evasive answers, and persuaded him to go in quest of
  the golden fleece. _See:_ Jason. At his return, Jason found his
  father very infirm; and Medea [_See:_ Medea], at his request, drew
  the blood from Æson’s veins, and refilled them with the juice of
  certain herbs which she had gathered, and immediately the old man
  recovered the vigour and bloom of youth. Some say that Æson killed
  himself by drinking bull’s blood, to avoid the persecution of
  Pelias. _Diodorus_, bk. 4.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 7, li. 285.――_Hyginus_, fable 12.――――A river of
  Thessaly, with a town of the same name.

=Æsŏnĭdes=, a patronymic of Jason, as being descended from Æson.

=Æsōpus=, a Phrygian philosopher, who, though originally a slave,
  procured his liberty by the sallies of his genius. He travelled
  over the greatest part of Greece and Egypt, but chiefly resided at
  the court of Crœsus king of Lydia, by whom he was sent to consult
  the oracle of Delphi. In this commission Æsop behaved with great
  severity, and satirically compared the Delphians to floating sticks,
  which appear large at a distance, but are nothing when brought near.
  The Delphians, offended with his sarcastic remarks, accused him of
  having secreted one of the sacred vessels of Apollo’s temple, and
  threw him down from a rock, 561 B.C. Maximus Planudes has written
  his life in Greek; but no credit is to be given to the biographer,
  who falsely asserts that the mythologist was short and deformed.
  Æsop dedicated his fables to his patron Crœsus; but what appears
  now under his name, is no doubt a compilation of all the fables and
  apologues of wits before and after the age of Æsop, conjointly with
  his own. _Plutarch_, _Solon_.――_Phædras_, bk. 1, fable 2; bk. 2,
  fable 9.――――Claudus, an actor on the Roman stage, very intimate with
  Cicero. He amassed an immense fortune. His son, to be more expensive,
  melted precious stones to drink at his entertainments. _Horace_,
  bk. 2, satire 3, li. 239.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 8, ch. 10;
  bk. 9, ch. 1.――_Pliny_, bk. 9, ch. 35; bk. 10, ch. 51.――――An orator.
  _Diogenes Laërtius._――――An historian in the time of Anaximenes.
  _Plutarch_, _Solon_.――――A river of Pontus. _Strabo_, bk. 12.――――An
  attendant of Mithridates, who wrote a treatise on Helen, and a
  panegyric on his royal master.

=Æstria=, an island in the Adriatic. _Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 7.

=Æsŭla=, a town on a mountain between Tibur and Præneste. _Horace_,
  bk. 3, ode 29.

=Æsyetes=, a man from whose tomb Polites spied what the Greeks did in
  their ships during the Trojan war. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2, li. 793.

=Æsymnētes=, a surname of Bacchus. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 21.

=Æsymnus=, a person of Megara, who consulted Apollo to know the best
  method of governing his country. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 43.

=Æthalia=, or =Ætheria=, now _Elba_, an island between Etruria and
  Corsica. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 6; bk. 6, ch. 30.

=Æthalĭdes=, a herald, son of Mercury, to whom it was granted to
  be amongst the dead and the living at stated times. _Apollonius_,
  _Argonautica_, bk. 1, li. 641.

=Æthion=, a man slain at the nuptials of Andromeda. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, li. 146.

=Æthiŏpia=, an extensive country of Africa, at the south of Egypt,
  divided into east and west by the ancients, the former division
  lying near Meroe, and the latter near the Mauri. The country,
  properly now called Abyssinia, as well as the inhabitants, were
  little known to the ancients, though Homer has styled them the
  justest of men and the favourites of the gods. _Diodorus_, bk. 4,
  says, that the Æthiopians were the first inhabitants of the earth.
  They were the first who worshipped the gods, for which, as some
  suppose, their country has never been invaded by a foreign enemy.
  The inhabitants are of a dark complexion. The country is inundated
  for five months every year, and their days and nights are almost
  of an equal length. The ancients have given the name of Æthiopia
  to every country whose inhabitants are of a black colour. _Lucan_,
  bk. 3, li. 253; bk. 9, li. 651.――_Juvenal_, satire 2, li. 23.
  ――_Virgil_, [_Eclogues_], poem 6, li. 68.――_Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 29.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 33.――_Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 1, li. 22;
  _Iliad_, bk. 1, li. 423.

=Æthlius=, son of Jupiter by Protogenia, was father of Endymion.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 7.

=Æthon=, a horse of the sun. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, fable 1.
  ――――A horse of Pallas, represented as shedding tears at the death
  of his master, by _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 89.――――A horse of
  Hector. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 8, li. 185.

=Æthra=, daughter of Pittheus king of Trœzene, had Theseus by Ægeus.
  _See:_ Ægeus. She was carried away by Castor and Pollux, when they
  recovered their sister Helen, whom Theseus had stolen, and intrusted
  to her care. _See:_ Helena. She went to Troy with Helen. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 3, li. 144.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 31; bk. 5, ch.
  19.――_Hyginus_, fables 37 & 79.――_Plutarch_, _Theseus_.――_Ovid_,
  _Heroides_, poem 10, li. 131.――――One of the Oceanides, wife to Atlas.
  She is more generally called Pleione.

=Æthūsa=, a daughter of Neptune by Amphitrite, or Alcyone, mother by
  Apollo of Eleuthere and two sons. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 20.――――An
  island near Lilybæum. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 8.

=Ætia=, a poem of Callimachus, in which he speaks of sacrifices, and
  of the manner in which they were offered. _Martial_, bk. 10, ltr. 4.

=Ætion=, or =Eetion=, the father of Andromache, Hector’s wife. He was
  killed at Thebes, with his seven sons, by the Greeks.――――A famous
  painter. He drew a painting of Alexander going to celebrate his
  nuptials with Roxane. This piece was much valued, and was exposed to
  public view at the Olympic games, where it gained so much applause
  that the president of the games gave the painter his daughter in
  marriage. _Cicero_, _Brutus_, ch. 18.

=Ætna=, a mountain of Sicily, now called Gibello, famous for its
  volcano, which, for about 3000 years, has thrown out fire at
  intervals. It is two miles in perpendicular height, and measures
  180 miles round at the base, with an ascent of 30 miles. Its crater
  forms a circle about 3½ miles in circumference, and its top is
  covered with snow and smoke at the same time, whilst the sides of
  the mountain, from the great fertility of the soil, exhibit a rich
  scenery of cultivated fields and blooming vineyards. Pindar is the
  first who mentions an eruption of Ætna; and the silence of Homer on
  the subject is considered as a proof that the fires of the mountain
  were unknown in his age. From the time of Pythagoras, the supposed
  date of the first volcanic appearance, to the battle of Pharsalia,
  it is computed that Ætna had 100 eruptions. The poets supposed that
  Jupiter had confined the giants under this mountain, and it was
  represented as the forge of Vulcan, where his servants the Cyclops
  fabricated thunderbolts, &c. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 860.――_Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 570.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable 6;
  bk. 15, li. 340.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 14, li. 59.

=Ætōlia=, a country bounded by Epirus, Acarnania, and Locris, supposed
  to be about the middle of Greece. It received its name from Ætolus.
  The inhabitants were covetous and illiberal, and were little
  known in Greece, till after the ruin of Athens and Sparta they
  assumed consequence in the country, and afterwards made themselves
  formidable as the allies of Rome, and as its enemies, till they were
  conquered by Fulvius. _Livy_, bk. 26, ch. 24, &c.――_Florus_, bk. 2,
  ch. 9.――_Strabo_, bks. 8 & 10.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 3.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 4, ch. 2.――_Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 18.――_Plutarch_, _Titus

=Ætōlus=, son of Endymion of Elis and Iphianassa, married Pronoe, by
  whom he had Pleuron and Calydon. Having accidentally killed Apis
  son of Phoroneus, he left his country, and came to settle in that
  part of Greece which has been called from him Ætolia. _Apollodorus_,
  bk. 1, chs. 7 & 9.――_Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 1.

=Æx=, a rocky island between Tenedos and Chios. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch.
  11.――――A city in the country of the Marsi.――――The nurse of Jupiter
  changed into a constellation.

=Afer=, an inhabitant of Africa.――――An informer under Tiberius and his
  successors. He became also known as an orator, and as the preceptor
  of Quintilian, and was made consul by Domitian. He died A. D. 59.

=Afrānia=, a Roman matron, who frequented the forum, forgetful of
  female decency. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 8, ch. 3.

=Lucius Afrānius=, a Latin comic poet in the age of Terence, often
  compared to Menander, whose style he imitated. He is blamed for
  the unnatural gratifications which he mentions in his writings,
  some fragments of which are to be found in the _Corpus Poetarum_.
  _Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――_Suetonius_, _Nero_, ch. 11.――_Horace_,
  bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 57.――_Cicero_, _de Finibus_, bk. 1, ch. 3.――
  _Aulus Gellius_, bk. 13, ch. 8.――――A general of Pompey, conquered
  by Cæsar in Spain. _Suetonius_, _Julius Cæsar_, ch. 34.――_Plutarch_,
  _Pompey_.――――Quintianus, a man who wrote a severe satire against
  Nero, for which he was put to death in the Pisonian conspiracy.
  _Tacitus._――――Potitus, a plebeian, who said before Caligula, that he
  would willingly die if the emperor could recover from the distemper
  he laboured under. Caligula recovered, and Afranius was put to death
  that he might not forfeit his word. _Dio Cassius._

=Afrĭca=, called _Libya_ by the Greeks, one of the three parts of
  the ancient world, and the greatest peninsula of the universe, is
  bounded on the east by Arabia and the Red sea, on the north by the
  Mediterranean, south and west by the ocean. In its greatest length
  it extends 4300 miles, and in its greatest breadth it is 3500 miles.
  It is joined on the east to Asia, by an isthmus 60 miles long, which
  some of the Ptolemies endeavoured to cut, in vain, to join the Red
  and Mediterranean seas. It is so immediately situate under the sun,
  that only the maritime parts are inhabited, and the inland country
  is mostly barren and sandy, and infested with wild beasts. The
  ancients, through ignorance, peopled the southern parts of Africa
  with monsters, enchanters, and chimeras; errors which begin to be
  corrected by modern travellers. _See:_ Libya. _Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 4,
  &c.――_Diodorus_, bks. 3, 4, & 20.――_Herodotus_, bk. 2, chs. 17, 26,
  & 32; bk. 4, ch. 41, &c.――_Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 1, &c.――――There is a
  part of Africa called _Propria_, which lies about the middle, on the
  Mediterranean, and has Carthage for its capital.

=Africānus=, a blind poet, commended by Ennius.――――A christian writer,
  who flourished A.D. 222. In his chronicle, which was universally
  esteemed, he reckoned 5500 years from the creation of the world
  to the age of Julius Cæsar. Nothing remains of this work but what
  Eusebius has preserved. In a letter to Origen, Africanus proved
  that the history of Susanna is supposititious; and in another to
  Aristides, still extant, he endeavours to reconcile the seeming
  contradictions that appear in the genealogies of Christ in St.
  Matthew and Luke. He is supposed to be the same who wrote nine books,
  in which he treats of physic, agriculture, &c.――――A lawyer, disciple
  to Papinian, and intimate with the emperor Alexander.――――An orator
  mentioned by Quintilian.――――The surname of the Scipios, from the
  conquest of Africa. _See:_ Scipio.

=Afrĭcum mare=, is that part of the Mediterranean which is on the
  coast of Africa.

=Agăgriāne portæ=, gates at Syracuse, near which the dead were buried.
  _Cicero_, _Tusculanæ Disputationes_.

=Agalasses=, a nation of India, conquered by Alexander. _Diodorus_,
  bk. 17.

=Agalla=, a woman of Corcyra, who wrote a treatise upon grammar.
  _Athenæus_, bk. 1.

=Agamēdes= and =Trophonius=, two architects who made the entrance of
  the temple of Delphi, for which they demanded of the god whatever
  gift was most advantageous for a man to receive. Eight days after
  they were found dead in their bed. _Plutarch_, _Consolatio ad
  Apollonium_.――_Cicero_, _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, bk. 1, ch. 47.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, chs. 11 & 37, gives a different account.

=Agamemnon=, king of Mycenæ and Argos, was brother to Menelaus, and
  son of Plisthenes the son of Atreus. Homer calls them sons of Atreus,
  which is false, upon the authority of Hesiod, Apollodorus, &c. _See:_
  Plisthenes. When Atreus was dead, his brother Thyestes seized the
  kingdom of Argos, and removed Agamemnon and Menelaus, who fled to
  Polyphidus king of Sicyon, and hence to Œneus king of Ætolia, where
  they were educated. Agamemnon married Clytemnestra, and Menelaus
  Helen, both daughters of Tyndarus king of Sparta, who assisted
  them to recover their father’s kingdom. After the banishment of
  the usurper to Cythera, Agamemnon established himself at Mycenæ,
  whilst Menelaus succeeded his father-in-law at Sparta. When Helen
  was stolen by Paris, Agamemnon was elected commander-in-chief of
  the Grecian forces going against Troy; and he showed his zeal in the
  cause by furnishing 100 ships, and lending 60 more to the people of
  Arcadia. The fleet was detained at Aulis, where Agamemnon sacrificed
  his daughter to appease Diana. _See:_ Iphigenia. During the Trojan
  war, Agamemnon behaved with much valour; but his quarrel with
  Achilles, whose mistress he took by force, was fatal to the Greeks.
  _See:_ Briseis. After the ruin of Troy, Cassandra fell to his share,
  and foretold him that his wife would put him to death. He gave no
  credit to this, and returned to Argos with Cassandra. Clytemnestra,
  with her adulterer Ægisthus [_See:_ Ægisthus], prepared to murder
  him; and as he came from the bath, to embarrass him, she gave him
  a tunic, whose sleeves were sewed together, and while he attempted
  to put it on, she brought him to the ground with a stroke of a
  hatchet, and Ægisthus seconded her blows. His death was revenged by
  his son Orestes. _See:_ Clytemnestra, Menelaus, and Orestes. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bks. 1, 2, &c.; _Odyssey_, bk. 4, &c.――_Ovid_, _Remedia
  Amoris_, li. 777; _Metamorphoses_, bk. 12, li. 30.――_Hyginus_,
  fables 88 & 97.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Thucydides_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――
  _Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 4, ch. 26.――_Dictys Cretensis_, bks.
  1, 2, &c.――_Dares Phrygius._――_Sophocles_, _Electra_.――_Euripides_,
  _Orestes_.――_Seneca_, _Agamemnon_.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 6; bk. 9,
  ch. 40, &c.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 838.――_Mela_, bk. 2,
  ch. 3.

=Agamemnonius=, an epithet applied to Orestes, as son of Agamemnon.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 4, li. 471.

=Agamētor=, an athlete of Mantinea. _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 10.

=Agamnestor=, a king of Athens.

=Aganippe=, a celebrated fountain of Bœotia, at the foot of mount
  Helicon. It flows into the Permessus, and is sacred to the muses,
  who, from it, were called Aganippedes. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 29.
  ――_Propertius_, bk. 2, poem 3.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5,
  li. 312.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 7.

=Agapēnor=, the commander of Agamemnon’s fleet. _Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 2.――――The son of Ancæus, and grandson of Lycurgus, who, after
  the ruin of Troy, was carried by a storm into Cyprus, where he built
  Paphos. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 5.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2.

=Agar=, a town of Africa. _Hirtius_, _African War_, ch. 76.

=Agarēni=, a people of Arabia. Trajan destroyed their city, called
  Agarum. _Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Agarista=, daughter of Clisthenes, was courted by all the princes
  of Greece. She married Megacles. _Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk.
  12, ch. 24.――_Herodotus_, bk. 6, ch. 126, &c.――――A daughter of
  Hippocrates, who married Xantippus. She dreamed that she had
  brought forth a lion, and some time after became mother of Pericles.
  _Plutarch_, _Pericles_.――_Herodotus_, bk. 6, ch. 131.

=Agasĭcles=, king of Sparta, was son of Archidamus, and one of the
  Proclidæ. He used to say that a king ought to govern his subjects as
  a father governs his children. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 7.――_Plutarch_,
  _Apophthegmata Laconica_.

=Agassæ=, a city of Thessaly. _Livy_, bk. 45, ch. 27.

=Agasthĕnes=, father to Polyxenus, was, as one of Helen’s suitors,
  concerned in the Trojan war. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 3, ch. 11.――――A son of Augeas, who succeeded as king of Elis.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 3.

=Agrastrŏphus=, a Trojan, wounded by Diomedes. _Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 11, li. 338.

=Agasthus=, an archon of Athens.

=Agăsus=, a harbour on the coast of Apulia. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 11.

=Agătha=, a town of France near _Agde_, in Languedoc. _Mela_, bk. 2,
  ch. 5.

=Agatharchĭdas=, a general of Corinth in the Peloponnesian war.
  _Thucydides_, bk. 2, ch. 83.――――A Samian philosopher and historian,
  who wrote a treatise on stones, and a history of Persia and Phœnice,
  besides an account of the Red sea, of Europe and Asia. Some make
  him a native of Cnidus, and add that he flourished about 177 B.C.
  _Josephus_, _Against Apion_.

=Agatharchus=, an officer in the Syracusan fleet. _Thucydides_, bk. 7,
  ch. 27.――――A painter in the age of Zeuxis. _Plutarch_, _Pericles_.

=Agathias=, a Greek historian of Æolia.――――A poet and historian in the
  age of Justinian, of whose reign he published the history in five
  books. Several of his epigrams are found in the _Anthologia_. His
  history is a sequel of that of Procopius. The best edition is that
  of Paris, folio, 1660.

=Agătho=, a Samian historian, who wrote an account of Scythia.――――A
  tragic poet, who flourished 406 B.C. The name of some of his
  tragedies are preserved, such as Telephus, Thyestes, &c.――――A comic
  poet who lived in the same age. _Plutarch_, _Parallela minora_.――――A
  son of Priam. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 24.――――A governor of Babylon.
  _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 1.――――A Pythagorean philosopher. _Ælian_,
  _Varia Historia_, bk. 13, ch. 4.――――A learned and melodious musician,
  who first introduced songs in tragedy. _Aristotle_, _Poetics_.――――A
  youth of Athens, loved by Plato. _Diogenes Laërtius_, bk. 3, ch. 32.

=Agathŏclēa=, a beautiful courtesan of Egypt. One of the Ptolemies
  destroyed his wife Eurydice to marry her. She, with her brother,
  long governed the kingdom, and attempted to murder the king’s son.
  _Plutarch_, _Cleomenes_.――_Justin_, bk. 30, ch. 1.

=Agathŏcles=, a lascivious and ignoble youth, son of a potter, who,
  by entering in the Sicilian army, arrived to the greatest honours,
  and made himself master of Syracuse. He reduced all Sicily under
  his power, but being defeated at Himera by the Carthaginians, he
  carried the war into Africa, where, for four years, he extended his
  conquests over his enemies. He afterwards passed into Italy, and
  made himself master of Crotona. He died in his 72nd year, B.C. 289,
  after a reign of 28 years of mingled prosperity and adversity.
  _Plutarch_, _Apophthegmata Laconica_.――_Justin_, bks. 22 & 23.――
  _Polybius_, bk. 15.――_Diodorus_, bk. 18, &c.――――A son of Lysimachus,
  taken prisoner by the Getæ. He was ransomed, and married Lysandra
  daughter of Ptolemy Lagus. His father, in his old age, married
  Arsinoe the sister of Lysandra. After her husband’s death, Arsinoe,
  fearful for her children, attempted to murder Agathocles. Some say
  that she fell in love with him, and killed him because he slighted
  her. When Agathocles was dead, 283 B.C., Lysandra fled to Seleucus.
  _Strabo_, bk. 13.――_Plutarch_, _Pyrrhus_ & _Demetrius_.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 1, chs. 9 & 10.――――A Grecian historian of Babylon, who wrote an
  account of Cyzicus. _Cicero_, _de Divinatione_, bk. 1, ch. 24.――――A
  Chian who wrote on husbandry. _Varro._――――A Samian writer.――――A
  physician.――――An Athenian archon.

=Agăthon.= _See:_ Agatho.

=Agathonȳmus=, wrote a history of Persia. _Plutarch_, _de Fluviis_.

=Agathosthĕnes=, a poet, &c.

=Agathyllus=, an elegiac poet of Arcadia. _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_,
  bk. 1.

=Agathynum=, a town of Sicily.

=Agathyrsi=, an effeminate nation of Scythia, who had their wives in
  common. They received their name from Agathyrsus son of Hercules.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 10.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 4, li. 146.

=Agāve=, daughter of Cadmus and Hermione, married Echion, by whom
  she had Pentheus, who was torn to pieces by the Bacchanals. _See:_
  Pentheus. She is said to have killed her husband in celebrating the
  orgies of Bacchus. She received divine honours after death, because
  she had contributed to the education of Bacchus. _Theocritus_,
  poem 26.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 3, li. 725.――_Lucan_, bk. 1,
  li. 574.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 11, li. 318.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 3, ch. 4.――――One of the Nereides. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1.――――A
  tragedy of Statius. _Juvenal_, satire 7, li. 87, &c.

=Agaui=, a northern nation who lived upon milk. _Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 13.

=Agāvus=, a son of Priam. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 24.

=Agdestis=, a mountain of Phrygia, where Atys was buried. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 1, ch. 4.――――A surname of Cybele.

=Agelades=, a statuary of Argos. _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 8; bk. 7,
  ch. 23.

=Agelastus=, a surname of Crassus, the grandfather of the rich Crassus.
  He only laughed once in his life, and this, it is said, was upon
  seeing an ass eat thistles. _Cicero_, _de Finibus_, bk. 5.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 7, ch. 19.――――The word is also applied to Pluto, from the sullen
  and melancholy appearance of his countenance.

=Agelāus=, a king of Corinth, son of Ixion.――――One of Penelope’s
  suitors. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 20.――――A son of Hercules and
  Omphale, from whom Crœsus was descended. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2,
  ch. 7.――――A servant of Priam, who preserved Paris when exposed on
  mount Ida. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 12.

=Agendīcum=, now _Sens_, a town of Gaul, the capital of the Senones.
  _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 6, ch. 44.

=Agēnor=, king of Phœnicia, was son of Neptune and Libya, and brother
  to Belus. He married Telephassa, by whom he had Cadmus, Phœnix,
  Cilix, and Europa. _Hyginus_, fable 6.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 1,
  li. 15; bk. 17, li. 58.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 1; bk. 3, ch. 1.
  ――――A son of Jasus and father of Argus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch.
  10.――――A son of Ægyptus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 1.――――A son of
  Phlegeus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 7.――――A son of Pleuron, father
  to Phineus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 7.――――A son of Amphion and
  Niobe. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 4.――――A king of Argos, father to
  Crotopus.――――A son of Antenor. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 21, li. 579.
  ――――A Mitylenean, who wrote a treatise on music.

=Agenŏrĭdes=, a patronymic applied to Cadmus, and the other
  descendants of Agenor. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 3, li. 8.

=Agerīnus=, a freedman of Agrippina, accused of attempting Nero’s
  life. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 14, ch. 16.

=Agesander=, a sculptor of Rhodes under Vespasian, who made a
  representation of Laocoon’s history, which now passes for the best
  relict of all ancient sculpture.

=Agesias=, a Platonic philosopher who taught the immortality of the
  soul. One of the Ptolemies forbade him to continue his lectures,
  because his doctrine was so prevalent that many of his auditors
  committed suicide.

=Agesilāus=, king of Sparta, of the family of the Agidæ, was son
  of Doryssus and father of Archelaus. During his reign Lycurgus
  instituted his famous laws. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 204.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 3, ch. 2.――――A son of Archidamus, of the family of the Proclidæ,
  made king in preference to his nephew Leotychides. He made war
  against Artaxerxes king of Persia with success; but in the midst of
  his conquests in Asia, he was recalled home to oppose the Athenians
  and Bœotians, who desolated his country; and his return was so
  expeditious that he passed, in 30 days, over that tract of country
  which had taken up a whole year of Xerxes’ expedition. He defeated
  his enemies at Coronea; but sickness prevented the progress of
  his conquests, and the Spartans were beat in every engagement,
  especially at Leuctra, till he appeared at their head. Though
  deformed, small of stature, and lame, he was brave, and a greatness
  of soul compensated all the imperfections of nature. He was as fond
  of sobriety as of military discipline; and when he went, in his 80th
  year, to assist Tachus king of Egypt, the servants of the monarch
  could hardly be persuaded that the Lacedæmonian general was eating
  with his soldiers on the ground, bare-headed, and without any
  covering to repose upon. Agesilaus died on his return from Egypt,
  after a reign of 36 years, 362 B.C., and his remains were embalmed
  and brought to Lacedæmon. _Justin_, bk. 6, ch. 1.――_Plutarch_ &
  _Cornelius Nepos_, _Lives of Distinguished Romans_.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 3, ch. 9.――_Xenophon_, _Oratation for Agesilaus_.――――A brother
  of Themistocles, who was sent as a spy into the Persian camp, where
  he stabbed Mardonius instead of Xerxes. _Plutarch_, _Parallela
  minora_.――――A surname of Pluto.――――A Greek who wrote a history of

=Agesipŏlis I.=, king of Lacedæmon, son of Pausanias, obtained a great
  victory over the Mantineans. He reigned 14 years, and was succeeded
  by his brother Cleombrotus, B.C. 380. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 5;
  bk. 8, ch. 8.――_Xenophon_, bk. 3, _Hellenica_.

=Agesipŏlis II.=, son of Cleombrotus king of Sparta, was succeeded by
  Cleomenes II., B.C. 370. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 13; bk. 3, ch. 5.

=Agesistrăta=, the mother of king Agis. _Plutarch_, _Agis_.

=Agesistrătus=, a man who wrote a treatise entitled, _De arte

=Aggrammes=, a cruel king of the Gangarides. His father was a
  hair-dresser, of whom the queen became enamoured, and whom she made
  governor of the king’s children, to gratify her passion. He killed
  them to raise Aggrammes, his son by the queen, to the throne.
  _Curtius_, bk. 9, ch. 2.

=Aggrīnæ=, a people near mount Rhodope. _Cicero_, _Against Piso_,
  ch. 37.

=Agĭdæ=, the descendants of Eurysthenes, who shared the throne of
  Sparta with the Proclidæ. The name is derived from Agis son of
  Eurysthenes. The family became extinct in the person of Cleomenes
  son of Leonidas. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 682.

=Agilāus=, king of Corinth, reigned 36 years.――――One of the Ephori,
almost murdered by the partisans of Cleomenes. _Plutarch_, _Cleomenes_.

=Agis=, king of Sparta, succeeded his father Eurysthenes, and, after a
  reign of one year, was succeeded by his son Echestratus, B.C. 1058.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 2.――――Another king of Sparta, who waged
  bloody wars against Athens, and restored liberty to many Greek
  cities. He attempted to restore the laws of Lycurgus at Sparta,
  but in vain; the perfidy of friends, who pretended to second his
  views, brought him to difficulties, and he was at last dragged
  from a temple, where he had taken refuge, to a prison, where he was
  strangled by order of the Ephori. _Plutarch_, _Agis_.――――Another,
  son of Archidamus, who signalized himself in the war which the
  Spartans waged against Epidaurus. He obtained a victory at Mantinea,
  and was successful in the Peloponnesian war. He reigned 27 years.
  _Thucydides_, bks. 3 & 4.――_Pausanias_, bk. 3, chs. 8 & 10.――――
  Another, son of Archidamus king of Sparta, who endeavoured to
  deliver Greece from the empire of Macedonia, with the assistance
  of the Persians. He was conquered in the attempt, and slain by
  Antipater, Alexander’s general, and 5300 Lacedæmonians perished with
  him. _Curtius_, bk. 6, ch. 1.――_Diodorus_, bk. 17.――_Justin_, bk. 12,
  ch. 1, &c.――――Another, son of Eudamidas, killed in a battle against
  the Mantineans. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 10.――――An Arcadian in the
  expedition of Cyrus against his father Artaxerxes. _Polyænus_, bk. 7,
  ch. 18.――――A poet of Argos, who accompanied Alexander into Asia, and
  said that Bacchus and the sons of Leda would give way to his hero,
  when a god. _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 5.――――A Lycian, who followed Æneas
  into Italy, where he was killed. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 751.

=Aglāia=, one of the Graces, called sometimes Pasiphae. Her sisters
  were Euphrosyne and Thalia, and they were all daughters of Jupiter
  and Eurynome. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 35.

=Aglaonīce=, daughter of Hegemon, was acquainted with astronomy and
  eclipses, whence she boasted of her power to draw down the moon from
  heaven. _Plutarch_, _de Defectu Oraculorum_.

=Aglaŏpe=, one of the Sirens.

=Aglaŏphon=, an excellent Greek painter. _Pliny_, bk. 35, ch. 8.

=Aglaosthĕnes=, wrote a history of Naxos. _Strabo_, bk. 6.

=Aglauros=, or =Agraulos=, daughter of Erechtheus the oldest king of
  Athens, was changed into a stone by Mercury. Some make her daughter
  of Cecrops. _See:_ Herse. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, fable 12.

=Aglaus=, the poorest man of Arcadia, pronounced by the oracle more
  happy than Gyges king of Lydia. _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 46.――_Valerius
  Maximus_, bk. 7, ch. 1.

=Agna=, a woman in the age of Horace, who, though deformed, had many
  admirers. _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 3, li. 40.

=Agno=, one of the nymphs who nursed Jupiter. She gave her name to a
  fountain on mount Lycæus. When the priest of Jupiter, after a prayer,
  stirred the waters of this fountain with a bough, a thick vapour
  arose, which was soon dissolved into a plentiful shower. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 8, ch. 31, &c.

=Agnodĭce=, an Athenian virgin, who disguised her sex to learn
  medicine. She was taught by Hierophilus the art of midwifery,
  and when employed always discovered her sex to her patients. This
  brought her into so much practice, that the males of her profession,
  who were now out of employment, accused her, before the Areopagus,
  of corruption. She confessed her sex to the judges, and a law was
  immediately made to empower all free-born women to learn midwifery.
  _Hyginus_, fable 274.

=Agnon=, son of Nicias, was present at the taking of Samos by Pericles.
  In the Peloponnesian war he went against Potidæa, but abandoned his
  expedition through disease. He built Amphipolis, whose inhabitants
  rebelled to Brasidas, whom they regarded as their founder, forgetful
  of Agnon. _Thucydides_, bks. 2, 3, &c.――――A writer. _Quintilian_,
  bk. 2, ch. 17.――――One of Alexander’s officers. _Pliny_, bk. 33,
  ch. 3.

=Agnonĭdes=, a rhetorician of Athens, who accused Phocion of betraying
  the Piræus to Nicanor. When the people recollected what services
  Phocion had rendered them, they raised him statues, and put to death
  his accuser. _Plutarch_ & _Cornelius Nepos_, _Phocion_.

=Agōnālia= and =Agonia=, festivals in Rome, celebrated three times a
  year in honour of Janus, or Agonius. They were instituted by Numa,
  and on the festive days the chief priest used to offer a ram. _Ovid_,
  _Fasti_, bk. 1, li. 317.――_Varro_, _de Lingua Latina_, bk. 5.

=Agōnes Capitolīni=, games celebrated every fifth year upon the
  Capitoline hill. Prizes were proposed for agility and strength, as
  well as for poetical and literary compositions. The poet Statius
  publicly recited there his Thebaid, which was not received with much

=Agonis=, a woman in the temple of Venus, on mount Eryx. _Cicero_,
  _Against Verres_, bk. 1.

=Agonius=, a Roman deity, who presided over the actions of men. _See:_

=Agoracrĭtus=, a sculptor of Pharos, who made a statue of Venus for
  the people of Athens, B.C. 150.

=Agoranŏmi=, ten magistrates at Athens, who watched over the city and
  port, and inspected whatever was exposed to sale.

=Agorānis=, a river falling into the Ganges. _Arrian_, _de Indica_.

=Agoræa=, a name of Minerva at Sparta. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 11.

=Agoreus=, a surname of Mercury among the Athenians, from his
  presiding over the markets. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 15.

=Agra=, a place of Bœotia where the Ilissus rises. Diana was called
  Agræa, because she hunted there.――――A city of Susa――――of Arcadia
  ――――and of Arabia.

=Agræi= and =Agrenses=, a people of Arabia. _Pliny_, bk. 6,
  ch. 28.――――Of Ætolia. _Livy_, bk. 42, ch. 34.

=Agrāgas=, or =Acragras=, a river, town, and mountain of Sicily;
  called also Agrigentum. The town was built by the people of Gela,
  who were a Rhodian colony. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 703.――
  _Diodorus_, bk. 11.

=Agraria lex=, was enacted to distribute among the Roman people all
  the lands which they had gained by conquest. It was first proposed
  A.U.C. 268, by the consul Spurius Cassius Vicellinus, and rejected
  by the senate. This produced dissensions between the senate and
  the people, and Cassius, upon seeing the ill success of the new
  regulations he proposed, offered to distribute among the people the
  money which was produced from the corn of Sicily, after it had been
  brought and sold in Rome. This act of liberality the people refused,
  and tranquillity was soon after re-established in the state. It was
  proposed a second time A.U.C. 269, by the tribune Licinius Stolo,
  but with no better success; and so great were the tumults which
  followed, that one of the tribunes of the people was killed, and
  many of the senators fined for their opposition. Mutius Scævola,
  A.U.C. 620, persuaded the tribune Tiberius Gracchus to propose it a
  third time; and though Octavius, his colleague in the tribuneship,
  opposed it, yet Tiberius made it pass into a law, after much
  altercation, and commissioners were authorized to make a division
  of the lands. This law at last proved fatal to the freedom of Rome
  under Julius Cæsar. _Florus_, bk. 3, chs. 3 & 13.――_Cicero_, _on the
  Agrarian Law_.――_Livy_, bk. 2, ch. 41.

=Agraule=, a tribe of Athens. _Plutarch_, _Themistocles_.

=Agraulia=, a festival at Athens in honour of Agraulos. The Cyprians
  also observed these festivals, by offering human victims.

=Agraulos=, a daughter of Cecrops. _See:_ Aglauros.――――A surname of

=Agrauonītæ=, a people of Illyria. _Livy_, bk. 45, ch. 26.

=Agre=, one of Actæon’s dogs. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 3, li. 213.

=Agriānes=, a river of Thrace. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 9.――――A people
  that dwelt in the neighbourhood of that river. _Herodotus_, bk. 5,
  ch. 16.

=Agricŏla=, the father-in-law of the historian Tacitus, who wrote
  his life. He was eminent for his public and private virtues. He
  was governor of Britain, and first discovered it to be an island.
  Domitian envied his virtues; he recalled him from the province he
  had governed with equity and moderation, and ordered him to enter
  Rome in the night, that no triumph might be granted him. Agricola
  obeyed, and without betraying any resentment, he retired to peaceful
  solitude, and to the enjoyment of the society of a few friends. He
  died in his 56th year, A. D. 93. _Tacitus_, _Agricola_.

=Agrigentum=, now _Girgenti_, a town of Sicily, 18 stadia from the
  sea, on mount Agragas. It was founded by a Rhodian, or, according
  to some, by an Ionian colony. The inhabitants were famous for
  their hospitality, and for their luxurious manner of living. In
  its flourishing situation Agrigentum contained 200,000 inhabitants,
  who submitted with reluctance to the superior power of Syracuse.
  The government was monarchical, but afterwards a democracy was
  established. The famous Phalaris usurped the sovereignty, which was
  also for some time in the hands of the Carthaginians. Agrigentum
  can now boast of more venerable remains of antiquity than any other
  town in Sicily. _Polybius_, bk. 9.――_Strabo_, bk. 6.――_Diodorus_,
  bk. 13.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 707.――_Silius Italicus_,
  bk. 14, li. 211.

=Agrinium=, a city of Acarnania. _Polybius_, bk. 6.

=Agriōnia=, annual festivals in honour of Bacchus, celebrated
  generally in the night. They were instituted, as some suppose,
  because the god was attended with wild beasts.

=Agriopas=, a man who wrote the history of all those who had obtained
  the public prize at Olympia. _Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 22.

=Agriōpe=, the wife of Agenor king of Phœnicia.

=Marcus Agrippa Vipsanius=, a celebrated Roman, who obtained a victory
  over Sextus Pompey, and favoured the cause of Augustus at the
  battles of Actium and Philippi, where he behaved with great valour.
  He advised his imperial friend to re-establish the republican
  government at Rome, but he was overruled by Mecænas. In his
  expeditions in Gaul and Germany, he obtained several victories, but
  refused the honours of a triumph, and turned his liberality towards
  the embellishing of Rome and the raising of magnificent buildings,
  one of which, the Pantheon, still exists. After he had retired for
  two years to Mitylene, in consequence of a quarrel with Marcellus,
  Augustus recalled him, and, as a proof of his regard, gave him his
  daughter Julia in marriage, and left him the care of the empire
  during an absence of two years employed in visiting the Roman
  provinces of Greece and Asia. He died, universally lamented,
  at Rome in the 51st year of his age, 12 B.C., and his body was
  placed in the tomb which Augustus had prepared for himself. He
  had been married three times: to Pomponia daughter of Atticus, to
  Marcella daughter of Octavia, and to Julia, by whom he had five
  children――Caius, and Lucius Cæsares, Posthumus Agrippa, Agrippina,
  and Julia. His son, Caius Cæsar Agrippa, was adopted by Augustus,
  and made consul, by the flattery of the Roman people at the age
  of 14 or 15. This promising youth went to Armenia on an expedition
  against the Persians, where he received a fatal blow from the
  treacherous hand of Lollius, the governor of one of the neighbouring
  cities. He languished for a little time and died in Lycia. His
  younger brother, Lucius Cæsar Agrippa, was likewise adopted by his
  grandfather Augustus; but he was soon after banished to Campania,
  for using seditious language against his benefactor. In the seventh
  year of his exile he would have been recalled had not Livia and
  Tiberius, jealous of the partiality of Augustus for him, ordered him
  to be assassinated in his 26th year. He has been called ferocious
  and savage; and he gave himself the name of Neptune, because he
  was fond of fishing. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 682.――_Horace_,
  bk. 1, ode 6.――――One of the servants of the murdered prince assumed
  his name and raised commotions. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 2, ch. 39.
  ――――Sylvius, a son of Tiberius Sylvius king of Latium. He reigned
  33 years, and was succeeded by his son Romulus Sylvius. _Dionysius
  of Halicarnassus_, bk. 1, ch. 8.――――A consul who conquered the
  Æqui.――――A philosopher. _Diogenes Laërtius._――――Herodes, a son
  of Aristobulus, grandson of the Great Herod, who became tutor to
  the grandchild of Tiberius, and was soon after imprisoned by the
  suspicious tyrant. When Caligula ascended the throne his favourite
  was released, presented with a chain of gold as heavy as that which
  had lately confined him, and made king of Judæa. He was a popular
  character with the Jews: and it is said, that while they were
  flattering him with the appellation of God, an angel of God struck
  him with the lousy disease, of which he died, A.D. 43. His son,
  of the same name, was the last king of the Jews, deprived of his
  kingdom by Claudius, in exchange for other provinces. He was with
  Titus at the celebrated siege of Jerusalem, and died A.D. 94. It was
  before him that St. Paul pleaded, and made mention of his incestuous
  commerce with his sister Berenice. _Juvenal_, satire 6, li. 156.
  ――_Tacitus_, bk. 2, _Histories_, ch. 81.――――Menenius, a Roman
  general, who obtained a triumph over the Sabines, appeased the
  populace of Rome by the well-known fable of the belly and the limbs,
  and erected the new office of tribunes of the people, A.U.C. 261. He
  died poor, but universally regretted: his funeral was at the expense
  of the public from which also his daughters received dowries. _Livy_,
  bk. 2, ch. 32.――_Florus_, bk. 1, ch. 23.――――A mathematician in the
  reign of Domitian; he was a native of Bithynia.

=Agrippīna=, a wife of Tiberius. The emperor repudiated her to marry
  Julia. _Suetonius_, _Tiberias_, ch. 7.――――A daughter of Marcus
  Agrippa, and granddaughter to Augustus. She married Germanicus, whom
  she accompanied in Syria; and when Piso poisoned him, she carried
  his ashes to Italy, and accused his murderer, who stabbed himself.
  She fell under the displeasure of Tiberius, who exiled her in
  an island, where she died A.D. 26, for want of bread. She left
  nine children, and was universally distinguished for intrepidity
  and conjugal affection. _Tacitus_, bk. 1, _Annals_, ch. 2, &c.――
  _Suetonius_, _Tiberias_, ch. 52.――――Julia, daughter of Germanicus
  and Agrippina, married Domitius Ænobarbus, by whom she had Nero.
  After her husband’s death she married her uncle the emperor Claudius,
  whom she destroyed to make Nero succeed to the throne. After many
  cruelties and much licentiousness she was assassinated by order of
  her son, and as she expired she exclaimed, “Strike the belly which
  could give birth to such a monster.” She died A.D. 59, after a life
  of prostitution and incestuous gratifications. It is said that her
  son viewed her dead body with all the raptures of admiration, saying,
  he never could have believed his mother was so beautiful a woman.
  She left memoirs which assisted Tacitus in the composition of his
  annals. The town which she built, where she was born, on the borders
  of the Rhine, and called _Agrippina Colonia_, is the modern Cologne.
  _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 4, ch. 75; bk. 12, chs. 7, 22, &c.

=Agrisius.= _See:_ Acrisius.

=Agrisope=, or =Agriope=, the mother of Cadmus. _Hyginus_, fable 6.

=Agrius=, son of Parthaon drove his brother Œneus from the throne.
  He was afterwards expelled by Diomedes the grandson of Œneus, upon
  which he killed himself. _Hyginus_, fables 175 & 242.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 7.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 14, li. 117.――――A giant.――――A
  centaur killed by Hercules. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 5.――――A son of
  Ulysses by Circe. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 1013.――――The father of
  Thersites. _Ovid_, _ex Ponto_, bk. 3, poem 9, li. 9.

=Agrŏlas=, surrounded the citadel of Athens with walls, except that
  part which afterwards was repaired by Cimon. _Pausanias_, bk. 1,
  ch. 28.

=Agron=, king of Illyria, who, after conquering the Ætolians, drank
  to such excess that he died instantly, B.C. 231. _Polybius_, bk. 2,
  ch. 4.

=Agrotas=, a Greek orator of Marseilles.

=Agrotĕra=, an anniversary sacrifice of goats offered to Diana at
  Athens. It was instituted by Callimachus the Polemarch, who vowed
  to sacrifice to the goddess so many goats as there might be enemies
  killed in a battle which he was going to fight against the troops
  of Darius, who had invaded Attica. The quantity of the slain was
  so great, that a sufficient number of goats could not be procured;
  therefore they were limited to 500 every year, till they equalled
  the number of Persians slain in battle.――――A temple of Ægira in
  Peloponnesus, erected to the goddess under this name. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 7, ch. 26.

=Agyleus= and =Agyieus= from ἀγυια, _a street_, a surname of Apollo,
  because sacrifices were offered to him in the public streets of
  Athens. _Horace_, bk. 4, ode 6.

=Agylla=, a town of Etruria, founded by a colony of Pelasgians, and
  governed by Mezentius when Æneas came to Italy. It was afterwards
  called Cære, by the Lydians, who took possession of it. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 652; bk. 8, li. 479.

=Agyllæus=, a gigantic wrestler of Cleonæ, scarce inferior to Hercules
  in strength. _Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 6, li. 837.

=Agyrium=, a town of Sicily, where Diodorus the historian was born.
  The inhabitants were called _Agyrinenses_. _Diodorus_, bk. 14.――
  _Cicero_, _Against Verres_, bk. 2, ch. 65.

=Agyrius=, an Athenian general who succeeded Thrasybulus. _Diodorus_,
  bk. 14.

=Agyrtes=, a man who killed his father. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5,
  li. 148.――――A piper. _♦Statius_, bk. 2, _Achilleis_, li. 50.

      ♦ ‘Sil.’ replaced with ‘Statius’

=Agȳrus=, a tyrant of Sicily, assisted by Dionysius against the
  Carthaginians. _Diodorus_, bk. 14.

=Ahāla=, the surname of the Servilii at Rome.

=Ahenobarbus.= _See:_ Ænobarbus.

=Ajax=, the son of Telamon by Peribœa or Eribœa daughter of Alcathous,
  was, next to Achilles, the bravest of all the Greeks in the Trojan
  war. He engaged Hector, with whom at parting he exchanged arms.
  After the death of Achilles, Ajax and Ulysses disputed their
  claim to the arms of the dead hero. When they were given to the
  latter, Ajax was so enraged that he slaughtered a whole flock of
  sheep, supposing them to be the sons of Atreus, who had given the
  preference to Ulysses, and stabbed himself with his sword. The blood
  which ran to the ground from the wound, was changed into the flower
  hyacinth. Some say that he was killed by Paris in battle, others
  that he was murdered by Ulysses. His body was buried at Sigæum,
  some say on mount Rhœtus, and his tomb was visited and honoured
  by Alexander. Hercules, according to some authors, prayed to the
  gods that his friend Telamon, who was childless, might have a son,
  with a skin as impenetrable as the skin of the Nemæan lion which
  he then wore. His prayers were heard. Jupiter, under the form of
  an eagle, promised to grant the petition; and when Ajax was born,
  Hercules wrapped him up in the lion’s skin, which rendered his body
  invulnerable, except that part which was left uncovered by a hole
  in the skin, through which Hercules hung his quiver. This vulnerable
  part was in his breast, or as some say behind the neck. _Quintus
  Calaber [Smyrnæus]_, bks. 1 & 4.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, chs. 10
  & 13.――_Philostratus_, _Heroicus_, ch. 12.――_Pindar_, _Isthmean_,
  ode 6.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 1, &c.; _Odyssey_, bk. 11.――_Dictys
  Cretensis_, bk. 5.――_Dares Phrygius_, ch. 9.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 13.――_Horace_, bk. 2, satire 3, li. 197. ――_Hyginus_, fables
  107 & 242.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 35; bk. 5, ch. 19.――――The son of
  Oileus king of Locris, was surnamed _Locrian_, in contradistinction
  to the son of Telamon. He went with 40 ships to the Trojan war,
  as being one of Helen’s suitors. The night that Troy was taken, he
  offered violence to Cassandra, who fled into Minerva’s temple; and
  for this offence, as he returned home, the goddess, who had obtained
  the thunders of Jupiter, and the power of tempests from Neptune,
  destroyed his ship in a storm. Ajax swam to a rock, and said that
  he was safe in spite of all the gods. Such impiety offended Neptune,
  who struck the rock with his trident, and Ajax tumbled into the sea
  with part of the rock and was drowned. His body was afterwards found
  by the Greeks, and black sheep offered on his tomb. According to
  Virgil’s account, Minerva seized him in a whirlwind, and dashed him
  against a rock, where he expired, consumed by thunder. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 43, &c.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bks. 2, 13, &c.;
  _Odyssey_, bk. 4.――_Hyginus_, fables 116 & 273.――_Philostratus_,
  _Imagines_, bk. 2, ch. 13.――_Seneca_, _Agamemnon_.――_Horace_,
  _Epodes_, poem 10, li. 13.――_Pausanias_, bk. 10, chs. 26 & 31.――――The
  two Ajaces were, as some suppose, placed after death in the island
  of Leuce, a separate place reserved only for the bravest heroes of

=Aidōneus=, a surname of Pluto.――――A king of the Molossi, who
  imprisoned Theseus, because he and Pirithous attempted to ravish his
  daughter Proserpine, near the Acheron; whence arose the well-known
  fable of the descent of Theseus and Pirithous into hell. _Plutarch_,
  _Theseus_.――――A river near Troy. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 12.

=Aimy̆lus=, son of Ascanius, was, according to some, the progenitor of
  the noble family of the Æmylii in Rome.

=Aius Locutius=, a deity to whom the Romans erected an altar, from the
  following circumstance: one of the common people, called Ceditius,
  informed the tribunes, that as he passed one night through one of
  the streets of the city, a voice more than human, issuing from above
  Vesta’s temple, told him that Rome would soon be attacked by the
  Gauls. His information was neglected; but his veracity was proved
  by the event; and Camillus, after the conquest of the Gauls, built
  a temple to that supernatural voice which had given Rome warning of
  the approaching calamity, under the name of Aius Locutius.

=Alabanda=, æ, or orum, an inland town of Caria, abounding with
  scorpions. The name is derived from Alabandus, a deity worshipped
  there. _Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 3, ch. 16.――_Herodotus_,
  bk. 7, ch. 195.――_Strabo_, bk. 14.

=Alabastrum=, a town of Egypt. _Pliny_, bk. 36, ch. 7.

=Alăbus=, a river in Sicily.

=Alæa=, a surname of Minerva in Peloponnesus. Her festivals are also
  called Alæa. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, chs. 4 & 7.

=Alæi=, a number of islands in the Persian gulf, abounding in
  tortoises. _Arrian_, _Periplus of the Euxine Sea_.

=Alæsa=, a city on a mountain in Sicily.

=Alæus=, the father of Auge, who married Hercules.

=Alagōnia=, a city of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, chs. 21 & 26.

=Alāla=, the goddess of war, sister to Mars. _Plutarch_, _de gloria

=Alalcomĕnæ=, a city of Bœotia, where some suppose that Minerva was
  born. _Plutarch_, _Quæstiones Græcæ_.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 7,
  li. 330.

=Alalia=, a town of Corsica, built by a colony of Phocæans, destroyed
  by Scipio, 262 B.C., and afterwards rebuilt by Sylla. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 165.――_Florus_, bk. 2, ch. 2.

=Alamānes=, a statuary at Athens, disciple of Phidias.

=Alamanni=, or =Alemanni=, a people of Germany, near the Hercynian
  forest. They were very powerful and inimical to Rome.

=Alāni=, a people of Sarmatia, near the Palus Mœotis, who were said to
  have 26 different languages. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 12.――_Strabo._

=Alăres=, a people of Pannonia. _Tacitus_, bk. 15, _Annals_, ch. 10.

=Alarīcus=, a famous king of the Goths, who plundered Rome in the
  reign of Honorius. He was greatly respected for his military valour,
  and during his reign he kept the Roman empire in continual alarms.
  He died after a reign of 13 years, A.D. 410.

=Alarōdii=, a nation near Pontus. _Herodotus_, bk. 3, ch. 94.

=Alastor=, a son of Neleus and Chloris. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.
  ――――An arm-bearer to Sarpedon king of Lycia, killed by Ulysses.
  _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 5, li. 677.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13,
  li. 257.――――One of Pluto’s horses when he carried away Proserpine.
  _Claudian_, _de Raptu Proserpinæ_, bk. 1, li. 286.

=Alaudæ=, soldiers of one of Cæsar’s legions in Gaul. _Suetonius_,
  _Julius Cæsar_, ch. 24.

=Alazon=, a river flowing from mount Caucasus into the Cyrus, and
  separating Albania from Iberia. _Flaccus_, bk. 6, li. 101.

=Alba Sylvius=, son of Latinus Sylvius, succeeded his father in the
  kingdom of Latium, and reigned 36 years. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 14, li. 612.――――Longa, a city of Latium, built by Ascanius, B.C.
  1152, on the spot where Æneas found, according to the prophecy of
  Helenus (_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 390, &c.), and of the god
  of the river (_Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 43), a _white_ sow with 30 young
  ones. It was called _longa_ because it extended along the hill
  Albinus. The descendants of Æneas reigned there in the following
  order: 1. Ascanius, son of Æneas, with little intermission, eight
  years. 2. Sylvius Posthumus, 29 years. 3. Æneas Sylvius, 31 years.
  4. Latinus, five years. 5. Alba, 36 years. 6. Atys, or Capetus,
  26 years. 7. Capys, 28 years. 8. Calpetus, 13 years. 9. Tiberinus,
  eight years. 10. Agrippa, 33 years. 11. Remulus, 19 years. 12.
  Aventinus, 37 years. 13. Procas, 13 years. 14. Numitor and Amulius.
  Alba, which had long been the powerful rival of Rome, was destroyed
  by the Romans, 665 B.C., and the inhabitants were carried to Rome.
  _Livy._――_Florus._――_Justin_, &c.――――A city of the Marsi in Italy.
  ――――Pompeia, a city of Liguria. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 5.

=Albāni= and =Albenses=, names applied to the inhabitants of the two
  cities of Alba. _Cicero_, _Rhetorica ad Herennium_, bk. 2, ch. 28.

=Albānia=, a country of Asia, between the Caspian sea and Iberia.
  The inhabitants are said to have their eyes all blue. Some maintain
  that they followed Hercules from mount Albanus in Italy, when he
  returned from the conquest of Geryon. _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 15.――_Justin_, bk. 42, ch. 3.――_Strabo_, bk. 11.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 8, ch. 40.――_Mela_, bk. 3, ch. 5.――――The Caspian sea is called
  _Albanum_, as being near Albania. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 13.

=Albānus=, a mountain with a lake in Italy, 16 miles from Rome,
  near Alba. It was on this mountain that the _Latinæ feriæ_ were
  celebrated with great solemnity. _Horace_, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 27.
  The word, taken adjectively, is applied to such as are natives of,
  or belong to, the town of Alba.

=Albia Terennia=, the mother of Otho. _Suetonius._

=Albīci=, a people of Gallia Aquitania. _Cæsar_, _Civil War_, bk. 1,
  ch. 34.

=Albiētæ=, a people of Latium. _Dionysius of Halicarnassus._

=Albigaunum=, a town of Liguria. _Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 4.

=Albīni=, two Roman orators of great merit, mentioned by Cicero in
  _Brutus_. This name is common to many tribunes of the people. _Livy_,
  bk. 2, ch. 33; bk. 6, ch. 30. _Sallust_, _Jugurthine War_.

=Albinovānus Celsus.= _See:_ Celsus.――――Pedo, a poet contemporary with
  Ovid. He wrote elegies, epigrams, and heroic poetry in a style so
  elegant that he merited the epithet of divine. _Ovid_, _ex Ponto_,
  bk. 4, poem 10.――_Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 5.

=Albintemēlium=, a town of Liguria. _Tacitus_, bk. 2, _Histories_,
  ch. 13.

=Albīnus=, was born at Adrumetum in Africa, and made governor of
  Britain by Commodus. After the murder of Pertinax, he was elected
  emperor by the soldiers in Britain. Severus had also been invested
  with the imperial dignity by his own army; and these two rivals,
  with about 50,000 men each, came into Gaul to decide the fate of the
  empire. Severus was conqueror, and he ordered the head of Albinus
  to be cut off, and his body to be thrown into the Rhone, A.D. 198.
  Albinus, according to the exaggerated account of a certain writer
  called Codrus, was famous for his voracious appetite, and sometimes
  ate for breakfast no less than 500 figs, 100 peaches, 20 pounds
  of dry raisins, 10 melons, and 400 oysters.――――A pretorian sent to
  Sylla, as ambassador from the senate during the civil wars. He was
  put to death by Sylla’s soldiers. _Plutarch_, _Sulla_.――――An usurer.
  _Horace._――――A Roman plebeian who received the vestals into his
  chariot in preference to his family, when they fled from Rome, which
  the Gauls had sacked. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 1, ch. 1.――_Livy_,
  bk. 5, ch. 40.――_Florus_, bk. 1, ch. 13.――――Aulus Posthumus, consul
  with Lucullus, A.U.C. 603, wrote a history of Rome in Greek.

=Albion=, son of Neptune by Amphitrite, came into Britain, where he
  established a kingdom, and first introduced astrology and the art
  of building ships. He was killed at the mouth of the Rhone, with
  stones thrown by Jupiter, because he opposed the passage of Hercules.
  _Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 5.――――The greatest island of Europe, now called
  Great Britain. It is called after Albion, who is said to have
  reigned there; or from its chalky white (_albus_) rocks, which
  appear at a great distance. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 16.――_Tacitus_,
  _Agricola_. The ancients compared its figure to a long buckler, or
  to the iron of a hatchet.

=Albis=, a river of Germany falling into the German ocean, and now
  called the Elbe. _Lucan_, bk. 2, li. 52.

=Albius=, a man, father to a famous spendthrift. _Horace_, bk. 1,
  satire 4.――――A name of the poet Tibullus. _Horace_, bk. 1, ode 33,
  li. 1.

=Albucilla=, an immodest woman. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 6, ch. 47.

=Albŭla=, the ancient name of the river Tiber. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 8, li. 332.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 3.

=Albŭnea=, a wood near Tibur, and the river Anio, sacred to the muses.
  It received its name from a Sibyl, called also Albunea, worshipped
  as a goddess at Tibur, whose temple still remains. Near Albunea
  there was a small lake of the same name, whose waters were of a
  sulphureous smell, and possessed some medicinal properties. This
  lake fell, by a small stream called Albula, into the river Anio,
  with which it soon lost itself in the Tiber. _Horace_, bk. 1, ode 7,
  li. 12.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 83.

=Alburnus=, a lofty mountain of Lucania, where the Tanager takes its
  rise. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 3, li. 147.

=Albus Pagus=, a place near Sidon, where Antony waited for the arrival
  of Cleopatra.

=Albūtius=, a prince of Celtiberia, to whom Scipio restored his wife.
  _Arrian._――――A sordid man, father to Canidia. He beat his servants
  before they were guilty of any offence, “lest,” said he, “I should
  have no time to punish them when they offend.” _Horace_, bk. 2,
  satire 2.――――A rhetorician in the age of Seneca.――――An ancient
  satirist. _Cicero_, _Brutus_.――――Titus, an epicurean philosopher,
  born at Rome; so fond of Greece and Grecian manners, that he wished
  not to pass for a Roman. He was made governor of Sardinia; but he
  grew offensive to the senate and was banished. It is supposed that
  he died at Athens.

=Alcæus=, a celebrated lyric poet of Mitylene in Lesbos, about 600
  years before the christian era. He fled from a battle, and his
  enemies hung up, in the temple of Minerva, the armour which he left
  in the field, as a monument of his disgrace. He is the inventor of
  alcaic verses. He was contemporary to the famous Sappho, to whom he
  paid his addresses. Of all his works, nothing but a few fragments
  remain, found in Athenæus. _Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――_Herodotus_,
  bk. 5, ch. 95.――_Horace_, bk. 4, ode 9.――_Cicero_, bk. 4, _Tusculanæ
  Disputationes_, ch. 33.――――A poet of Athens, said by Suidas to
  be the inventor of tragedy.――――A writer of epigrams.――――A comic
  poet.――――A son of Androgeus, who went with Hercules into Thrace,
  and was made king of part of the country. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch.
  5.――――A son of Hercules by a maid of Omphale.――――A son of Perseus,
  father of Amphitryon and Anaxo. From him Hercules has been called
  Alcides. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 14.

=Alcamĕnes=, one of the Agidæ, king of Sparta, known by his apophthegms.
  He succeeded his father Teleclus, and reigned 37 years. The Helots
  rebelled in his reign. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 2; bk. 4, chs. 4
  & 5.――――A general of the Achæans. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 15.――――A
  statuary, who lived 448 B.C., and was distinguished for his statues
  of Venus and Vulcan. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 10.――――The commander of
  a Spartan fleet, put to death by the Athenians. _Thucydides_, bk. 4,
  ch. 5, &c.

=Alcander=, an attendant of Sarpedon, killed by Ulysses. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, li. 257.――――A Lacedæmonian youth, who
  accidentally put out one of the eyes of Lycurgus, and was generously
  forgiven by the sage. _Plutarch_, _Lycurgus_.――_Pausanias_, bk. 3,
  ch. 18.――――A Trojan killed by Turnus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9,
  li. 767.

=Alcandre=, the wife of Polybius, a rich Theban. _Homer_, _Odyssey_,
  bk. 4, li. 672.

=Alcānor=, a Trojan of mount Ida, whose sons Pandarus and Bitias
  followed Æneas into Italy. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9, li. 672.――――A
  son of Phorus, killed by Æneas. _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 338.

=Alcăthoe=, a name of Megara, in Attica, because rebuilt by Alcathous
  son of Pelops. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, li. 8.

=Alcăthous=, a son of Pelops, who, being suspected of murdering his
  brother Chrysippus, came to Megara, where he killed a lion which had
  destroyed the king’s son. He succeeded to the kingdom of Megara, and
  in commemoration of his services, festivals, called Alcathoia, were
  instituted at Megara. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 41, &c.――――A Trojan,
  who married Hippodamia daughter of Anchises. He was killed in the
  Trojan war by Idomeneus. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 12, li. 93.――――A son
  of Parthaon, killed by Tydeus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 7, &c.――――A
  friend of Æneas, killed in the Rutulian war. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk.
  10, li. 747.

=Alce=, one of Actæon’s dogs. _Ovid._――――A town of Spain which
  surrendered to Gracchus, now _Alcazar_, a little above Toledo.
  _Livy_, bk. 40, ch. 47.

=Alcēnor=, an Argive, who, along with Chromius, survived the battle
  between 300 of his countrymen and 300 Lacedæmonians. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 82.

=Alceste=, or =Alcestis=, daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia, married
  Admetus. She, with her sisters, put to death her father, that
  he might be restored to youth and vigour by Medea, who, however,
  refused to perform her promise. Upon this the sisters fled to
  Admetus, who married Alceste. They were soon pursued by an army
  headed by their brother Acastus; and Admetus, being taken prisoner,
  was redeemed from death by the generous offer of his wife, who was
  sacrificed in his stead to appease the shades of her father. Some
  say that Alceste, with an unusual display of conjugal affection,
  laid down her life for her husband, when she had been told by an
  oracle that he could never recover from a disease, except some
  one of his friends died in his stead. According to some authors,
  Hercules brought her back from hell. She had many suitors while
  she lived with her father. _See:_ Admetus. _Juvenal_, satire 6,
  li. 651.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――_Pausanias_, bk. 5,
  ch. 17.――_Hyginus_, fable 251.――_Euripides_, _Alcestis_.

=Alcĕtas=, a king of the Molossi, descended from Pyrrhus the son of
  Achilles. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 11.――――A general of Alexander’s
  army, brother to Perdiccas.――――The eighth king of Macedonia,
  who reigned 29 years.――――An historian, who wrote an account
  of everything that had been dedicated in the temple of Delphi.
  _Athenæus._――――A son of Arybas king of Epirus. _Pausanias_, bk. 1,
  ch. 11.

=Alchĭdas=, a Rhodian, who became enamoured of a naked Cupid of
  Praxiteles. _Pliny_, bk. 36, ch. 5.

=Alchimăchus=, a celebrated painter. _Pliny_, bk. 35, ch. 11.

=Alcibiădes=, an Athenian general famous for his enterprising
  spirit, versatile genius, and natural foibles. He was disciple to
  Socrates, whose lessons and example checked for a while his vicious
  propensities. In the Peloponnesian war he encouraged the Athenians
  to make an expedition against Syracuse. He was chosen general in
  that war, and in his absence his enemies accused him of impiety,
  and confiscated his goods. Upon this he fled, and stirred up the
  Spartans to make war against Athens, and when this did not succeed
  he retired to Tissaphernes, the Persian general. Being recalled by
  the Athenians, he obliged the Lacedæmonians to sue for peace; made
  several conquests in Asia, and was received in triumph at Athens.
  His popularity was of short duration; the failure of an expedition
  against Cyme exposed him again to the resentment of the people,
  and he fled to Pharnabazus, whom he almost induced to make war
  upon Lacedæmon. This was told to Lysander the Spartan general,
  who prevailed upon Pharnabazus to murder Alcibiades. Two servants
  were sent for that purpose, and they set on fire the cottage where
  he was, and killed him with darts as he attempted to make his
  escape. He died in the 46th year of his age, 404 B.C., after a
  life of perpetual difficulties. If the fickleness of his countrymen
  had known how to retain among them the talents of a man who
  distinguished himself, and was admired wherever he went, they might
  have risen to greater splendour, and to the sovereignty of Greece.
  His character has been cleared from the aspersions of malevolence,
  by the writings of Thucydides, Timæus, and Theopompus; and he is
  known to us as a hero, who, to the principles of the debauchee,
  added the intelligence and sagacity of the statesman, the cool
  intrepidity of the general, and the humanity of the philosopher.
  _Plutarch_ & _Cornelius Nepos_, _Alcibiades_.――_Thucydides_, bks. 5,
  6, & 7.――_Xenophon_, _Hellenica_, bk. 1, &c.――_Diodorus_, bk. 12.

=Alcidămas=, of Cos, was father to Ctesilla, who was changed into
  a dove. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 7, fable 12.――――A celebrated
  wrestler. _Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 10, li. 500.――――A philosopher
  and orator, who wrote a treatise on death. He was pupil to Gorgias,
  and flourished B.C. 424. _Quintilian_, bk. 3, ch. 1.

=Alcidamēa=, was mother of Bunus by Mercury.

=Alcidamĭdas=, a general of the Messenians, who retired to Rhegium,
  after the taking of Ithome by the Spartans, B.C. 723. _Strabo_,
  bk. 6.

=Alcidămus=, an Athenian rhetorician, who wrote an eulogy on death,
  &c. _Cicero_, bk. 1, _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, ch. 48.――_Plutarch_,
  _Lives of the Ten Orators_.

=Alcīdas=, a Lacedæmonian, sent with 23 galleys against Corcyra, in
  the Peloponnesian war. _Thucydides_, bk. 3, ch. 16, &c.

=Alcīdes=, a name of Hercules, from his _strength_, ἀλκος, or from his
  grandfather Alcæus.――――A surname of Minerva in Macedonia. _Livy_,
  bk. 42, ch. 51.

=Alcidĭce=, the mother of Tyro, by Salmoneus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 9.

=Alcimăchus=, an eminent painter. _Pliny_, bk. 35, ch. 11.

=Alcimĕde=, the mother of Jason by Æson. _Flaccus_, bk. 1, li. 296.

=Alcimĕdon=, a plain of Arcadia, with a cave the residence of
  Alcimedon, whose daughter Phillo was ravished by Hercules.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 12.――――An excellent carver. _Virgil_,
  _Eclogues_, poem 3.――――A sailor, &c. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4,
  fable 10.

=Alcimĕnes=, a tragic poet of Megara.――――A comic writer of Athens.
  ――――An attendant of Demetrius. _Plutarch_, _Demetrius_.――――A man
  killed by his brother Bellerophon. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 3.

=Alcĭmus=, an historian of Sicily, who wrote an account of Italy.――――
  An orator. _Diogenes Laërtius._

=Alcinoe=, a daughter of Sthenelus son of Perseus. _Apollodorus_,
  bk. 2, ch. 4.

=Alcĭnor.= _See:_ Alcenor.

=Alcinous=, son of Nausithous and Peribœa, was king of Phæacia, and
  is praised for his love of agriculture. He married his niece Arete,
  by whom he had several sons and a daughter, Nausicaa. He kindly
  entertained Ulysses, who had been shipwrecked on his coast, and
  heard the recital of his adventures; whence arose the proverb of
  the stories of Alcinous to denote improbability. _Homer_, _Odyssey_,
  bk. 7.――_Orpheus_, _Argonautica_.――_Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 2,
  li. 87.――_Statius_, bk. 1, _Sylvæ_, poem 3, li. 81.――_Juvenal_,
  satire 5, li. 151.――_Ovid_, _Amores_, bk. 1, poem 10, li. 56.――
  _Plato_, _Republic_, bk. 10.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――――A
  son of Hippocoon. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 10.――――A man of Elis.
  _Pausanias._――――A philosopher in the second century, who wrote a
  book _de Doctriná Platonis_, the best edition of which is the 12mo,
  printed Oxford, 1667.

=Alcioneus=, a man killed by Perseus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5,
  fable 4.

=Alciphron=, a philosopher of Magnesia, in the age of Alexander. There
  are some epistles in Greek that bear his name, and contain a very
  perfect picture of the customs and manners of the Greeks. They are
  by some supposed to be the production of a writer of the fourth
  century. The only edition is that of Leipzig, 12mo, 1715, cum notis

=Alcippe=, a daughter of the god Mars, by Agraulos. She was ravished
  by Halirrhotius. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 14.――――The wife of
  Metion and mother to Eupalamus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 16.――――The
  daughter of Œnomaus, and wife of Evenus, by whom she had Marpessa.
  ――――A woman who brought forth an elephant. _Pliny_, bk. 7.――――A
  country-woman. _Virgil_, _Eclogues_, poem 7.

=Alcippus=, a reputed citizen of Sparta, banished by his enemies. He
  married Democrite, of whom _Plutarch_, _Amatoriæ narrationes_.

=Alcis=, a daughter of Ægyptus. _Apollodorus._

=Alcithoe=, a Theban woman, who ridiculed the orgies of Bacchus. She
  was changed into a bat, and the spindle and yarn with which she
  worked, into a vine and ivy. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4, fable 1.

=Alcmæon=, was son of the prophet Amphiaraus and Eriphyle. His father
  going to the Theban war, where, according to an oracle, he was to
  perish, charged him to revenge his death upon Eriphyle, who had
  betrayed him. _See:_ Eriphyle. As soon as he heard of his father’s
  death, he murdered his mother, for which crime the Furies persecuted
  him till Phlegeus purified him and gave him his daughter Alphesibœa
  in marriage. Alcmæon gave her the fatal collar which his mother
  had received to betray his father, and afterwards divorced her,
  and married Callirhoe the daughter of Achelous, to whom he promised
  the necklace which he had given to Alphesibœa. When he attempted
  to recover it, Alphesibœa’s brothers murdered him on account of the
  treatment which he had shown their sister, and left his body a prey
  to dogs and wild beasts. Alcmæon’s children by Callirhoe revenged
  their father’s death by killing his murderers. _See:_ Alphesibœa,
  Amphiaraus. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 17; bk. 6, ch. 18; bk. 8, ch. 24.
  ――_Plutarch_, _de Exilio_.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 7.――_Hyginus_,
  fables 73 & 245.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bks. 2 & 4.――_Ovid_,
  _Fasti_, bk. 2, li. 44; _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9, fable 10.――――A
  son of Ægyptus, the husband of Hippomedusa. _Apollodorus._――――A
  philosopher, disciple to Pythagoras, born in Crotona. He wrote on
  physic, and he was the first who dissected animals to examine into
  the structure of the human frame. _Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_,
  bk. 6, ch. 27.――――A son of the poet Æschylus, the 13th archon of
  Athens.――――A son of Syllus, driven from Messenia with the rest of
  Nestor’s family, by the Heraclidæ. He came to Athens, and from him
  the Alcmæonidæ were descended. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 18.

=Alcmæŏnĭdæ=, a noble family of Athens, descended from Alcmæon. They
  undertook for 300 talents to rebuild the temple of Delphi, which
  had been burnt, and they finished the work in a more splendid manner
  than was required, in consequence of which they gained popularity,
  and by their influence the Pythia prevailed upon the Lacedæmonians
  to deliver their country from the tyranny of the Pisistratidæ.
  _Herodotus_, bks. 5 & 6.――_Thucydides_, bk. 6, ch. 59.――_Plutarch_,

=Alcman=, a very ancient lyric poet, born in Sardinia, and not at
  Lacedæmon, as some suppose. He wrote in the Doric dialect six books
  of verses, besides a play called Colymbosas. He flourished B.C. 670,
  and died of the lousy disease. Some of his verses are preserved by
  Athenæus and others. _Pliny_, bk. 11, ch. 33.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1,
  ch. 41; bk. 3, ch. 15.――_Aristotle_, _History of Animals_, bk. 5,
  ch. 31.

=Alcmēna=, was daughter of Electryon king of Argos, by Anaxo, whom
  _Plutarch_, ♦_Theseus_ calls Lysidice, and _Diodorus_, bk. 2,
  Eurymede. Her father promised his crown and his daughter to
  Amphitryon, if he would revenge the death of his sons, who had been
  all killed, except Licymnius, by the Teleboans, a people of Ætolia.
  While Amphitryon was gone against the Ætolians, Jupiter, who was
  enamoured of Alcmena, resolved to introduce himself into her bed.
  The more effectually to insure success in his amour, he assumed the
  form of Amphitryon, declared that he had obtained a victory over
  Alcmena’s enemies, and even presented her with a cup, which he said
  he had preserved from the spoils for her sake. Alcmena yielded to
  her lover what she had promised to her future husband; and Jupiter,
  to delay the return of Amphitryon, ordered his messenger, Mercury,
  to stop the rising of Phœbus, or the sun, so that the night he
  passed with Alcmena was prolonged to three long nights. Amphitryon
  returned the next day; and after complaining of the coldness with
  which he was received, Alcmena acquainted him with the reception
  of a false lover the preceding night, and even showed him the cup
  which she had received. Amphitryon was perplexed at the relation,
  and more so upon missing the cup from among his spoils. He went to
  the prophet Tiresias, who told him of Jupiter’s intrigue; and he
  returned to his wife proud of the dignity of his rival. Alcmena
  became pregnant by Jupiter, and afterwards by her husband; and when
  she was going to bring forth, Jupiter boasted in heaven that a child
  was to be born that day to whom he would give absolute power over
  his neighbours, and even over all the children of his own blood.
  Juno, who was jealous of Jupiter’s amours with Alcmena, made him
  swear by the Styx, and immediately prolonged the travails of Alcmena,
  and hastened the bringing forth of the wife of Sthenelus king of
  Argos, who, after a pregnancy of seven months, had a son called
  Eurystheus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, fable 5, &c., says that
  Juno was assisted by Lucina to put off the bringing forth of Alcmena,
  and that Lucina, in the form of an old woman, sat before the door
  of Amphitryon with her legs and arms crossed. This posture was the
  cause of infinite torment to Alcmena, till her servant, Galanthis,
  supposing the old woman to be a witch, and to be the cause of the
  pains of her mistress, told her that she had brought forth. Lucina
  retired from her posture, and immediately Alcmena brought forth
  twins, Hercules conceived by Jupiter, and Iphiclus by Amphitryon.
  Eurystheus was already born, and therefore Hercules was subjected to
  his power. After Amphitryon’s death, Alcmena married Rhadamanthus,
  and retired to Ocalea, in Bœotia. This marriage, according to some
  authors, was celebrated in the island of Leuce. The people of Megara
  said that she died ♠on her way from Argos to Thebes, and that she
  was buried in the temple of Jupiter Olympius. _Pausanias_, bk. 1,
  ch. 41; bk. 5, ch. 18; bk. 9, ch. 16.――_Plutarch_, ♦_Theseus_ &
  _Romulus_.――_Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 11; _Iliad_, bk. 19.――_Pindar_,
  _Pythian_, ♣poem 4.――_Lucian_, _Dialogi Deorum_.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.
  ――_Hyginus_, fable 29.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, chs. 4, 7; bk. 3,
  ch. 1.――_Plautus_, _Amphitruo_.――_Herodotus_, bk. 2, chs. 43 & 45.
  ――――_See:_ Amphitryon, Hercules, Eurystheus.

      ♦ ‘de Reb. Græc.’ replaced with ‘Theseus’
      ♠ ‘in’ replaced with ‘on’
      ♣ ‘9’ replaced with ‘4’

=Alcon=, a famous archer, who one day saw his son attacked by a
  serpent, and aimed at him so dexterously that he killed the beast
  without hurting his son.――――A silversmith. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 13, fable 5.――――A son of Hippocoon. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch.
  14.――――A surgeon under Claudius, who gained much money by his
  profession, in curing hernias and fractures.――――A son of Mars.――――A
  son of Amycus. These two last were at the chase of the Calydonian
  boar. _Hyginus_, fable 173.

♦=Alcyŏna=, a pool of Greece, whose depth the emperor Nero attempted
  in vain to find. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 37.

      ♦ Resorted into proper alphabetical order

=Alcyŏne=, or =Halcyŏne=, daughter of Æolus, married Ceyx, who was
  drowned as he was going to Claros to consult the oracle. The gods
  apprised Alcyone in a dream of her husband’s fate; and when she
  found, on the morrow, his body washed on the sea-shore, she threw
  herself into the sea, and was with her husband changed into birds of
  the same name, who keep the waters calm and serene, while they build
  and sit on their nests on the surface of the sea, for the space of 7,
  11, or 14 days. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 1, li. 399.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 7.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 11, fable 10.――_Hyginus_,
  fable 65.――――One of the Pleiades, daughter of Atlas. She had
  Arethusa by Neptune, and Eleuthera by Apollo. She, with her sisters,
  was changed into a constellation. _See:_ Pleiades. _Pausanias_, bk.
  2, ch. 30; bk. 3, ch. 18.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 10.――_Hyginus_,
  fable 157.――――The daughter of Evenus, carried away by Apollo after
  her marriage. Her husband pursued the ravisher with his bow and
  arrows, but was not able to recover her. Upon this, her parents
  called her Alcyone, and compared her fate to that of the wife of
  Ceyx. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 9, li. 558.――――The wife of Meleager.
  _Hyginus_, fable 174.――――A town of Thessaly, where Philip,
  Alexander’s father, lost one of his eyes.

=Alcyŏneus=, a youth of exemplary virtue, son to Antigonus. _Plutarch_,
  _Pyrrhus_.――_Diogenes Laërtius_, bk. 4.――――A giant, brother to
  Porphyrion. He was killed by Hercules. His daughters, mourning his
  death, threw themselves into the sea, and were changed into Alcyons
  by Amphitrite. _Claudian_, _De Raptu Proserpinæ_.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 6.

=Aldescus=, a river of European Sarmatia, rising from the Riphæan
  mountains, and falling into the northern sea. _Dionysius Periegetes._

=Alduăbis.= _See:_ Dubis.

=Alea=, a surname of Minerva, from her temple built by Aleus son of
  Aphidas, at Tegæa in Arcadia. The statue of the goddess made of
  ivory was carried by Augustus to Rome. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, chs. 4
  & 46.――――A town of Arcadia, built by Aleus. It had three famous
  temples, those of Minerva, Bacchus, and Diana the Ephesian. When the
  festivals of Bacchus were celebrated, the women were whipped in the
  temple. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 23.

=Alēbas=, a tyrant of Larissa, killed by his own guards for his
  cruelties. _Ovid_, _Ibis_, li. 323.

=Alēbion= and =Dercynus=, sons of Neptune, were killed by Hercules for
  stealing his oxen in Africa. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 5.

=Alecto=, one of the Furies (_a_, ληγω, _non desino_), is represented
  with flaming torches, her head covered with serpents, and breathing
  vengeance, war, and pestilence. _See:_ Eumenides. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 7, li. 324, &c.; bk. 10, li. 41.

=Alector=, succeeded his father Anaxagoras in the kingdom of Argos,
  and was father to Iphis and Capaneus. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 18.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 6.

=Alectryon=, a youth whom Mars, during his amours with Venus, stationed
  at the door to watch against the approach of the sun. He fell asleep,
  and Apollo came and discovered the lovers, who were exposed by
  Vulcan, in each other’s arms, before all the gods. Mars was so
  incensed that he changed Alectryon into a cock, which, still mindful
  of his neglect, early announces the approach of the sun. _Lucian_,
  _Alectryon_ [_Gallus_].

=Alectus=, a tyrant of Britain, in Diocletian’s reign, &c. He died
  296 A.D.

=Alēius Campus=, a place in Lycia, where Bellerophon fell from the
  horse Pegasus, and wandered over the country till the time of his
  death. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 6, li. 201.――_Dionysius Periegetes_,
  li. 872.――_Ovid_, _Ibis_, li. 257.

=Alemanni=, or =Alamanni=, a people of Germany. They are first
  mentioned in the reign of Caracalla, who was honoured with the
  surname of _Alemannicus_ for a victory over them.

=Alēmon=, the father of Myscellus. He built Crotona in Magna Græcia.
  Myscellus is often called Alemonides. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 15, lis. 19 & 26.

=Alemusii=, inhabitants of Attica, in whose country there was a temple
  of Ceres and of Proserpine. _Pausanias_, _Attica_.

=Alens=, a place in the island of Cos.

=Aleon=, or =Ales=, a river of Ionia, near Colophon. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 7, ch. 5; bk. 8, ch. 28.

=Alēse=, a town of Sicily, called afterwards Achronidion, after the
  founder. The Romans made it an independent city.

=Alēsia=, or =Alexia=, now _Alise_, a famous city of the Mandubii in
  Gaul, founded by Hercules, as he returned from Iberia, on a high
  hill. Julius Cæsar conquered it. _Florus_, bk. 3, ch. 10.――_Cæsar_,
  _Gallic War_, bk. 7, ch. 68.

=Alēsium=, a town and mountain of Peloponnesus. _Pausanias_, bk. 8,
  ch. 10.

=Aletes=, a son of Ægisthus, murdered by Orestes. _Hyginus_, fable 122.

=Alēthes=, the first of the Heraclidæ, who was king of Corinth. He was
  son of Hippotas. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――――A companion of Æneas,
  described as a prudent and venerable old man. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 1, li. 125; bk. 9, li. 246.

=Alethia=, one of Apollo’s nurses.

=Aletĭdas= (from ἀλαομαι, _to wander_), certain sacrifices at Athens,
  in remembrance of Erigone, who wandered with a dog after her father

=Aletrium=, a town of Latium, whose inhabitants are called Aletrinates.
  _Livy_, bk. 9, ch. 42.

=Alētum=, a tomb near the harbour of Carthage in Spain. _Polybius_,
  bk. 10.

=Aleuādæ=, a royal family of Larissa in Thessaly, descended from
  Aleuas king of that country. They betrayed their country to Xerxes.
  The name is often applied to the Thessalians without distinction.
  _Diodorus_, bk. 16.――_Herodotus_, bk. 7, chs. 6, 172.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 3, ch. 8; bk. 7, ch. 10.――_Ælian_, _De Natura Animalium_, bk. 8,
  ch. 11.

=Alēus=, a son of Aphidas king of Arcadia, famous for his skill in
  building temples. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, chs. 4 & 53.

=Alex=, a river in the country of the Brutii. _Dionysius Periegetes._

=Alexamēnus=, an Ætolian, who killed Nabis tyrant of Lacedæmon, and
  was soon after murdered by the people. _Livy_, bk. 35, ch. 34.

=Alexander I.=, son of Amyntas, was the tenth king of Macedonia.
  He killed the Persian ambassadors for their immodest behaviour to
  the women of his father’s court, and was the first who raised the
  reputation of the Macedonians. He reigned 43 years, and died 451 B.C.
  _Justin_, bk. 7, ch. 3.――_Herodotus_, bks. 5, 7, 8, & 9.

=Alexander II.=, son of Amyntas II., king of Macedonia, was
  treacherously murdered, B.C. 370, by his younger brother Ptolemy,
  who held the kingdom for four years, and made way for Perdiccas and
  Philip. _Justin_, bk. 7, ch. 5, says Eurydice, the wife of Amyntas,
  was the cause of his murder.

=Alexander III.=, surnamed the Great, was son of Philip and Olympias.
  He was born B.C. 355, that night on which the famous temple of
  Diana at Ephesus was burnt by Erostratus. This event, according to
  the magicians, was an early prognostic of his future greatness, as
  well as the taming of Bucephalus, a horse which none of the king’s
  courtiers could manage; upon which Philip said, with tears in his
  eyes, that his son must seek another kingdom, as that of Macedonia
  would not be sufficiently large for the display of his greatness.
  Olympias, during her pregnancy, declared that she was with child by
  a dragon; and the day that Alexander was born, two eagles perched
  for some time on the house of Philip, as if foretelling that
  his son would become master of Europe and Asia. He was pupil to
  Aristotle during five years, and he received his learned preceptor’s
  instructions with becoming deference and pleasure, and ever respected
  his abilities. When Philip went to war, Alexander, in his 15th
  year, was left governor of Macedonia, where he quelled a dangerous
  sedition, and soon after followed his father to the field, and saved
  his life in a battle. He was highly offended when Philip divorced
  Olympias to marry Cleopatra, and he even caused the death of Attalus,
  the new queen’s brother. After this he retired from court to his
  mother Olympias, but was recalled; and when Philip was assassinated,
  he punished his murderers; and, by his prudence and moderation,
  gained the affections of his subjects. He conquered Thrace and
  Illyricum, and destroyed Thebes; and after he had been chosen chief
  commander of all the forces of Greece, he declared war against the
  Persians, who under Darius and Xerxes had laid waste and plundered
  the noblest of the Grecian cities. With 32,000 foot and 5000 horse,
  he invaded Asia, and after the defeat of Darius at the Granicus,
  he conquered all the provinces of Asia Minor. He obtained two other
  celebrated victories over Darius at Issus and Arbela, took Tyre
  after an obstinate siege of seven months, and the slaughter of
  2000 of the inhabitants in cold blood, and made himself master of
  Egypt, Media, Syria, and Persia. From Egypt he visited the temple of
  Jupiter Ammon, and bribed the priests, who saluted him as the son of
  their god, and enjoined his army to pay him divine honours. He built
  a town which he called Alexandria, on the western side of the Nile,
  near the coast of the Mediterranean, an eligible situation which his
  penetrating eye marked as best entitled to become the future capital
  of his immense dominions, and to extend the commerce of his subjects
  from the Mediterranean to the Ganges. His conquests were spread over
  India, where he fought with Porus, a powerful king of the country;
  and after he had invaded Scythia, and visited the Indian ocean,
  he retired to Babylon loaded with the spoils of the east. His
  entering the city was foretold by the magicians as fatal, and their
  prediction was fulfilled. He died at Babylon the 21st of April, in
  the 32nd year of his age, after a reign of 12 years and 8 months of
  brilliant and continued success, 323 B.C. His death was so premature
  that some have attributed it to the effects of poison, and excess
  of drinking. Antipater has been accused of causing the fatal poison
  to be given him at a feast; and perhaps the resentment of the
  Macedonians, whose services he seemed to forget, by entrusting the
  guard of his body to the Persians, was the cause of his death. He
  was so universally regretted, that Babylon was filled with tears and
  lamentations; and the Medes and Macedonians declared that no one was
  able or worthy to succeed him. Many conspiracies were formed against
  him by the officers of his army, but they were all seasonably
  suppressed. His tender treatment of the wife and mother of king
  Darius, who were taken prisoners, has been greatly praised; and the
  latter, who had survived the death of her son, killed herself when
  she heard that Alexander was dead. His great intrepidity more than
  once endangered his life; he always fought as if sure of victory,
  and the terror of his name was often more powerfully effectual than
  his arms. He was always forward in every engagement, and bore the
  labours of the field as well as the meanest of his soldiers. During
  his conquests in Asia, he founded many cities, which he called
  Alexandria, after his own name. When he had conquered Darius, he
  ordered himself to be worshipped as a god; and Callisthenes, who
  refused to do it, was shamefully put to death. He also murdered
  at a banquet, his friend Clitus, who had once saved his life in a
  battle, because he enlarged upon the virtues and exploits of Philip,
  and preferred them to those of his son. His victories and success
  increased his pride; he dressed himself in the Persian manner, and,
  giving himself up to pleasure and dissipation, he set on fire the
  town of Persepolis in a fit of madness and intoxication, encouraged
  by the courtesan Thais. Yet, among all his extravagances, he was
  fond of candour and of truth; and when one of his officers read
  to him, as he sailed on the Hydaspes, a history which he had
  composed of his wars with Porus, and in which he had too liberally
  panegyrized him, Alexander snatched the book from his hand, and
  threw it into the river, saying, “What need is there of such
  flattery? Are not the exploits of Alexander sufficiently meritorious
  in themselves, without the colourings of falsehood?” He in like
  manner rejected a statuary, who offered to cut mount Athos like him,
  and represent him as holding a town in one hand, and pouring a river
  from the other. He forbade any statuary to make his statue except
  Lysippus, and any painter to draw his picture except Apelles. On his
  death-bed he gave his ring to Perdiccas, and it was supposed that
  by this singular present he wished to make him his successor. Some
  time before his death, his officers asked him whom he appointed to
  succeed him on the throne; and he answered, “The worthiest among you;
  but I am afraid,” added he, “my best friends will perform my funeral
  obsequies with bloody hands.” Alexander, with all his pride, was
  humane and liberal, easy and familiar with his friends, a great
  patron of learning, as may be collected from his assisting Aristotle
  with a purse of money to effect the completion of his natural
  history. He was brave often to rashness; he frequently lamented
  that his father conquered everything, and left him nothing to do;
  and exclaimed, in all the pride of regal dignity, “Give me kings
  for competitors, and I will enter the lists at Olympia.” All his
  family and infant children were put to death by Cassander. The first
  deliberation that was made after his decease, among his generals,
  was to appoint his brother Philip Aridæus successor, until Roxane,
  who was then pregnant by him, brought into the world a legitimate
  heir. Perdiccas wished to be supreme regent as Aridæus wanted
  capacity; and, more strongly to establish himself, he married
  Cleopatra, Alexander’s sister, and made alliance with Eumenes. As
  he endeavoured to deprive Ptolemy of Egypt, he was defeated in a
  battle by Seleucus and Antigonus, on the banks of the river Nile,
  and assassinated by his own cavalry. Perdiccas was the first of
  Alexander’s generals who took up arms against his fellow-soldiers,
  and he was the first who fell a sacrifice to his rashness and
  cruelty. To defend himself against him, Ptolemy made a treaty of
  alliance with some generals, among whom was Antipater, who had
  strengthened himself by giving his daughter Phila, an ambitious and
  aspiring woman, in marriage to Craterus, another of the generals of
  Alexander. After many dissensions and bloody wars among themselves,
  the generals of Alexander laid the foundation of several great
  empires in the three quarters of the globe. Ptolemy seized Egypt,
  where he firmly established himself, and where his successors were
  called Ptolemies, in honour of the founder of their empire, which
  subsisted till the time of Augustus. Seleucus and his posterity
  reigned in Babylon and Syria. Antigonus at first established himself
  in Asia Minor, and Antipater in Macedonia. The descendants of
  Antipater were conquered by the successors of Antigonus, who reigned
  in Macedonia till it was reduced by the Romans in the time of king
  Perseus. Lysimachus made himself master of Thrace; and Leonatus,
  who had taken possession of Phrygia, meditated for a while to drive
  Antipater from Macedonia. Eumenes established himself in Cappadocia,
  but was soon overpowered by the combinations of his rival Antigonus,
  and starved to death. During his lifetime, Eumenes appeared so
  formidable to the successors of Alexander, that none of them dared
  to assume the title of king. _Curtius_, _Arrian_, & _Plutarch_
  have written an account of Alexander’s life. _Diodorus_, bks. 17
  & 18.――_Pausanias_, bks. 1, 7, 8, & 9.――_Justin_, bks. 11 & 12.――
  _Valerius Maximus._――_Strabo_, bk. 1, &c.――――A son of Alexander
  the Great, by Roxane, put to death, with his mother, by Cassander.
  _Justin_, bk. 15, ch. 2.――――A man who, after the expulsion of
  Telestes, reigned in Corinth. Twenty-five years after, Telestes
  dispossessed him, and put him to death.――――A son of Cassander king
  of Macedonia, who reigned two years conjointly with his brother
  Antipater, and was prevented by Lysimachus from revenging his mother
  Thessalonica, whom his brother had murdered. Demetrius, the son of
  Antigonus, put him to death. _Justin_, bk. 16, ch. 1.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 9, ch. 7.――――A king of Epirus, brother to Olympias, and
  successor to Arybas. He banished Timolaus to Peloponnesus, and made
  war in Italy against the Romans, and observed that he fought with
  men, while his nephew, Alexander the Great, was fighting with an
  army of women (meaning the Persians). He was surnamed Molossus.
  _Justin_, bk. 17, ch. 3.――_Diodorus_, bk. 16.――_Livy_, bk. 8, chs.
  17 & 27.――_Strabo_, bk. 16.――――A son of Pyrrhus, was king of Epirus.
  He conquered Macedonia, from which he was expelled by Demetrius. He
  recovered it by the assistance of the Acarnanians. _Justin_, bk. 26,
  ch. 3.――_Plutarch_, _Pyrrhus_.――――A king of Syria, driven from his
  kingdom by Nicanor son of Demetrius Soter, and his father-in-law
  Ptolemy Philometer. _Justin_, bk. 35, chs. 1 & 2.――_Josephus_,
  bk. 13, _Antiquities of the Jews_.――_Strabo_, bk. 17.――――A king of
  Syria, first called Bala, was a merchant, and succeeded Demetrius.
  He conquered Nicanor by means of Ptolemy Physcon, and was afterwards
  killed by Antiochus Gryphus son of Nicanor. _Josephus_, _Antiquities
  of the Jews_, bk. 13, ch. 18.――――Ptolemy was one of the Ptolemean
  kings in Egypt. His mother Cleopatra raised him to the throne, in
  preference to his brother Ptolemy Lathurus, and reigned conjointly
  with him. Cleopatra, however, expelled him, and soon after recalled
  him; and Alexander, to prevent being expelled a second time, put her
  to death, and for this unnatural action was himself murdered by one
  of his subjects. _Josephus_, bk. 13, _Antiquities of the Jews_, ch.
  20, &c.――_Justin_, bk. 39, chs. 3 & 4.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 9.
  ――――Ptolemy II., king of Egypt, was son of the preceding. He was
  educated in the island of Cos, and, falling into the hands of
  Mithridates, escaped to Sylla, who restored him to his kingdom.
  He was murdered by his subjects a few days after his restoration.
  _Appian_, bk. 1, _Civil Wars_.――――Ptolemy III., was king of Egypt
  after his brother Alexander the last mentioned. After a peaceful
  reign, he was banished by his subjects, and died at Tyre, B.C. 65,
  leaving his kingdom to the Roman people. _See:_ Ægyptus and Ptolemæus.
  _Cicero_, _De Lege Agraria contra Rullum_.――――A youth, ordered by
  Alexander the Great to climb the rock Aornus, with 30 other youths.
  He was killed in the attempt. _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 11.――――An
  historian mentioned by _Plutarch_, _Marius_.――――An Epicurean
  philosopher. _Plutarch._――――A governor of Æolia, who assembled a
  multitude on pretence of showing them an uncommon spectacle, and
  confined them till they had each bought their liberty with a sum of
  money. _Polyænus_, bk. 6, ch. 10.――――A name given to Paris son of
  Priam. _See:_ Paris.――――Jannæus, a king of Judea, son of Hyrcanus
  and brother of Aristobulus, who reigned as a tyrant, and died
  through excess of drinking, B.C. 79, after massacring 800 of his
  subjects for the entertainment of his concubines.――――A Paphlagonian,
  who gained divine honours by his magical tricks and impositions,
  and likewise procured the friendship of Marcus Aurelius. He died
  70 years old.――――A native of Caria, in the third century, who wrote
  a commentary on the writings of Aristotle, part of which is still
  extant.――――Trallianus, a physician and philosopher of the fourth
  century, some of whose works in Greek are still extant.――――A poet
  of Ætolia, in the age of Ptolemy Philadelphus.――――A peripatetic
  philosopher, said to have been preceptor to Nero.――――An historian,
  called also Polyhistor, who wrote five books on the Roman republic,
  in which he said that the Jews had received their laws, not from
  God, but from a woman whom he called Moso. He also wrote treatises
  on the Pythagorean philosophy, B.C. 88.――――A poet of Ephesus, who
  wrote a poem on astronomy and geography.――――A writer of Myndus,
  quoted by _Athenæus_ and _Ælian_.――――A sophist of Seleucia, in
  the age of Antoninus.――――A physician in the age of Justinian.――――A
  Thessalian, who, as he was going to engage in a naval battle, gave
  to his soldiers a great number of missile weapons, and ordered
  them to dart them continually upon the enemy to render their
  numbers useless. _Polyænus_, bk. 6, ch. 27.――――A son of Lysimachus.
  _Polyænus_, bk. 6, ch. 12.――――A governor of Lycia, who brought a
  reinforcement of troops to Alexander the Great. _Curtius_, bk. 7,
  ch. 10.――――A son of Polyperchon, killed in Asia by the Dymæans.
  _Diodorus_, bks. 18 & 19.――――A poet of Pleuron son of Satyrus and
  Stratoclea, who said that Theseus had a daughter called Iphigenia
  by Helen. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 22.――――A Spartan, killed with 200
  of his soldiers by the Argives, when he endeavoured to prevent their
  passing through the country of Tegea. _Diodorus_, bk. 15.――――A cruel
  tyrant of Pheræ, in Thessaly, who made war against the Macedonians,
  and took Pelopidas prisoner. He was murdered, B.C. 357, by his
  wife called Thebe, whose room he carefully guarded by a Thracian
  sentinel, and searched every night, fearful of some dagger that
  might be concealed to take away his life. _Cicero_, _de Inventione_,
  bk. 2, ch. 49; _de Officiis_, bk. 2, ch. 9.――_Valerius Maximus_,
  bk. 9, ch. 13.――_Plutarch_ & _Cornelius Nepos_, _Pelopidas_.――
  _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 5.――_Diodorus_, bks. 15 & 16.――_Ovid_,
  _Ibis_, li. 321.――――Severus, a Roman emperor. _See:_ Severus.

=Alexandra=, the name of some queens of Judæa mentioned by _Josephus_.
  ――――A nurse of Nero. _Suetonius_, _Nero_, ch. 50.――――A name
  of Cassandra, because she assisted mankind by her prophecies.

=Alexandri Aræ=, the boundaries, according to some, of Alexander’s
  victories, near the Tanais. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 16.

=Alexandrīa=, the name of several cities which were founded by
  Alexander, during his conquests in Asia; the most famous are:――A
  grand and extensive city, built B.C. 332, by Alexander, on the
  western side of the Delta. The illustrious founder intended it not
  only for the capital of Egypt, but of his immense conquests, and
  the commercial advantages which its situation commanded continued to
  improve from the time of Alexander till the invasion of the Saracens
  in the seventh century. The commodities of India were brought
  there, and thence dispersed to the different countries around the
  Mediterranean. Alexandria is famous, among other curiosities, for
  the large library which the pride or learning of the Ptolemies had
  collected there, at a vast expense, from all parts of the earth.
  This valuable repository was burnt by the orders of the caliph
  Omar, A.D. 642; and it is said that, during six months, the
  numerous volumes supplied fuel for the 4000 baths, which contributed
  to the health and convenience of the populous capital of Egypt.
  Alexandria has likewise been distinguished for its schools, not
  only of theology and philosophy, but of physic, where once to
  have studied was a sufficient recommendation to distant countries.
  The astronomical school, founded by Philadelphus, maintained its
  superior reputation for 10 centuries, till the time of the Saracens.
  The modern town of Scanderoon has been erected upon the ruins of
  Alexandria, and, as if it were an insult to its former greatness, it
  scarce contains 6000 inhabitants. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 8.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 17.――_Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 10.――――Another in Albania, at the foot
  of mount Caucasus.――――Another in Arachosia, in India.――――The capital
  of Aria, between Hecatompylon and Bactra.――――Another of Carmania.
  ――――Another in Cilicia, on the confines of Syria.――――Another the
  capital of Margiana.――――Another of Troas, &c. _Curtius_, bk. 7.――
  _Pliny_, bk. 6, chs. 16, 23, & 25.

=Alexandrĭdes=, a Lacedæmonian, who married his sister’s daughter,
  by whom he had Dorycus, Leonidas, and Cleombrotus.――――A native of
  Delphi, of which he wrote a history.

=Alexandrīna aqua=, baths in Rome, built by the emperor Alexander

=Alexandropŏlis=, a city of Parthia, built by Alexander the Great.
  _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 25.

=Alexānor=, a son of Machaon, who built in Sicyon a temple to his
  grandfather Æsculapius, and received divine honours after death.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 11.

=Alexarchus=, a Greek historian.

=Alexas=, of Laodicea, was recommended to Marcus Antony by Timagenes.
  He was the cause that Antony repudiated Octavia to marry Cleopatra.
  Augustus punished him severely after the defeat of Antony.
  _Plutarch_, _Antonius_.

=Alexia=, or =Alesia=. _See:_ Alesia.

=Alexicăcus=, a surname given to Apollo by the Athenians, because he
  delivered them from the plague during the Peloponnesian war.

=Alexīnus=, a disciple of Eubulides the Milesian, famous for the
  acuteness of his genius and judgment, and for his fondness for
  contention and argumentation. He died of a wound which he had
  received from a sharp-pointed reed, as he swam across the river
  Alpheus. _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Euclides_.

=Alexion=, a physician intimate with Cicero. _Cicero_, _Letters to
  Atticus_, bk. 13, ltr. 25.

=Alexippus=, a physician of Alexander. _Plutarch_, _Alexander_.

=Alexiraes=, son of Hercules by Hebe. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 7.
  ――――A place of Bœotia, where Alexiraes was born, bears also this
  name. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 25.

=Alexirhoe=, a daughter of the river Granicus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 11, li. 763.

=Alexis=, a man of Samos, who endeavoured to ascertain, by his
  writings, the borders of his country.――――A comic poet, 336 B.C., of
  Thurium, who wrote 245 comedies, of which some few fragments remain.
  ――――A servant of Asinius Pollio.――――An ungrateful youth of whom a
  shepherd is deeply enamoured, in Virgil’s _Eclogues_, poem 2.――――A
  statuary, disciple to Polycletes, 87th Olympiad _Pliny_, bk. 34,
  ch. 8.――――A schoolfellow of Atticus. _Cicero_, _Letters to Atticus_,
  bk. 7, ltr. 2.

=Alexon=, a native of Myndos, who wrote fables. _Diogenes Laërtius._

=Alfaterna=, a town of Campania, beyond mount Vesuvius.

=Publius Alfēnus Varus=, a native of Cremona, who, by the force of
  his genius and his application, raised himself from his original
  profession of a cobbler to offices of trust at Rome, and at last
  became consul. _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 3, li. 130.

=Algĭdum=, a town of Latium near Tusculum, about 12 miles from Rome.
  There is a mountain of the same name in the neighbourhood. _Horace_,
  bk. 1, ode 21.

=Aliacmon= and =Haliacmon=, a river of Macedonia, separating it from
  Thessaly. It flows into the Ægean sea. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 10.

=Aliartus= (or um) and =Haliartus=, a town of Bœotia, near the river
  Permessus, taken by Marcus Lucretius. _Livy_, bk. 42, ch. 63.
  ――――Another in Peloponnesus, on the coast of Messenia. _Statius_,
  _Thebiad_, bk. 7, li. 274.

=Alĭcis=, a town of Laconia.――――A tribe of Athens.

=Aliēnus Cæcīna=, a questor in Bœotia, appointed, for his services,
  commander of a legion in Germany, by Galba. The emperor disgraced
  him for his bad conduct, for which he raised commotions in the
  empire. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 1, ch. 52.

=Alīfæ=, =Alifa=, or =Alipha=, a town of Italy, near the Vulturnus,
  famous for the making of cups. _Horace_, bk. 2, satire 8, li. 39.
  ――_Livy_, bk. 8, ch. 25.

=Alilæi=, a people of Arabia Felix.

=Alimentus Cincius=, an historian in the second Punic war, who wrote
  in Greek an account of Annibal, besides a treatise on military
  affairs. _Livy_, bks. 21 & 30.

=Alindæ=, a town of Caria. _Arrian._

=Aliphēria=, a town of Arcadia, situate on a hill. _Polybius_, bk. 4,
  ch. 77.

=Alirrothius=, a son of Neptune. Hearing that his father had been
  defeated by Minerva, in his dispute about giving a name to Athens,
  he went to the citadel, and endeavoured to cut down the olive, which
  had sprung from the ground and given the victory to Minerva; but in
  the attempt he missed his aim, and cut his own legs so severely that
  he instantly expired.

=Tiberius Alledius Severus=, a Roman knight, who married his brother’s
  daughter to please Agrippina.――――A noted glutton in Domitian’s reign.
  _Juvenal_, satire 5, li. 118.

=Allia=, a river of Italy, falling into the Tiber. The Romans were
  defeated on its banks by Brennus and the Gauls, who were going to
  plunder Rome, 17th July, B.C. 390. _Plutarch_, _Camillus_.――_Livy_,
  bk. 5, ch. 37.――_Florus_, bk. 1, ch. 13.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7,
  li. 717.――_Ovid_, _Ars Amatoria_, bk. 1, li. 413.

=Alliēnos=, a pretor of Sicily, under Cæsar. _Hirtius_, _African War_,
  ch. 2.

=Allŏbrŏges=, a warlike nation of Gaul near the Rhone, in that part
  of the country now called Savoy, Dauphiné, and Vivarais. The Romans
  destroyed their city because they had assisted Annibal. Their
  ambassadors were allured by great promises to join in Catiline’s
  conspiracy against his country; but they scorned the offers, and
  discovered the plot. _Dio Cassius._――_Strabo_, bk. 4.――_Tacitus_,
  _Histories_, bk. 1, ch. 66.――_Sallust_, _Jugurthine War_.

=Allobry̆ges=, a people of Gaul, supposed to be the same as the
  Allobroges. _Polybius_, bk. 30, ch. 56.

=Allotrĭges=, a nation on the southern parts of Spain. _Strabo_, bk. 2.

=Allutius=, or =Albutius=, a prince of the Celtiberi, to whom Scipio
  restored the beautiful princess whom he had taken in battle.

=Almo=, a small river near Rome falling into the Tiber. _Ovid_,
  _Fasti_, bk. 4, li. 387.――_Lucan_, bk. 1, li. 600.

=Almon=, the eldest of the sons of Tyrrhus. He was the first Rutulian
  killed by the Trojans; and from the skirmish which happened before
  and after his death, arose the enmities which ended in the fall of
  Turnus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 532.

=Alŏa=, festivals at Athens in honour of Bacchus and Ceres, by whose
  beneficence the husbandmen received the recompense of their labours.
  The oblations were the fruits of the earth. Ceres has been called
  from this, Aloas and Alois.

=Aloēus=, a giant, son of Titan and Terra. He married Iphimedia, by
  whom Neptune had the twins Othus and Ephialtus. Aloeus educated
  them as his own, and from that circumstance they have been called
  _Aloides_. They made war against the gods, and were killed by Apollo
  and Diana. They grew up nine inches every month, and were only nine
  years old when they undertook their war. They built the town of
  Ascra, at the foot of mount Helicon. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 29.
  ――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 582.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 5;
  _Odyssey_, bk. 11.

=Aloīdes= and =Aloidæ=, the sons of Aloeus. _See:_ Aloeus.

=Alŏpe=, daughter of Cercyon king of Eleusis, had a child by Neptune,
  whom she exposed in the woods, covered with a piece of her gown.
  The child was preserved, and carried to Alope’s father, who, upon
  knowing the gown, ordered his daughter to be put to death. Neptune,
  who could not save his mistress, changed her into a fountain. The
  child, called Hippothoon, was preserved by some shepherds and placed
  by Theseus upon his grandfather’s throne. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, chs. 5
  & 39.――_Hyginus_, fable 187.――――One of the Harpies. _Hyginus_,
  fable 14.――――A town of Thessaly. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 7.――_Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 2, li. 682.

=Alopĕce=, an island in the Palus Mæotis. _Strabo._――――Another in the
  Cimmerian Bosphorus. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 12.――――Another in the Ægean
  sea opposite Smyrna. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 31.――――A small village
  of Attica, where was the tomb of Anchimolius, whom the Spartans
  had sent to deliver Athens from the tyranny of the Pisistratidæ.
  Socrates and Aristides were born there. _Aeschines_, _Against
  Timarchus_.――_Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 64.

=Alopius=, a son of Hercules and Antiope. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 35.

=Alos=, a town of Achaia. _Strabo_, bk. 9.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 7.

=Alotia=, festivals in Arcadia, in commemoration of a victory gained
  over Lacedæmon by the Arcadians.

=Alpēnus=, the capital of Locris, at the north of Thermopylæ.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 176, &c.

=Alpes=, mountains that separate Italy from Spain, Gaul, Rhætia, and
  Germany; considered as the highest ground in Europe. From them arise
  several rivers, which, after watering the neighbouring countries,
  discharge themselves into the German, Mediterranean, and Euxine
  seas. The Alps are covered with perpetual snows, and distinguished,
  according to their situation, by the different names of _Cottiæ_,
  _Carnicæ_, _Graiæ_, _Noricæ_, _Juliæ_, _Maritimæ_, _Pannoniæ_,
  _Penninæ_, _Pœnæ_, _Rhætiæ_, _Tridentinæ_, _Venetæ_. A traveller
  is generally five days in reaching the top in some parts. They were
  supposed for a long time to be impassable. Hannibal marched his army
  over them, and made his way through rocks, by softening and breaking
  them with vinegar. They were inhabited by fierce uncivilized nations,
  who were unsubdued till the age of Augustus, who, to eternize the
  victory which he had obtained over them, erected a pillar in their
  territory. _Strabo_, bks. 4 & 5.――_Livy_, bk. 21, ch. 35.――_Juvenal_,
  satire 10, li. 151.――_Horace_, bk. 2, satire 5, li. 41.――_Lucan_,
  bk. 1, li. 183.――_Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 3, ch. 53.

=Alpheia=, a surname of Diana in Elis. It was given her when the river
  Alpheus endeavoured to ravish her without success.――――A surname
  of the nymph Arethusa, because loved by the Alpheus. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, li. 487.

=Alphēnor=, one of Niobe’s sons. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 6,
  fable 6.

=Alphēnus.= _See:_ Alfenus.

=Alphesibœa=, daughter of the river Phlegeus, married Alcmæon son of
  Amphiaraus, who had fled to her father’s court after the murder of
  his mother. _See:_ Alcmæon. She received, as a bridal present, the
  famous necklace which Polynices had given to Eriphyle, to induce
  her to betray her husband Amphiaraus. Alcmæon being persecuted by
  the means of his mother, left his wife by order of the oracle, and
  retired near the Achelous, whose daughter Callirrhoe had two sons by
  him, and begged of him, as a present, the necklace which was then in
  the hands of Alphesibœa. He endeavoured to obtain it, and was killed
  by Temenus and Axion, Alphesibœa’s brothers, who thus revenged
  their sister who had been so innocently abandoned. _Hyginus_,
  fable 244.――_Propertius_, bk. 8, poem 15, li. 15.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 8, ch. 24.

=Alphesibœus=, a shepherd, often mentioned in Virgil’s eclogues.

=Alphēus=, now _Alpheo_, a famous river of Peloponnesus, which rises
  in Arcadia, and after passing through Elis falls into the sea. The
  god of this river fell in love with the nymph Arethusa, and pursued
  her till she was changed into a fountain by Diana. The fountain
  Arethusa is in Ortygia, a small island near Syracuse; and the
  ancients affirm that the river Alpheus passes under the sea from
  Peloponnesus, and without mingling itself with the salt waters,
  rises again in Ortygia, and joins the stream of Arethusa. If
  anything is thrown into the Alpheus in Elis, according to their
  traditions, it will reappear, after some time, swimming on the
  waters of Arethusa, near Sicily. Hercules made use of the Alpheus
  to clean the stables of Augeas. _Strabo_, bk. 6.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 3, li. 694.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable 10.――_Lucan_,
  bk. 3, li. 176. ――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bks. 1 & 4.――_Mela_, bk. 2,
  ch. 7.――_Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 7; bk. 6, ch. 21.――_Marcellinus_,
  bk. 25.――_Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 103.

=Alphius=, or =Alfeus=, a celebrated usurer ridiculed in _Horace_,
  _Epodes_, poem 2.

=Alphius Avitus=, a writer in the age of Severus, who gave an account
  of illustrious men, and a history of the Carthaginian war.

=Alpīnus=, belonging to the Alps. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 4, li. 442.

=Alpīnus (Cornelius)=, a contemptible poet, whom Horace ridicules for
  the awkward manner in which he introduces the death of Memnon in
  a tragedy, and the pitiful style with which he describes the Rhine,
  in an epic poem which he attempted on the wars in Germany. _Horace_,
  bk. 1, satire 10, li. 36.――――Julius, one of the chiefs of the
  Helvetii. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 1, ch. 68.

=Alpis=, a small river falling into the Danube.

=Alsium=, a maritime town at the west of the Tiber, now _Statua_.
  _Silius Italicus_, bk. 8.

=Alsus=, a river of Achaia in Peloponnesus, flowing from mount Sipylus.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 27.――――A shepherd during the Rutulian wars.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 12, li. 304.

=Althæa=, daughter of Thestius and Eurythemis, married Œneus king of
  Calydon, by whom she had many children, among whom was Meleager.
  When Althæa brought forth Meleager, the Parcæ placed a log of wood
  in the fire, and said, that as long as it was preserved, so long
  would the life of the child just born be prolonged. The mother
  saved the wood from the flames, and kept it very carefully; but
  when Meleager killed his two uncles, Althæa’s brothers, Althæa,
  to revenge their death, threw the log into the fire, and as soon
  as it was burnt, Meleager expired. She was afterwards so sorry
  for the death she had caused, that she killed herself, unable to
  survive her son. _See:_ Meleager. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8,
  fable 4.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 9.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 45;
  bk. 10, ch. 31.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 8.

=Althæmĕnes=, a son of Creteus king of Crete. Hearing that either
  he or his brothers were to be their father’s murderers, he fled to
  Rhodes, where he made a settlement, to avoid becoming a parricide.
  After the death of all his other sons, Creteus went after his son
  Althæmenes; when he landed in Rhodes, the inhabitants attacked him,
  supposing him to be an enemy, and he was killed by the hand of his
  own son. When Althæmenes knew that he had killed his father, he
  entreated the gods to remove him, and the earth immediately opened,
  and swallowed him up. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 2.

=Altīnum=, a flourishing city of Italy, near Aquileia, famous for its
  wool. _Martial_, bk. 14, ltr. 25.――_Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 18.

=Altis=, a sacred grove round Jupiter’s temple at Olympia, where the
  statues of the Olympic conquerors were placed. _Pausanias_, bk. 5,
  ch. 20, &c.

=Altus=, a city of Peloponnesus. _Xenophon_, _Hellenica_.

=Aluntium=, a town of Sicily. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 8.――_Cicero_,
  _Against Verres_, bk. 4.

=Alus=, =Aluus=, and =Halus=, a village of Arcadia, called also the
  temple of Æsculapius. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 25.

=Alyattes I.=, a king of Lydia, descended from the Heraclidæ. He
  reigned 57 years.

=Alyattes II.=, king of Lydia, of the family of the Mermnadæ, was
  father to Crœsus. He drove the Cimmerians from Asia, and made war
  against the Medes. He died when engaged in a war against Miletus,
  after a reign of 35 years. A monument was raised on his grave with
  the money which the women of Lydia had obtained by prostitution.
  An eclipse of the sun terminated a battle between him and Cyaxares.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 1, chs. 16, 17, &c.――_Strabo_, bk. 13.

=Aly̆ba=, a country near Mysia. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2.

=Alycæa=, a town of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 27.

=Alycæus=, son of Sciron, was killed by Theseus. A place in Megara
  received its name from him. _Plutarch_, _Theseus_.

=Aly̆mon=, the husband of Circe.

=Alyssus=, a fountain of Arcadia, whose waters could cure the bite of
  a mad dog. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 19.

=Alyxothoe=, or =Alexirhoe=, daughter of Dymus, was mother of Æsacus
  by Priam. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 11, li. 763.

=Alyzia=, a town of Acarnania on the western mouth of the Achelous,
  opposite to the Echinades. _Cicero_, _Letters to his Friends_,
  bk. 16, ltr. 2.

=Amadŏcus=, a king of Thrace, defeated by his antagonist Seuthes.
  _Aristotle_, bk. 5, _Politics_, ch. 10.

=Amage=, a queen of Sarmatia, remarkable for her justice and fortitude.
  _Polyænus_, bk. 8, ch. 56.

=Amalthæa=, daughter of Melissus king of Crete, fed Jupiter with goat’s
  milk. Hence some authors have called her a goat, and have maintained
  that Jupiter, to reward her kindnesses, placed her in heaven as
  a constellation, and gave one of her horns to the nymphs who had
  taken care of his infant years. This horn was called the horn of
  plenty, and had the power to give the nymphs whatever they desired.
  _Diodorus_, bks. 3, 4, 5.――_Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 5, li. 113.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 10.――_Hyginus_, fable 139.――_Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 26.――――A
  Sibyl of Cumæ, called also Hierophile and Demophile. She is supposed
  to be the same who brought nine books of prophecies to Tarquin king
  of Rome, &c. _Varro._――_Tibullus_, bk. 2, poem 5, li. 67. _See:_

=Amalthēum=, a public place which Atticus had opened in his country
  house, called Amalthea, in Epirus, and provided with everything
  which could furnish entertainment and convey instruction. _Cicero_,
  _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 1, ltr. 13.

=Amăna=, or =Amanus=, part of mount Taurus in Cilicia. _Lucan_, bk. 3,
  li. 244.

=Cn. Salvius Amandus=, a rebel general under Diocletian, who assumed
  imperial honours, and was at last conquered by Diocletian’s

=Amantes=, or =Amantīni=, a people of Illyricum descended from the
  Abantes of Phocis. _Callimachus._

=Amānus=, one of the deities worshipped in Armenia and Cappadocia.
  _Strabo_, bk. 11.――――A mountain in Cilicia.

=Amārăcus=, an officer of Cinyras, changed into marjoram.

=Amardi=, a nation near the Caspian sea. _Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 3.

=Amartus=, a city of Greece. _Homer_, _Hymn to Apollo_.

=Amaryllis=, the name of a countrywoman in Virgil’s eclogues. Some
  commentators have supposed that the poet spoke of Rome under this
  fictitious appellation.

=Amarynceus=, a king of the Epeans, buried at Buprasium. _Strabo_,
  bk. 8.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 1.

=Amarynthus=, a village in Eubœa, whence Diana is called Amarysia, and
  her festivals in that town Amarynthia.――――Eubœa is sometimes called
  Amarynthus. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 31.

=Amas=, a mountain of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3.

=Amăsēnus=, a small river of Latium falling into the Tyrrhene sea.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 685.

=Amasia=, a city of Pontus, where Mithridates the Great and Strabo the
  geographer were born. _Strabo_, bk. 12.――_Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 3.

=Amāsis=, a man who, from a common soldier, became king of Egypt. He
  made war against Arabia, and died before the invasion of his country
  by Cambyses king of Persia. He made a law that every one of his
  subjects should yearly give an account to the public magistrates
  of the manner in which he supported himself. He refused to continue
  in alliance with Polycrates the tyrant of Samos, on account of his
  uncommon prosperity. When Cambyses came into Egypt, he ordered the
  body of Amasis to be dug up, and to be insulted and burnt; an action
  which was very offensive to the religious notions of the Egyptians.
  _Herodotus_, bks. 1, 2, 3.――――A man who led the Persians against the
  inhabitants of Barce. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 201, &c.

=Amastris=, the wife of Dionysius the tyrant of Sicily, was sister
  to Darius, whom Alexander conquered. _Strabo_.――――Also, the wife of
  Xerxes king of Persia. _See:_ Amestris.――――A city of Paphlagonia, on
  the Euxine sea. _Catullus._

=Amastrus=, one of the auxiliaries of Perses, against Ætes king of
  Colchis, killed by Argus son of Phryxus. _Flaccus_, bk. 6, li. 544.
  ――――A friend of Æneas, killed by Camilla in the Rutulian war.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 673.

=Amāta=, the wife of king Latinus. She had betrothed her daughter
  Lavinia to Turnus, before the arrival of Æneas in Italy. She
  zealously favoured the interest of Turnus, and when her daughter was
  given in marriage to Æneas, she hung herself to avoid the sight of
  her son-in-law. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, &c.

=Amăthus= (genitive: untis), now _Limisso_, a city on the southern
  side of the island of Cyprus, particularly dedicated to Venus.
  The island is sometimes called Amathusia, a name not unfrequently
  applied to the goddess of the place. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10,
  li. 51.――_Claudius Ptolemy_, bk. 5, ch. 14.

=Amaxampēus=, a fountain of Scythia, whose waters imbitter the stream
  of the river Hypanis. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 52.

=Amaxia=, or =Amaxīta=, an ancient town of Troas.――――A place of
  Cilicia abounding with wood fit for building ships. _Pliny_, bk. 5,
  ch. 9.――_Strabo_, bk. 14.

=Amazēnes=, or =Mazēnes=, a prince of the island Oaractus, who sailed
  for some time with the Macedonians and Nearchus in Alexander’s
  expedition to the east. _Arrian_, _Indica_.

=Amazŏnes=, or =Amazŏnĭdes=, a nation of famous women who lived near
  the river Thermodon in Cappadocia. All their life was employed
  in wars and manly exercises. They never had any commerce with the
  other sex, but, only for the sake of propagation, they visited the
  inhabitants of the neighbouring country for a few days, and the
  male children which they brought forth were given to the fathers.
  According to Justin, they were strangled as soon as born, and
  Diodorus says that they maimed them and distorted their limbs. The
  females were carefully educated with their mothers, in the labours
  of the field; their right breast was burnt off that they might hurl
  a javelin with more force, and make a better use of the bow; from
  that circumstance, therefore, their name is derived (_a non_, μαζα
  _mamma_). They founded an extensive empire in Asia Minor, along the
  shores of the Euxine, and near the Thermodon. They were defeated in
  a battle near the Thermodon by the Greeks; and some of them migrated
  beyond the Tanais, and extended their territories as far as the
  Caspian sea. Themyscyra was the most capital of their towns; and
  Smyrna, Magnesia, Thyatira, and Ephesus, according to some authors,
  were built by them. Diodorus, bk. 3, mentions a nation of Amazons
  in Africa more ancient than those of Asia. Some authors, among whom
  is Strabo, deny the existence of the Amazons, and of a republic
  supported and governed by women, who banished or extirpated all
  their males; but Justin and Diodorus particularly support it; and
  the latter says that Penthesilea, one of their queens, came to the
  Trojan war on the side of Priam, and that she was killed by Achilles,
  and from that time the glory and character of the Amazons gradually
  decayed, and was totally forgotten. The Amazons of Africa flourished
  long before the Trojan war, and many of their actions have been
  attributed to those of Asia. It is said, that after they had subdued
  almost all Asia, they invaded Attica, and were conquered by Theseus.
  Their most famous actions were their expeditions against Priam,
  and afterwards the assistance they gave him during the Trojan war;
  and their invasion of Attica, to punish Theseus, who had carried
  away Antiope, one of their queens. They were also conquered by
  Bellerophon and Hercules. Among their queens, Hippolyte, Antiope,
  Lampeto, Marpesia, &c., are famous. Curtius says that Thalestris,
  one of their queens, came to Alexander, whilst he was pursuing
  his conquests in Asia, for the sake of raising children from a man
  of such military reputation; and that, after she had remained 13
  days with him, she retired into her country. The Amazons were such
  expert archers, that, to denote the goodness of a bow or quiver, it
  was usual to call it Amazonian. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 5, li. 311.
  ――_Jornandes_, _Getica_, ch. 7.――_Philostratus Major_, _Imagines_,
  bk. 2, ch. 5.――_Justin_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――_Curtius_, bk. 6, ch. 5.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 7; bk. 14, ch. 8; bk. 36, ch. 5.――_Herodotus_,
  bk. 4, ch. 110.――_Strabo_, bk. 11.――_Diodorus_, bk. 2.――_Dionysius
  of Halicarnassus_, bk. 4.――_Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 2.――_Plutarch_,
  _Theseus_.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, chs. 3 & 5.――_Hyginus_, fables 14
  & 163.

=Amazŏnia=, a celebrated mistress of the emperor Commodus.――――The
  country of the Amazons, near the Caspian sea.

=Amazŏnium=, a place in Attica, where Theseus obtained a victory over
  the Amazons.

=Amazŏnius=, a surname of Apollo at Lacedæmon.

=Ambarri=, a people of Gallia Celtica, on the Arar, related to the
  Ædui. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 1, ch. 11.

=Ambarvālia=, a joyful procession round the ploughed fields, in honour
  of Ceres the goddess of corn. There were two festivals of that name
  celebrated by the Romans, one about the month of April, the other
  in July. They went three times round their fields crowned with oak
  leaves singing hymns to Ceres, and entreating her to preserve their
  corn. The word is derived _ab ambiendis arvis_, going round the
  fields. A sow, a sheep, and a bull, called _ambarvaliæ hostiæ_, were
  afterwards immolated, and the sacrifice has sometimes been called
  _suovetaurilia_, from _sus_, _ovis_, and _taurus_. _Virgil_,
  _Georgics_, bk. 1, lis. 339 & 345.――_Tibullus_, bk. 2, poem 1,
  li. 19.――_Cato_, _de Re Rustica_, ch. 141.

=Ambĕnus=, a mountain of European Sarmatia. _Flaccus_, bk. 6, ch. 85.

=Ambialītes=, a people of Gallia Celtica. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_,
  bk. 3, ch. 9.

=Ambiānum=, a town of Belgium, now _Amiens_. Its inhabitants conspired
  against Julius Cæsar. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 2, ch. 4.

=Ambiatīnum=, a village of Germany, where the emperor Caligula was
  born. _Suetonius_, _Caligula_, ch. 8.

=Ambigātus=, a king of the Celtæ, in the time of Tarquinius Priscus.
  Seeing the great population of his country, he sent his two nephews,
  Sigovesus and Bellovesus, with two colonies, in quest of new
  settlements; the former towards the Hercynian woods, and the other
  towards Italy. _Livy_, bk. 5, ch. 34, &c.

=Ambiōrix=, a king of the Eburones in Gaul. He was a great enemy to
  Rome, and was killed in a battle with Julius Cæsar, in which 60,000
  of his countrymen were slain. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 5, chs.
  11, 26; bk. 6, ch. 30.

=Ambivius=, a man mentioned by _Cicero_, _de Senectute_.

=Amblada=, a town of Pisidia. _Strabo._

=Ambracia=, a city of Epirus near the Acheron, the residence of king
  Pyrrhus. Augustus, after the battle of Actium, called it Nicopolis.
  _Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 3.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 1.――_Polybius_, bk. 4,
  ch. 63.――_Strabo_, bk. 10.

=Ambracius Sinus=, a bay of the Ionian sea, near Ambracia, about 300
  stadia deep, narrow at the entrance, but within near 100 stadia
  in breadth, and now called the gulf of Larta. _Polybius_, bk. 4,
  ch. 63.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 3.――_Florus_, bk. 4, ch. 11.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 10.

=Ambri=, an Indian nation. _Justin_, bk. 12, ch. 9.

=Ambrōnes=, certain nations of Gaul, who lost their possessions by the
  inundation of the sea, and lived upon rapine and plunder, whence the
  word _Ambrones_ implied a dishonourable meaning. They were conquered
  by Marius. _Plutarch_, _Marius_.

=Ambrōsia=, festivals observed in honour of Bacchus in some cities
  in Greece. They were the same as the Brumalia of the Romans.――――One
  of the daughters of Atlas, changed into a constellation after death.
  ――――The food of the gods was called _ambrosia_, and their drink
  _nectar_. The word signifies immortal. It had the power of giving
  immortality to all those who eat it. It was sweeter than honey, and
  of a most odoriferous smell; and it is said that Berenice, the wife
  of Ptolemy Soter, was saved from death by eating ambrosia given her
  by Venus. Titonus was made immortal by Aurora, by eating ambrosia;
  and in like manner Tantalus and Pelops, who, on account of their
  impiety, had been driven from heaven, and compelled to die upon
  earth. It had the power of healing wounds, and therefore Apollo, in
  Homer’s Iliad, saves Sarpedon’s body from putrefaction, by rubbing
  it with ambrosia; and Venus also heals the wounds of her son, in
  Virgil’s Æneid, with it. The gods used generally to perfume the hair
  with ambrosia; as Juno when she adorned herself to captivate Jupiter,
  and Venus when she appeared to Æneas. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bks. 1,
  14, 16, & 24.――_Lucian_, _de Dea Syria_.――_Catullus_, poem 100.――
  _Theocritus_, _Idylls_, poem 15.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 407;
  bk. 12, li. 419.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2.――_Pindar_, bk. 1,

=Ambrosius=, bishop of Milan, obliged the emperor Theodosius to
  make penance for the murder of the people of Thessalonica, and
  distinguished himself by his writings, especially against the Arians.
  His three books, _de Officiis_, are still extant, besides eight
  hymns on the creation. His style is not inelegant, but his diction
  is sententious, his opinions eccentric, though his subject is
  diversified by copiousness of thought. He died A.D. 397. The best
  edition of his works is that of the Benedictines, 2 vols., folio,
  Paris, 1686.

=Ambrȳon=, a man who wrote the life of Theocritus of Chios. _Diogenes

=Ambryssus=, a city of Phocis, which receives its name from a hero of
  the same name. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 35.

=Ambūbājæ=, Syrian women of immoral lives, who, in the dissolute
  period of Rome, attended festivals and assemblies as minstrels. The
  name is derived by some from Syrian words, which signify a flute.
  _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 2.――_Suetonius_, _Nero_, ch. 27.

=Ambulli=, a surname of Castor and Pollux, in Sparta.

=Ameles=, a river of hell, whose waters no vessel could contain.
  ♦_Plato_, bk. 10, _Republic_.

      ♦ ‘Plutarch’ replaced with ‘Plato’

=Amenanus=, a river of Sicily, near mount Ætna, now _Guidicello_.
  _Strabo_, bk. 5.

=Amenīdes=, a secretary of Darius the last king of Persia. Alexander
  set him over the Arimaspi. _Curtius_, bk. 7, ch. 3.

=Amenŏcles=, a Corinthian, said to be the first Grecian who built a
  three-oared galley at Samos and Corinth. _Thucydides_, bk. 1, ch. 13.

=Ameria=, a city of Umbria, whose osiers (_Amerinæ salices_) were
  famous for the binding of vines to the elm trees. _Pliny_, bk. 3,
  ch. 14.――_Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 1, li. 265.

=Amestrătus=, a town of Sicily, near the Halesus. The Romans besieged
  it for seven months, and it yielded at last after a third siege, and
  the inhabitants were sold as slaves. _Polybius_, bk. 1, ch. 24.

=Amestris=, queen of Persia, was wife to Xerxes. She cruelly treated
  the mother of Artiante, her husband’s mistress, and cut off her
  nose, ears, lips, breast, tongue, and eyebrows. She also buried
  alive 14 noble Persian youths, to appease the deities under the
  earth. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 61; bk. 9, ch. 111.――――A daughter
  of Oxyartes, wife to Lysimachus. _Diodorus_, bk. 20.

=Amīda=, a city of Mesopotamia, besieged and taken by Sapor king of
  Persia. _Ammianus_, bk. 19.

=Amilcar=, a Carthaginian general of great eloquence and cunning,
  surnamed Rhodanus. When the Athenians were afraid of Alexander,
  Amilcar went to his camp, gained his confidence, and secretly
  transmitted an account of all his schemes to Athens. _Trogus_,
  bk. 21, ch. 6.――――A Carthaginian, whom the Syracusans called to
  their assistance against the tyrant Agathocles, who besieged their
  city. Amilcar soon after favoured the interest of Agathocles, for
  which he was accused at Carthage. He died in Syracuse, B.C. 309.
  _Diodorus_, bk. 20.――_Justin_, bk. 22, chs. 2 & 3.――――A Carthaginian,
  surnamed Barcas, father to the celebrated Annibal. He was general in
  Sicily during the first Punic war; and after a peace had been made
  with the Romans, he quelled a rebellion of slaves, who had besieged
  Carthage, and taken many towns of Africa, and rendered themselves
  so formidable to the Carthaginians that they begged and obtained
  assistance from Rome. After this, he passed into Spain with his
  son Annibal, who was but nine years of age, and laid the foundation
  of the town of Barcelona. He was killed in a battle against the
  Vettones, B.C. 237. He had formed the plan of an invasion of
  Italy, by crossing the Alps, which his son afterwards carried into
  execution. His great enmity to the Romans was the cause of the
  second Punic war. He used to say of his three sons, that he kept
  three lions to devour the Roman power. _Cornelius Nepos_, _Lives
  of Distinguished Romans_.――_Livy_, bk. 21, ch. 1.――_Polybius_,
  bk. 2.――_Plutarch_, _Life of Hannibal_.――――A Carthaginian general,
  who assisted the Insubres against Rome, and was taken by Cnaeus
  Cornelius. _Livy_, bk. 32, ch. 30; bk. 33, ch. 8.――――A son of Hanno,
  defeated in Sicily by Gelon, the same day that Xerxes was defeated
  at Salamis by Themistocles. He burnt himself, that his body might
  not be found among the slain. Sacrifices were offered to him.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 165, &c.

=Amĭlos=, or =Amĭlus=, a river of Mauritania, where the elephants go
  to wash themselves by moonshine. _Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 1.――――A town of
  Arcadia. _Pausanias_, _Arcadia_.

=Amimŏne=, or =Amymŏne=, a daughter of Danaus, changed into a
  fountain which is near Argos, and flows into the lake Lerna. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, li. 240.

=Amĭnea=, or =Amminea=, a part of Campania, where the inhabitants are
  great husbandmen. Its wine was highly esteemed. _Virgil_, _Georgics_,
  bk. 2, li. 97.――――A place of Thessaly.

=Aminias=, a famous pirate, whom Antigonus employed against
  Apollodorus tyrant of Cassandrea. _Polyænus_, bk. 4, ch. 18.

=Aminius=, a river of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 30.

=Aminŏcles=, a native of Corinth, who flourished 705 B.C., &c.

=Amisēna=, a country of Cappadocia. _Strabo_, bk. 12.

=Amisias=, a comic poet, whom Aristophanes ridiculed for his insipid

=Amissas=, an officer of Megalopolis in Alexander’s army. _Curtius_,
  bk. 10, ch. 8.

=Amiternum=, a town of Italy, where Sallust was born. The
  inhabitants assisted Turnus against Æneas. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 7, li. 710.――_Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 5.――_Livy_, bk. 28, ch. 45.

=Amithāon=, or =Amythāon=, was father to Melampus the famous prophet.
  _Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 3, li. 451.

=Ammālo=, a festival in honour of Jupiter in Greece.

=Ammiānus.= _See:_ Marcellinus.

=Ammon= and =Hammon=, a name of Jupiter, worshipped in Libya. He
  appeared under the form of a ram to Hercules, or, according to
  others, to Bacchus, who, with his army, suffered the greatest
  extremities for want of water, in the deserts of Africa, and showed
  him a fountain. Upon this Bacchus erected a temple to his father,
  under the name of Jupiter Ammon, _i.e._ _sandy_, with the horns of
  a ram. The ram, according to some, was made a constellation. The
  temple of Jupiter Ammon was in the deserts of Libya, nine days’
  journey from Alexandria. It had a famous oracle, which, according
  to ancient tradition, was established about 18 centuries before the
  time of Augustus, by two doves which flew away from Thebais in Egypt,
  and came, one to Dodona, and the other to Libya, where the people
  were soon informed of their divine mission. The oracle of Hammon was
  consulted by Hercules, Perseus, and others; but when it pronounced
  Alexander to be the son of Jupiter, such flattery destroyed its
  long-established reputation, and in the age of Plutarch it was
  scarce known. The situation of the temple was pleasant; and
  according to _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15, li. 310,――_Lucretius_,
  bk. 6, li. 147,――_Herodotus_, _Melpomene_.――_Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 7,
  there was near it a fountain whose waters were cold at noon and
  midnight, and warm in the morning and evening. There were above
  100 priests in the temple, but only the elders delivered oracles.
  There was also an oracle of Jupiter Ammon in Æthiopia. _Pliny_,
  bk. 6, ch. 29.――_Strabo_, bks. 1, 11, & 17.――_Plutarch_, _de Defectu
  Oraculorum_, & _Iside et Osiride_.――_Curtius_, bk. 6, ch. 10; bk. 10,
  ch. 5.――_Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 6; bk. 2, chs. 32 & 55; bk. 4,
  ch. 44.――_Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 18; bk. 4, ch. 23.――_Hyginus_,
  fable 133; _Poeticon Astronomicon_, bk. 2, ch. 20.――_Justin_, bk. 1,
  ch. 9; bk. 11, ch. 11.――――A king of Libya, father to Bacchus. He
  gave his name to the temple of Hammon, according to _Diodorus_,
  bk. 8.

=Ammon= and =Brothas=, two brothers famous for their skill in boxing.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, li. 107.

=Ammōnia=, a name of Juno in Elis, as being the wife of Jupiter Ammon.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 15.

=Ammōnii=, a nation of Africa, who derived their origin from the
  Egyptians and Æthiopians. Their language was a mixture of that of
  the two people from whom they were descended. _Herodotus_, bks. 2,
  3, & 4.

=Ammōnius=, a christian philosopher, who opened a school of Platonic
  philosophy at Alexandria, 232 A.D., and had amongst his pupils
  Origen and Plotinus. His treatise, Περι Ὁμοιων, was published in
  4to by Valckenaer, Leiden, 1739.――――A writer who gave an account of
  sacrifices, as also a treatise on the harlots of Athens. _Athenæus_,
  bk. 13.――――An Athenian general surnamed Barcas. _Polybius_, bk. 3.

=Ammothea=, one of the Nereides. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_.

=Amnias=, a river of Bithynia. _Appian_, _Mithridatic Wars_.

=Amnīsus=, a port of Gnossus, at the north of Crete, with a small
  river of the same name, near which Lucina had a temple. The nymphs
  of the place were called Amnisiades. _Callimachus._

=Amœbæus=, an Athenian player of great reputation, who sung at the
  nuptials of Demetrius and Nicæa. _Polyænus_, bk. 4, ch. 6.

=Amomētus=, a Greek historian. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 17.

=Amor=, the son of Venus, was the god of love. _See:_ Cupido.

=Amorges=, a Persian general, killed in Caria, in the reign of Xerxes.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 121.

=Amorgos=, an island among the Cyclades, where Simonides was born.
  _Strabo_, bk. 10.

=Ampĕlus=, a promontory of Samos.――――A town of Crete,――――of
  Macedonia,――――of Liguria,――――and Cyrene.――――A favourite of Bacchus,
  son of a satyr and a nymph, made a constellation after death. _Ovid_,
  _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 407.

=Ampelūsia=, a promontory of Africa, in Mauritania. _Mela_, bk. 1,
  chs. 5 & 6.

=Amphēa=, a city of Messenia, taken by the Lacedæmonians. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 4, ch. 5.

=Amphialāus=, a famous dancer in the island of the Phæacians. _Homer_,
  _Odyssey_, bk. 8.

=Amphiănax=, a king of Lycia in the time of Acrisius and Prœtus.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 2.

=Amphiarāus=, son of Oicleus, or, according to others, of Apollo
  by Hypermnestra, was at the chase of the Calydonian boar, and
  accompanied the Argonauts in their expedition. He was famous for
  his knowledge of futurity and thence he is called by some son of
  Apollo. He married Eriphyle, the sister of Adrastus king of Argos,
  by whom he had two sons, Alcmæon and Amphilochus. When Adrastus, at
  the request of Polynices, declared war against Thebes, Amphiaraus
  secreted himself, not to accompany his brother-in-law in an
  expedition in which he knew he was to perish. But Eriphyle, who
  knew where he had concealed himself, was prevailed upon to betray
  him by Polynices, who gave her as a reward for her perfidy a famous
  golden necklace set with diamonds. Amphiaraus being thus discovered,
  went to the war, but previously charged his son Alcmæon to put to
  death his mother Eriphyle, as soon as he was informed that he was
  killed. The Theban war was fatal to the Argives, and Amphiaraus was
  swallowed up in his chariot by the earth, as he attempted to retire
  from the battle. The news of his death was brought to Alcmæon, who
  immediately executed his father’s command, and murdered Eriphyle.
  Amphiaraus received divine honours after death, and had a celebrated
  temple and oracle at Oropos in Attica. His statue was made of white
  marble, and near his temple was a fountain, whose waters were ever
  held sacred. They only who had consulted his oracle, or had been
  delivered from a disease, were permitted to bathe in it, after which
  they threw pieces of gold and silver into the stream. Those who
  consulted the oracle of Amphiaraus first purified themselves, and
  abstained from food for 24 hours, and three days from wine, after
  which they sacrificed a ram to the prophet, and spread the skin upon
  the ground, upon which they slept in expectation of receiving in a
  dream the answer of the oracle. Plutarch, _De Defectu Oraculorum_,
  mentions that the oracle of Amphiaraus was once consulted in the
  time of Xerxes, by one of the servants of Mardonius, for his master,
  who was then with an army in Greece; and that the servant, when
  asleep, saw in a dream the priest of the temple, who upbraided
  him and drove him away, and even threw stones at his head when
  he refused to comply. This oracle was verified in the death of
  Mardonius, who was actually killed by the blow of a stone which
  he received on the head. _Cicero_, _de Divinatione_, bk. 1, ch. 40.
  ――_Philostratus_, _Lives_.――_Apollonius_, bk. 2, ch. 11.――_Homer_,
  _Odyssey_, bk. 15, li. 243, &c.――_Hyginus_, fables 70, 73, 128,
  & 150.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.――_Ovid_, bk. 9, fable 10.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 1, ch. 34; bk. 2, ch. 37; bk. 9, chs. 8 & 19.――_Aeschylus_,
  _Seven Against Thebes_.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, chs. 8 & 9; bk. 3,
  ch. 6, &c.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.

=Amphiarāĭdes=, a patronymic of Alcmæon as being son of Amphiaraus.
  _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 2, li. 43.

=Amphicrătes=, an historian who wrote the lives of illustrious men.
  _Diogenes Laërtius._

=Amphictyon=, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, reigned at Athens after
  Cranaus, and first attempted to give the interpretation of dreams,
  and to draw omens. Some say that the deluge happened in his age.
  _Justin_, bk. 2, ch. 6.――――The son of Helenus, who first established
  the celebrated council of the _Amphictyons_, composed of the wisest
  and most virtuous men of some cities of Greece. This august assembly
  consisted of 12 persons, originally sent by the following states:
  the Ionians, Dorians, Perhæbians, Bœotians, Magnesians, Phthians,
  Locrians, Malians, Phocians, Thessalians, Dolopes, and the people
  of Œta. Other cities in process of time sent also some of their
  citizens to the council of the Amphictyons, and in the age of
  Antoninus Pius, they were increased to the number of 30. They
  generally met twice every year at Delphi, and sometimes sat at
  Thermopylæ. They took into consideration all matters of difference
  which might exist between the different states of Greece. When the
  Phocians plundered the temple of Delphi the Amphictyons declared
  war against them, and this war was supported by all the states of
  Greece, and lasted 10 years. The Phocians, with their allies the
  Lacedæmonians, were deprived of the privilege of sitting in the
  council of the Amphictyons, and the Macedonians were admitted in
  their place, for their services in support of the war. About 60
  years after, when Brennus, with the Gauls, invaded Greece, the
  Phocians behaved with such courage, that they were reinstated in
  all their former privileges. Before they proceeded to business, the
  Amphictyons sacrificed an ox to the god of Delphi, and cut his flesh
  into small pieces, intimating that union and unanimity prevailed
  in the several cities which they represented. Their decisions were
  held sacred and inviolable, and even arms were taken up to enforce
  them. _Pausanias_, _Phocis_ & _Achaia_.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Suidas._

=Amphiclea=, a town of Phocis, where Bacchus had a temple.

=Amphidāmus=, a son of Aleus, brother to Lycurgus. He was of the
  family of the Inachidæ. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 4.――――One of the
  Argonauts. _Flaccus_, bk. 1, li. 376.――――A son of Busiris, killed
  by Hercules. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 5.

=Amphidrŏmia=, a festival observed by private families at Athens, the
  fifth day after the birth of every child. It was customary to _run
  round_ the fire with a child in their arms; whence the name of the

=Amphigenīa=, a town of Messenia in Peloponnesus. _Statius_, _Thebiad_,
  bk. 4, li. 178.

=Amphilŏchus=, a son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle. After the Trojan war,
  he left Argos, his native country, and built Amphilochus, a town of
  Epirus. _Strabo_, bk. 7.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 18.――――An Athenian
  philosopher who wrote upon agriculture. _Varro_, _de Re Rustica_,
  bk. 1.

=Amphily̆tus=, a soothsayer of Acarnania, who encouraged Pisistratus to
  seize the sovereign power of Athens. _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 62.

=Amphimăche=, a daughter of Amphidamus, wife of Eurystheus.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 2.

=Amphimăchus=, one of Helen’s suitors, son of Cteatus. He went to the
  Trojan war. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 10.――_Hyginus_, fable 97.――――A
  son of Actor and Theronice. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 3.

=Amphimĕdon=, a Libyan killed by Perseus, in the court of Cepheus.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, li. 75.――――One of Penelope’s suitors,
  killed by Telemachus. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 22, li. 283.

=Amphinŏme=, the name of one of the attendants of Thetis. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 18, li. 44.

=Amphinŏmus=, one of Penelope’s suitors, killed by Telemachus. _Homer_,
  _Odyssey_, bks. 16 & 22.

=Amphinŏmus= and =Anapius=, two brothers, who, when Catana and the
  neighbouring cities were in flames, by an eruption from mount Ætna,
  saved their parents upon their shoulders. The fire, as it is said,
  spared them while it consumed others by their side; and Pluto, to
  reward their uncommon piety, placed them after death in the island
  of Leuce, and they received divine honours in Sicily. _Valerius
  Maximus_, bk. 5, ch. 4.――_Strabo_, bk. 6.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 14,
  li. 197.――_Seneca_, _de Beneficiis_.

=Amphīon=, was son of Jupiter, by Antiope daughter of Nycteus, who had
  married Lycus, and had been repudiated by him when he married Dirce.
  Amphion was born at the same birth as Zethus, on mount Citheron,
  where Antiope had fled to avoid the resentment of Dirce; and the
  two children were exposed in the woods, but preserved by a shepherd.
  _See:_ Antiope. When Amphion grew up, he cultivated poetry and made
  such an uncommon progress in music, that he is said to have been the
  inventor of it, and to have built the walls of Thebes at the sound
  of his lyre. Mercury taught him music, and gave him the lyre. He
  was the first who raised an altar to this god. Zethus and Amphion
  united to avenge the wrongs which their mother had suffered from
  the cruelties of Dirce. They besieged and took Thebes, put Lycus to
  death, and tied his wife to the tail of a wild bull, which dragged
  her through precipices till she expired. The fable of Amphion’s
  moving stones and raising the walls of Thebes at the sound of his
  lyre, has been explained by supposing that he persuaded, by his
  eloquence, a wild and uncivilized people to unite together and
  build a town to protect themselves against the attacks of their
  enemies. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 11.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, chs.
  5 & 10.――_Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 6; bk. 6, ch. 20; bk. 9, chs. 5
  & 17.――_Propertius_, bk. 3, poem 15.――_Ovid_, _de Ars Amatoria_,
  bk. 3, li. 323.――_Horace_, bk. 3, ode 11; _Art of Poetry_, li.
  394.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 1, li. 10.――――A son of Jasus king
  of Orchomenos, by Persephone daughter of Mius. He married Niobe
  daughter of Tantalus, by whom he had many children, among whom was
  Chloris the wife of Neleus. He has been confounded by mythologists
  with the son of Antiope, though Homer in his Odyssey speaks of them
  both, and distinguishes them beyond contradiction. The number of
  Amphion’s children, according to Homer, was 12, six of each sex;
  according to Ælian, 20; and according to Ovid, 14, seven males
  and seven females. When Niobe boasted herself greater, and more
  deserving of immortality than Latona, all her children, except
  Chloris, were destroyed by the arrows of Apollo and Diana; Niobe
  herself was changed into a stone, and Amphion killed himself in a
  fit of despair. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 11, lis. 261 & 282.――_Ælian_,
  _Varia Historia_, bk. 12, li. 36.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 6,
  fable 5.――――One of the Argonauts. _Hyginus_, fable 14.――――A famous
  painter and statuary, son of Acestor of Gnossus. _Pliny_, bk. 36,
  ch. 10.――――One of the Greek generals in the Trojan war. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 13, li. 692.

=Amphipŏles=, magistrates appointed at Syracuse by Timoleon, after the
  expulsion of Dionysius the younger. The office existed for above 300
  years. _Diodorus_, bk. 16.

=Amphipŏlis=, a town on the Strymon, between Macedonia and Thrace.
  An Athenian colony, under Agnon son of Nicias, drove the ancient
  inhabitants, called Edonians, from the country, and built a city,
  which they called Amphipolis, _i.e._ a town surrounded on all sides,
  because the Strymon flowed all around it. It has been also called
  Acra, Strymon, Myrica, Eion, and the town of Mars. It was the cause
  of many wars between the Athenians and Spartans. _Thucydides_,
  bk. 4, ch. 102, &c.――_Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 126; bk. 7, ch. 114.――
  _Diodorus_, bks. 11, 12, &c.――_Cornelius Nepos_, _Cimon_.

=Amphipy̆ros=, a surname of Diana, because she carries a _torch_ in
  _both_ her hands. _Sophocles_, _Trachiniæ_.

=Amphirētus=, a man of Acanthus, who artfully escaped from pirates who
  had made him prisoner. _Polyænus_, bk. 6.

=Amphiroe=, one of the Oceanides. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 361.

=Amphis=, a Greek comic poet of Athens, son of Amphicrates,
  contemporary with Plato. Besides his comedies he wrote other pieces,
  which are now lost. _Suidas._――_Diogenes Laërtius._

=Amphisbæna=, a two-headed serpent in the deserts of Libya, whose bite
  was venomous and deadly. _Lucan_, bk. 9, li. 719.

=Amphissa=, or =Issa=, a daughter of Macareus, beloved by Apollo. She
  gave her name to a city of Locris near Phocis, in which was a temple
  of Minerva. _Livy_, bk. 37, ch. 5.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15,
  li. 703.――_Lucan_, bk. 3, li. 172.――――A town of the Brutii on the
  east coast.

=Amphissēne=, a country of Armenia.

=Amphissus=, a son of Dryope. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9, fable 10.

=Amphisthĕnes=, a Lacedæmonian, who fell delirious in sacrificing to
  Diana. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 16.

=Amphistīdes=, a man so naturally destitute of intellect, that he
  seldom remembered that he ever had a father. He wished to learn
  arithmetic, but never could comprehend beyond the figure 4.
  _Aristotle_, _Problemata_, bk. 4.

=Amphistrătus= and =Rhecas=, two men of Laconia, charioteers to Castor
  and Pollux. _Strabo_, bk. 11.――_Justin_, bk. 42, ch. 3.

=Amphitea=, the mother of Ægialeus by Cyanippus, and of three
  daughters, Argia, Deipyle, and Ægialea, by Adrastus king of Argos.
  She was daughter to Pronax. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1.――――The wife of
  Autolycus, by whom she had Anticlea the wife of Laertes. _Homer_,
  _Odyssey_, bk. 19, li. 416.

=Amphitheātrum=, a large round or oval building at Rome, where the
  people assembled to see the combats of gladiators, of wild beasts,
  and other exhibitions. The amphitheatres of Rome were generally
  built with wood. Statilius Taurus was the first who made one with
  stones, under Augustus.

=Amphithĕmis=, a Theban general, who involved the Lacedæmonians into
  a war with his country. _Plutarch_, _Lysander_.――_Pausanias_, bk. 3,
  ch. 9.

=Amphithoe=, one of the Nereides.

=Amphītrīte=, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, married Neptune, though
  she had made a vow of perpetual celibacy. She had by him Triton,
  one of the sea deities. She had a statue at Corinth in the temple
  of Neptune. She is sometimes called Salatia, and is often taken
  for the sea itself. _Varro_, _de Lingua Latina_, bk. 4.――_Hesiod_,
  _Theogony_, li. 930.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3.――_Claudian_, _de Raptu
  Proserpinæ_, bk. 1, li. 104.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1,
  li. 14.――――One of the Nereides.

=Amphĭtryon=, a Theban prince, son of Alcæus and Hipponome. His sister
  Anaxo had married Electryon king of Mycenæ, whose sons were killed
  in a battle by the Teleboans. Electryon promised his crown and
  daughter Alcmena to him who could revenge the death of his sons upon
  the Teleboans; and Amphitryon offered himself and was received, on
  condition that he should not approach Alcmena before he had obtained
  a victory. Jupiter, who was captivated with the charms of Alcmena,
  borrowed the features of Amphitryon when he was gone to the war, and
  introduced himself to Electryon’s daughter as her husband returned
  victorious. Alcmena became pregnant of Hercules by Jupiter, and
  of Iphiclus by Amphitryon, after his return. _See:_ Alcmena. When
  Amphitryon returned from the war, he brought back to Electryon
  the herds which the Teleboans had taken from him. One of the cows
  having strayed from the rest, Amphitryon, to bring them together,
  threw a stick, which struck the horns of the cow, and rebounded
  with such violence upon Electryon, that he died on the spot. After
  this accidental murder, Sthenelus, Electryon’s brother, seized the
  kingdom of Mycenæ, and obliged Amphitryon to leave Argolis, and
  retire to Thebes with Alcmena. Creon king of Thebes purified him of
  the murder. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8,
  li. 213.――_Propertius_, bk. 4, poem 10, li. 1.――_Hesiod_, _Shield of
  Heracles_.――_Hyginus_, fable 29.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 14.

=Amphitryōniădes=, a surname of Hercules, as the supposed son of
  Amphitryon. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 103.

=Amphitus=, a priest of Ceres, at the court of Cepheus. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable 5.

=Amphotĕrus=, was appointed commander of a fleet in the Hellespont by
  Alexander. _Curtius_, bk. 3, ch. 1.――――A son of Alcmæon.

=Amphrȳsus=, a river of Thessaly, near which Apollo, when banished
  from heaven, fed the flocks of king Admetus. From this circumstance
  the god has been called _Amphryssius_, and his priestess
  _Amphryssia_. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1, li. 580.――_Lucan_,
  bk. 6, li. 367.――_Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 3, li. 2; _Æneid_, bk. 6,
  li. 398.――――A river of Phrygia, whose waters rendered women liable
  to barrenness. _Pliny_, bk. 32, ch. 2.

=Ampia Labiena lex=, was enacted by Titus Ampius and ♦Titus Labienus,
  tribunes of the people, A.U.C. 693. It gave Pompey the Great the
  privilege of appearing in triumphal robes and with a golden crown
  at the Circensian games, and with a prætexta and golden crown at
  theatrical plays.

      ♦ ‘A.’ replaced with ‘Titus’

=Ampracia=. _See:_ Ambracia.

=Ampysĭdes=, a patronymic of Mopsus son of Ampyx. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, li. 316.

=Ampyx=, a son of Pelias. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 18.――――A man
  mentioned by _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, li. 184.――――The father
  of Mopsus. _Orpheus_, _Argonauts_.――_Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 17.

=Amsactus=, a lake in the country of the Hirpini, at the east of
  Capua, whose waters are so sulphureous that they infect and destroy
  whatever animals come near the place. It was through this place that
  Virgil made the fury Alecto descend into hell, after her visit to
  the upper regions. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 565.――_Cicero_,
  _de Divinatione_, bk. 1, ch. 36.

=Amūlius=, king of Alba, was son of Procas and youngest brother
  to Numitor. The crown belonged to Numitor by right of birth; but
  Amulius dispossessed him of it, and even put to death his son Lausus,
  and consecrated his daughter Rhea Sylvia to the service of Vesta,
  to prevent her ever becoming a mother. Yet, in spite of all these
  precautions, Rhea became pregnant by the god Mars, and brought forth
  twins, Romulus and Remus. Amulius, who was informed of this, ordered
  the mother to be buried alive for violating the laws of Vesta, which
  enjoined perpetual chastity, and the two children to be thrown into
  the river. They were providentially saved by some shepherds, or,
  as others say, by a she-wolf; and when they had attained the years
  of manhood, they put to death the usurper, Amulius, and restored
  the crown to their grandfather. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 67.――
  _Livy_, bk. 1, chs. 3 & 4.――_Plutarch_, _Romulus_.――_Florus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 1.――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus._――――A celebrated painter.
  _Pliny_, bk. 35, ch. 10.

=Amy̆ci Portus=, a place in Pontus, famous for the death of Amycus king
  of the Bebryces. His tomb was covered with laurels, whose boughs,
  as is reported, when carried on board a ship, caused uncommon
  dissensions among the sailors. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 32.――_Arrian._

=Amy̆cla=, a daughter of Niobe, who, with her sister Melibœa, was
  spared by Diana, when her mother boasted herself greater than Diana.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 22.――――Homer says that all the daughters
  perished. _Iliad_, bk. 24. _See:_ Niobe.――――The nurse of Alcibiades.

=Amy̆clæ=, a town of Italy between Caieta and Tarracina, built by
  the companions of Castor and Pollux. The inhabitants were strict
  followers of the precepts of Pythagoras, and therefore abstained
  from flesh. They were killed by serpents, which they thought impious
  to destroy, though in their own defence. _Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 29.
  Once a report prevailed in Amyclæ that the enemies were coming to
  storm it; upon which the inhabitants made a law that forbade such
  a report to be credited, and when the enemy really arrived, no one
  mentioned it, or took up arms in his own defence, and the town was
  easily taken. From this circumstance the epithet of _tacitæ_ has
  been given to Amyclæ. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 564.――_Silius
  Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 529.――――A city of Peloponnesus, built by
  Amyclas. Castor and Pollux were born there. The country was famous
  for dogs. Apollo, called Amyclæus, had a rich and magnificent temple
  there, surrounded with delightful groves. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 18.
  ――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 4, li. 223.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Virgil_,
  _Georgics_, bk. 3, li. 345.――_Ovid_, _de Ars Amatoria_, bk. 2, li. 5.

=Amyclæus=, a statuary. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 13.――――A surname of

=Amyclas=, son of Lacedæmon and Sparta, built the city of Amyclæ.
  His sister Eurydice married Acrisius king of Argos, by whom she had
  Danae. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 1; bk. 7, ch. 18.――――The master of a
  ship in which Cæsar embarked in disguise. When Amyclas wished to put
  back to avoid a violent storm, Cæsar, unveiling his head, discovered
  himself, and bidding the pilot pursue his voyage, exclaimed, _Cæsarem
  vehis, Cæsarisque fortunam_. _Lucan_, bk. 5, li. 520.

=Amy̆cus=, son of Neptune by Melia, or Bithynis, according to others,
  was king of the Bebryces. He was famous for his skill in the
  management of the cestus, and he challenged all strangers to a trial
  of strength. When the Argonauts, in their expedition, stopped on
  his coasts, he treated them with great kindness, and Pollux accepted
  his challenge, and killed him when he attempted to overcome him by
  fraud. _Apollonius_, bk. 2, _Argonautica_.――_Theocritus_, _Idylls_,
  poem 22.――_Apollonius_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――――One of the companions of
  Æneas, who almost perished in a storm on the coast of Africa. He
  was killed by Turnus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 225; bk. 9,
  li. 772.――――Another, likewise killed by Turnus. _Ibis_, bk. 12,
  li. 509.――――A son of Ixion and the cloud.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 12, li. 245.

=Amy̆don=, a city of Pæonia in Macedonia, which sent auxiliaries to
  Priam during the Trojan war. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2.

=Amȳmōne=, daughter of Danaus and Europa, married Enceladus son
  of Ægyptus, whom she murdered the first night of her nuptials.
  She wounded a satyr with an arrow which she had aimed at a stag.
  The satyr pursued her, and even offered her violence, but Neptune
  delivered her. It was said that she was the only one of the 50
  sisters who was not condemned to fill a leaky tub with water in
  hell, because she had been continually employed, by order of her
  father, in supplying the city of Argos with water in a great drought.
  Neptune saw her in this employment, and was enamoured of her. He
  carried her away, and in the place where she stood, he raised a
  fountain by striking a rock. The fountain has been called Amymone.
  She had Nauplius by Neptune. _Propertius_, bk. 2, poem 26, li. 46.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch.
  37.――_Ovid_, _Amores_, bk. 1, li. 515.――_Hyginus_, fable 169.――――A
  fountain and rivulet of Peloponnesus, flowing through Argolis into
  the lake of Lerna. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, li. 240.

=Amyntas I.=, was king of Macedonia after his father Alcetas. His son
  Alexander murdered the ambassadors of Megabyzus, for their wanton
  and insolent behaviour to the ladies of his father’s court. Bubares,
  a Persian general, was sent with an army to revenge the death of
  the ambassadors; but instead of making war, he married the king’s
  daughter, and defended his possessions. _Justin_, bk. 7, ch. 3.
  ――_Herodotus_, bks. 5, 7, & 8.――――The second of that name was son
  of Menelaus, and king of Macedonia after his murder of Pausanias.
  He was expelled by the Illyrians, and restored by the Thessalians
  and Spartans. He made war against the Illyrians and Olynthians, and
  lived to a great age. His wife Eurydice conspired against his life;
  but her snares were seasonably discovered by one of his daughters
  by a former wife. He had Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip, Alexander
  the Great’s father, by his first wife; and by the other he had
  Archelaus, Aridæus, and Menelaus. He reigned 24 years; and soon
  after his death his son Philip murdered all his brothers, and
  ascended the throne.――_Justin_, bk. 7, chs. 4 & 9.――_Diodorus_,
  bk. 14, &c.――_Cornelius Nepos_ & _Plutarch_, _Pelopidas_.――――There
  is another king of Macedonia of the same name, but of his life
  few particulars are recorded in history.――――A man who succeeded
  Dejotarus, in the kingdom of Gallogræcia. After his death it
  became a Roman province under Augustus. _Strabo_, bk. 12.――――One
  of Alexander’s officers.――――Another officer who deserted to Darius,
  and was killed as he attempted to seize Egypt. _Curtius_, bk. 3,
  ch. 9.――――A son of Antiochus, who withdrew himself from Macedonia,
  because he hated Alexander.――――An officer in Alexander’s cavalry.
  He had two brothers, called Simias and Polemon. He was accused of a
  conspiracy against the king, on account of his great intimacy with
  Philotas, and acquitted. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 15; bk. 6, ch. 9;
  bk. 8, ch. 12.――――A shepherd’s name in Virgil’s _Eclogues_.――――A
  Greek writer who composed several works quoted by Athenæus, 10 & 12.

=Amyntiānus=, an historian in the age of Antoninus, who wrote a
  treatise in commendation of Philip, Olympias, and Alexander.

=Amyntor=, a king of Argos, son of Phrastor. He deprived his son
  Phœnix of his eyes, to punish him for the violence which he had
  offered to Clytia his concubine. _Hyginus_, fable 173.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, li. 307.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3.――_Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 9.――――A general of the Dolopes. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 12, li. 364.――――A son of Ægyptus, killed by Damone the first
  night of his marriage. _Hyginus_, fable 170.

=Amyris=, a man of Sybaris, who consulted the oracle of Delphi
  concerning the probable duration of his country’s prosperity, &c.

=Amyrīcus Campus=, a plain of Thessaly. _Polybius_, bk. 3.

=Amyrius=, a king by whom Cyrus was killed in a battle. _Ctesias._

=Amy̆rus=, a town of Thessaly.――――A river mentioned by _Valerius
  Flaccus_, bk. 2, li. 11.

=Amystis=, a river of India falling into the Ganges. _Arrian_, _Indica_.

=Amythāon=, a son of Cretheus king of Iolchos, by Tyro. He married
  Idomene, by whom he had Bias and Melampus. After his father’s death,
  he established himself in Messenia with his brother Neleus, and
  re-established or regulated the Olympic games. Melampus is called
  _Amythaonius_, from his father Amythaon. _Virgil_, _Georgics_,
  bk. 3, li. 550.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1.――_Homer_,
  _Odyssey_, bk. 11.――――A son of Hippasus, who assisted Priam in the
  Trojan war, and was killed by Lycomedes. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 17.

=Amytis=, a daughter of Astyages, whom Cyrus married. _Ctesias._――――A
  daughter of Xerxes, who married Megabyzus, and disgraced herself by
  her debaucheries.

=Anăces=, or =Anactes=, a name given to Castor and Pollux among
  the Athenians. Their festivals were called Anaceia. _Plutarch_,
  _Theseus_.――_Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 3, ch. 21.

=Anacharsis=, a Scythian philosopher, 592 B.C., who, on account of
  his wisdom, temperance, and extensive knowledge, has been called one
  of the seven wise men. Like his countrymen, he made use of a cart
  instead of a house. He was wont to compare laws to cobwebs, which
  can stop only small flies, and are unable to resist the superior
  force of large insects. When he returned to Scythia from Athens,
  where he had spent some time in study, and in the friendship of
  Solon, he attempted to introduce there the laws of the Athenians,
  which so irritated his brother, who was then on the throne, that
  he killed him with an arrow. Anacharsis has rendered himself famous
  among the ancients by his writings, and his poems on war, the
  laws of Scythia, &c. Two of his letters to Crœsus and Hanno are
  still extant. Later authors have attributed to him the invention
  of tinder, of anchors, and of the potter’s wheel. The name of
  Anacharsis is become very familiar to modern ears, by that elegant,
  valuable, and truly classical work of Barthelemi, called the travels
  of Anacharsis. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, chs. 56, 47, & 48.――_Plutarch_,
  _Quæstiones Convivales_.――_Cicero_, _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, bk. 5,
  ch. 32.――_Strabo_, bk. 7.

=Anacium=, a mountain with a temple sacred to the Anaces in
  Peloponnesus. _Polyænus_, bk. 1, ch. 21.

=Anacreon=, a famous lyric poet of Teos in Ionia, highly favoured by
  Polycrates and Hipparchus son of Pisistratus. He was of a lascivious
  and intemperate disposition, much given to drinking, and deeply
  enamoured of a youth called Bathyllus. His odes are still extant,
  and the uncommon sweetness and elegance of his poetry have been the
  admiration of every age and country. He lived to his 85th year, and,
  after every excess of pleasure and debauchery, choked himself with
  a grape stone and expired. Plato says that he was descended from
  an illustrious family, and that Codrus, the last king of Athens,
  was one of his progenitors. His statue was placed in the citadel of
  Athens, representing him as an old drunken man, singing, with every
  mark of dissipation and intemperance. Anacreon flourished 532 B.C.
  All that he wrote is not extant; his odes were first published
  by H. Stephens, with an elegant translation. The best editions
  of Anacreon are that of Maittaire, 4to, London, 1725, of which
  only 100 copies were printed, and the very correct one of Barnes,
  12mo, Cambridge, 1721, to which may be added that of Brunck,
  12mo, Strasbourg, 1778. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, chs. 2, 25.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 14.――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 9, ch. 4.――_Cicero_,
  _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, bk. 4, ch. 33.――_Horace_, epode 14,
  li. 20.――_Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 7.――_Herodotus_, bk. 3, ch. 121.

=Anactoria= and =Anactorium=, a town of Epirus, in a peninsula towards
  the gulf of Ambracia. It was founded by a Corinthian colony, and was
  the cause of many quarrels between the Corcyreans and Corinthians.
  Augustus carried the inhabitants to the city of Nicopolis, after
  the battle of Actium. _Strabo_, bk. 10.――_Thucydides_, bk. 1,
  ch. 55.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 1; bk. 5, ch. 29.――――An ancient name
  of Miletus.

=Anactŏrie=, a woman of Lesbos, wantonly loved by Sappho. _Ovid_,
  _Heroides_, poem 15, li. 17.

=Anadyomĕne=, a valuable painting of Venus, represented as rising from
  the sea, by Apelles. Augustus bought it and placed it in the temple
  of Julius Cæsar. The lower part of it was a little defaced, and
  there were found no painters in Rome able to repair it. _Pliny_,
  bk. 35, ch. 10.

=Anagnia=, now _Anagni_, a city of the Hernici in Latium, where
  Antony struck a medal when he divorced Octavia and married Cleopatra.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 684.――_Strabo_, bk. 5.――_Silius
  Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 392.

=Anagogia=, a festival, celebrated by the people of Eryx in Sicily, in
  honour of Venus. _Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 1, ch. 15; _Natura
  Animalium_, bk. 4, ch. 2.

=Anagyrontum=, a small village of Attica. _Herodotus._

=Anaītis=, a goddess of Armenia. The virgins who were consecrated
  to her service, esteemed themselves more dignified by public
  prostitution. The festivals of the deity were called Sacarum Festa;
  and when they were celebrated both sexes assisted at the ceremony,
  and inebriated themselves to such a degree, that the whole was
  concluded by a scene of the greatest lasciviousness and intemperance.
  They were first instituted by Cyrus, when he marched against the
  Sacæ, and covered tables with the most exquisite dainties, that
  he might detain the enemy by the novelty and sweetness of food
  to which they were unaccustomed, and thus easily destroy them.
  _Strabo._――――Diana is also worshipped under this name by the Lydians.
  _Pliny_, bk. 33, ch. 4.

=Ananias=, an Iambic poet. _Athenæus._

=Anăphe=, an island that rose out of the Cretan sea, and received this
  name from the Argonauts, who, in the middle of a storm, suddenly
  saw the new moon. Apollo was worshipped there, and called Anaphæus.

=Anaphlystus=, a small village of Attica near the sea, called after
  an ancient hero of the same name, who was son of Trœzen.――――A small
  village near Athens.

=Anāpus=, a river of Epirus. _Thucydides_, bk. 2, ch. 82.――――Of Sicily,
  near Syracuse. _Thucydides_, bk. 6, ch. 96.

=Anartes=, a people of Lower Pannonia. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 6,
  ch. 25.

=Anas=, a river of Spain, now called Guadiana. _Strabo_, bk. 3.

=Anatŏle=, one of the Horæ. _Hyginus_, fable 183.――――A mountain near
  the Ganges, where Apollo ravished a nymph called Anaxibia.

=Anauchĭdas=, a Samian wrestler. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 27.

=Anaurus=, a river of Thessaly, near the foot of mount Pelion, where
  Jason lost one of his sandals. _Callimachus_, _Diana [Artemis]_.――――A
  river of Troas near Ida. _Colluthus._

=Anausis=, one of Medea’s suitors, killed by Styrus. _Valerius
  Flaccus_, bk. 6, li. 43.

=Anax=, a son of Cœlus and Terra, father to Asterius, from whom Miletus
  has been called Anactoria. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 36; bk. 7, ch. 2.

=Anaxagŏras=, succeeded his father Megapenthes on the throne of Argos.
  He shared the sovereign power with Bias and Melampus, who had cured
  the women of Argos of madness. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 18.――――A
  Clazomenian philosopher, son of Hegesibulus, disciple to Anaximes
  and preceptor to Socrates and Euripides. He disregarded wealth and
  honours, to indulge his fondness for meditation and philosophy.
  He applied himself to astronomy, was acquainted with eclipses, and
  predicted that one day a stone would fall from the sun, which it
  is said really fell into the river Ægos. Anaxagoras travelled into
  Egypt for improvement, and used to say that he preferred a grain of
  wisdom to heaps of gold. Pericles was in the number of his pupils,
  and often consulted him in matters of state; and once dissuaded him
  from starving himself to death. The ideas of Anaxagoras concerning
  the heavens were wild and extravagant. He supposed that the sun was
  inflammable matter, about the bigness of Peloponnesus; and that the
  moon was inhabited. The heavens he believed to be of stone, and the
  earth of similar materials. He was accused of impiety and condemned
  to die; but he ridiculed the sentence, and said it had long been
  pronounced upon him by nature. Being asked whether his body should
  be carried into his own country, he answered, no, as the road that
  led to the other side of the grave was as long from one place as
  the other. His scholar Pericles pleaded eloquently and successfully
  for him, and the sentence of death was exchanged for banishment.
  In prison, the philosopher is said to have attempted to square the
  circle, or determine exactly the proportion of its diameter to the
  circumference. When the people of Lampsacus asked him before his
  death whether he wished anything to be done in commemoration of him,
  “Yes,” said he, “let the boys be allowed to play on the anniversary
  of my death.” This was carefully observed, and that time, dedicated
  to relaxation, was called _Anaxagoreia_. He died at Lampsacus in
  his 72nd year, 428 B.C. His writings were not much esteemed by his
  pupil Socrates. _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Lives of Eminent Philosophers_.
  ――_Plutarch_, _Nicias_ & _Pericles_.――_Cicero_, _Academicæ
  quaestiones_, bk. 4, ch. 23; _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, bk. 1,
  ch. 43.――――A statuary of Ægina. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 23.――――A
  grammarian, disciple to Zenodotus. _Diogenes Laërtius._――――An orator,
  disciple to Socrates. _Diogenes Laërtius._――――A son of Echeanox, who,
  with his brothers Codrus and Diodorus, destroyed Hegesias tyrant of

=Anaxander=, of the family of the Heraclidæ, was son of Eurycrates
  and king of Sparta. The second Messenian war began in his reign,
  in which Aristomenes so egregiously signalized himself. His son
  was called Eurycrates. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 204.――_Plutarch_,
  _Apophthegmata Laconica_.――_Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 3; bk. 4, chs.
  15 & 16.――――A general of Megalopolis, taken by the Thebans.

=Anaxandrĭdes=, son of Leon and father to Cleomenes I. and Leonidas,
  was king of Sparta. By the order of the Ephori, he divorced his wife,
  of whom he was extremely fond, on account of her barrenness; and he
  was the first Lacedæmonian who had two wives. _Herodotus_, bks. 1,
  5, & 7.――_Plutarch_, _Apophthegmata Laconica_, bk. 1.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 3, ch. 3, &c.――――A son of Theopompus. _Herodotus_, bk. 8, ch.
  131.――――A comic poet of Rhodes in the age of Philip and Alexander.
  He was the first poet who introduced intrigues and rapes upon the
  stage. He was of such a passionate disposition, that he tore to
  pieces all his compositions which met with no success. He composed
  about 100 plays, of which 10 obtained the prize. Some fragments of
  his poetry remain in Athenæus. He was starved to death by order of
  the Athenians, for satirizing their government. _Aristotle_, bk. 3,

=Anaxarchus=, a philosopher of Abdera, one of the followers of
  Democritus, and the friend of Alexander. When the monarch had been
  wounded in a battle, the philosopher pointed to the place, adding,
  “That is human blood, and not the blood of a god.” The freedom of
  Anaxarchus offended Nicocreon, and after Alexander’s death, the
  tyrant, in revenge, seized the philosopher, and pounded him in a
  stone mortar with iron hammers. He bore this with much resignation,
  and exclaimed, “Pound the body of Anaxarchus, for thou dost not
  pound his soul.” Upon this Nicocreon threatened to cut his tongue,
  and Anaxarchus bit it off with his teeth, and spit it out into the
  tyrant’s face. _Ovid_, _Ibis_, li. 571.――_Plutarch_, _Convivium
  Septem Sapientium_, ch. 7.――_Diogenes Laërtius_, _Lives of Eminent
  Philosophers_.――_Cicero_, _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, bk. 2, ch. 22.
  ――――A Theban general. _Thucydides_, bk. 8, ch. 100.

=Anaxarĕte=, a girl of Salamis, who so arrogantly despised the
  addresses of Iphis, a youth of ignoble birth, that the lover hung
  himself at her door. She saw this sad spectacle without emotion or
  pity, and was changed into a stone. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 14,
  li. 748.

=Anaxēnor=, a musician, whom Marcus Antony greatly honoured, and
  presented with the tribute of four cities. _Strabo_, bk. 14.

=Anaxias=, a Theban general. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 22.

=Anaxibia=, a sister of Agamemnon, mother of seven sons and two
  daughters by Nestor. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 29.――――A daughter of
  Bias, brother to the physician Melampus. She married Pelias king
  of Iolchos, by whom she had Acastus and four daughters――Pisidice,
  Pelopea, Hippothoe, and Alceste. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――――She
  is called daughter of Dymas by _Hyginus_, fable 14.

=Anaxicrătes=, an Athenian archon. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 23.

=Anaxidămus=, succeeded his father Zeuxidamus on the throne of Sparta.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 7; bk. 4, ch. 15.

=Anaxĭlas= and =Anaxĭlaus=, a Messenian, tyrant of Rhegium. He took
  Zancle, and was so mild and popular during his reign, that when he
  died, 476 B.C., he left his infant sons to the care of one of his
  servants, and the citizens chose rather to obey a slave than revolt
  from their benevolent sovereign’s children. _Justin_, bk. 3, ch. 2.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 23; bk. 5, ch. 27.――_Thucydides_, bk. 6,
  ch. 5.――_Herodotus_, bk. 6, ch. 23; bk. 7, ch. 167.――――A magician
  of Larissa, banished from Italy by Augustus.――――A Pythagorean
  philosopher.――――A physician. _Pliny_, bk. 19, ch. 1.――――An historian,
  who began his history with bitter invectives against former writers.
  _Dionysius of Halicarnassus._――――A Lacedæmonian. _Plutarch_,
  _Alcibiades_.――――A comic writer, about the 100th Olympiad.

=Anaxilĭdes=, wrote some treatises concerning philosophers, and
  mentioned that Plato’s mother became pregnant by a phantom of the
  god Apollo, from which circumstance her son was called the prince of
  wisdom. _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Plutarch_.

=Anaximander=, a Milesian philosopher, the companion and disciple of
  Thales. He was the first who constructed spheres, asserted that the
  earth was of a cylindrical form, and taught that men were born of
  earth and water mixed together, and heated by the beams of the sun;
  that the earth moved, and that the moon received light from the
  sun, which he considered as a circle of fire like a wheel, about 28
  times bigger than the earth. He made the first geographical maps and
  sun-dials. He died in the 64th year of his age, B.C. 547. _Cicero_,
  _Academicæ Quæstiones_, bk. 4, ch. 37.――_Diogenes Laërtius_, _Lives
  of Eminent Philosophers_.――_Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 70.――_Plutarch_,
  _Quæstiones Convivales_. He had a son who bore his name. _Strabo_,
  bk. 1.

=Anaximĕnes=, a philosopher, son of Erasistratus and disciple of
  Anaximander, whom he succeeded in his school. He said that the air
  was the cause of every created being, and a self-existent divinity,
  and that the sun, the moon, and the stars, had been made from the
  earth. He considered the earth as a plain, and the heavens as a
  solid concave figure, on which the stars were fixed like nails,
  an opinion prevalent at that time, and from which originated the
  proverb, τι εἰ οὐρανος ἐμπεσοι, _if the heavens should fall?_ to
  which Horace has alluded, bk. 3, _Odes_, poem 3, li. 7. He died
  504 years B.C. _Cicero_, _Academicæ Quæstiones_, bk. 4, ch. 37; _de
  Natura Deorum_, bk. 1, ch. 10.――_Plutarch_, _Quæstiones Convivales_.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 76.――――A native of Lampsacus, son of Aristocles.
  He was pupil to Diogenes the cynic, and preceptor to Alexander the
  Great, of whose life, and that of Philip, he wrote the history.
  When Alexander, in a fit of anger, threatened to put to death all
  the inhabitants of Lampsacus, because they had maintained a long
  siege against him, Anaximenes was sent by his countrymen to appease
  the king, who, as soon as he saw him, swore he would not grant the
  favour he was going to ask. Upon this, Anaximenes begged the king
  to destroy the city and enslave the inhabitants, and by this artful
  request the city of Lampsacus was saved from destruction. Besides
  the life of Philip and his son, he wrote a history of Greece, in
  12 books, all now lost. His nephew bore the same name, and wrote an
  account of ancient paintings. _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 18.――_Valerius
  Maximus_, bk. 7, ch. 3.――_Diogenes Laërtius_, _Lives of Eminent

=Anaxipŏlis=, a comic poet of Thasos. _Pliny_, bk. 14, ch. 14.――――A
  writer on agriculture, likewise of Thasos.

=Anaxippus=, a comic writer in the age of Demetrius. He used to say,
  that philosophers were wise only in their speeches, but fools in
  their actions. _Athenæus._

=Anaxirrhoe=, a daughter of Coronus, who married Epeus. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 5, ch. 1.

=Anaxis=, a Bœotian historian, who wrote a history down to the age of
  Philip son of Amyntas. _Diodorus_, bk. 25.――――A son of Castor and

=Anaxo=, a virgin of Trœzene carried away by Theseus. _Plutarch_,
  _Theseus_.――――A daughter of Alceus, mother of Alcmene by Electryon.

=Ancæus=, the son of Lycurgus and Antinoe, was in the expedition of
  the Argonauts. He was at the chase of the Calydonian boar, in which
  he perished. _Hyginus_, fables 173 & 248.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 8.――――The son of Neptune and Astypalæa. He went with the
  Argonauts, and succeeded Tiphis as pilot of the ship Argo. He
  reigned in Ionia, where he married Samia daughter of the Mæander,
  by whom he had four sons, Perilas, Enudus, Samus, Alithersus, and
  one daughter called Parthenope. _Orpheus_, _Argonauts_. He was once
  told by one of his servants, whom he pressed with hard labour in his
  vineyard, that he never would taste of the produce of his vines. He
  had already the cup in his hand, and called the prophet to convince
  him of his falsehood; when the servant, yet firm in his prediction,
  uttered this well-known proverb:

     Πολλα μεταξυ πελει κυλικος και χειλεος ακρου.
    _Multa cadunt inter calicem supremaque labra._

  At that very moment Ancæus was told that a wild boar had entered his
  vineyard; upon which he threw down the cup, and ran to drive away
  the wild beast. He was killed in the attempt.

=Ancalītes=, a people of Britain near the Trinobantes. _Cæsar_,
  _Gallic War_, bk. 5, ch. 21.

=Ancarius=, a god of the Jews. _See:_ Anchialus.

=Ancharia=, a family of Rome.――――The name of Octavia’s mother.
_Plutarch_, _Antonius_.

=Ancharius=, a noble Roman killed by the partisans of Marius during
  the civil wars with Sylla. _Plutarch_, _Marius_.

=Anchemŏlus=, son of Rhœtus king of the Marrubii in Italy, ravished
  his mother-in-law Casperia, for which he was expelled by his father.
  He fled to Turnus, and was killed by Pallas son of Evander, in the
  wars of Æneas against the Latins. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 389.

=Anchesītes=, a wind which blows from Achisa, a harbour of Epirus.
  _Cicero_, _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 7, ltr. 1.――_Dionysius of

=Anchesmus=, a mountain of Attica, where Jupiter _Anchesmius_ had a

=Anchiăle= and =Anchiala=, a city on the sea coast of Cilicia.
  Sardanapalus, the last king of Assyria, built it, with Tarsus in
  its neighbourhood, in one day. _Strabo_, bk. 14.――_Pliny_, bk. 5,
  ch. 27. The founder was buried there, and had a statue, under which
  was a famous inscription in the Syrian language, denoting the great
  intemperance and dissipation which distinguished all his life. There
  was a city of the same name in Thrace, called by Ovid the city of
  Apollo. There was another in Epirus. _Ovid_, _Tristia_, bk. 1, poem
  10, li. 36.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 11.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 2.

=Anchiălus=, a famous astrologer.――――A great warrior, father of Mentes.
  ――――One of the Phæacians. _Homer_, _Odyssey_.――――A god of the Jews,
  as some suppose, in _Martial’s_ epigrams, bk. 11, ltr. 95.

=Anchimolius=, a Spartan general sent against the Pisistratidæ, and
  killed in the expedition. _Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 63.――――A son of
  Rhœtus. _See:_ Anchemolus.

=Anchinoe=, a daughter of Nilus and wife of Belus. _Apollodorus_,
  bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Anchion=. _See:_ Chion.

=Anchīse=, a city of Italy. _Dionysius of Halicarnassus._

=Anchīses=, a son of Capys by Themis daughter of Ilus. He was of
  such a beautiful complexion, that Venus came down from heaven on
  mount Ida, in the form of a nymph, to enjoy his company. The goddess
  became pregnant, and forbade Anchises ever to mention the favours he
  had received, on pain of being struck with thunder. The child which
  Venus brought forth was called Æneas; he was educated as soon as
  born by the nymphs of Ida, and, when of a proper age, was entrusted
  to the care of Chiron the centaur. When Troy was taken, Anchises was
  become so infirm that Æneas, to whom the Greeks permitted to take
  away whatever he esteemed most, carried him through the flames
  upon his shoulders, and thus saved his life. He accompanied his son
  in his voyage towards Italy, and died in Sicily, in the 80th year
  of his age. He was buried on mount Eryx by Æneas and Acestes king
  of the country, and the anniversary of his death was afterwards
  celebrated by his son and the Trojans on his tomb. Some authors
  have maintained that Anchises had forgot the injunctions of Venus,
  and boasted at a feast that he enjoyed her favours on mount Ida,
  upon which he was killed with thunder. Others say that the wounds
  he received from the thunder were not mortal, and that they only
  weakened and disfigured his body. Virgil, in the sixth book of the
  Æneid, introduces him in the Elysian fields, relating to his son the
  fates that were to attend him, and the fortune of his descendants
  the Romans. _See:_ Æneas. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bks. 1, 2, &c.――
  _Hyginus_, fables 94, 254, 260, 270.――_Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 1010.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3.――_Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 4, li. 34.――_Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 20, & _Hymn to Aphrodite_.――_Xenophon_, _On Hunting_,
  ch. 1.――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 1, _Roman Antiquities_.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 12, says that Anchises was buried on a
  mountain in Arcadia, which, from him, has been called Anchisia.
  ――――An Athenian archon. _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 8.

=Anchīsia=, a mountain of Arcadia, at the bottom of which was a
  monument of Anchises. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, chs. 12 & 13.

=Anchīsiădes=, a patronymic of Æneas, as being the son of Anchises.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9, li. 348, &c.

=Anchoe=, a place near the mouth of the Cephisus, where there is a
  lake of the same name. _Strabo._

=Anchŏra=, a fortified place in Galatia.

=Anchūrus=, a son of Midas king of Phrygia, who sacrificed himself for
  the good of his country when the earth had opened and swallowed up
  many buildings. The oracle had been consulted, and gave for answer,
  that the gulf would never close, if Midas did not throw into it
  whatever he had most precious. Though the king had parted with many
  things of immense value, yet the gulf continued open, till Anchurus,
  thinking himself the most precious of his father’s possessions, took
  a tender leave of his wife and family, and leaped into the earth,
  which closed immediately over his head. Midas erected there an altar
  of stones to Jupiter, and that altar was the first object which he
  turned to gold, when he had received his fatal gift from the gods.
  This unpolished lump of gold existed still in the age of Plutarch.
  _Plutarch_, _Parallela minora_.

=Ancīle= and =Ancy̆le=, a sacred shield, which, according to the Roman
  authors, fell from heaven in the reign of Numa, when the Roman
  people laboured under a pestilence. Upon the preservation of this
  shield depended the fate of the Roman empire, and therefore Numa
  ordered 11 of the same size and form to be made, that if ever any
  attempt was made to carry them away, the plunderer might find it
  difficult to distinguish the true one. They were made with such
  exactness, that the king promised Veterius Mamurius, the artist,
  whatever reward he desired. _See:_ Mamurius. They were kept in
  the temple of Vesta, and an order of priests was chosen to watch
  over their safety. These priests were called Salii, and were 12 in
  number; they carried, every year on the 1st of March, the shields
  in a solemn procession round the walls of Rome, dancing and singing
  praises to the god Mars. This sacred festival continued three days,
  during which every important business was stopped. It was deemed
  unfortunate to be married on those days, or to undertake any
  expedition; and _Tacitus_, bk. 1, _Histories_, has attributed the
  unsuccessful campaign of the emperor Otho against Vitellius to his
  leaving Rome during the celebration of the Ancyliorum festum. These
  two verses of Ovid explain the origin of the word Ancyle, which is
  applied to these shields:

      _Idque ancyle vocat, quod ab omni parte recisum est,
       Quemque notes oculis, angulus omnis abest._

                                _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 377, &c.

  _Varro_, _de Lingua Latina_, bk. 5, ch. 6.――_Valerius Maximus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 1.――_Juvenal_, satire 2, li. 124.――_Plutarch_, _Numa_.
  ――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 664.――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus_,
  bk. 2.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 20.

=Ancon= and =Ancōna=, a town of Picenum, built by the Sicilians, with
  a harbour in the form of a crescent or elbow (ἀγχων), on the shores
  of the Adriatic. Near this place is the famous chapel of Loretto,
  supposed by monkish historians to have been brought through the air
  by angels, August 10, A. D. 1291, from Judæa, where it was a cottage,
  inhabited by the virgin Mary. The reputed sanctity of the place has
  often brought 100,000 pilgrims in one day to Loretto. _Pliny_, bk. 3,
  ch. 13.――_Lucan_, bk. 2, li. 402.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 437.

=Ancus Martius=, the fourth king of Rome, was grandson to Numa by his
  daughter. He waged a successful war against the Latins, Veientes,
  Fidenates, Volsci, and Sabines, and joined mount Janiculum to
  the city by a bridge, and inclosed mount Martius and the Aventine
  within the walls of the city. He extended the confines of the Roman
  territories to the sea, where he built the town of Ostia, at the
  mouth of the Tiber. He inherited the valour of Romulus with the
  moderation of Numa. He died B.C. 616, after a reign of 24 years, and
  was succeeded by Tarquin the elder. _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_,
  bk. 3, ch. 9.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 32, &c.――_Florus_, bk. 1, ch. 4.
  ――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 815.

=Ancȳræ=, a town of Sicily.――――A town of Phrygia. _Pausanias_, bk. 1.

=Anda=, a city of Africa. _Polybius._

=Andabătæ=, certain gladiators who fought blindfolded, whence the
  proverb, _Andabatarum more_, to denote rash and inconsiderate
  measures. _Cicero_, bk. 6, _Letters to his Friends_, ltr. 10.

=Andania=, a city of Arcadia, where Aristomenes was educated.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 1, &c. It received its name from a gulf of
  the same name. _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 33.

=Andegavia=, a country of Gaul, near the Turones and the ocean.
  _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 3, ch. 41.

=Andēra=, a town of Phrygia.

=Andes=, a nation among the Celtæ, whose chief town is now _Anjou_.
  _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 2, ch. 35.――――A village of Italy, near
  Mantua, where Virgil was born, hence _Andinus_. _Silius Italicus_,
  bk. 8, li. 595.

=Andocĭdes=, an Athenian orator, son of Leogoras. He lived in the
  age of Socrates the philosopher, and was intimate with the most
  illustrious men of his age. He was often banished, but his dexterity
  always restored him to favour. _Plutarch_ has written his life in
  _Lives of the Ten Orators_. Four of his orations are extant.

=Andomătis=, a river in India, falling into the Ganges. _Arrian._

=Andræmon=, the father of Thoas. _Hyginus_, fable 97.――――The son-in-law
  and successor of Œneus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1.

=Andragrathius=, a tyrant defeated by Gratian, A.D. 383, &c.

=Andragrăthus=, a man bribed by Lysimachus to betray his country, &c.
  _Polyænus_, bk. 4, ch. 12.

=Andragŏras=, a man who died a sudden death. _Martial_, bk. 6, ltr. 53.

=Andramy̆les=, a king of Lydia, who castrated women, and made use of
  them as eunuchs. _Athenæus._

=Andrēas=, a statuary of Argos. _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 16.――――A man
  of Panormum, who wrote an account of all the remarkable events that
  had happened in Sicily. _Athenæus._――――A son of the Peneus. Part of
  Bœotia, especially where Orchomenos was built, was called _Andreis_
  after him. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 34, &c.

=Andriclus=, a mountain of Cilicia. _Strabo_, bk. 14.――――A river of
  Troas, falling into the Scamander. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 27.

=Andriscus=, a man who wrote a history of Naxos. _Athenæus_, bk. 1.
  ――――A worthless person called _Pseudophilippus_, on account of the
  likeness of his features to king Philip. He incited the Macedonians
  to revolt against Rome, and was conquered and led in triumph by
  Metellus, 152 B.C. _Florus_, bk. 2, ch. 14.

=Androbius=, a famous painter. _Pliny_, bk. 35, ch. 11.

=Androclēa=, a daughter of Antipœnus of Thebes. She, with her sister
  Alcida, sacrificed herself in the service of her country, when the
  oracle had promised the victory to her countrymen, who were engaged
  in a war against Orchomenos, if any one of noble birth devoted
  himself for the glory of his nation. Antipœnus refused to do it,
  and his daughters cheerfully accepted it, and received great honours
  after death. Hercules, who fought on the side of Thebes, dedicated
  to them the image of a lion in the temple of Diana. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 9, ch. 17.

=Andrōcles=, a son of Phintas, who reigned in Messenia. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 4, ch. 5, &c.――――A man who wrote a history of Cyprus.

=Androclīdes=, a noble Theban, who defended the democratical, against
  the encroachments of the oligarchical, power. He was killed by one
  of his enemies.――――A sophist in the age of Aurelian, who gave an
  account of philosophers.

=Androclus=, a son of Codrus, who reigned in Ionia, and took Ephesus
  and Samos. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 2.

=Androcy̆des=, a physician, who wrote the following letter to Alexander:
  ――_Vinum potaturus, Rex, memento te bibere sanguinem terræ, sicuti
  venenum est homini cicuta, sic et vinum._ _Pliny_, bk. 14, ch. 5.

=Androdămus.= _See:_ Andromadas.

=Andrōdus=, a slave known and protected in the Roman circus by a lion
  whose foot he had cured. _Aulus Gellius_, bk. 5, ch. 15.

=Andrŏgeos=, a Greek, killed by Æneas and his friends, whom he took to
  be his countrymen. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 2, li. 371.

=Andrŏgeus=, son of Minos and Pasiphae, was famous for his skill in
  wrestling. He overcame every antagonist at Athens, and became such a
  favourite of the people, that Ægeus king of the country grew jealous
  of his popularity, and caused him to be assassinated as he was going
  to Thebes. Some say that he was killed by the wild bull of Marathon.
  Minos declared war against Athens to revenge the death of his
  son, and peace was at last re-established on condition that Ægeus
  sent yearly seven boys and seven girls from Athens to Crete to
  be devoured by the Minotaur. _See:_ Minotaurus. The Athenians
  established festivals by order of Minos, in honour of his son, and
  called them Androgeia. _Hyginus_, fable 41.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.
  ――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 20.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, chs. 1
  & 27.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 5; bk. 3, chs. 1 & 15.――_Plutarch_,

=Androgy̆næ=, a fabulous nation of Africa, beyond the Nasamones. Every
  one of them bore the characteristics of the male and female sex;
  and one of their breasts was that of a man, and the other that of
  a woman. _Lucretius_, bk. 5, li. 837.――_Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 2.

=Andrŏmăche=, a daughter of Eetion king of Thebes in Cilicia, married
  Hector son of Priam king of Troy, by whom she had Astyanax. She
  was so fond of her husband, that she even fed his horses with her
  own hand. During the Trojan war she remained at home employed in
  her domestic concerns. Her parting with Hector, who was going to
  a battle, in which he perished, has always been deemed the best,
  most tender and pathetic of all the passages in Homer’s Iliad. She
  received the news of her husband’s death with extreme sorrow; and
  after the taking of Troy, she had the misfortune to see her only son
  Astyanax, after she had saved him from the flames, thrown headlong
  from the walls of the city, by the hands of the man whose father had
  killed her husband. _Seneca_, _Troades_. Andromache, in the division
  of the prisoners by the Greeks, fell to the share of Neoptolemus,
  who treated her as his wife, and carried her to Epirus. He had
  by her three sons, Molossus, Piclus, and Pergamus, and afterwards
  repudiated her. After this divorce she married Helenus son of Priam,
  who, as herself, was a captive of Pyrrhus. She reigned with him over
  part of the country, and became mother by him of Cestrinus. Some say
  that Astyanax was killed by Ulysses, and Euripides says that Menelaus
  put him to death. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bks. 6, 22, & 24.――_Quintus
  Calaber [Smyrnæus]_, bk. 1.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 486.
  ――_Hyginus_, fable 123.――_Dares Phrygius._――_Ovid_, _Amores_, bk. 1,
  poem 9, li. 35; _Tristia_, bk. 5, poem 6, li. 43.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 3, ch. 12.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 11.

=Andromachidæ=, a nation who presented to their king all the virgins
  who were of nubile years, and permitted him to use them as he

=Andromăchus=, an opulent person of Sicily, father to the historian
  Timæus. _Diodorus_, bk. 16. He assisted Timoleon in recovering
  the liberty of the Syracusans.――――A general of Alexander, to whom
  Parmenio gave the government of Syria. He was burnt alive by the
  Samaritans. _Curtius_, bk. 4, chs. 5 & 8.――――An officer of Seleucus
  the younger. _Polyænus_, bk. 4.――――A poet of Byzantium.――――A
  physician of Crete, in the age of Nero.――――A sophist of Naples, in
  the age of Diocletian.

=Andromădus=, or =Androdamus=, a native of Rhegium, who made laws for
  the Thracians concerning the punishment of homicide, &c. _Aristotle._

=Andrŏmĕda=, a daughter of Cepheus king of Æthiopia by Cassiope. She
  was promised in marriage to Phineus her uncle, when Neptune drowned
  the kingdom, and sent a sea monster to ravage the country, because
  Cassiope had boasted herself fairer than Juno and the Nereides.
  The oracle of Jupiter Ammon was consulted, and nothing could stop
  the resentment of Neptune, if Andromeda was not exposed to the sea
  monster. She was accordingly tied naked on a rock, and at the moment
  that the monster was going to devour her, Perseus, who returned
  through the air from the conquest of the Gorgons, saw her, and was
  captivated with her beauty. He promised to deliver her and destroy
  the monster, if he received her in marriage as a reward for his
  trouble. Cepheus consented, and Perseus changed the sea monster
  into a rock, by showing him Medusa’s head, and untied Andromeda and
  married her. He had by her many children, among whom were Sthenelus,
  Ancæus, and Electryon. The marriage of Andromeda with Perseus
  was opposed by Phineus, who, after a bloody battle, was changed
  into a stone by Perseus. Some say that Minerva made Andromeda a
  constellation in heaven after her death. _See:_ Medusa, Perseus.
  _Hyginus_, fable 64.――_Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 2, ch. 43.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――_Marcus Manilius_, bk. 5, li. 533.
  ――_Propertius_, bk. 3, poem 21.――――According to _Pliny_, bk. 5,
  ch. 31, it was at Joppa in Judæa that Andromeda was tied on a rock.
  He mentions that the skeleton of the huge sea monster, to which
  she had been exposed, was brought to Rome by Scaurus, and carefully
  preserved. The fable of Andromeda and the sea monster has been
  explained, by supposing that she was courted by the captain of a
  ship, who attempted to carry her away, but was prevented by the
  interposition of another more faithful lover.

=Andron=, an Argive, who travelled all over the deserts of Libya
  without drink. ♦_Aristotle’s book on Drunkenness_ [quoted in
  Apollonius] “Historiæ Mirabiles”.――――A man set over the citadel
  of Syracuse by Dionysius. Hermocrates advised him to seize it and
  revolt from the tyrant, which he refused to do. The tyrant put him
  to death for not discovering that Hermocrates had incited him to
  rebellion. _Polyænus_, bk. 5, ch. 2.――――A man of Halicarnassus, who
  composed some historical works. _Plutarch_, _Theseus_.――――A native
  of Ephesus, who wrote an account of the seven wise men of Greece.
  _Diogenes Laërtius._――――A man of Argos.――――Another of Alexandria,
  &c. _Apollonius [Paradoxographus]_, _Historiæ Mirabiles_, ch. 25.

      ♦ reference edited for clarity

=Andronīcus Livius.= _See:_ Livius.

=Andronīcus=, a peripatetic philosopher of Rhodes, who flourished
  59 years B.C. He was the first who published and revised the works
  of Aristotle and Theophrastus. His periphrasis is extant, the best
  edition of which is that of Heinsius, 8vo, Leiden, 1617. _Plutarch_,
  _Sulla_.――――A Latin poet in the age of Cæsar.――――A Latin grammarian,
  whose life Suetonius has written.――――A king of Lydia, surnamed
  Alpyus.――――One of Alexander’s officers.――――One of the officers of
  Antiochus Epiphanes.――――An astronomer of Athens, who built a marble
  octagonal tower in honour of the eight principal winds, on the top
  of which was placed a Triton with a stick in his hand, pointing
  always to the side whence the wind blew.

=Androphăgi=, a savage nation of European Scythia. _Herodotus_, bk. 4,
  chs. 18, 102.

=Andropompus=, a Theban who killed Xanthus in a single combat by fraud.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 18.

=Andros=, an island in the Ægean sea, known by the different names
  of Epagrys, Antandros, Lasia, Cauros, Hydrussa, Nonagria. Its chief
  town was called Andros. It had a harbour, near which Bacchus had a
  temple, with a fountain, whose waters, during the ides of January,
  tasted like wine. It received the name of Andros from Andros son of
  Anius, one of its kings, who lived in the time of the Trojan war.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, li. 648.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3,
  li. 80.――_Juvenal_, satire 3, li. 70.――_Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 103.
  ――_Mela_, bks. 1 & 2.

=Androsthĕnes=, one of Alexander’s generals, sent with a ship on the
  coast of Arabia. _Arrian_, bk. 7, ch. 10.――_Strabo_, bk. 16.――――A
  governor of Thessaly, who favoured the interest of Pompey. He was
  conquered by Julius Cæsar. _Cæsar_, _Civil War_, bk. 3, ch. 80.――――A
  statuary of Thebes. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 19.――――A geographer in
  the age of Alexander.

=Androtrion=, a Greek, who wrote a history of Attica, and a treatise
  on agriculture. _Pliny._――_Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 8.

=Anelontis=, a river near Colophon. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 28.

=Anerastus=, a king of Gaul.

=Anemolia=, a city of Phocis, afterwards called Hyampolis. _Strabo._

=Anemōsa=, a village of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 35.

=Anfinomus= and =Anapius=. Rather _Amphinomus_, which _see_.

=Angelia=, a daughter of Mercury.

=Angelion=, a statuary who made Apollo’s statue at Delphi. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 32.

=Angĕlus=, a son of Neptune, born in Chios, of a nymph whose name is
  unknown. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 4.

=Angītes=, a river of Thrace falling into the Strymon. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 7, ch. 113.

=Angli=, a people of Germany at the north of the Elbe, from whom, as
  being a branch of the Saxons, the English have derived their name.
  _Tacitus_, _Germania_, ch. 40.

=Angrus=, a river of Illyricum, flowing in a northern direction.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 49.

=Anguitia=, a wood in the country of the Marsi, between the lake
  Fucinus and Alba. Serpents, it is said, could not injure the
  inhabitants, because they were descended from Circe, whose power
  over those venomous creatures has been much celebrated. _Silius
  Italicus_, bk. 8.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 759.

=Ania=, a Roman widow, celebrated for her beauty. One of her friends
  advised her to marry again. “No,” said she, “if I marry a man
  as affectionate as my first husband, I shall be apprehensive for
  his death; and if he is bad, why have him, after such a kind and
  indulgent one?”

=Anicētus=, a son of Hercules by Hebe the goddess of youth.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 2.――――A freedman who directed the education of
  Nero, and became the instrument of his crimes. _Suetonius_, _Nero_.

=Anicia=, a family at Rome, which, in the flourishing times of
  the republic, produced many brave and illustrious citizens.――――A
  relation of Atticus. _Cornelius Nepos._

=Anicium=, a town of Gaul. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 7.

=Anicius Gallus=, triumphed over the Illyrians and their king Gentius,
  and was propretor of Rome, A.U.C. 585.――――A consul with Cornelius
  Cethegus, A.U.C. 594.――――Probus, a Roman consul in the fourth
  century, famous for his humanity.

=Anigrus=, a river of Thessaly, where the centaurs washed the
  wounds which they had received from Hercules, and made the waters
  unwholesome. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15, li. 281. The nymphs
  of this river are called Anigriades. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 6.

=Anio= and =Anien=, now _Taverone_, a river of Italy, flowing through
  the country of Tibur, and falling into the river Tiber, about five
  miles at the north of Rome. It receives its name, as some suppose,
  from Anius, a king of Etruria, who drowned himself there when he
  could not recover his daughter, who had been carried away. _Statius_,
  bk. 1, _Sylvæ_, poem 3, li. 20.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 683.
  ――_Strabo_, bk. 5.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 7, li. 13.――_Plutarch_, _de
  Fortuna Romanorum_.

=Anitorgis=, a city of Spain, near which a battle was fought between
  Asdrubal and the Scipios. _Livy_, bk. 25, ch. 33.

=Anius=, the son of Apollo and Rhea, was king of Delos and father
  of Andrus. He had by Dorippe three daughters, Oeno, Spermo, and
  Elais, to whom Bacchus had given the power of changing whatever
  they pleased into wine, corn, and oil. When Agamemnon went to the
  Trojan war, he wished to carry them with him to supply his army with
  provisions; but they complained to Bacchus, who changed them into
  doves. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, li. 642.――_Dionysius of
  Halicarnassus_, bk. 1.――_Diodorus_, bk. 5.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3,
  li. 80.

=Anna=, a goddess, in whose honour the Romans instituted festivals.
  She was, according to some, Anna the daughter of Belus and sister of
  Dido, who after her sister’s death fled from Carthage, which Jarbas
  had besieged, and came to Italy, where Æneas met her, as he walked
  on the banks of the Tiber, and gave her an honourable reception, for
  the kindnesses she had shown him when he was at Carthage. Lavinia
  the wife of Æneas was jealous of the tender treatment which was
  shown to Anna, and meditated her ruin. Anna was apprised of this by
  her sister in a dream, and she fled to the river Numicus, of which
  she became a deity, and ordered the inhabitants of the country to
  call her _Anna Perenna_, because she would remain for ever under
  the water. Her festivals were performed with many rejoicings, and
  the females often, in the midst of their cheerfulness, forgot their
  natural decency. They were introduced into Rome, and celebrated the
  15th of March. The Romans generally sacrificed to her, to obtain
  a long and happy life: and thence the words _Annare et Perennare_.
  Some have supposed Anna to be the moon, _quia mensibus impleat
  annum_; others call her Themis, or Io, the daughter of Inachus,
  and sometimes Maia. Another more received opinion maintains that
  Anna was an old industrious woman of Bovillæ, who, when the Roman
  populace had fled from the city to mount Sacer, brought them cakes
  every day; for which kind treatment the Romans, when peace was
  re-established, decreed immortal honours to her whom they called
  Perenna, _ab perennitate cultûs_, and who, as they supposed, was
  become one of their deities. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 653, &c.
  ――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 79.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 4,
  lis. 9, 20, 421, & 500.

=Anna Commena=, a princess of Constantinople, known to the world for
  the Greek history which she wrote of her father Alexius, emperor
  of the east. The character of this history is not very high for
  authenticity or beauty of composition: the historian is lost in
  the daughter; and instead of simplicity of style and narrative,
  as Gibbon says, an elaborate affectation of rhetoric and science
  betrays in every page the vanity of a female author. The best
  edition of Anna Commena is that of Paris, folio, 1651.

=Annæus=, a Roman family, which was subdivided into the Lucani, Senecæ,
  Flori, &c.

=Annāles=, a chronological history which gives an account of all the
  important events of every year in a state, without entering into the
  causes which produced them. The annals of Tacitus may be considered
  in this light. In the first ages of Rome, the writing of the annals
  was one of the duties and privileges of the high priest; whence they
  have been called Annales Maximi, from the priest _Pontifex Maximus_,
  who consecrated them, and gave them as truly genuine and authentic.

=Annālis lex=, settled the age at which, among the Romans, a citizen
  could be admitted to exercise the offices of the state. This law
  originated in Athens, and was introduced in Rome. No man could be
  a knight before 18 years of age, nor be invested with the consular
  power before he had arrived to his 25th year.

=Anniānus=, a poet in the age of Trajan.

=Annĭbal=, a celebrated Carthaginian general, son of Amilcar. He was
  educated in his father’s camp, and inured from his early years to
  the labours of the field. He passed into Spain when nine years old,
  and, at the request of his father, took a solemn oath that he never
  would be at peace with the Romans. After his father’s death, he
  was appointed over the cavalry in Spain; and some time after, upon
  the death of Asdrubal, he was invested with the command of all the
  armies of Carthage, though not yet in the 25th year of his age.
  In three years of continual success, he subdued all the nations of
  Spain which opposed the Carthaginian power, and took Saguntum after
  a siege of eight months. This city was in alliance with the Romans,
  and its fall was the cause of the second Punic war, which Annibal
  prepared to support with all the courage and prudence of a
  consummate general. He levied three large armies, one of which he
  sent to Africa; he left another in Spain, and marched at the head
  of the third towards Italy. This army some have calculated at 20,000
  foot and 6000 horse; others say that it consisted of 100,000 foot
  and 20,000 horse. _Livy_, bk. 21, ch. 38. He came to the Alps, which
  were deemed almost inaccessible, and had never been passed over
  before him but by Hercules, and after much trouble he gained the top
  in nine days. He conquered the uncivilized inhabitants that opposed
  his passage, and, after the amazing loss of 30,000 men, made his way
  so easy, by softening the rocks with fire and vinegar, that even his
  armed elephants descended the mountains without danger or difficulty,
  where a man, disencumbered of his arms, could not walk before in
  safety. He was opposed by the Romans as soon as he entered Italy;
  and after he had defeated Publius Cornelius Scipio and Sempronius,
  near the Rhone, the Po, and the Trebia, he crossed the Apennines and
  invaded Etruria. He defeated the army of the consul Flaminius near
  the lake Thrasymenus, and soon after met the two consuls Culleo
  Terentius and Lucius Æmilius at Cannæ. His army consisted of 40,000
  foot and 10,000 horse, when he engaged the Romans at the celebrated
  battle of Cannæ. The slaughter was so great, that no less than 40,
  000 Romans were killed, and the conqueror made a bridge with the
  dead carcases; and as a sign of his victory, he sent to Carthage
  three bushels of gold rings which had been taken from 5630 Roman
  knights slain in the battle. Had Annibal, immediately after the
  battle, marched his army to the gates of Rome, it must have yielded
  amidst the general consternation, if we believe the opinions of some
  writers; but his delay gave the enemy spirit and boldness, and when
  at last he approached the walls, he was informed that the piece of
  ground on which his army then stood was selling at a high price in
  the Roman forum. After hovering for some time round the city, he
  retired to Capua, where the Carthaginian soldiers soon forgot to
  conquer in the pleasures and riot of this luxurious city. From that
  circumstance it has been said, and with propriety, that Capua was
  a Cannæ to Annibal. After the battle of Cannæ the Romans became
  more cautious, and when the dictator Fabius Maximus had defied
  the artifice as well as the valour of Annibal, they began to look
  for better times. Marcellus, who succeeded Fabius in the field,
  first taught the Romans that Annibal was not invincible. After many
  important debates in the senate, it was decreed that war should be
  carried into Africa, to remove Annibal from the gates of Rome; and
  Scipio, who was the first proposer of the plan, was empowered to put
  it into execution. When Carthage saw the enemy on her coasts, she
  recalled Annibal from Italy; and that great general is said to have
  left, with tears in his eyes, a country which during 16 years he
  had kept under continual alarms, and which he could almost call his
  own. He and Scipio met near Carthage, and after a parley, in which
  neither would give the preference to his enemy, they determined
  to come to a general engagement. The battle was fought near Zama:
  Scipio made a great slaughter of the enemy, 20,000 were killed,
  and the same number made prisoners. Annibal, after he had lost the
  day, fled to Adrumetum. Soon after this decisive battle, the Romans
  granted peace to Carthage, on hard conditions; and afterwards
  Annibal, who was jealous and apprehensive of the Roman power, fled
  to Syria, to king Antiochus, whom he advised to make war against
  Rome, and lead an army into the heart of Italy. Antiochus distrusted
  the fidelity of Annibal, and was conquered by the Romans, who
  granted him peace on the condition of his delivering their mortal
  enemy into their hands. Annibal, who was apprised of this, left
  the court of Antiochus, and fled to Prusias king of Bithynia. He
  encouraged him to declare war against Rome, and even assisted him in
  weakening the power of Eumenes king of Pergamus, who was in alliance
  with the Romans. The senate received intelligence that Annibal was
  in Bithynia, and immediately sent ambassadors, amongst whom was
  Lucius Quintus Flaminius, to demand him of Prusias. The king was
  unwilling to betray Annibal and violate the laws of hospitality, but
  at the same time he dreaded the power of Rome. Annibal extricated
  him from his embarrassment, and when he heard that his house was
  besieged on every side, and all means of escape fruitless, he took
  a dose of poison, which he always carried with him in a ring on
  his finger; and as he breathed his last, he exclaimed, _Solvamus
  diuturnâ curâ populum Romanum, quando mortem senis expectare longum
  censet_. He died in his 70th year, according to some, about 182
  years B.C. That year was famous for the death of the three greatest
  generals of the age, Annibal, Scipio, and Philopœmen. The death
  of so formidable a rival was the cause of great rejoicing in Rome;
  he had always been a professed enemy to the Roman name, and ever
  endeavoured to destroy its power. If he shone in the field, he also
  distinguished himself by his studies. He was taught Greek by Sosilus,
  a Lacedæmonian, and he even wrote some books in that language on
  different subjects. It is remarkable that the life of Annibal, whom
  the Romans wished so many times to destroy by perfidy, was never
  attempted by any of his soldiers or countrymen. He made himself as
  conspicuous in the government of the state as at the head of armies,
  and though his enemies reproached him with the rudeness of laughing
  in the Carthaginian senate, while every senator was bathed in tears
  for the misfortunes of the country, Annibal defended himself by
  saying that he, who had been bred all his life in a camp, ought to
  be dispensed with all the more polished feelings of a capital. He
  was so apprehensive for his safety, that when he was in Bithynia
  his house was fortified like a castle, and on every side there were
  secret doors which could give immediate escape if his life was ever
  attempted. When he quitted Italy, and embarked on board a vessel
  for Africa, he so strongly suspected the fidelity of his pilot, who
  told him that the lofty mountains which appeared at a distance was
  a promontory of Sicily, that he killed him on the spot; and when he
  was convinced of his fatal error, he gave a magnificent burial to
  the man whom he had so falsely murdered, and called the promontory
  by his name. The labours which he sustained, and the inclemency of
  the weather to which he exposed himself in crossing the Alps, so
  weakened one of his eyes, that he ever after lost the use of it.
  The Romans have celebrated the humanity of Annibal, who, after the
  battle of Cannæ, sought the body of the fallen consul amidst the
  heaps of slain, and honoured it with a funeral becoming the dignity
  of Rome. He performed the same friendly offices to the remains of
  Marcellus and Tiberius Gracchus, who had fallen in battle. He often
  blamed the unsettled measures of his country; and when the enemy had
  thrown into his camp the head of his brother Asdrubal, who had been
  conquered as he came from Spain with a reinforcement into Italy,
  Annibal said that the Carthaginian arms would no longer meet with
  their usual success. Juvenal, in speaking of Annibal, observes that
  the ring which caused his death made a due atonement to the Romans
  for the many thousand rings which had been sent to Carthage from the
  battle of Cannæ. Annibal, when in Spain, married a woman of Castulo.
  The Romans entertained such a high opinion of him as a commander,
  that Scipio, who conquered him, calls him the greatest general that
  ever lived, and gives the second rank to Pyrrhus the Epirot, and
  places himself the next to these in merit and abilities. It is plain
  that the failure of Annibal’s expedition in Italy did not arise
  from his neglect, but from that of his countrymen, who gave him
  no assistance; far from imitating their enemies of Rome, who even
  raised in one year 18 legions to oppose the formidable Carthaginian.
  Livy has painted the character of Annibal like an enemy, and it is
  much to be lamented that this celebrated historian has withheld the
  tribute due to the merits and virtues of the greatest of generals.
  _Cornelius Nepos_, _Lives of Distinguished Romans_.――_Livy_, bks.
  21, 22, &c.――_Plutarch_, _Flamininus_, &c.――_Justin_, bk. 32, ch. 4.
  ――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 1, &c.――_Appian._――_Florus_, bks. 2 & 3.
  ――_Polybius._――_Diodorus._――_Juvenal_, satire 10, li. 159, &c.
  ――_Valerius Maximus._――_Horace_, bk. 4, ode 4, stanza 16.――――The
  son of the great Annibal, was sent by Himilco to Lilybæeum,
  which was besieged by the Romans, to keep the Sicilians in
  their duty. _Polybius_, bk. 1.――――A Carthaginian general, son of
  Asdrubal, commonly called of Rhodes, above 160 years before the
  birth of the great Annibal. _Justin_, bk. 19, ch. 2.――_Xenophon_,
  _Hellenica_.――――A son of Giscon and grandson of Amilcar, sent by the
  Carthaginians to the assistance of Ægista, a town of Sicily. He was
  overpowered by Hermocrates, an exiled Syracusan. _Justin_, bks. 22
  & 23.――――A Carthaginian, surnamed Senior. He was conquered by the
  consul Gaius Sulpicius Paterculus in Sardinia, and hung on a cross
  by his countrymen for his ill success.

=Annicĕris=, an excellent charioteer of Cyrene, who exhibited his
  skill in driving a chariot before Plato and the academy. When the
  philosopher was wantonly sold by Dionysius, Anniceris ransomed
  his friend, and he showed further his respect for learning by
  establishing a sect at Cyrene, called after his name, which supported
  that all good consisted in pleasure. _Cicero_, _de Officiis_, bk. 3.
  ――_Diogenes Laërtius_, _Plato_ & _Aristotle_.――_Ælian_, _Varia
  Historia_, bk. 2, ch. 27.

=Annius Scapŭla=, a Roman of great dignity, put to death for conspiring
  against Cassius. _Hirtius_, _Alexandrine War_, ch. 55.

=Annon=, or =Hanno=, a Carthaginian general conquered in Spain by
  Scipio, and sent to Rome. He was son of Bomilcar whom Annibal sent
  privately over the Rhone to conquer the Gauls. _Livy_, bk. 21, ch.
  27.――――A Carthaginian who taught birds to sing “Annon is a god,”
  after which he restored them to their native liberty; but the birds
  lost with their slavery what they had been taught. _Ælian_, _Varia
  Historia_, bk. 14, ch. 30.――――A Carthaginian who wrote, in the Punic
  language, the account of a voyage which he had made round Africa.
  This book was translated into Greek, and is still extant. _Vossius_,
  _Greek Historians_, bk. 4.――――Another, banished from Carthage for
  taming a lion for his own amusement, which was interpreted as if he
  wished to aspire to sovereign power. _Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 16.――――This
  name has been common to many Carthaginians who have signalized
  themselves among their countrymen during the Punic wars against Rome,
  and in their wars against the Sicilians. _Livy_, bks. 26, 27, &c.

=Anopæa=, a mountain and road near the river Asopus. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 7, ch. 216.

=Anser=, a Roman poet, whom Ovid, _Tristia_, bk. 3, poem 1, li. 425,
  calls bold and impertinent. Virgil and Propertius are said to have
  played upon his name with some degree of severity.

=Ansibarii=, a people of Germany. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 13, ch. 55.

=Antæa=, the wife of Proteus, called also Stenobæa. _Homer_, _Iliad_.
  ――――A goddess worshipped by the inhabitants of Antium.

=Antæas=, a king of Scythia, who said that the neighing of a horse was
  far preferable to the music of Ismenias, a famous musician who had
  been taken captive. _Plutarch._

=Antæus=, a giant of Libya, son of Terra and Neptune. He was so
  strong in wrestling, that he boasted that he would erect a temple
  to his father with the skulls of his conquered antagonists. Hercules
  attacked him, and as he received new strength from his mother as
  often as he touched the ground, the hero lifted him up in the air,
  and squeezed him to death in his arms. _Lucan_, bk. 4, li. 598.――
  _Statius_, bk. 6, _Thebiad_, li. 893.――_Juvenal_, satire 3, li. 88.
  ――――A servant of Atticus. _Cicero_, _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 13,
  ltr. 44.――――A friend of Turnus, killed by Æneas. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 10, li. 561.

=Antagŏras=, a man of Cos. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 5.――――A Rhodian
  poet, much admired by Antigonus. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 2.
  One day as he was cooking some fish, the king asked him whether
  Homer ever dressed any meals when he was recording the actions of
  Agamemnon. “And do you think,” replied the poet, “that he ὡ λαοι τ’
  ἐπιτετραφαται και τοσσα μεμηλε (ever inquired whether any individual
  dressed fish in his army)?” _Plutarch_, _Convivium Septem Sapientium_
  & _Apophthegmata Laconica_.

=Antalcĭdas=, of Sparta, son of Leon, was sent into Persia, where he
  made a peace with Artaxerxes very disadvantageous to his country,
  by which, B.C. 387, the Greek cities of Asia became tributary to the
  Persian monarch. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 1, &c.――_Diodorus_, bk. 14.
  ――_Plutarch_, _Artaxerxes_.

=Antander=, a general of Messenia, against the Spartans. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 4, ch. 7.――――A brother of Agathocles tyrant of Sicily. _Justin_,
  bk. 22, ch. 7.

=Antandros=, now _St. Dimitri_, a city of Troas, inhabited by the
  Leleges, near which Æneas built his fleet after the destruction
  of Troy. It has been called Edonis, Cimmeris, Assos, and Apollonia.
  There is a hill in its neighbourhood called Alexandria, where Paris
  sat, as some suppose, when the three rival goddesses appeared before
  him when contending for the prize of beauty. _Strabo_, bk. 13.――
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 6.――_Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 18.

=Anterbrogius=, an ambassador to Cæsar from the Rhemi a nation of Gaul.
  _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 2, ch. 3.

=Anteins Publius=, was appointed over Syria by Nero. He was accused of
  sedition and conspiracy, and drank poison, which, operating slowly,
  obliged him to open his veins. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 13, &c.

=Antemnæ=, a city of the Sabines between Rome and the Anio, whence the
  name (_ante amnem_). _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 631.――_Dionysius
  of Halicarnassus._

=Antēnor=, a Trojan prince related to Priam. It is said that, during
  the Trojan war, he always kept a secret correspondence with the
  Greeks, and chiefly with Menelaus and Ulysses. In the council of
  Priam, Homer introduces him as advising the Trojans to restore Helen
  and conclude the war. He advised Ulysses to carry away the Trojan
  palladium, and encouraged the Greeks to make the wooden horse which,
  at his persuasion, was brought into the city of Troy by a breach
  made in the walls. Æneas has been accused of being a partner of
  his guilt, and the night that Troy was taken, they had a number
  of Greeks stationed at the doors of their houses to protect them
  from harm. After the destruction of his country, Antenor migrated
  into Italy near the Adriatic, where he built the town of Padua.
  His children were also concerned in the Trojan war, and displayed
  much valour against the Greeks. Their names were Polybius, Acamas,
  Agenor, and, according to others, Polydamas and Helicaon. _Livy_,
  bk. 1, ch. 1.――_Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 13.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1,
  li. 242.――_Tacitus_, bk. 16, ch. 21.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bks. 3, 7,
  8, 11.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13.――_Dictys Cretensis_, bk.
  5.――_Dares Phrygius_, ch. 6.――_Strabo_, bk. 13.――_Dionysius of
  Halicarnassus_, bk. 1.――_Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 27.――――A statuary.
  _Pausanias._――――A Cretan, who wrote a history of his country.

=Antenorĭdes=, a patronymic given to the three sons of Antenor, all
  killed during the Trojan war. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 484.

=Antĕros= (ἀντι ἐρως, _against love_), a son of Mars and Venus. He was
  not, as the derivation of his name implies, a deity that presided
  over an opposition to love, but he was the god of mutual love and
  of mutual tenderness. Venus had complained to Themis that her son
  Cupid always continued a child, and was told that, if he had another
  brother, he would grow up in a short space of time. As soon as
  Anteros was born, Cupid felt his strength increase and his wings
  enlarge; but if ever his brother was at a distance from him, he
  found himself reduced to his ancient shape. From this circumstance
  it is seen, that return of passion gives vigour to love. Anteros had
  a temple at Athens raised to his honour, when Meles had experienced
  the coldness and disdain of Timagoras, whom he passionately esteemed,
  and for whom he had killed himself. _See:_ Meles. Cupid and Anteros
  are often represented striving to seize a palm tree from one another,
  to teach us that true love always endeavours to overcome by kindness
  and gratitude. They were always painted in the Greek academies, to
  inform the scholars that it is their immediate duty to be grateful
  to their teachers, and to reward their trouble with love and
  reverence. _Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 3, ch. 23.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 1, ch. 30; bk. 6, ch. 23.――――A grammarian of Alexandria, in the
  age of the emperor Claudius.――――A freedman of Atticus. _Cicero_,
  _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 9, ltr. 14.

=Anthēa=, a town of Achaia. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 18.――――Of Messenia.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 31.――――Of Trœzene. _Pausanias_, bk. 2,
  ch. 30.

=Antheas=, a son of Eumelus, killed in attempting to sow corn from the
  chariot of Triptolemus drawn by dragons. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 18.

=Anthēdon=, a city of Bœotia, which received its name from the flowery
  plains that surround it, or from Anthedon, a certain nymph. Bacchus
  and Ceres had there temples. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 10; bk. 9, ch.
  22. It was formerly inhabited by Thracians. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2.
  ――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, li. 905.――――A port of Peloponnesus.
  _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 5.――_Statius_, bk. 9, li. 291.

=Anthēla=, a town near the Asopus, near which Ceres and Amphictyon had
  a temple. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 176.

=Anthĕmis=, an island in the Mediterranean, the same as the Ionian
  Samos. _Strabo_, bk. 10.

=Anthemon=, a Trojan. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 4.

=Anthĕmus=, a city of Macedonia at Thermæ.――――A city of Syria.

=Anthemusia=, the same as Samos.――――A city of Mesopotamia. _Strabo._

=Anthēne=, a town of Peloponnesus. _Thucydides_, bk. 5, ch. 41.

=Anthermus=, a Chian sculptor, son of Micciades and grandson to Malas.
  He and his brother Bupalus made a statue of the poet Hipponax,
  which caused universal laughter on account of the deformity of its
  countenance. The poet was so incensed upon this, and inveighed with
  so much bitterness against the statuaries, that they hung themselves,
  according to the opinion of some authors. _Pliny_, bk. 36, ch. 5.

=Anthes=, a native of Anthedon, who first invented hymns. _Plutarch_,
  _de Musica_.――――A son of Neptune.

=Anthesphoria=, festivals celebrated in Sicily in honour of Proserpine,
  who was carried away by Pluto as she was gathering flowers.
  _Claudian_, _de Raptu Proserpinæ_.――――Festivals of the same name
  were also observed at Argos in honour of Juno, who was called
  Antheia. _Pausanias_, _Corinth_.――_Pollux_, _Onomasticon_, bk. 1,
  ch. 1.

=Anthesteria=, festivals in honour of Bacchus among the Greeks. They
  were celebrated in the month of February, called Anthesterion,
  whence the name is derived, and continued three days. The first
  was called Πιθοιγια, ἀπο του πιθους οἰγειν, because they _tapped_
  their _barrels_ of liquor. The second day was called Χοες, from the
  measure χοα, because every individual drank of his own vessel, in
  commemoration of the arrival of Orestes, who, after the murder of
  his mother, came, without being purified, to Demophoon or Pandion
  king of Athens, and was obliged, with all the Athenians, to drink
  by himself for fear of polluting the people by drinking with them
  before he was purified of the parricide. It was usual on that day
  to ride out in chariots, and ridicule those that passed by. The best
  drinker was rewarded with a crown of leaves, or rather of gold, and
  with a cask of wine. The third day was called χυτροι from χυτρα,
  a vessel brought out full of all sorts of seeds and herbs, deemed
  sacred to Mercury, and therefore not touched. The slaves had the
  permission of being merry and free during these festivals; and at
  the end of the solemnity a herald proclaimed, Θυραζε, Καρες, ουκ ετ’
  Ἀνθεστηρια, _i.e._ Depart, ye Carian slaves, the festivals are at an
  end. _Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 2, ch. 41.

=Anthēus=, a son of Antenor, much esteemed by Paris.――――One of the
  companions of Æneas. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 514.

=Anthīa=, a sister of Priam, seized by the Greeks. She compelled the
  people of Pallene to burn their ships, and build Scione. _Polyænus_,
  bk. 7, ch. 47.――――A town. _See:_ Anthea.――――A daughter of Thespius,
  mistress to Hercules. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 7.

=Anthias.= _See:_ Antheas.

=Anthippe=, a daughter of Thestius.

=Anthium=, a town of Thrace, afterwards called Apollonia. _Pliny_,
  bk. 4, ch. 11.――――A city of Italy.

=Anthius= (_flowery_), a name of Bacchus worshipped at Athens. He had
  also a statue at Patræ.

=Antho=, a daughter of Amulius king of Alba.

=Anthōres=, a companion of Hercules, who followed Evander, and settled
  in Italy. He was killed in the war of Turnus against Æneas. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 778.

=Anthracia=, a nymph. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 31.

=Anthropinus=, =Tisarchus=, and =Diocles=, three persons who laid
  snares for Agathocles tyrant of Sicily. _Polyænus_, bk. 5, ch. 3.

=Anthropophăgi=, a people of Scythia that fed on human flesh. They
  lived near the country of the Massagetæ. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 12;
  bk. 6, ch. 30.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Anthylla=, a city of Egypt on the Canopic mouth of the Nile. It
  maintained the queens of the country in shoes, or, according
  to _Athenæus_, bk. 1, in girdles. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 98.

=Antia lex=, was made for the suppression of luxury at Rome. Its
  particulars are not known. The enactor was Antius Restio, who
  afterwards never supped abroad for fear of being himself a witness
  of the profusion and extravagance which his law meant to destroy,
  but without effect. _Macrobius_, bk. 3, ch. 17.

=Antianīra=, the mother of Echion.

=Antias=, the goddess of fortune, chiefly worshipped at Antium.――――A
  poet. _See:_ Furius.

=Anticlēa=, a daughter of Autolycus and Amphithea. Her father, who
  was a famous robber, permitted Sisyphus son of Æolus to enjoy the
  favours of his daughter, and Anticlea was really pregnant of Ulysses
  when she married Laertes king of Ithaca. Laertes was nevertheless
  the reputed father of Ulysses. Ulysses is reproached by Ajax in
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, as being the son of Sisyphus. It is said
  that Anticlea killed herself when she heard a false report of her
  son’s death. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bks. 11, 19.――_Hyginus_, fables 201,
  243.――_Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 29.――――A woman who had Periphetes by
  Vulcan. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3.――――A daughter of Diocles, who married
  Machaon the son of Æsculapius, by whom she had Nicomachus and
  Gorgasus. _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 30.

=Antĭcles=, an Athenian archon.――――A man who conspired against
  Alexander with Hermolaus. _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 6.――――An Athenian
  victor at Olympia.

=Anticlīdes=, a Greek historian, whose works are now lost. They are
  often quoted by _Athenæus_ & _Plutarch_, _Alexander_.

=Anticrăgus=, a mountain of Lycia, opposite mount Cragus. _Strabo_,
  bk. 4.

=Anticrătes=, a Spartan who stabbed Epaminondas, the Theban general,
  at the battle of Mantinea. _Plutarch_, _Agesilaus_.

=Anticy̆ra=, two towns of Greece, the one in Phocis and the other near
  mount Oeta, both famous for the hellebore which they produced. This
  plant was of infinite service to cure diseases, and particularly
  insanity; hence the proverb _Naviget Anticyram_. The Anticyra of
  Phocis was anciently called Cyparissa. It had a temple of Neptune,
  who was represented holding a trident in one hand and resting the
  other on his side, with one of his feet on a dolphin. Some writers,
  especially Horace (_Art of Poetry_, li. 300), speak of three islands
  of this name, but this seems to be a mistake. _Pausanias_, bk. 10,
  ch. 36.――_Horace_, bk. 2, satire 3, li. 166; _Art of Poetry_, li.
  300.――_Persius_, bk. 4, li. 16.――_Strabo_, bk. 9.――_Mela_, bk. 2,
  ch. 3.――_Ovid_, _ex Ponto_, bk. 4, poem 3, li. 53.――――A mistress of
  Demetrius. _Plutarch_, _Demetrius_.

=Antidŏmus=, a warlike soldier of king Philip at the siege of

=Antidŏtus=, an excellent painter, pupil of Euphranor. _Pliny_, bk. 35,
  ch. 11.

=Antigĕnes=, one of Alexander’s generals, publicly rewarded for his
  valour. _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 14.

=Antigenĭdas=, a famous musician of Thebes, disciple to Philoxenus.
  He taught his pupil Ismenias to despise the judgment of the populace.
  _Cicero_, _Brutus_, ch. 97.

=Antigŏna=, daughter of Berenice, was wife to king Pyrrhus. _Plutarch_,

=Antigŏne=, a daughter of Œdipus king of Thebes by his mother Jocasta.
  She buried by night her brother Polynices, against the positive
  orders of Creon, who, when he heard of it, ordered her to be buried
  alive. She, however, killed herself before the sentence was executed;
  and Hæmon the king’s son, who was passionately fond of her, and had
  not been able to obtain her pardon, killed himself on her grave.
  The death of Antigone is the subject of one of the tragedies of
  Sophocles. The Athenians were so pleased with it at the first
  representation, that they presented the author with the government
  of Samos. This tragedy was represented 32 times at Athens without
  interruption. _Sophocles_, _Antigone_.――_Hyginus_, fables 67, 72,
  243, 254.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 5.――_Ovid_, _Tristia_, bk. 3,
  poem 3.――_Philostratus_, bk. 2, ch. 29.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk.
  12, li. 350.――――A daughter of Eurytion king of Phthia in Thessaly.
  _Apollodorus._――――A daughter of Laomedon. She was the sister of
  Priam, and was changed into a stork for comparing herself to Juno.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 6, li. 93.

=Antigŏnia=, an inland town of Epirus. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 1.――――One
  of Macedonia, founded by Antigonus son of Gonatas. _Pliny_, bk. 4,
  ch. 10.――――One in Syria, on the borders of the Orontes. _Strabo_,
  bk. 16.――――Another in Bithynia, called also Nicæa. _Strabo_, bk. 12.
  ――――Another in Arcadia, anciently called Mantinea. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 8, ch. 8.――――One of Troas in Asia Minor. _Strabo_, bk. 13.

=Antigŏnus=, one of Alexander’s generals, universally supposed to be
  the illegitimate son of Philip, Alexander’s father. In the division
  of the provinces after the king’s death, he received Pamphylia,
  Lycia, and Phrygia. He united with Antipater and Ptolemy, to destroy
  Perdiccas and Eumenes; and after the death of Perdiccas he made
  continual war against Eumenes, whom, after three years of various
  fortune, he took prisoner, and ordered to be starved. He afterwards
  declared war against Cassander, whom he conquered, and had several
  engagements by his generals with Lysimachus. He obliged Seleucus
  to retire from Syria, and fly for refuge and safety to Egypt.
  Ptolemy, who had established himself in Egypt, promised to defend
  Seleucus, and from that time all friendship ceased between Ptolemy
  and Antigonus, and a new war was begun, in which Demetrius the son
  of Antigonus conquered the fleet of Ptolemy, near the island of
  Cyprus, and took 16,000 men prisoners, and sunk 200 ships. After
  this famous naval battle, which happened 26 years after Alexander’s
  death, Antigonus and his son assumed the title of kings, and their
  example was followed by all the rest of Alexander’s generals. The
  power of Antigonus was now become so formidable, that Ptolemy,
  Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus combined together to destroy him;
  yet Antigonus despised them, saying that he would disperse them as
  birds. He attempted to enter Egypt in vain, though he gained several
  victories over his opponents, and he at last received so many wounds
  in a battle that he could not survive them, and died in the 80th
  year of his age, 301 B.C. During his life, he was master of all
  Asia Minor, as far as Syria; but after his death, his son Demetrius
  lost Asia, and established himself in Macedonia after the death
  of Cassander, and some time after attempted to recover his former
  possessions, but died in captivity in the court of his son-in-law
  Seleucus. Antigonus was concerned in the different intrigues of
  the Greeks. He made a treaty of alliance with the Ætolians, and
  was highly respected by the Athenians, to whom he showed himself
  very liberal and indulgent. Antigonus discharged some of his
  officers because they spent their time in taverns, and he gave
  their commissions to common soldiers who performed their duty with
  punctuality. A certain poet called him divine; but the king despised
  his flattery, and bade him go and inquire of his servants whether
  he was really what he supposed him. _Strabo_, bk. 13.――_Diodorus_,
  bk. 17, &c.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 6, &c.――_Justin_, bks. 13,
  14, & 15.――_Cornelius Nepos_, _Eumenes_.――_Plutarch_, _Demetrius_,
  _Eumenes_, & _Aratus_.――――Gonatas, son of Demetrius and grandson
  to Antigonus, was king of Macedonia. He restored the Armenians to
  liberty, conquered the Gauls, and at last was expelled by Pyrrhus,
  who seized his kingdom. After the death of Pyrrhus, he recovered
  Macedonia, and died after a reign of 34 years, leaving his son
  Demetrius to succeed, B. C. 243. _Justin_, bks. 21 & 25.――_Polybius._
  ――_Plutarch_, _Demetrius_.――――The guardian of his nephew Philip,
  the son of Demetrius, who married the widow of Demetrius and usurped
  the kingdom. He was called _Doson_, from his promising much and
  giving nothing. He conquered Cleomenes king of Sparta, and obliged
  him to retire into Egypt, because he favoured the Ætolians against
  the Greeks. He died, B.C. 221, after a reign of 11 years, leaving
  his crown to the lawful possessor, Philip, who distinguished himself
  by his cruelties, and the war which he made against the Romans.
  _Justin_, bks. 28 & 29.――_Polybius_, bk. 2.――_Plutarch_, _Cleomenes_.
  ――――A son of Aristobulus king of Judæa, who obtained an army from
  the king of Parthia, by promising him 1000 talents and 500 women.
  With these foreign troops he attacked his country, and cut the
  ears of Hyrcanus to make him unfit for the priesthood. Herod, with
  the aid of the Romans, took him prisoner, and he was put to death
  by Antony. _Josephus_, bk. 14.――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus_ &
  _Plutarch_, _Antonius_.――――Carystius, an historian in the age of
  Philadelphus, who wrote the lives of some of the ancient philosophers.
  _Diogenes Laërtius._――_Athenæus._――――A writer on agriculture.――――A
  statuary, who wrote on his profession.

=Antilco=, a tyrant of Chalcis. After his death, oligarchy prevailed
  in that city. _Aristotle_, bk. 5, _Politics_.

=Antilibănus=, a mountain of Syria opposite mount Libanus; near which
  the Orontes flows. _Strabo._――_Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 20.

=Antilŏchus=, a king of Messenia.――――The eldest son of Nestor by
  Eurydice. He went to the Trojan war with his father, and was killed
  by Memnon the son of Aurora. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 4.――_Ovid_,
  _Heroides_, says he was killed by Hector.――――A poet who wrote a
  panegyric upon Lysander, and received a hat filled with silver.
  _Plutarch_, _Lysander_.――――An historian commended by _Dionysius of

=Antimăchus=, a lascivious person.――――An historian.――――A Greek poet
  and musician of Ionia in the age of Socrates. He wrote a treatise
  on the age and genealogy of Homer, and proved him to be a native
  of Colophon. He repeated one of his compositions before a large
  audience, but his diction was so obscure and unintelligible that all
  retired except Plato; on which he said, _Legam nihilominus, Plato
  enim mihi est unus instar omnium_. He was reckoned the next to Homer
  in excellence, and the emperor Adrian was so fond of his poetry
  that he preferred him to Homer. He wrote a poem upon the Theban war;
  and before he had brought his heroes to the city of Thebes, he had
  filled 24 volumes. He was surnamed _Clarius_ from Claros, a mountain
  near Colophon, where he was born. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 35.――
  _Plutarch_, _Lysander_ & _Timoleon_.――_Propertius_, bk. 2, poem 34,
  li. 45.――_Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――――Another poet of the same
  name, surnamed _Psecas_, because he praised himself. _Suidas._――――A
  Trojan whom Paris bribed to oppose the restoring of Helen to Menelaus
  and Ulysses, who had come as ambassadors to recover her. His sons,
  Hippolochus and Pisander, were killed by Agamemnon. _Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 11, li. 123; bk. 23, li. 188.――――A son of Hercules by a daughter
  of Thestius. _Apollodorus_, bks. 2 & 3.――――A native of Heliopolis,
  who wrote a poem on the creation of the world, in 3780 verses.

=Antimĕnes=, a son of Deiphon. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 28.

=Antinoe=, one of the daughters of Pelias, whose wishes to restore her
  father to youthful vigour proved so fatal. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1.――
  _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 11.

=Antinoeia=, annual sacrifices and quinquennial games in honour
  of Antinous, instituted by the emperor Adrian at Mantinea, where
  Antinous was worshipped as a divinity.

=Antinopŏlis=, a town of Egypt, built in honour of Antinous.

=Antinous=, a youth of Bithynia, of whom the emperor Adrian was
  so extremely fond, that at his death he erected a temple to him,
  and wished it to be believed that he had been changed into a
  constellation. Some writers suppose that Antinous was drowned in the
  Nile, while others maintain that he offered himself at a sacrifice
  as a victim, in honour of the emperor.――――A native of Ithaca, son of
  Eupeithes, and one of Penelope’s suitors. He was brutal and cruel in
  his manners; and excited his companions to destroy Telemachus, whose
  advice comforted his mother Penelope. When Ulysses returned home he
  came to the palace in a beggar’s dress, and begged for bread, which
  Antinous refused, and even struck him. After Ulysses had discovered
  himself to Telemachus and Eumæus, he attacked the suitors, who were
  ignorant who he was, and killed Antinous among the first. _Homer_,
  _Odyssey_, bks. 1, 16, 17, & 22.――_Propertius_, bk. 2, poem 5, li. 7.

=Antiŏchia=, the name of a Syrian province. _Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 14.
  ――――A city of Syria, once the third city of the world for beauty,
  greatness, and population. It was built by Antiochus and Seleucus
  Nicanor, partly on a hill and partly in a plain. It has the river
  Orontes in its neighbourhood, with a celebrated grove called Daphne;
  whence, for the sake of distinction, it has been called Antiochia
  near Daphne. _Dionysius Periegeta._――――A city called also Nisibis,
  in Mesopotamia, built by Seleucus son of Antiochus.――――The capital
  of Pisidia, 92 miles at the east of Ephesus.――――A city on mount
  Cragus.――――Another near the river Tigris, 25 leagues from Seleucia
  on the west.――――Another in Margiana, called Alexandria and Seleucia.
  ――――Another near mount Taurus, on the confines of Syria.――――Another
  of Caria, on the river Meander.

=Antiŏchis=, the name of the mother of Antiochus the son of Seleucus.
  ――――A tribe of Athens.

=Antiŏchus=, surnamed _Soter_, was son of Seleucus, and king of Syria
  in Asia. He made a treaty of alliance with Ptolemy Philadelphus
  king of Egypt. He fell into a lingering disease, which none of his
  father’s physicians could cure for some time, till it was discovered
  that his pulse was more irregular than usual when Stratonice his
  stepmother entered his room, and that love for her was the cause
  of his illness. This was told to the father, who willingly gave
  Stratonice to his son, that his immoderate love might not cause
  his death. He died 291 B.C., after a reign of 19 years. _Justin_,
  bk. 17, ch. 2, &c.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 5.――_Polybius_, bk. 4.
  ――_Appian._――――The second of that name, surnamed _Theos_ (_God_)
  by the Milesians, because he put to death their tyrant Timarchus,
  was son and successor to Antiochus Soter. He put an end to the war
  which had been begun with Ptolemy; and, to strengthen the peace,
  he married Berenice, the daughter of the Ægyptian king. This so
  offended his former wife Laodice, by whom he had two sons, that she
  poisoned him, and suborned Artemon, whose features were similar to
  his, to represent him as king. Artemon, subservient to her will,
  pretended to be indisposed, and as king, called all the ministers,
  and recommended to them Seleucus, surnamed Callinicus, son of
  Laodice, as his successor. After this ridiculous imposture, it was
  made public that the king had died a natural death, and Laodice
  placed her son on the throne, and despatched Berenice and her son,
  246 years before the christian era. _Appian._――――The third of that
  name, surnamed the _Great_, brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, was king
  of Syria and Asia, and reigned 36 years. He was defeated by Ptolemy
  Philopater at Rapeia, after which he made war against Persia, and
  took Sardes. After the death of Philopater, he endeavoured to crush
  his infant son Epiphanes: but his guardians solicited the aid of
  the Romans, and Antiochus was compelled to resign his pretensions.
  He conquered the greatest part of Greece, of which some cities
  implored the aid of Rome; and Annibal, who had taken refuge at his
  court, encouraged him to make war against Italy. He was glad to
  find himself supported by the abilities of such a general; but his
  measures were dilatory, and not agreeable to the advice of Annibal,
  and he was conquered and obliged to retire beyond mount Taurus, and
  pay a yearly fine of 2000 talents to the Romans. His revenues being
  unable to pay the fine, he attempted to plunder the temple of Belus
  in Susiana, which so incensed the inhabitants, that they killed
  him with his followers, 187 years before the christian era. In his
  character of king, Antiochus was humane and liberal, the patron
  of learning, and the friend of merit; and he published an edict,
  ordering his subjects never to obey except his commands were
  consistent with the laws of the country. He had three sons, Seleucus
  Philopater, Antiochus Epiphanes, and Demetrius. The first succeeded
  him, and the two others were kept as hostages by the Romans.
  _Justin_, bks. 31 & 32.――_Strabo_, bk. 16.――_Livy_, bk. 34, ch. 59.
  ――_Florus_, bk. 2, ch. 1.――_Appian_, _Syrian Wars_.――――The fourth
  Antiochus, surnamed _Epiphanes_ or _Illustrious_, was king of Syria,
  after the death of his brother Seleucus, and reigned 11 years. He
  destroyed Jerusalem, and was so cruel to the Jews, that they called
  him _Epimanes_, or _Furious_, and not _Epiphanes_. He attempted to
  plunder Persepolis without effect. He was of a voracious appetite,
  and fond of childish diversions; he used for his pleasure to empty
  bags of money into the streets, to see the people’s eagerness to
  gather it; he bathed in the public baths with the populace, and was
  fond of perfuming himself to excess. He invited all the Greeks he
  could at Antioch, and waited upon them as a servant, and danced with
  such indecency among the stage players, that even the most dissipate
  and shameless blushed at the sight. _Polybius._――_Justin_, bk. 34,
  ch. 3.――――The fifth, surnamed _Eupator_, succeeded his father
  Epiphanes on the throne of Syria, 164 B.C. He made a peace with
  the Jews, and in the second year of his reign was assassinated
  by his uncle Demetrius, who said that the crown was lawfully his
  own, and that it had been seized from his father. _Justin_, bk. 34.
  ――_Josephus_, bk. 12.――――The sixth king of Syria was surnamed
  _Entheus_ or _Noble_. His father, Alexander Bala, entrusted him
  to the care of Malcus, an Arabian; and he received the crown from
  Tryphon, in opposition to his brother Demetrius, whom the people
  hated. Before he had been a year on the throne, Tryphon murdered
  him, 143 B.C., and reigned in his place for three years. _Josephus_,
  bk. 13.――――The seventh, called _Sidetes_, reigned nine years. In
  the beginning of his reign he was afraid of Tryphon, and concealed
  himself, but he soon obtained the means of destroying his enemy. He
  made war against Phraates king of Parthia, and he fell in the battle
  which was soon after fought, about 130 years before the christian
  era. _Justin_, bk. 36, ch. 1.――_Appian_, _Syrian Wars_.――――The
  eighth, surnamed _Grypus_, from his _aquiline_ nose, was son of
  Demetrius Nicanor by Cleopatra. His brother Seleucus was destroyed
  by Cleopatra, and he himself would have shared the same fate, had he
  not discovered his mother’s artifice, and compelled her to drink the
  poison which was prepared for himself. He killed Alexander Zebina,
  whom Ptolemy had set to oppose him on the throne of Syria, and
  was at last assassinated, B.C. 112, after a reign of 11 years.
  _Justin_, bk. 39, &c.――_Josephus._――_Appian._――――The ninth, surnamed
  _Cyzenicus_, from the city of Cyzicus, where he received his
  education, was son of Antiochus Sidetes by Cleopatra. He disputed
  the kingdom with his brother Grypus, who ceded to him Cœlosyria,
  part of his patrimony, He was at last conquered by his nephew
  Seleucus near Antioch, and rather than to continue longer in his
  hands, he killed himself, B.C. 93. While a private man, he seemed
  worthy to reign; but when on the throne, he was dissolute and
  tyrannical. He was fond of mechanics, and invented some useful
  military engines. _Appian._――_Josephus._――――The tenth was ironically
  surnamed _Pius_, because he married Selena, the wife of his father
  and of his uncle. He was the son of Antiochus IX., and he expelled
  Seleucus the son of Grypus from Syria, and was killed in a battle
  which he fought against the Parthians, in the cause of the Galatians.
  _Josephus._――_Appian._ After his death the kingdom of Syria was
  torn to pieces by the faction of the royal family, or usurpers,
  who, under a good or false title, under the name of Antiochus or his
  relations, established themselves for a little time as sovereigns
  either of Syria, or Damascus, or other dependent provinces. At
  last Antiochus, surnamed _Asiaticus_, the son of Antiochus IX.,
  was restored to his paternal throne by the influence of Lucullus
  the Roman general, on the expulsion of Tigranes king of Armenia
  from the Syrian dominions; but four years after, Pompey deposed him,
  and observed, that he who had hid himself while a usurper sat upon
  his throne, ought not to be a king. From that time, B.C. 65, Syria
  became a Roman province, and the race of Antiochus was extinguished.
  _Justin_, bk. 40.――――A philosopher of Ascalon, famous for his
  writings, and the respect with which he was treated by his pupils,
  Lucullus, Cicero, and Brutus.――_Plutarch_, _Lucullus_.――――An
  historian of Syracuse, son of Xenophanes, who wrote, besides other
  works, a history of Sicily, in nine books, in which he began at
  the age of king Cocalus. _Strabo._――_Diodorus_, bk. 12.――――A rich
  king, tributary to the Romans in the age of Vespasian. _Tacitus_,
  _Histories_, bk. 2, ch. 81.――――A sophist who refused to take upon
  himself the government of a state, on account of the vehemence of
  his passions.――――A king conquered by Antony, &c. _Cæsar_, bk. 3,
  _Civil War_, bk. 4.――――A king of Messenia. _Pausanias_, bk. 4.――――A
  commander of the Athenian fleet, under Alcibiades, conquered by
  Lysander. _Xenophon_, _Hellenica_.――――A writer of Alexandria, who
  published a treatise on comic poets. _Athenæus._――――A sceptic of
  Laodicea. _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Pyrrhus_.――――A learned sophist.
  _Philostratus._――――A servant of Atticus. _Cicero_, _Letters to
  Atticus_, bk. 3, ltr. 33.――――A hair-dresser mentioned by _Martial_,
  bk. 11, ltr. 85.――――A son of Hercules by Medea. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2,
  ch. 7.――――A stage player. _Juvenal_, satire 3, li. 98.――――A sculptor,
  said to have made the famous statue of Pallas, preserved in the
  Ludovisi gardens at Rome.

=Antiŏpe=, a daughter of Nycteus king of Thebes by Polyxo, was beloved
  by Jupiter, who, to deceive her, changed himself into a satyr.
  She became pregnant, and, to avoid the resentment of her father,
  she fled to mount Cithæron, where she brought forth twins, Amphion
  and Zethus. She exposed them, to prevent discovery, but they were
  preserved. After this she fled to Epopeus king of Sicyon, who
  married her. Some say that Epopeus carried her away, for which
  action Nycteus made war against him, and at his death left his crown
  to his brother Lycus, entreating him to continue the war, and punish
  the ravisher of his daughter. Lycus obeyed his injunctions, killed
  Epopeus, and recovered Antiope, whom he loved and married, though
  his niece. His first wife, Dirce, was jealous of his new connection;
  she prevailed upon her husband, and Antiope was delivered into her
  hands, and confined in a prison, where she was daily tormented.
  Antiope, after many years’ imprisonment, obtained means to escape,
  and went after her sons, who undertook to avenge her wrongs upon
  Lycus and his wife Dirce. They took Thebes, put the king to death,
  and tied Dirce to the tail of a wild bull, which dragged her till
  she died. Bacchus changed her into a fountain, and deprived Antiope
  of the use of her senses. In this forlorn situation she wandered all
  over Greece, and at last found relief from Phocus son of Ornytion,
  who cured her of her disorder, and married her. Hyginus, fable 7,
  says that Antiope was divorced by Lycus, because she had been
  ravished by Epopeus, whom he calls Epaphus, and that after her
  repudiation she became pregnant by Jupiter. Meanwhile Lycus married
  Dirce, who suspected that her husband still kept the company of
  Antiope, upon which she imprisoned her. Antiope, however, escaped
  from her confinement, and brought forth on mount Cithæron. Some
  authors have called her daughter of Asopus, because she was born on
  the banks of that river. The _Scholiast_ on _Apollonius_, bk. 1,
  li. 735, maintains that there were two persons of the name, one the
  daughter of Nycteus, and the other of Asopus and mother of Amphion
  and Zethus. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 6; bk. 9, ch. 17.――_Ovid_, bk. 6,
  _Metamorphoses_, li. 110.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 5.――_Propertius_,
  bk. 3, poem 15.――_Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 11, li. 259.――_Hyginus_,
  fables 7, 8, & 155.――――A daughter of Thespius or Thestius, mother of
  Alopius by Hercules. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 7.――――A daughter of
  Mars, queen of the Amazons, taken prisoner by Hercules, and given in
  marriage to Theseus. She is also called Hippolyte. _See:_ Hippolyte.
  ――――A daughter of Æolus, mother of Bœotus and Hellen by Neptune.
  _Hyginus_, fable 157.――――A daughter of Pilon, who married Eurytus.
  _Hippolyte_, fable 14.

=Antiōrus=, a son of Lycurgus. _Plutarch_, _Lycurgus_.

=Antipăros=, a small island in the Ægean sea, opposite Paros, from
  which it is about six miles distant.

=Antipăter=, son of Iolaus, was soldier under king Philip, and raised
  to the rank of a general under Alexander the Great. When Alexander
  went to invade Asia, he left Antipater supreme governor of Macedonia,
  and of all Greece. Antipater exerted himself in the cause of his
  king; he made war against Sparta, and was soon after called into
  Persia with a reinforcement by Alexander. He has been suspected
  of giving poison to Alexander, to raise himself to power. After
  Alexander’s death his generals divided the empire among themselves,
  and Macedonia was allotted to Antipater. The wars which Greece, and
  chiefly Athens, meditated under Alexander’s life, now burst forth
  with uncommon fury as soon as the news of his death was received.
  The Athenians levied an army of 30,000 men, and equipped 200 ships
  against Antipater, who was master of Macedonia. Their expedition was
  attended with much success; Antipater was routed in Thessaly, and
  even besieged in the town of Lamia. But when Leosthenes the Athenian
  general was mortally wounded under the walls of Lamia, the fortune
  of the war was changed. Antipater obliged the enemy to raise the
  siege, and soon after received a reinforcement from Craterus, from
  Asia, with which he conquered the Athenians at Cranon in Thessaly.
  After this defeat Antipater and Craterus marched into Bœotia, and
  conquered the Ætolians, and granted peace to the Athenians, on the
  conditions which Leosthenes had proposed to Antipater when besieged
  in Lamia, _i.e._ that he should be absolute master over them.
  Besides this, he demanded from their ambassadors, Demades, Phocion,
  and Xenocrates, that they should deliver into his hands the orators
  Demosthenes and Hyperides, whose eloquence had inflamed the minds
  of their countrymen, and had been the primary causes of the war.
  The conditions were accepted, a Macedonian garrison was stationed
  in Athens, but the inhabitants still were permitted the free use
  of their laws and privileges. Antipater and Craterus were the first
  who made hostile preparations against Perdiccas; and during that
  time Polyperchon was appointed over Macedonia. Polyperchon defeated
  the Ætolians, who made an invasion upon Macedonia. Antipater gave
  assistance to Eumenes in Asia against Antigonus, according to
  _Justin_, bk. 14, ch. 2. At his death, B.C. 319, Antipater appointed
  Polyperchon master of all his possessions; and as he was the oldest
  of all the generals and successors of Alexander, he recommended that
  he might be the supreme ruler in their councils, that everything
  might be done according to his judgment. As for his son Cassander,
  he left him in a subordinate station under Polyperchon. But
  Cassander was of too aspiring a disposition tamely to obey his
  father’s injunctions. He recovered Macedonia, and made himself
  absolute. _Curtius_, bks. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, & 10.――_Justin_, bks. 11,
  12, 13, &c.――_Diodorus_, bks. 17, 18, &c.――_Cornelius Nepos_,
  _Phocion_ & _Eumenes_.――_Plutarch_, _Eumenes_, _Alexander_, &c.――――A
  son of Cassander king of Macedonia, and son-in-law of Lysimachus.
  He killed his mother, because she wished his brother Alexander to
  succeed to the throne. Alexander, to revenge the death of his mother,
  solicited the assistance of Demetrius; but peace was re-established
  between the two brothers by the advice of Lysimachus, and soon after
  Demetrius killed Antipater, and made himself king of Macedonia, 294
  B.C. _Justin_, bk. 26, ch. 1.――――A king of Macedonia, who reigned
  only 45 days, 277 B.C.――――A king of Cilicia.――――A powerful prince,
  father to Herod. He was appointed governor of Judæa by Cæsar, whom
  he had assisted in the Alexandrine war. _Josephus._――――An Athenian
  archon.――――One of Alexander’s soldiers, who conspired against
  his life with Hermolaus. _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 6.――――A celebrated
  sophist of Hieropolis, preceptor to the children of the emperor
  Severus.――――A Stoic philosopher of Tarsus, 144 years B.C.――――A poet
  of Sidon, who could compose a number of verses extempore, upon any
  subject. He ranked Sappho among the Muses, in one of his epigrams.
  He had a fever every year on the day of his birth, of which at last
  he died. He flourished about 80 years B.C. Some of his epigrams
  are preserved in the Anthologia. _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 51.――_Valerius
  Maximus_, bk. 1, ch. 10.――_Cicero_, _On Oratory_, bk. 3; _de
  Officiis_, bk. 3; _De Quæstiones Academicæ_, bk. 4.――――A philosopher
  of Phœnicia, preceptor to Cato of Utica. _Plutarch_, _Cato_.――――A
  Stoic philosopher, disciple of Diogenes of Babylon. He wrote two
  books on divination, and died at Athens. _Cicero_, _de Divinatione_,
  bk. 1, ch. 3; _Quæstiones Academicæ_, bk. 4, ch. 6; _de Officiis_,
  bk. 3, ch. 12.――――A disciple of Aristotle, who wrote two books of
  letters.――――A poet of Thessalonica, in the age of Augustus.

=Antipatria=, a city of Macedonia. _Livy_, bk. 31, ch. 27.

=Antipatrĭdas=, a governor of Telmessus. _Polyænus_, bk. 5.

=Antipătris=, a city of Palestine.

=Antiphănes=, an ingenious statuary of Argos. _Pausanias_, bk. 5,
  ch. 17.――――A comic poet of Rhodes, or rather of Smyrna, who wrote
  above 90 comedies, and died in the 74th year of his age, by the fall
  of an apple upon his head.――――A physician of Delos, who used to say
  that diseases originated from the variety of food that was eaten.
  _Clement of Alexandria._――_Athenæus._

=Antiphătes=, a king of the Læstrygones, descended from Lamus, who
  founded Formiæ. Ulysses returning from Troy, came upon his coasts,
  and sent three men to examine the country. Antiphates devoured one
  of them, and pursued the others, and sunk the fleet of Ulysses with
  stones, except the ship in which Ulysses was. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 14, li. 232.――――A son of Sarpedon. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9,
  li. 696.――――The grandfather of Amphiaraus. _Homer_, _Odyssey_.――――A
  man killed in the Trojan war by Leonteus. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 12,
  li. 191.

=Antiphĭli Portus=, a harbour on the African side of the Red sea.
  _Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Antiphĭlus=, an Athenian who succeeded Leosthenes at the siege of
  Lamia against Antipater. _Diodorus_, bk. 18.――――A noble painter who
  represented a youth leaning over a fire and blowing it, from which
  the whole house seemed to be illuminated. He was an Egyptian by
  birth; he imitated Apelles, and was disciple to Ctesidemus. _Pliny_,
  bk. 35, ch. 10.

=Antĭphon=, a poet.――――A native of Rhamnusia, called Nestor, from his
  eloquence and prudence. The 16 orations that are extant under his
  name, are supposititious.――――An orator who promised Philip king of
  Macedonia that he would set on fire the citadel of Athens, for which
  he was put to death, at the instigation of Demosthenes. _Cicero_,
  _de Divinatione_, bk. 2.――_Plutarch_, _Alcibiades_ & _Demosthenes_.
  ――――A poet who wrote on agriculture. _Athenæus._――――An author who
  wrote a treatise on peacocks.――――A rich man introduced by Xenophon
  as disputing with Socrates.――――An Athenian who interpreted dreams,
  and wrote a history of his art. _Cicero_, _de Divinatione_, bks.
  1 & 2.――――A foolish rhetorician.――――A poet of Attica, who wrote
  tragedies, epic poems, and orations. Dionysius put him to death
  because he refused to praise his compositions. Being once asked by
  the tyrant what brass was the best, he answered, “That with which
  the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton are made.” _Plutarch._

=Antiphŏnus=, a son of Priam, who went with his father to the tent of
  Achilles to redeem Hector. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 24.

=Antĭphus=, a son of Priam, killed by Agamemnon during the Trojan war.
  ――――A son of Thessalus, grandson to Hercules. He went to the Trojan
  war in 30 ships. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2, li. 185.――――An intimate
  friend of Ulysses. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 17.――――A brother of
  Ctimenus, was son of Ganyctor the Naupactian. These two brothers
  murdered the poet Hesiod, on the false suspicion that he had offered
  violence to their sister, and threw his body into the sea. The
  poet’s dog discovered them, and they were seized and convicted of
  the murder. _Plutarch_, _de Sollertia Animalium_.

=Antipœnus=, a noble Theban, whose daughters sacrificed themselves for
  the public safety. _See:_ Androclea.

=Antipŏlis=, a city of Gaul, built by the people of Marseilles.
  _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 2, ch. 15.

=Antirrhium=, a promontory of Ætolia, opposite Rhium in Peloponnesus,
  whence the name.

=Antissa=, a city at the north of Lesbos.――――An island near it. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15, li. 287.――_Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 89.

=Antisthĕnes=, a philosopher, born of an Athenian father and of a
  Phrygian mother. He taught rhetoric, and had among his pupils the
  famous Diogenes; but when he had heard Socrates, he shut up his
  school, and told his pupils, “Go seek for yourselves a master; I
  have now found one.” He was at the head of the sect of the Cynic
  philosophers. One of his pupils asked him what philosophy had taught
  him. “To live with myself,” said he. He sold his all, and preserved
  only a very ragged coat, which drew the attention of Socrates, and
  tempted him to say to the Cynic, who carried his contempt of dress
  too far, “Antisthenes, I see thy vanity through the holes of thy
  coat.” Antisthenes taught the unity of God, but he recommended
  suicide. Some of his letters are extant. His doctrines of austerity
  were followed as long as he was himself an example of the cynical
  character, but after his death they were all forgotten. Antisthenes
  flourished 396 years B.C. _Cicero_, _On Oratory_, bk. 3, ch. 35.
  ――_Diogenes Laërtius_, bk. 6.――_Plutarch_, _Lycurgus_.――――A disciple
  of Heraclitus.――――An historian of Rhodes. _Diogenes Laërtius._

=Antistius Labeo=, an excellent lawyer at Rome, who defended the
  liberties of his country against Augustus, for which he is taxed
  with madness by _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 3, li. 82.――_Suetonius_,
  _Augustus_, ch. 54.――――Petro of Gabii, was the author of a
  celebrated treaty between Rome and his country, in the age of
  Tarquin the Proud. _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 4.――――Caius
  Reginus, a lieutenant of Cæsar in Gaul. _Cæsar_, _Gaul War_, bks.
  6 & 7.――――A soldier of Pompey’s army, so confident of his valour,
  that he challenged all the adherents of Cæsar. _Hirtius_, ch. 25,
  _Spanish War_.

=Antitaurus=, one of the branches of mount Taurus, which runs in a
  north-east direction through Cappadocia towards Armenia and the

=Antitheus=, an Athenian archon. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 17.

=Antium=, a maritime town of Italy, built by Ascanius, or, according
  to others, by a son of Ulysses and Circe, upon a promontory 32
  miles east from Ostium. It was the capital of the Volsci, who made
  war against the Romans for above 200 years. Camillus took it, and
  carried all the beaks of their ships to Rome, and placed them in the
  Forum on a tribunal, which from thence was called _Rostrum_. This
  town was dedicated to the goddess of Fortune, whose statues, when
  consulted, gave oracles by a nodding of the head, or other different
  signs. Nero was born there. _Cicero_, _de Divinatione_, bk. 1.
  ――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 35.――_Livy_, bk. 8, ch. 14.

=Antomĕnes=, the last king of _Corinth_. After his death, magistrates
  with regal authority were chosen annually.

=Antōnia lex=, was enacted by Marcus Antony the consul, A.U.C. 710.
  It abrogated the _lex Atia_, and renewed the _lex Cornelia_, by
  taking away from the people the privilege of choosing priests,
  and restoring it to the college of priests, to which it originally
  belonged. _Dio Cassius_, bk. 44.――――Another by the same, A.U.C. 703.
  It ordained that a new decury of judges should be added to the two
  former, and that they should be chosen from the centurions. _Cicero_,
  _Philippics_, speeches 1 & 5.――――Another by the same. It allowed an
  appeal to the people, to those who were condemned _de majestate_,
  or of perfidious measures against the state.――――Another by the same,
  during his triumvirate. It made it a capital offence to propose ever
  after the election of a dictator, and for any person to accept of
  the office. _Appian_, _Civil Wars_, bk. 3.

=Antōnia=, a daughter of Marcus Antony by Octavia. She married
  Domitius Ænobarbus, and was mother of Nero and of two daughters.
  ――――A sister of Germanicus.――――A daughter of Claudius and Ælia
  Petina. She was of the family of the Tuberos, and was repudiated for
  her levity. _Suetonius_, _Claudius_, ch. 1.――_Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk.
  11.――――The wife of Drusus, the son of Livia and brother to Tiberius.
  She became mother of three children, Germanicus, Caligula’s father,
  Claudius the emperor, and the debauched Livia. Her husband died very
  early, and she never would marry again, but spent her time in the
  education of her children. Some people suppose that her grandson
  Caligula ordered her to be poisoned, A.D. 38. _Valerius Maximus_,
  bk. 4, ch. 3.――――A castle of Jerusalem, which received this name in
  honour of Marcus Antony.

=Antōnii=, a patrician and plebeian family, which were said to
  derive their origin from Antones, a son of Hercules, as _Plutarch_,
  _Antonius_ informs us.

=Antonīna=, the wife of Belisarius, &c.

=Antonīnus Titus=, surnamed _Pius_, was adopted by the emperor Adrian,
  to whom he succeeded. This prince is remarkable for all the virtues
  that can form a perfect statesman, philosopher, and king. He rebuilt
  whatever cities had been destroyed by wars in former reigns. In
  cases of famines or inundation, he relieved the distressed, and
  supplied their wants with his own money. He suffered the governors
  of the provinces to remain long in the administration, that no
  opportunity of extortion might be given to new comers. In his
  conduct towards his subjects, he behaved with affability and humanity,
  and listened with patience to every complaint brought before him.
  When told of conquering heroes, he said with Scipio, “I prefer the
  life and preservation of a citizen to the death of 100 enemies.”
  He did not persecute the christians like his predecessors, but his
  life was a scene of universal benevolence. His last moments were
  easy, though preceded by a lingering illness. When consul of Asia,
  he lodged at Smyrna in the house of a sophist, who in civility
  obliged the governor to change his house at night. The sophist, when
  Antoninus became emperor, visited Rome, and was jocosely desired
  to use the palace as his own house, without any apprehension of
  being turned out at night. He extended the boundaries of the Roman
  province in Britain, by raising a rampart between the friths of
  Clyde and Forth; but he waged no war during his reign, and only
  repulsed the enemies of the empire who appeared in the field. He
  died in the 75th year of his age, after a reign of 23 years, A.D.
  161. He was succeeded by his adopted son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus,
  surnamed the philosopher, a prince as virtuous as his father. He
  raised to the imperial dignity his brother Lucius Verus, whose
  voluptuousness and dissipation were as conspicuous as the moderation
  of the philosopher. During their reign, the Quadi, Parthians, and
  Marcomanni were defeated. Antoninus wrote a book in Greek, entitled
  τα καθ’ ἑαυτον, _concerning himself_, the best editions of which
  are the 4to, Oxford, 1704. After the war with the Quadi had been
  finished, Verus died of an apoplexy, and Antoninus survived him
  eight years, and died in his 61st year, after a reign of 29 years
  and 10 days. _Dio Cassius._――――Bassianus Caracalla, son of the
  emperor Septimus Severus, was celebrated for his cruelties. He
  killed his brother Geta in his mother’s arms, and attempted to
  destroy the writings of Aristotle, observing that Aristotle was
  one of those who sent poison to Alexander. He married his mother,
  and publicly lived with her, which gave occasion to the people of
  Alexandria to say, that he was an Œdipus, and his wife a Jocasta.
  This joke was fatal to them; and the emperor, to punish their ill
  language, slaughtered many thousands in Alexandria. After assuming
  the name and dress of Achilles, and styling himself the conqueror
  of provinces which he had never seen, he was assassinated at Edessa
  by Macrinus, April 8, in the 43rd year of his age, A.D. 217. His
  body was sent to his wife Julia, who stabbed herself at the sight.
  ――――There is extant a Greek itinerary, and another book called _Iter
  Britannicum_, which some have attributed to the emperor Antoninus,
  though it was more probably written by a person of that name whose
  age is unknown.

=Antoniopŏlis=, a city of Mesopotamia. _Marcellinus_, bk. 8.

=Marcus Antōnius Gnipho=, a poet of Gaul, who taught rhetoric at Rome.
  Cicero and other illustrious men frequented his school. He never
  asked anything for his lectures, whence he received more from the
  liberality of his pupils. _Suetonius_, _Lives of the Grammarians_,
  ch. 7.――――An orator, grandfather to the triumvir of the same name.
  He was killed in the civil wars of Marius, and his head was hung in
  the Forum. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 9, ch. 2.――_Lucan_, bk. 2, li.
  121.――――Marcus, the eldest son of the orator of the same name, by
  means of Cotta and Cethegus, obtained from the senate the office
  of managing the corn on the maritime coasts of the Mediterranean,
  with unlimited power. This gave him many opportunities of plundering
  the provinces and enriching himself. He died of a broken heart.
  _Sallust_. _Fragments of the Histories_.――――Caius, a son of the
  orator of that name, who obtained a troop of horse from Sylla, and
  plundered Achaia. He was carried before the pretor Marcus Lucullus,
  and banished from the senate by the censors for pillaging the allies,
  and refusing to appear when summoned before justice.――――Caius,
  son of Antonius Caius, was consul with Cicero, and assisted him to
  destroy the conspiracy of Catiline in Gaul. He went to Macedonia as
  his province, and fought with ill success against the Dardani. He
  was accused at his return, and banished.――――Marcus, the triumvir,
  was grandson to the orator Marcus Antonius, and son of Antonius,
  surnamed _Cretensis_ from his wars in Crete. He was augur and
  tribune of the people, in which he distinguished himself by his
  ambitious views. He always entertained a secret resentment against
  Cicero, which arose from Cicero’s having put to death Cornelius
  Lentulus, who was concerned in Catiline’s conspiracy. This Lentulus
  had married Antonius’s mother after his father’s death. When the
  senate was torn by the factions of Pompey’s and Cæsar’s adherents,
  Antony proposed that both should lay aside the command of their
  armies in the provinces; but as this proposition met not with
  success, he privately retired from Rome to the camp of Cæsar, and
  advised him to march his army to Rome. In support of his attachment,
  he commanded the left wing of his army at Pharsalia, and, according
  to a premeditated scheme, offered him a diadem in the presence of
  the Roman people. When Cæsar was assassinated in the senate house,
  his friend Antony spoke an oration over his body; and to ingratiate
  himself and his party with the populace, he reminded them of the
  liberal treatment they had received from Cæsar. He besieged Mutina,
  which had been allotted to Decimus Brutus, for which the senate
  judged him an enemy to the republic at the remonstration of Cicero.
  He was conquered by the consuls Hirtius and Pansa, and by young
  Cæsar, who soon after joined his interest with that of Antony,
  and formed the celebrated triumvirate, which was established with
  such cruel proscriptions, that Antony did not even spare his own
  uncle, that he might strike off the head of his enemy Cicero. The
  triumvirate divided the Roman empire among themselves; Lepidus was
  set over all Italy, Augustus had the west, and Antony returned into
  the east, where he enlarged his dominions by different conquests.
  Antony had married Fulvia, whom he repudiated to marry Octavia
  the sister of Augustus, and by this connection to strengthen
  the triumvirate. He assisted Augustus at the battle of Philippi
  against the murderers of Julius Cæsar, and he buried the body of
  Marcus Brutus, his enemy, in a most magnificent manner. During his
  residence in the east, he became enamoured of the fair Cleopatra
  queen of Egypt, and repudiated Octavia to marry her. This divorce
  incensed Augustus, who now prepared to deprive Antony of all his
  power. Antony, in the mean time, assembled all the forces of the
  east, and with Cleopatra marched against Octavius Cæsar. These two
  enemies met at Actium, where a naval engagement soon began, but
  Cleopatra, by flying with 60 sail, drew Antony from the battle,
  and ruined his cause. After the battle of Actium, Antony followed
  Cleopatra into Egypt, where he was soon informed of the defection of
  all his allies and adherents, and saw the conqueror on his shores.
  He stabbed himself, and Cleopatra likewise killed herself by the
  bite of an asp. Antony died in the 56th year of his age, B.C. 30,
  and the conqueror shed tears when he was informed that his enemy was
  no more. Antony left seven children by his three wives. He has been
  blamed for his great effeminacy, for his uncommon love of pleasures,
  and his fondness of drinking. It is said that he wrote a book in
  praise of drunkenness. He was fond of imitating Hercules, from
  whom, according to some accounts, he was descended; and he is often
  represented as Hercules, with Cleopatra in the form of Omphale,
  dressed in the arms of her submissive lover, and beating him with
  her sandals. In his public character, Antony was brave and courageous,
  but, with the intrepidity of Cæsar, he possessed all his voluptuous
  inclinations. He was prodigal to a degree, and did not scruple
  to call, from vanity, his sons by Cleopatra, kings of kings. His
  fondness for low company, and his debauchery, form the best parts of
  Cicero’s Philippics. It is said, that the night of Cæsar’s murder,
  Cassius supped with Antony; and, being asked whether he had a dagger
  with him, answered, “Yes, if you, Antony, aspire to sovereign power.”
  _Plutarch_ has written an account of his life. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 8, li. 685.――_Horace_, ltr. 9.――_Juvenal_, satire 10, li. 122.
  ――_Cornelius Nepos_, _Atticus_.――_Cicero_, _Philippics_.――_Justin_,
  bks. 41 & 42.――――Julius, son of Antony the triumvir by Fulvia, was
  consul with Paulus Fabius Maximus. He was surnamed Africanus, and
  put to death by order of Augustus. Some say that he killed himself.
  It is supposed that he wrote an heroic poem on Diomede, in 12 books.
  _Horace_ dedicated his _Ode_ 4 to him. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 4,
  ch. 44.――――Lucius, the triumvir’s brother, was besieged in Pelusium
  by Augustus, and obliged to surrender himself, with 300 men, by
  famine. The conqueror spared his life. Some say that he was killed
  at the shrine of Cæsar.――――A noble but unfortunate youth. His father
  Julius was put to death by Augustus for his criminal conversation
  with Julia, and he himself was removed by the emperor to Marseilles,
  on pretence of finishing his education. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 4,
  ch. 44.――――Felix, a freedman of Claudius, appointed governor of
  Judæa. He married Drusilla the daughter of Antony and Cleopatra.
  _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 4, ch. 9.――――Flamma, a Roman condemned
  for extortion under Vespasian. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 4,
  ch. 45.――――Musa, a physician of Augustus. _Pliny_, bk. 29, ch. 1.
  ――――Merenda, a decemvir at Rome, A.U.C. 304. _Livy_, bk. 3, ch. 35.
  ――――Quintus Merenda, a military tribune, A.U.C. 332. _Livy_, bk. 4,
  ch. 42.

=Antorĭdes=, a painter, disciple to Aristippus. _Pliny._

=Antro Coracius.= _See:_ ♦Coracius.

      ♦ Reference not found.

=Antylla.= _See:_ Anthylla.

=Anūbis=, an Egyptian deity, represented under the form of a man
  with the head of a dog, because when Osiris went on his expedition
  against India, Anubis accompanied him, and clothed himself in a
  sheep’s skin. His worship was introduced from Egypt into Greece and
  Italy. He is supposed by some to be Mercury, because he is sometimes
  represented with a _caduceus_. Some make him brother of Osiris, some
  his son by Nepthys the wife of Typhon. _Diodorus_, bk. 1.――_Lucan_,
  bk. 8, li. 331.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9, li. 686.――_Plutarch_,
  _de Iside et Osiride_.――_Herodotus_, bk. 4.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 8, li. 698.

=Anxius=, a river of Armenia, falling into the Euphrates.

=Anxur=, called also Tarracina, a city of the Volsci, taken by the
  Romans, A.U.C. 348. It was sacred to Jupiter, who is called Jupiter
  Anxur, and represented in the form of a beardless boy. _Livy_, bk. 4,
  ch. 59.――_Horace_, bk. 1, satire 5, li. 26.――_Lucan_, bk. 3, li. 84.
  ――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 799.

=Anyta=, a Greek woman, some of whose elegant verses are still extant.

=Any̆tus=, an Athenian rhetorician, who, with Melitus and Lycon,
  accused Socrates of impiety, and was the cause of his condemnation.
  These false accusers were afterwards put to death by the Athenians.
  _Diogenes Laërtius._――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 2, ch. 13.
  ――_Horace_, bk. 2, satire 4, li. 3.――_Plutarch_, _Alcibiades_.
  ――――One of the Titans.

=Anzābe=, a river near the Tigris. _Marcellinus_, bk. 18.

=Aollius=, a son of Romulus by Hersilia, afterwards called Abillius.

=Aon=, a son of Neptune, who came to Eubœa and Bœotia from Apulia,
  where he collected the inhabitants into cities, and reigned over
  them. They were called _Aones_, and the country _Aonia_, from him.

=Aŏnes=, the inhabitants of _Aonia_, called afterwards Bœotia. They
  came there in the age of Cadmus, and obtained his leave to settle
  with the Phœnicians. The muses have been called _Aonides_, because
  Aonia was more particularly frequented by them. _Pausanias_, bk. 9,
  ch. 3.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bks. 3, 7, 10, 13; _Tristia_,
  poem 5, li. 10; _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 456; bk. 4, li. 245.――_Virgil_,
  _Georgics_, bk. 3, li. 11.

=Aonia=, one of the ancient names of Bœotia.

=Aōris=, a famous hunter, son of Aras king of Corinth. He was so fond
  of his sister Arathyræa, that he called part of the country by her
  name. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 12.――――The wife of Neleus, called more
  commonly Chloris. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 36.

=Aornos=, =Aornus=, =Aornis=, a lofty rock, supposed to be near the
  Ganges in India, taken by Alexander. Hercules had besieged it, but
  was never able to conquer it. _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 11.――_Arrian_,
  bk. 4.――_Strabo_, bk. 15.――_Plutarch_, _Alexander_.――――A place in
  Epirus, with an oracle. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 80.――――A certain
  lake near Tartessus.――――Another near Baiæ and Puteoli. It was also
  called Avernus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 242.

=Aōti=, a people of Thrace, near the Getæ, on the Ister. _Pliny_,
  bk. 4.

=Apaĭtæ=, a people of Asia Minor. _Strabo._

=Apāma=, a daughter of Artaxerxes, who married Pharnabazus satrap of
  Ionia.――――A daughter of Antiochus. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 8.

=Apāme=, the mother of Nicomedes by Prusias king of Bithynia.――――The
  mother of Antiochus Soter by Seleucus Nicanor. Soter founded a city
  which he called by his mother’s name.

=Apamia=, or =Apamēa=, a city of Phrygia, on the Marsyas.――――A city of
  Bithynia,――――of Media,――――of Mesopotamia.――――Another near the Tigris.

=Aparni=, a nation of shepherds near the Caspian sea. _Strabo._

=Apatūria=, a festival of Athens, which received its name from ἀπατη,
  _deceit_, because it was instituted in memory of a stratagem by
  which Xanthus king of Bœotia was killed by Melanthus king of Athens,
  upon the following occasion. When a war arose between the Bœotians
  and Athenians about a piece of ground which divided their territories,
  Xanthus made a proposal to the Athenian king to decide the battle
  by single combat. Thymœtes, who was then on the throne of Athens,
  refused, and his successor Melanthus accepted the challenge. When
  they began the engagement, Melanthus exclaimed that his antagonist
  had some person behind him to support him; upon which Xanthus looked
  behind, and was killed by Melanthus. From this success Jupiter was
  called ἀπατηνωρ, _deceiver_, and Bacchus, who was supposed to be
  behind Xanthus, was called Μελαναιγις, clothed in the skin of a
  _black goat_. Some derive the word from ἀπατορια, _i.e._ ὁμοτορια,
  because, on the day of the festival, the children accompanied their
  fathers to be registered among the citizens. The festival lasted
  three days. The first day was called δορπια, because suppers, δορποι,
  were prepared for each separate tribe. The second day was called
  ἀναρρυσις ἀπο του ἀνω ἐρυειν, because sacrifices were offered to
  Jupiter and Minerva, and the head of the victim was generally turned
  up towards the heavens. The third was called Κουρεωτις, from Κουρος,
  a _youth_, or Κουρα, _shaving_, because the young men had their hair
  cut off before they were registered, when their parents swore that
  they were freeborn Athenians. They generally sacrificed two ewes
  and a she-goat to Diana. This festival was adopted by the Ionians,
  except the inhabitants of Ephesus and Colophon.――――A surname of
  Minerva,――――of Venus.

=Apeauros=, a mountain of Peloponnesus. _Polybius_, bk. 4.

=Apella=, a word, _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 5, li. 10, which has given
  much trouble to critics and commentators. Some suppose it to mean
  circumcised (_sine pelle_), an epithet highly applicable to a Jew.
  Others maintain that it is a proper name, upon the authority of
  Cicero, _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 12, ltr. 19, who mentions a person
  of the same name.

=Apelles=, a celebrated painter of Cos, or, as others say, of Ephesus
  or Colophon, son of Pithius. He lived in the age of Alexander the
  Great, who honoured him so much that he forbade any man but Apelles
  to draw his picture. He was so attentive to his profession that he
  never spent a day without employing his pencil, whence the proverb
  of _Nulla dies sine lineâ_. His most perfect picture was Venus
  Anadyomene, which was not totally finished when the painter died.
  He made a painting of Alexander holding thunder in his hand, so much
  like life that Pliny, who saw it, says that the hand of the king
  with the thunder seemed to come out of the picture. This picture was
  placed in Diana’s temple at Ephesus. He made another of Alexander,
  but the king expressed not much satisfaction at the sight of it: and
  at that moment a horse, passing by, neighed at the horse which was
  represented in the piece, supposing it to be alive; upon which the
  painter said, “One would imagine that the horse is a better judge of
  painting than your Majesty.” When Alexander ordered him to draw the
  picture of Campaspe, one of his mistresses, Apelles became enamoured
  of her, and the king permitted him to marry her. He wrote three
  volumes upon painting, which were still extant in the age of Pliny.
  It is said that he was accused in Egypt of conspiring against the
  life of Ptolemy, and that he would have been put to death had not
  the real conspirator discovered himself, and saved the painter.
  Apelles never put his name to any pictures but three; a sleeping
  Venus, Venus Anadyomene, and an Alexander. The proverb of _Ne sutor
  ultra crepidam_ is applied to him by some. _Pliny_, bk. 35, ch. 10.
  ――_Horace_, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 238.――_Cicero_, _Letters to his
  Friends_, bk. 1, ltr. 9.――_Ovid_, _Ars Amatoria_, bk. 3, li. 401.
  ――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 8, ch. 11.――――A tragic writer. _Suetonius_,
  _Caligula_, ch. 33.――――A Macedonian general, &c.

=Apellĭcon=, a Teian peripatetic philosopher, whose fondness for
  books was so great that he is accused of stealing them, when he
  could not obtain them with money. He bought the works of Aristotle
  and Theophrastus, but greatly disfigured them by his frequent
  interpolations. The extensive library, which he had collected at
  Athens, was carried to Rome when Sylla had conquered the capital
  of Attica, and among the valuable books was found an original
  manuscript of Aristotle. He died about 86 B.C. _Strabo_, bk. 13.

=Apennīnus=, a ridge of high mountains which run through the middle
  of Italy, from Liguria to Ariminum and Ancona. They are joined to
  the Alps. Some have supposed that they ran across Sicily by Rhegium
  before Italy was separated from Sicily. _Lucan_, bk. 2, li. 306.
  ――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, li. 226.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 4,
  li. 743.――_Strabo_, bk. 2.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 4.

=Aper Marcus=, a Latin orator of Gaul, who distinguished himself as
  a politician, as well as by his genius. The dialogue of the orators,
  inserted with the works of Tacitus and Quintilian, is attributed to
  him. He died A.D. 85.――――Another. _See:_ Numerianus.

=Aperopia=, a small island on the coast of Argolis. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 34.

=Apĕsus=, =Apesas=, or =Apesantus=, a mountain of Peloponnesus near
  Lerna. _Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 3, li. 461.

=Aphaca=, a town of Palestine, where Venus was worshipped, and where
  she had a temple and an oracle.

=Aphæa=, a name of Diana, who had a temple in Ægina. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 30.

=Aphar=, the capital city of Arabia, near the Red sea. _Arrian_,
  _Periplus of the Euxine Sea_.

=Apharētus=, fell in love with Marpessa daughter of Œnomaus, and
  carried her away.

=Aphareus=, a king of Messenia, son of Perieres and Gorgophone,
  who married Arene daughter of Œbalus, by whom he had three sons.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 1.――――A relation of Isocrates, who wrote
  37 tragedies.

=Aphas=, a river of Greece, which falls into the bay of Ambracia.
  _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 1.

=Aphellas=, a king of Cyrene, who, with the aid of Agathocles,
  endeavoured to reduce all Africa under his power. _Justin_, bk. 22,
  ch. 7.

=Aphĕsas=, a mountain in Peloponnesus, whence, as the poets have
  imagined, Perseus attempted to fly to heaven. _Statius_, _Thebiad_,
  bk. 3, li. 461.

=Aphētæ=, a city of Magnesia, where the ship Argo was launched.

=Aphīdas=, a son of Arcas king of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8.

=Aphidna=, a part of Attica, which received its name from Aphidnus,
  one of the companions of Theseus. _Herodotus._

=Aphidnus=, a friend of Æneas, killed by Turnus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 9, li. 702.

=Aphœbētus=, one of the conspirators against Alexander. _Curtius_,
  bk. 6, ch. 7.

=Aphrīces=, an Indian prince, who defended the rock Aornus, with
  20,000 foot and 15 elephants. He was killed by his troops, and his
  head sent to Alexander.

=Aphrodisia=, an island in the Persian gulf, where Venus is worshipped.
  ――――Festivals in honour of Venus, celebrated in different parts of
  Greece, but chiefly in Cyprus. They were first instituted by Cinyras,
  from whose family the priests of the goddess were always chosen.
  All those that were initiated offered a piece of money to Venus as
  a harlot, and received as a mark of the favours of the goddess, a
  measure of salt and a θαλλος; the salt, because Venus arose from the
  sea; the θαλλος, because she is the goddess of wantonness. They were
  celebrated at Corinth by harlots, and in every part of Greece they
  were very much frequented. _Strabo_, bk. 14.――_Athenæus._

=Aphrodisias=, a town of Caria, sacred to Venus. _Tacitus_, _Annals_,
  bk. 3, ch. 62.

=Aphrodisium= (or a), a town of Apulia, built by Diomede in honour of

=Aphrodīsum=, a city on the eastern parts of Cyprus, nine miles from
  Salamis.――――A promontory with an island of the same name on the
  coast of Spain. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 3.

=Aphrodīte=, the Grecian name of Venus, from ἀφρος, froth, because
  Venus is said to have been born from the froth of the ocean.
  _Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 195.――_Pliny_, bk. 36, ch. 5.

=Aphȳtæ=, or =Aphytis=, a city of Thrace, near Pallena, where Jupiter
  Ammon was worshipped. Lysander besieged the town; but the god of the
  place appeared to him in a dream, and advised him to raise the siege,
  which he immediately did. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 18.

=Apia=, an ancient name of Peloponnesus, which it received from king
  Apis. It was afterwards called Ægialea, Pelasgia, Argia, and at last
  Peloponnesus, or the island of Pelops. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 1, li.
  270. Also the name of the earth, worshipped among the Lydians as a
  powerful deity. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 59.

=Apiānus=, or =Apion=, was born at Oasis in Egypt, whence he went to
  Alexandria, of which he was deemed a citizen. He succeeded Theus
  in the profession of rhetoric in the reign of Tiberius, and wrote
  a book against the Jews, which Josephus refuted. He was at the head
  of an embassy which the people of Alexandria sent to Caligula, to
  complain of the Jews. _Seneca_, ltr. 88.――_Pliny_, preface, _Natural

=Apicāta=, married Sejanus, by whom she had three children. She was
  repudiated. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 4, ch. 3.

=Apicius=, a famous glutton in Rome. There were three of the same name,
  all famous for their voracious appetite. The first lived in the time
  of the republic, the second in the reign of Augustus and Tiberius,
  and the third under Trajan. The second was the most famous, as he
  wrote a book on the pleasures and incitements of eating. He hanged
  himself after he had consumed the greatest part of his estate. The
  best edition of Apicius Cælius _de Arte Coquinariâ_, is that of
  Amsterdam, 12mo, 1709. _Juvenal_, satire 11, li. 3.――_Martial_,
  bk. 2, ltr. 69.

=Apidănus=, one of the chief rivers of Thessaly, at the south of the
  Peneus, into which it falls a little above Larissa. _Lucan_, bk. 6,
  li. 372.

=Apĭna= and =Apinæ=, a city of Apulia, destroyed with Trica, in its
  neighbourhood, by Diomedes; whence came the proverb of _Apina et
  Trica_, to express trifling things. _Martial_, bk. 14, ltr. 1.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 11.

=Apiŏla= and =Apiolæ=, a town of Italy, taken by Tarquin the Proud.
  The Roman Capitol was begun with the spoils taken from that city.
  _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 5.

=Apion=, a surname of Ptolemy, one of the descendants of Ptolemy Lagus.
  ――――A grammarian. _See:_ Apianus.

=Apis=, one of the ancient kings of Peloponnesus, son of Phoroneus and
  Laodice. Some say that Apollo was his father, and that he was king
  of Argos, while others call him king of Sicyon, and fix the time
  of his reign above 200 years earlier, which is enough to show he is
  but obscurely known, if known at all. He was a native of Naupactum,
  and descended from Inachus. He received divine honours after death,
  as he had been munificent and humane to his subjects. The country
  where he reigned was called Apia; and afterwards it received the
  name of Pelasgia, Argia, or Argolis, and at last that of Peloponnesus,
  from Pelops. Some, amongst whom is Varro and St. Augustine, have
  imagined that Apis went to Egypt with a colony of Greeks, and that
  he civilized the inhabitants, and polished their manners, for which
  they made him a god after death, and paid divine honours to him
  under the name of Serapis. This tradition, according to some of the
  moderns, is without foundation. _Æschylus_, _Suppliant Maidens_.
  ――_Augustine_, _City of God_, bk. 18, ch. 5.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch.
  5.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 1.――――A son of Jason, born in Arcadia;
  he was killed by the horses of Ætolus. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 1.
  ――――A town of Egypt on the lake Mareotis.――――A god of the Egyptians,
  worshipped under the form of an ox. Some say that Isis and Osiris
  are the deities worshipped under this name, because during their
  reign they taught the Egyptians agriculture. The Egyptians believed
  that the soul of Osiris was really departed into the ox, where it
  wished to dwell, because that animal had been of the most essential
  service in the cultivation of the ground, which Osiris had introduced
  into Egypt. The ox that was chosen was always distinguished by
  particular marks: his body was black; he had a square white spot
  upon the forehead, the figure of an eagle upon the back, a knot
  under the tongue like a beetle; the hairs of his tail were double,
  and his right side was marked with a whitish spot, resembling the
  crescent of the moon. Without these, an ox could not be taken as
  the god Apis; and it is to be imagined that the priests gave these
  distinguishing characteristics to the animal on which their credit
  and even prosperity depended. The festival of Apis lasted seven days;
  the ox was led in a solemn procession by the priests, and every one
  was anxious to receive him into his house, and it was believed that
  the children who smelt his breath received the knowledge of futurity.
  The ox was conducted to the banks of the Nile with much ceremony,
  and if he had lived to the time which their sacred books allowed,
  they drowned him in the river, and embalmed his body, and buried
  it in solemn state in the city of Memphis. After his death, which
  sometimes was natural, the greatest cries and lamentations were
  heard in Egypt, as if Osiris was just dead; the priests shaved their
  heads, which was a sign of the deepest mourning. This continued till
  another ox appeared, with the proper characteristics to succeed as
  the deity, which was followed with the greatest acclamations, as if
  Osiris was returned to life. This ox, which was found to represent
  Apis, was left 40 days in the city of the Nile before he was carried
  to Memphis, during which time none but women were permitted to
  appear before him, and this they performed, according to their
  superstitious notions, in a wanton and indecent manner. There was
  also an ox worshipped at Heliopolis, under the name of Mnevis; some
  suppose that he was Osiris, but others maintain that the Apis of
  Memphis was sacred to Osiris, and Mnevis to Isis. When Cambyses came
  into Egypt, the people were celebrating the festivals of Apis with
  every mark of joy and triumph, which the conqueror interpreted as
  an insult upon himself. He called the priests of Apis, and ordered
  the deity itself to come before him. When he saw that an ox was the
  object of their veneration, and the cause of such rejoicings, he
  wounded it on the thigh, ordered the priests to be chastised, and
  commanded his soldiers to slaughter such as were found celebrating
  such riotous festivals. The god Apis had generally two stables, or
  rather temples. If he ate from the hand, it was a favourable omen;
  but if he refused the food that was offered him, it was interpreted
  as unlucky. From this Germanicus, when he visited Egypt, drew the
  omens of his approaching death. When his oracle was consulted,
  incense was burnt on an altar, and a piece of money placed upon it,
  after which the people that wished to know futurity applied their
  ear to the mouth of the god, and immediately retired, stopping
  their ears till they had departed from the temple. The first sounds
  that were heard, were taken as the answer of the oracle to their
  questions. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 22.――_Herodotus_, bks. 2 & 3.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 38, &c.――_Strabo_, bk. 7.――_Plutarch_, _Iside
  et Osiride_.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 7; bk. 2, ch. 1.――_Mela_, bk.
  1, ch. 9.――_Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 39, &c.――_Strabo_, bk. 7.――_Ælian_,
  _Varia Historia_, bks. 4 & 6.――_Diodorus_, bk. 1.

=Apisāon=, son of Hippasus, assisted Priam against the Greeks, at the
  head of a Pæonian army. He was killed by Lycomedes. _Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 17, li. 348.――――Another on the same side.

=Apitius Galba=, a celebrated buffoon in the time of Tiberius.
  _Juvenal_, satire 5, li. 4.

=Apollināres ludi=, games celebrated at Rome in honour of Apollo. They
  originated from the following circumstance. An old prophetic poem
  informed the Romans, that if they instituted yearly games to Apollo,
  and made a collection of money for his service, they would be
  able to repel the enemy whose approach already threatened their
  destruction. The first time they were celebrated, Rome was alarmed
  by the approach of the enemy, and instantly the people rushed out
  of the city, and saw a cloud of arrows discharged from the sky on
  the troops of the enemy. With this heavenly assistance they easily
  obtained the victory. The people generally sat crowned with laurel
  at the representation of these games, which were usually celebrated
  at the option of the pretor, till the year A.U.C. 545, when a law
  was passed to settle the celebration yearly on the same day about
  the nones of July. When this alteration happened, Rome was infested
  with a dreadful pestilence, which, however, seemed to be appeased by
  this act of religion. _Livy_, bk. 25, ch. 12.

=Apollināris, Caius Sulpitius=, a grammarian of Carthage, in the second
  century, who is supposed to be the author of the verses prefixed to
  Terence’s plays as arguments.――――A writer better known by the name
  of Sidonius. _See:_ Sidonius.

=Apollinīdes=, a Greek in the wars of Darius and Alexander, &c.
  _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 5.

=Apollĭnis arx=, a place at the entrance of the Sibyl’s cave. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 6.――――Promontorium, a promontory of Africa. _Livy_,
  bk. 30, ch. 24.――――Templum, a place in Thrace,――――in Lycia. _Ælian_,
  _Varia Historia_, bk. 6, ch. 9.

=Apollo=, son of Jupiter and Latona, called also Phœbus, is often
  confounded with the sun. According to Cicero, bk. 3, _de Natura
  Deorum_, there were four persons of this name. The first was son
  of Vulcan, and the tutelary god of the Athenians. The second was
  son of Corybas, and was born in Crete, for the dominion of which he
  disputed even with Jupiter himself. The third was son of Jupiter and
  Latona, and came from the nations of the Hyperboreans to Delphi. The
  fourth was born in Arcadia, and called Nomion, because he gave laws
  to the inhabitants. To the son of Jupiter and Latona all the actions
  of the others seem to have been attributed. The Apollo, son of
  Vulcan, was the same as the Orus of the Egyptians, and was the most
  ancient, from whom the actions of the others have been copied. The
  three others seem to be of Grecian origin. The tradition that the
  son of Latona was born in the floating island of Delos, is taken
  from the Egyptian mythology, which asserts that the son of Vulcan,
  which is supposed to be Orus, was saved by his mother Isis from
  the persecution of Typhon, and entrusted to the care of Latona, who
  concealed him in the island of Chemmis. When Latona was pregnant by
  Jupiter, Juno, who was ever jealous of her husband’s amours, raised
  the serpent Python to torment Latona, who was refused a place to
  give birth to her children, till Neptune, moved at the severity of
  her fate, raised the island of Delos from the bottom of the sea,
  where Latona brought forth Apollo and Diana. Apollo was the god of
  all the fine arts, of medicine, music, poetry, and eloquence, of
  all which he was deemed the inventor. He had received from Jupiter
  the power of knowing futurity, and he was the only one of the gods
  whose oracles were in general repute over the world. His amours with
  Leucothoe, Daphne, Issa, Bolina, Coronis, Clymene, Cyrene, Chione,
  Acacallis, Calliope, &c., are well known, and the various shapes he
  assumed to gratify his passion. He was very fond of young Hyacinthus,
  whom he accidentally killed with a quoit; as also of Cyparissus, who
  was changed into a cypress tree. When his son Æsculapius had been
  killed with the thunders of Jupiter for raising the dead to life,
  Apollo, in his resentment, killed the Cyclops who had fabricated
  the thunderbolts. Jupiter was incensed at this act of violence, and
  he banished Apollo from heaven, and deprived him of his dignity.
  The exiled deity came to Admetus king of Thessaly, and hired
  himself to be one of his shepherds, in which ignoble employment he
  remained nine years; from which circumstance he was called the god
  of shepherds, and at his sacrifices a wolf was generally offered,
  as that animal is the declared enemy of the sheepfold. During his
  residence in Thessaly, he rewarded the tender treatment of Admetus.
  He gave him a chariot drawn by a lion and a bull, with which he was
  able to obtain in marriage Alceste the daughter of Pelias; and soon
  after, the Parcæ granted, at Apollo’s request, that Admetus might be
  redeemed from death, if another person laid down his life for him.
  He assisted Neptune in building the walls of Troy; and when he was
  refused the promised reward from Laomedon the king of the country,
  he destroyed the inhabitants by a pestilence. As soon as he was born,
  Apollo destroyed with arrows the serpent Python, whom Juno had sent
  to persecute Latona; hence he was called Pythius; and he afterwards
  vindicated the honour of his mother, by putting to death the
  children of the proud Niobe. _See:_ Niobe. He was not the inventor
  of the lyre, as some have imagined, but Mercury gave it him, and
  received as a reward the famous caduceus with which Apollo was wont
  to drive the flocks of Admetus. His contest with Pan and Marsyas,
  and the punishment inflicted upon Midas, are well known. He
  received the surnames of Phœbus, Delius, Cynthius, Pœan, Delphicus,
  Nomius, Lycius, Clarius, Ismenius, Vulturius, Smintheus, &c., for
  reasons which are explained under those words. Apollo is generally
  represented with long hair, and the Romans were fond of imitating
  his figure, and therefore in their youth they were remarkable for
  their fine heads of hair, which they cut short at the age of 17 or
  18. He is always represented as a tall, beardless young man, with a
  handsome shape, holding in his hand a bow, and sometimes a lyre; his
  head is generally surrounded with beams of light. He was the deity
  who, according to the notions of the ancients, inflicted plagues,
  and in that moment he appeared surrounded with clouds. His worship
  and power were universally acknowledged: he had temples and statues
  in every country, particularly in Egypt, Greece, and Italy. His
  statue, which stood upon mount Actium, as a mark to mariners to
  avoid the dangerous coasts, was particularly famous, and it appeared
  to a great distance at sea. Augustus, before the battle of Actium,
  addressed himself to it for victory. The griffin, the cock, the
  grasshopper, the wolf, the crow, the swan, the hawk, the olive, the
  laurel, the palm tree, &c., were sacred to him; and in his
  sacrifices, wolves and hawks were offered, as they were the natural
  enemies of the flocks, over which he presided. Bullocks and lambs
  were also immolated to him. As he presided over poetry, he was often
  seen on mount Parnassus with the nine muses. His most famous oracles
  were at Delphi, Delos, Claros, Tenedos, Cyrrha, and Patara. His most
  splendid temple was at Delphi, where every nation and individual
  made considerable presents when they consulted the oracle. Augustus,
  after the battle of Actium, built him a temple on mount Palatine,
  which he enriched with a valuable library. He had a famous colossus
  in Rhodes, which was one of the seven wonders of the world. Apollo
  has been taken for the sun; but it may be proved by different
  passages in the ancient writers, that Apollo, the Sun, Phœbus,
  and Hyperion, were all different characters and deities, though
  confounded together. When once Apollo was addressed as the Sun,
  and represented with a crown of rays on his head, the idea was
  adopted by every writer, and from thence arose the mistake.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1, fables 9 & 10; bk. 4, fable 3, &c.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 7; bk. 5, ch. 7; bk. 7, ch. 20; bk. 9, ch.
  30, &c.――_Hyginus_, fables 9, 14, 50, 93, 140, 161, 202, 203, &c.
  ――_Statius_, bk. 1, _Thebiad_, li. 560.――_Tibullus_, bk. 2, poem 3.
  ――_Plutarch_, _de Amore Prolis_.――_Homer_, _Iliad_ & _Hymn to
  Apollo_.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bks. 2, 3, &c.; _Georgics_, bk. 4,
  li. 323.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 10.――_Lucian_, ♦_Dialogi Deorum_.
  ――_Propertius_, bk. 1, poem 28.――_Callimachus_, _Hymn to Apollo_.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, chs. 3, 4, & 9; bk. 2, ch. 5; bk. 3, chs.
  5, 10, & 12.――――One of the ships in the fleet of Æneas. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 171.――――Also a temple of Apollo upon mount
  Leucas, which appeared at a great distance at sea; and served as a
  guide to mariners, and reminded them to avoid the dangerous rocks
  that were along the coast. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 275.

      ♦ ‘Dial. Mer. & Vulc.’ replaced with ‘Dialogi Deorum’

=Apollocrătes=, a friend of Dion, supposed by some to be the son of

=Apollodōrus=, a famous grammarian and mythologist of Athens, son
  of Asclepias and disciple to Panætius the Rhodian philosopher. He
  flourished about 115 years before the christian era, and wrote a
  history of Athens, besides other works. But of all his compositions,
  nothing is extant but his _Bibliotheca_, a valuable work, divided
  into three books. It is an abridged history of the gods, and of the
  ancient heroes, of whose actions and genealogy it gives a true and
  faithful account. The best edition is that of Heyne, Göttingen, in
  8vo, 4 vols., 1782. _Athenæus._――_Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 37.――_Diodorus_,
  bks. 4 & 13.――――A tragic poet of Cilicia, who wrote tragedies
  entitled Ulysses, Thyestes, &c.――――A comic poet of Gela in Sicily,
  in the age of Menander, who wrote 47 plays.――――An architect of
  Damascus, who directed the building of Trajan’s bridge across the
  Danube. He was put to death by Adrian, to whom, when in a private
  station, he had spoken in too bold a manner.――――A writer who
  composed a history of Parthia.――――A disciple of Epicurus, the most
  learned of his school, and deservedly surnamed the illustrious. He
  wrote about 40 volumes on different subjects. _Diogenes Laërtius._
  ――――A painter of Athens, to whom Zeuxis was a pupil. Two of his
  paintings were admired at Pergamus, in the age of Pliny; a priest
  in a suppliant posture, and Ajax struck with Minerva’s thunders.
  _Pliny_, bk. 35, ch. 9.――――A statuary in the age of Alexander. He
  was of such an irascible disposition, that he destroyed his own
  pieces upon the least provocation. _Pliny_, bk. 34, ch. 8.――――A
  rhetorician of Pergamus, preceptor and friend to Augustus, who wrote
  a book on rhetoric. _Strabo_, bk. 13.――――A tragic poet of Tarsus.
  ――――A Lemnian who wrote on husbandry.――――A physician of Tarentum.
  ――――Another of Cytium.

=Apollonia=, a festival at Ægialea in honour of Apollo and Diana. It
  arose from this circumstance: these two deities came to Ægialea,
  after the conquest of the serpent Python; but they were frightened
  away, and fled to Crete. Ægialea was soon visited with an epidemical
  distemper, and the inhabitants, by the advice of their prophets,
  sent seven chosen boys, with the same number of girls, to entreat
  them to return to Ægialea. Apollo and Diana granted their petition,
  in honour of which a temple was raised to πειθω, the goddess of
  _persuasion_; and ever after a number of youths, of both sexes,
  were chosen to march in solemn procession, as if anxious to bring
  back Apollo and Diana. _Pausanias_, _Corinth_.――――A town of Mygdonia,
  ――――of Crete,――――of Sicily,――――on the coast of Asia Minor.――――Another
  on the coast of Thrace, part of which was built on a small island of
  Pontus, where Apollo had a temple.――――A town of Macedonia, on the
  coasts of the Adriatic.――――A city of Thrace.――――Another on mount

=Apolloniădes=, a tyrant of Sicily, compelled to lay down his power by

=Apollonias=, the wife of Attalus king of Phrygia, to whom she bore
  four children.

=Apollonĭdes=, a writer of Nicæa.――――A physician of Cos at the court
  of Artaxerxes, who became enamoured of Amytis, the monarch’s sister,
  and was some time after put to death for slighting her after the
  reception of her favours.

=Apollonius=, a Stoic philosopher of Chalcis, sent for by Antoninus
  Pius, to instruct his adopted son Marcus Antoninus. When he came
  to Rome, he refused to go to the palace, observing that the master
  ought not to wait upon his pupil, but the pupil upon him. The
  emperor hearing this, said, laughing, “It was then easier for
  Apollonius to come from Chalcis to Rome, than from Rome to the
  palace.”――――A geometrician of Perge in Pamphylia, whose works
  are now lost. He lived about 240 years before the christian era,
  and composed a commentary on Euclid, whose pupils he attended at
  Alexandria. He wrote treatises on conic sections, eight of which
  are now extant; and he first endeavoured to explain the causes
  of the apparent stopping and retrograde motion of the planets, by
  cycles and epicycles, or circles within circles. The best edition
  of Apollonius is Dr. Halley’s, Oxford, folio, 1710.――――A poet
  of Naucratis in Egypt, generally called Apollonius of _Rhodes_,
  because he lived for some time there. He was pupil, when young,
  to Callimachus and Panætius, and succeeded to Eratosthenes as
  third librarian of the famous library of Alexandria, under Ptolemy
  Evergetes. He was ungrateful to his master Callimachus, who wrote
  a poem against him, in which he denominated him _Ibis_. Of all
  his works, nothing remains but his poem on the expedition of the
  Argonauts, in four books. The best editions of Apollonius are those
  printed at Oxford, in 4to, by Shaw, 1777, 2 vols.; and in 1 vol.,
  8vo, 1779; and that of Brunck, Strasbourg, 12mo, 1780. _Quintilian_,
  bk. 10, ch. 1.――――A Greek orator, surnamed Molo, was a native of
  Alabanda in Caria. He opened a school of rhetoric at Rhodes and Rome,
  and had Julius Cæsar and Cicero among his pupils. He discouraged
  the attendance of those whom he supposed incapable of distinguishing
  themselves as orators, and he recommended to them pursuits more
  congenial to their abilities. He wrote a history, in which he did
  not candidly treat the people of Judæa, according to the complaint
  of Josephus, _against Apion_.――_Cicero_, _On Oratory_, bk. 1, chs.
  28, 75, 126, & 130; _Letters to his Friends_, bk. 3, ltr. 16; _De
  Inventione_, bk. 1, ch. 81.――_Quintilian_, bk. 3, ch. 1; bk. 12,
  ch. 6.――_Suetonius_, _Cæsar_, ch. 4.――_Plutarch_, _Cæsar_.――――A
  Greek historian about the age of Augustus, who wrote upon the
  philosophy of Zeno and of his followers. _Strabo_, bk. 14.――――A
  Stoic philosopher, who attended Cato of Utica in his last moments.
  _Plutarch_, _Cato_.――――An officer set over Egypt by Alexander.
  _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 8.――――A wrestler. _Pausanias_, bk. 5.――――A
  physician of Pergamus, who wrote on agriculture. _Varro._――――A
  grammarian of Alexandria.――――A writer in the age of Antoninus Pius.
  ――――Thyaneus, a Pythagorean philosopher, well skilled in the secret
  arts of magic. Being one day haranguing the populace at Ephesus,
  he suddenly exclaimed, “Strike the tyrant, strike him; the blow is
  given, he is wounded, and fallen!” At that very moment the emperor
  Domitian had been stabbed at Rome. The magician acquired much
  reputation when this circumstance was known. He was courted by
  kings and princes, and commanded unusual attention by his numberless
  artifices. His friend and companion, called Damis, wrote his life,
  which 200 years after engaged the attention of Philostratus. In his
  history the biographer relates so many curious and extraordinary
  anecdotes of the hero, that many have justly deemed it a romance;
  yet for all this, Hierocles had the presumption to compare the
  impostures of Apollonius with the miracles of Jesus Christ.――――A
  sophist of Alexandria, distinguished for his _Lexicon Græcum Iliadis
  et Odysseæ_, a book that was beautifully edited by Villoison, in 4to,
  2 vols., Paris, 1773. Apollonius was one of the pupils of Didymus,
  and flourished in the beginning of the first century.――――A physician.
  ――――A son of Sotades at the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus.――――Syrus,
  a Platonic philosopher.――――Herophilus, wrote concerning ointments.
  ――――A sculptor of Rhodes.

=Apollŏphănes=, a Stoic, who greatly flattered king Antigonus, and
  maintained that there existed but one virtue, prudence. _Diogenes
  Laërtius._――――A physician in the court of Antiochus. _Polybius_,
  bk. 5.――――A comic poet. _Ælian_, _De Natura Animalium_, bk. 6.

=Apomyīos=, a surname of Jupiter.

=Aponiana=, an island near Lilybæum. _Hirtius_, _African War_, ch. 2.

=Marcus Aponius=, a governor of Mœsia, rewarded with a triumphal statue
  by Otho, for defeating 9000 barbarians. _Tacitus_, _Histories_,
  bk. 1, ch. 79.

=Apŏnus=, now _Abano_, a fountain, with a village of the same name,
  near Patavium in Italy. The waters of the fountain, which were hot,
  were wholesome, and were supposed to have an oracular power. _Lucan_,
  bk. 7, li. 194.――_Suetonius_, _Tiberius_, ch. 14.

=Apostrophia=, a surname of Venus in Bœotia, who was distinguished
  under these names, Venus Urania, Vulgaria, and Apostrophia. The
  former was the patroness of a pure and chaste love; the second of
  carnal and sensual desires; and the last incited men to illicit and
  unnatural gratifications, to incests, and rapes. Venus Apostrophia
  was invoked by the Thebans, that they might be saved from such
  unlawful desires. She is the same as the Verticordia of the Romans.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 16.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 8, ch. 15.

=Apotheōsis=, a ceremony observed by the ancient nations of the world,
  by which they raised their kings, heroes, and great men to the rank
  of deities. The nations of the east were the first who paid divine
  honours to their great men, and the Romans followed their example,
  and not only deified the most prudent and humane of their emperors,
  but also the most cruel and profligate. _Herodian_, bk. 4, ch. 2,
  has left us an account of the apotheosis of a Roman emperor. After
  the body of the deceased was burnt, an ivory image was laid on a
  couch for seven days, representing the emperor under the agonies of
  disease. The city was in sorrow, the senate visited it in mourning,
  and the physicians pronounced it every day in a more decaying state.
  When the death was announced, a band of young senators carried the
  couch and image to the Campus Martius, where it was deposited on
  an edifice in the form of a pyramid, where spices and combustible
  materials were thrown. After this the knights walked round the pile
  in solemn procession, and the images of the most illustrious Romans
  were drawn in state, and immediately the new emperor, with a torch,
  set fire to the pile, and was assisted by the surrounding multitude.
  Meanwhile an eagle was let fly from the middle of the pile, which
  was supposed to carry the soul of the deceased to heaven, where he
  was ranked among the gods. If the deified was a female, a peacock,
  and not an eagle, was sent from the flames. The Greeks observed
  ceremonies much of the same nature.

=Appia via=, a celebrated road leading from the porta Capena at
  Rome to Brundusium, through Capua. Appius Claudius made it as
  far as Capua, and it received its name from him. It was continued
  and finished by Gracchus, Julius Cæsar, and Augustus. _See:_ Via.
  _Lucan_, bk. 3, li. 285.――_Statius_, bk. 2, _Sylvæ_, poem 2, li.
  12.――_Martial_, bk. 9, ltr. 104.――_Suetonius_, _Tiberias_, ch. 14.

=Appiădes=, a name given to these five deities, Venus, Pallas, Vesta,
  Concord, and Peace, because a temple was erected to them near the
  Appian road. The name was also applied to those courtesans at Rome
  who lived near the temple of Venus by Appiæ Aquæ, and the forum of
  Julius Cæsar. _Ovid_, _de Ars Amatoria_, bk. 3, li. 452.

=Appiānus=, a Greek historian of Alexandria, who flourished A.D. 123.
  His universal history, which consisted of 24 books, was a series of
  history of all the nations that had been conquered by the Romans,
  in the order of time; and in the composition, the writer displayed,
  with a style simple and unadorned, a great knowledge of military
  affairs, and described his battles in a masterly manner. This
  excellent work is greatly mutilated, and there is extant now only
  the account of the Punic, Syrian, Parthian, Mithridatic, and Spanish
  wars, with those of Illyricum and the civil dissensions, with a
  fragment of the Celtic wars. In his preface, Appian has enlarged on
  the boundaries of that mighty empire, of which he was the historian.
  The best editions are those of Tollius and Variorum, 2 vols., 8vo,
  Amsterdam, 1670, and that of Schweigheuserus, 3 vols., 8vo, Lipscomb,
  1785. He was so eloquent that the emperor highly promoted him in the

=Appii Forum=, now _Borgo Longo_, a little village not far from Rome,
  built by the consul Appius. _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 5.

=Appius=, the prænomen of an illustrious family at Rome.――――A censor
  of that name, A.U.C. 442. _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 6.

=Appius Claudius=, a decemvir who obtained his power by force and
  oppression. He attempted the virtue of Virginia, whom her father
  killed to preserve her chastity. This act of violence was the cause
  of a revolution in the state, and the ravisher destroyed himself
  when cited to appear before the tribunal of his country. _Livy_, bk.
  3, ch. 33.――――Claudius Cæcus, a Roman orator, who built the Appian
  way and many aqueducts in Rome. When Pyrrhus, who was come to
  assist the Tarentines against Rome, demanded peace of the senators,
  Appius, grown old in the service of the republic, caused himself
  to be carried to the senate house, and by his authority dissuaded
  them from granting a peace which would prove dishonourable to the
  Roman name. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 6, li. 203.――_Cicero_, _Brutus_
  & _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, bk. 4.――――A Roman who, when he heard
  that he had been proscribed by the triumvirs, divided his riches
  among his servants, and embarked with them for Sicily. In their
  passage the vessel was shipwrecked, and Appius alone saved his life.
  _Appian_, bk. 4.――――Claudius Crassus, a consul, who, with Spurius
  Naut. Rutilius, conquered the Celtiberians, and was defeated by
  Perseus king of Macedonia. _Livy._――――Claudius Pulcher, a grandson
  of Appius Claudius Cæcus, consul in the age of Sylla, retired from
  grandeur to enjoy the pleasures of a private life.――――Clausus,
  a general of the Sabines, who, upon being ill treated by his
  countrymen, retired to Rome with 5000 of his friends, and was
  admitted into the senate in the early ages of the republic.
  _Plutarch_, _Poplicola [Publicola]_.――――Herdonius, seized the
  capitol with 4000 exiles, A.U.C. 292, and was soon after overthrown.
  _Livy_, bk. 3, ch. 15.――_Florus_, bk. 3, ch. 19.――――Claudius
  Lentulus, a consul with Marcus Perpenna.――――A dictator who conquered
  the Hernici.――――The name of Appius was common in Rome, and
  particularly to many consuls, whose history is not marked by any
  uncommon event.

=Appŭla=, an immodest woman, &c. _Juvenal_, satire 6, li. 64.

=Apries= and =Aprius=, one of the kings of Egypt in the age of Cyrus,
  supposed to be the Pharaoh Hophra of Scripture. He took Sidon, and
  lived in great prosperity till his subjects revolted to Amasis, by
  whom he was conquered and strangled. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 159,
  &c.――_Diodorus_, bk. 1.

=Apsinthii=, a people of Thrace. They received their name from a river
  called Apsinthus, which flowed through their territory. _Dionysius

=Apsinus=, an Athenian sophist in the third century, author of a work
  called _Præceptor de Arte Rhetoricâ_.

=Apsus=, a river of Macedonia falling into the Ionian sea between
  Dyrrhachium and Apollonia. _Lucan_, bk. 5, li. 46.

=Aptĕra=, an inland town of Crete. _Ptolemy._――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 12.

=Apuleia lex=, was enacted by Lucius Apuleius the tribune, A.U.C.
  652, for inflicting a punishment upon such as were guilty of
  raising seditions, or showing violence in the city.――――Varilia,
  a granddaughter of Augustus, convicted of adultery with a certain
  Manlius, in the reign of Tiberius. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, ch. 50.

=Apuleius=, a learned man, born at Madaura in Africa. He studied at
  Carthage, Athens, and Rome, where he married a rich widow called
  Pudentilla, for which he was accused by some of her relations of
  using magical arts to win her heart. His apology was a masterly
  composition. In his youth, Apuleius had been very expensive; but
  he was, in a maturer age, more devoted to study, and learnt Latin
  without a master. The most famous of his works extant is the _Golden
  Ass_, in 11 books, an allegorical piece, replete with morality. The
  best editions of Apuleius are the Delphin, 2 vols., 4to, Paris, 1688,
  and Pricæi, 8vo, Goudæ, 1650.

=Apūlia=, now _Puglia_, a country of Italy between Daunia and Calabria.
  It was part of the ancient Magna Græcia, and generally divided
  into Apulia Daunia and Apulia Peucetia. It was famous for its wool,
  superior to all the produce of Italy. Some suppose that it is called
  after Apulus, an ancient king of the country before the Trojan war.
  _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 11.――_Cicero_, _de Divinatione_, bk. 1, ch. 43.
  ――_Strabo_, bk. 6.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――_Martial_, _Apophoreta_,
  ltr. 155.

=Apuscidāmus=, a lake of Africa. All bodies, however heavy, were said
  to swim on the surface of its waters. _Pliny_, bk. 32, ch. 2.

=Aquarius=, one of the signs of the zodiac, rising in January and
  setting in February. Some suppose that Ganymede was changed into
  this sign. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 3, li. 304.

=Aquilaria=, a place of Africa. _Cæsar_, bk. 2, _Civil War_, ch. 23.

=Aquileia=, or =Aquilegia=, a town founded by a Roman colony, called
  from its grandeur, _Roma secunda_, and situate at the north of
  the Adriatic sea, on the confines of Italy. The Romans built it
  chiefly to oppose the frequent incursions of the barbarians. The
  Roman emperors enlarged and beautified it, and often made it their
  residence. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 605.――_Martial_, bk. 4,
  ltr. 25.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 4.

=Aquilius Niger=, an historian mentioned by _Suetonius_, _Augustus_,
  ch. 11.――――Marcus, a Roman consul who had the government of Asia
  Minor. _Justin_, bk. 36, ch. 4.――――Sabinus, a lawyer of Rome,
  surnamed the Cato of his age. He was father to Aquilia Severus, whom
  Heliogabalus married.――――Severus, a poet and historian in the age of

=Aquillia= and =Aquilia=, a patrician family at Rome, from which few
  illustrious men rose.

=Aquĭlo=, a wind blowing from the north. Its name is derived, according
  to some, from _Aquila_, on account of its keenness and velocity.

=Aquilonia=, a city of the Hirpini in Italy. _Livy_, bk. 10, ch. 38.

=Aquinius=, a poet of moderate capacity. _Cicero_, bk. 5, _Tusculanæ

=Aquīnum=, a town of Latium, on the borders of the Samnites, where
  Juvenal was born. A dye was invented there, which greatly resembled
  the real purple. _Horace_, bk. 1, ltr. 10, li. 27.――_Strabo._――
  _Silius Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 404.――_Juvenal_, satire 3, li. 319.

=Aquitania=, a country of Gaul, bounded on the west by Spain, north
  by the province of Lugdunum, south by the province called Gallia
  Narbonensis. Its inhabitants are called Aquitani. _Pliny_, bk. 4,
  ch. 17.――_Strabo_, bk. 4.

=Ara=, a constellation, consisting of seven stars, near the tail of
  the Scorpion. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, li. 138.

=Ara lugdunensis=, a place at the confluence of the Arar and Rhone.
  _Juvenal_, satire 1, li. 44.

=Arabarches=, a vulgar person among the Egyptians, or perhaps an
  unusual expression for the leaders of the Arabians, who resided in
  Rome. _Juvenal_, satire 1, li. 130. Some believe that Cicero, bk. 2,
  ltr. 17, _Letters to Atticus_, alluded to Pompey under the name of

=Arăbia=, a large country of Asia, forming a peninsula between the
  Arabian and Persian gulfs. It is generally divided into three
  different parts, Petræa, Deserta, and Felix. It is famous for its
  frankincense and aromatic plants. The inhabitants were formerly
  under their own chiefs, an uncivilized people, who paid adoration to
  the sun, moon, and even serpents, and who had their wives in common,
  and circumcised their children. The country has often been invaded,
  but never totally subdued. Alexander the Great expressed his wish to
  place the seat of his empire in their territories. The soil is rocky
  and sandy, the inhabitants are scarce, the mountains rugged, and
  the country without water. In Arabia, whatever woman was convicted
  of adultery was capitally punished. The Arabians for some time
  supported the splendour of literature which was extinguished by
  the tyranny and superstition which prevailed in Egypt, and to them
  we are indebted for the invention of algebra, or the application
  of signs and letters to represent lines, numbers, and quantities,
  and also for the numerical characters of 1, 2, 3, &c., first used
  in Europe, A.D. 1253.――_Herodotus_, bks. 1, 2, 3.――_Diodorus_,
  bks. 1 & 2.――_Pliny_, bks. 12 & 14.――_Strabo_, bk. 16.――_Xenophon._
  ――_Tibullus_, bk. 2, poem 2.――_Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 1.――_Virgil_,
  _Georgics_, bk. 1, li. 57.――――Also the name of the wife of Ægyptus.

=Arabĭcus sinus=, a sea between Egypt and Arabia, different, according
  to some authors, from the Red sea, which they supposed to be between
  Æthiopia and India, and the Arabian gulf further above, between Egypt
  and Arabia. It is about 40 days’ sail in length, and not half a day’s
  in its most extensive breadth. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 11.――_Strabo._

=Arăbis=, =Arabius=, =Arbis=, an Indian river. _Curtius_, bk. 9,
  ch. 10.

=Arabs= and =Arăbus=, a son of Apollo and Babylone, who first invented
  medicine, and taught it in Arabia, which is called after his name.
  _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 56.

=Aracca= and =Arecca=, a city of Susiana. _Tibullus_, bk. 4, poem 1.

=Arachne=, a woman of Colophon, daughter to Idmon a dyer. She was so
  skilful in working with the needle, that she challenged Minerva, the
  goddess of the art, to a trial of skill. She represented on her work
  the amours of Jupiter with Europa, Antiope, Leda, Asteria, Danae,
  Alcmene, &c.; but though her piece was perfect and masterly, she was
  defeated by Minerva, and hanged herself in despair, and was changed
  into a spider by the goddess. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 6, fable
  1, &c.――――A city of Thessaly.

=Arachosia=, a city of Asia, near the Massagetæ. It was built by
  Semiramis.――――One of the Persian provinces beyond the Indus. _Pliny_,
  bk. 6, ch. 23.――_Strabo_, bk. 11.

=Arachōtæ= and =Arachōti=, a people of India, who received their
  name from the river Arachotus which flows down from mount Caucasus.
  _Dionysius Periegetes._――_Curtius_, bk. 9, ch. 7.

=Arachthias=, one of the four capital rivers of Epirus near Nicopolis,
  falling into the bay of Ambracia. _Strabo_, bk. 7.

=Aracillum=, a town of Hispania Tarraconensis. _Florus_, bk. 4, ch. 12.

=Aracosii=, an Indian nation. _Justin_, bk. 13, ch. 4.

=Aracynthus=, a mountain of Acarnania, between the Achelous and Evenus,
  not far from the shore, and thence called Actæus. _Pliny_, bk. 4,
  ch. 2.――_Virgil_, _Eclogues_, poem 2, li. 24.

=Arădus=, an island near Phœnicia, joined to the continent by a bridge.
  _Dionysius Periegetes._

=Aræ=, rocks in the middle of the Mediterranean, between Africa and
  Sardinia, where the Romans and Africans ratified a treaty. It was
  upon them that Æneas lost the greatest part of his fleet. They are
  supposed to be those islands which are commonly called Ægates.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 113.

=Aræ Philænorum=, a maritime city of Africa, on the borders of Cyrene.
  _Sallust_, _Jugurthine War_, chs. 19 & 79.

=Arar=, now the _Saone_, a river of Gaul, flowing into the Rhone, over
  which Cæsar’s soldiers made a bridge in one day. _Cæsar_, _Gallic
  War_, bk. 1, ch. 12.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 3, li. 452.

=Arărus=, a Scythian river flowing through Armenia. _Herodotus_, bk. 4,
  ch. 48.

=Arathyrea=, a small province of Achaia, afterwards called Asophis,
  with a city of the same name. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 8.

=Arātus=, a Greek poet of Cilicia, about 277 B.C. He was greatly
  esteemed by Antigonus Gonatas king of Macedonia, at whose court he
  passed much of his time, and by whose desire he wrote a poem on
  astronomy, in which he gives an account of the situations, rising
  and setting, number and motion of the stars. Cicero represented him
  as unacquainted with astrology, yet capable of writing upon it in
  elegant and highly finished verses, which, however, from the subject,
  admit of little variety. Aratus wrote, besides, hymns and epigrams,
  &c., and had among his interpreters and commentators many of the
  learned men of Greece whose works are lost, besides Cicero, Claudius,
  and Germanicus Cæsar, who in their youth, or moments of relaxation,
  translated the _Phænomena_ into Latin verse. The best editions of
  Aratus are, Grotius, 4to, apud Raphalengius, 1600; and Oxford, 8vo,
  1672. _Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 2, ch. 41.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 1, ch. 2.――_Ovid_, _Amores_, bk. 1, poem 15, li. 26.――――The son
  of Clinias and Aristodama, was born at Sicyon in Achaia, near the
  river Asopus. When he was but seven years of age, his father, who
  held the government of Sicyon, was assassinated by Abantidas, who
  made himself absolute. After some revolutions, the sovereignty came
  into the hands of Nicocles, whom Aratus murdered to restore his
  country to liberty. He was so jealous of tyrannical power, that he
  even destroyed a picture which was the representation of a tyrant.
  He joined the republic of Sicyon to the Achæan league, which he
  strengthened, by making a treaty of alliance with the Corinthians,
  and with Ptolemy king of Egypt. He was chosen chief commander of the
  forces of the Achæans, and drove away the Macedonians from Athens
  and Corinth. He made war against the Spartans, but was conquered
  in a battle by their king Cleomenes. To repair the losses he had
  sustained, he solicited the assistance of king Antigonus, and drove
  away Cleomenes from Sparta, who fled to Egypt, where he killed
  himself. The Ætolians soon after attacked the Achæans; and Aratus,
  to support his character, was obliged to call to his aid Philip
  king of Macedonia. His friendship with this new ally did not long
  continue. Philip showed himself cruel and oppressive; and put to
  death some of the noblest of the Achæans, and even seduced the
  wife of the son of Aratus. Aratus, who was now advanced in years,
  showed his displeasure by withdrawing himself from the society and
  friendship of Philip. But this rupture was fatal. Philip dreaded the
  power and influence of Aratus, and therefore he caused him and his
  son to be poisoned. Some days before his death, Aratus was observed
  to spit blood; when apprised of it by his friends, he replied, “Such
  are the rewards which a connection with kings will produce.” He was
  buried with great pomp by his countrymen; and two solemn sacrifices
  were annually made to him, the first on the day that he delivered
  Sicyon from tyranny, and the second on the day of his birth. During
  those sacrifices, which were called _Arateia_, the priests wore
  a ribbon bespangled with white and purple spots, and the public
  schoolmaster walked in procession at the head of his scholars, and
  was always accompanied by the richest and most eminent senators,
  adorned with garlands. Aratus died in the 62nd year of his age, B.C.
  213. He wrote a history of the Achæan league, much commended by
  Polybius. _Plutarch_, _Lives of the Roman Emperors_.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 8.――_Cicero_, _de Officiis_, bk. 2, ch. 23.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 14.――_Livy_, bk. 27, ch. 31.――_Polybius_, bk. 2.

=Araxes=, now _Arras_, a celebrated river which separates Armenia
  from Media, and falls into the Caspian sea. _Lucan_, bk. 1, li. 19;
  bk. 7, li. 188.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 728.
  ――_Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 202, &c.――――Another in Europe, now called

=Arbāces=, a Mede who revolted with Belesis against Sardanapalus, and
  founded the empire of Media upon the ruins of the Assyrian power,
  820 years before the christian era. He reigned above 50 years, and
  was famous for the greatness of his undertakings, as well as for his
  valour. _Justin_, bk. 1, ch. 3.――_Paterculus_, bk. 1, ch. 6.

=Arbēla= (orum), now _Irbil_, a town of Persia, on the river Lycus,
  famous for a battle fought there between Alexander and Darius, the
  2nd of October, B.C. 331. _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 1.――_Plutarch_,

=Arbĕla=, a town of Sicily, whose inhabitants were very credulous.

=Arbis=, a river on the western boundaries of India. _Strabo._

=Arbocāla=, a city taken by Annibal as he marched against Rome.

=Arbuscŭla=, an actress on the Roman stage, who laughed at the hisses
  of the populace while she received the applauses of the knights.
  _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 10, li. 77.

=Arcădia=, a country in the middle of Peloponnesus, surrounded on
  every side by land, situate between Achaia, Messenia, Elis, and
  Argolis. It received its name from Arcas son of Jupiter, and was
  anciently called Drymodes, on account of the great number of _oaks_
  (δρυς) which it produced, and afterwards Lycaonia and Pelasgia. The
  country has been much celebrated by the poets, and was famous for
  its mountains. The inhabitants were for the most part all shepherds,
  who lived upon acorns, were skilful warriors, and able musicians.
  They thought themselves more ancient than the moon. Pan, the god of
  shepherds, chiefly lived among them.――Aristotle, bk. 4, _Metaphysics_,
  says that the wine of Arcadia, when placed in a goat’s skin near a
  fire, will become chalky, and at last be turned into salt. _Strabo_,
  bk. 1.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 5.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, chs. 1, 2, &c.
  ――_Athenæus_, bk. 14.――――A fortified village of Zacynthus.

=Arcadius=, eldest son of Theodosius the Great, succeeded his father
  A.D. 395. Under him the Roman power was divided into the eastern
  and western empire. He made the eastern empire his choice, and fixed
  his residence at Constantinople; while his brother Honorius was
  made emperor of the west, and lived in Rome. After this separation
  of the Roman empire, the two powers looked upon one another with
  indifference; and, soon after, their indifference was changed into
  jealousy, and contributed to hasten their mutual ruin. In the reign
  of Arcadius, Alaricus attacked the western empire, and plundered
  Rome. Arcadius married Eudoxia, a bold and ambitious woman, and died
  in the 31st year of his age, after a reign of 13 years, in which
  he bore the character of an effeminate prince, who suffered himself
  to be governed by favourites, and who abandoned his subjects to the
  tyranny of ministers, while he lost himself in the pleasures of a
  voluptuous court.

=Arcānum=, a villa of Cicero’s near the Minturni. _Cicero_, bk. 7,
  _Letters to Atticus_, ltr. 10.

=Arcas=, a son of Jupiter and Calisto. He nearly killed his mother,
  whom Juno had changed into a bear. He reigned in Pelasgia, which
  from him was called Arcadia, and taught his subjects agriculture
  and the art of spinning wool. After his death, Jupiter made him a
  constellation with his mother. As he was one day hunting, he met
  a wood nymph, who begged his assistance, because the tree over
  which she presided, and on whose preservation her life depended,
  was going to be carried away by the impetuous torrent of a river.
  Arcas changed the course of the waters, and preserved the tree, and
  married the nymph, by whom he had three sons, Azan, Aphidas, and
  Elatus, among whom he divided his kingdom. The descendants of Azan
  planted colonies in Phrygia. Aphidas received for his share Tegea,
  which on that account has been called the inheritance of Aphidas;
  and Elatus became master of mount Cyllene, and some time after
  passed into Phocis. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 4.――_Hyginus_, fables
  155 & 176.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 8.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Ovid_,
  _Fasti_, bk. 1, li. 470.――――One of Actæon’s dogs.

=Arce=, a daughter of Thaumas, son of Pontus and Terra. _Ptolemy

=Arcēna=, a town of Phœnicia, where Alexander Severus was born.

=Arcens=, a Sicilian who permitted his son to accompany Æneas into
  Italy, where he was killed by Mezentius. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9,
  li. 581, &c.

=Arcesilāus=, son of Battus king of Cyrene, was driven from his kingdom
  in a sedition, and died B.C. 575. The second of that name died B.C.
  550. _Polyænus_, bk. 8, ch. 41.――_Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 159.――――One
  of Alexander’s generals, who obtained Mesopotamia at the general
  division of the provinces after the king’s death.――――A chief of
  Catana, which he betrayed to Dionysius the elder. _Diodorus_, bk.
  14.――――A philosopher of Pitane in Æolia, disciple of Polemon. He
  visited Sardis and Athens, and was the founder of the middle academy,
  as Socrates founded the ancient, and Carneades the new one. He
  pretended to know nothing, and accused others of the same ignorance.
  He acquired many pupils in the character of teacher; but some of
  them left him for Epicurus, though no Epicurean came to him; which
  gave him occasion to say that it is easy to make a eunuch of a man,
  but impossible to make a man of a eunuch. He was very fond of Homer,
  and generally divided his time among the pleasures of philosophy,
  love, reading, and the table. He died in his 75th year, B.C. 241,
  or 300 according to some. _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Lives and Opinions
  of Eminent Philosophers_.――_Persius_, bk. 3, li. 78.――_Cicero_, _de
  Finibus_.――――The name of two painters,――――a statuary,――――a leader of
  the Bœotians during the Trojan war.――――A comic and elegiac poet.

=Arcēsius=, son of Jupiter, was grandfather to Ulysses. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, li. 144.

=Archæa=, a city of Æolia.

=Archæănax= of Mitylene, was intimate with Pisistratus tyrant of
  Athens. He fortified Sigæum with a wall from the ruins of ancient
  Troy. _Strabo_, bk. 13.

=Archæatĭdas=, a country of Peloponnesus. _Polybius._

=Archăgăthus=, son of Archagathus, was slain in Africa by his soldiers,
  B.C. 285. He killed his grandfather, Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse.
  _Diodorus_, bk. 20.――_Justin_, bk. 22, ch. 5, &c., says that he was
  put to death by Archesilaus.――――A physician at Rome, B.C. 219.

=Archander=, father-in-law to Danaus. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 98.

=Archandros=, a town of Egypt.

=Arche=, one of the Muses, according to Cicero.

=Archegētes=, a surname of Hercules.

=Archelāus=, a name common to some kings of Cappadocia. One of them
  was conquered by Sylla, for assisting Mithridates.――――A person
  of that name married Berenice, and made himself king of Egypt; a
  dignity he enjoyed only six months, as he was killed by the soldiers
  of Gabinius, B.C. 56. He had been made priest of Comana by Pompey.
  His grandson was made king of Cappadocia by Antony, whom he assisted
  at Actium, and he maintained his independence under Augustus, till
  Tiberius perfidiously destroyed him.――――A king of Macedonia, who
  succeeded his father Perdiccas II. As he was but a natural child, he
  killed the legitimate heirs to gain the kingdom. He proved himself
  to be a great monarch; but he was at last killed by one of his
  favourites, because he had promised him his daughter in marriage,
  and given her to another, after a reign of 23 years. He patronized
  the poet Euripides. _Diodorus_, bk. 14.――_Justin_, bk. 7, ch. 4.
  ――_Ælian_. _Varia Historia_, bks. 2, 8, 12, 14.――――A king of the
  Jews, surnamed Herod. He married Glaphyre, daughter of Archelaus
  king of Macedonia, and widow of his brother Alexander. Cæsar
  banished him, for his cruelties, to Vienna, where he died. _Dio
  Cassius._――――A king of Lacedæmon, son of Agesilaus. He reigned 42
  years with Charilaus, of the other branch of the family. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 7, ch. 204.――_Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 2.――――A general of
  Antigonus the younger appointed governor of the Acrocorinth, with
  the philosopher Persæus. _Polyænus_, bk. 6, ch. 5.――――A celebrated
  general of Mithridates against Sylla. _Polyænus_, bk. 8, ch. 8.――――A
  philosopher of Athens or Messenia, son of Apollodorus and successor
  to Anaxagoras. He was preceptor to Socrates, and was called
  _Physicus_. He supposed that heat and cold were the principles of
  all things. He first discovered the voice to be propagated by the
  vibration of the air. _Cicero_, _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, bk. 5.
  ――_Diogenes Laërtius_, _Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers_.
  ――_Augustine_, _City of God_, bk. 8.――――A man set over Susa by
  Alexander, with a garrison of 3000 men. _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 2.
  ――――A Greek philosopher, who wrote a history of animals, and
  maintained that goats breathed not through the nostrils, but through
  the ears. _Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 50.――――A son of Electryon and Anaxo.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 2.――――A Greek poet who wrote epigrams. _Varro_,
  _de Re Rustica_, bk. 3, ch. 16.――――A sculptor of Priene, in the age
  of Claudius. He made an apotheosis of Homer, a piece of sculpture
  highly admired, and said to have been discovered under ground, A.D.
  1658.――――A writer of Thrace.

=Archemăchus=, a Greek writer, who published a history of Eubœa.
  _Athenæus_, bk. 6.――――A son of Hercules,――――of Priam. _Apollodorus_,
  bks. 2 & 3.

=Archemŏrus=, or =Opheltes=, son of Lycurgus king of Nemæa, in Thrace,
  by Eurydice, was brought up by Hypsipyle queen of Lemnos, who had
  fled to Thrace, and was employed as a nurse in the king’s family.
  Hypsipyle was met by the army of Adrastus, who was going against
  Thebes: and she was forced to show them a fountain where they might
  quench their thirst. To do this more expeditiously, she put down
  the child on the grass, and at her return found him killed by a
  serpent. The Greeks were so afflicted at this misfortune, that they
  instituted games in honour of Archemorus, which were called Nemæan,
  and king Adrastus enlisted among the combatants, and was victorious.
  _Apollodorus_, bks. 2 & 3.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 48.――_Statius_,
  _Thebiad_, bk. 6.

=Archepŏlis=, a man in Alexander’s army, who conspired against the
  king with Dymnus. _Curtius_, bk. 6, ch. 7.

=Archeptolĕmus=, son of Iphitus king of Elis, went to the Trojan war,
  and fought against the Greeks. As he was fighting near Hector, he
  was killed by Ajax son of Telamon. It is said that he re-established
  the Olympic games. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 8, li. 128.

=Archestrătus=, a tragic poet, whose pieces were acted during the
  Peloponnesian war. _Plutarch_, _Aristotle_.――――A man so small and
  lean, that he could be placed in a dish without filling it, though
  it contained no more than an obolus.――――A follower of Epicurus, who
  wrote a poem in commendation of gluttony.

=Archetīmus=, the first philosophical writer in the age of the seven
  wise men of Greece. _Diogenes Laërtius._

=Archetius=, a Rutulian, killed by the Trojans. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 12, li. 459.

=Archia=, one of the Oceanides, wife to Inachus. _Hyginus_, fable 143.

=Archias=, a Corinthian descended from Hercules. He founded Syracuse,
  B.C. 732. Being told by an oracle to make choice of health or riches,
  he chose the latter. _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 2.――――A poet
  of Antioch, intimate with the Luculli. He obtained the rank and
  name of a Roman citizen by the means of Cicero, who defended him
  in an elegant oration, when his enemies had disputed his privileges
  of citizen of Rome. He wrote a poem on the Cimbrian war and began
  another concerning Cicero’s consulship, which are now lost. Some
  of his epigrams are preserved in the Anthologia. _Cicero_, _For
  Archias_.――――A polemarch of Thebes, assassinated in the conspiracy
  of Pelopidas, which he could have prevented, if he had not deferred
  to the morrow the reading of a letter which he had received from
  Archias the Athenian high priest, and which gave him information
  of his danger. _Plutarch_, _Pelopidas_.――――A high priest of Athens,
  contemporary and intimate with the polemarch of the same name.
  _Plutarch_, _Pelopidas_.――――A Theban taken in the act of adultery,
  and punished according to the law, and tied to a post in the public
  place, for which punishment he abolished the oligarchy. _Aristotle._

=Archibiădes=, a philosopher of Athens, who affected the manners of
  the Spartans, and was very inimical to the views and measures of
  Phocion. _Plutarch_, _Phocion_.――――An ambassador of Byzantium, &c.
  _Polyænus_, bk. 4, ch. 44.

=Archibius=, the son of the geographer Ptolemy.

=Archidamia=, a priestess of Ceres, who, on account of her affection
  for Aristomenes, restored him to liberty when he had been taken
  prisoner by her female attendants at the celebration of their
  festivals. _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 17.――――A daughter of Cleadas, who
  upon hearing that her countrymen the Spartans were debating whether
  they should send away their women to Crete against the hostile
  approach of Pyrrhus, seized a sword, and ran to the senate house,
  exclaiming that the women were as able to fight as the men. Upon
  this the decree was repealed. _Plutarch_, _Pyrrhus_.――_Polyænus_,
  bk. 8, ch. 8.

=Archidāmus=, son of Theopompus king of Sparta, died before his
  father. _Pausanias._――――Another, king of Sparta, son of Anaxidamus,
  succeeded by Agasicles.――――Another, son of Agesilaus of the family
  of the Proclidæ.――――Another, grandson of Leotychidas by his son
  Zeuxidamus. He succeeded his grandfather, and reigned in conjunction
  with Plistoanax. He conquered the Argives and Arcadians, and
  privately assisted the Phocians in plundering the temple of Delphi.
  He was called to the aid of Tarentum against the Romans, and killed
  there in a battle, after a reign of 33 years. _Diodorus_, bk. 16.
  ――_Xenophon._――――Another, son of Eudamidas.――――Another, who conquered
  the Helots, after a violent earthquake. _Diodorus_, bk. 11.――――A son
  of Agesilaus, who led the Spartan auxiliaries to Cleombrotus at the
  battle of Leuctra, and was killed in a battle against the Lucanians.
  B.C. 338.――――A son of Xenius Theopompus. _Pausanias._

=Archidas=, a tyrant of Athens, killed by his troops.

=Archidēmus=, a Stoic philosopher, who willingly exiled himself among
  the Parthians. _Plutarch_, _de Exilio_.

=Archidēus=, a son of Amyntas king of Macedonia. _Justin_, bk. 7,
  ch. 4.

=Archidium=, a city of Crete, named after Archidius son of Tegeates.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 53.

=Archigallus=, the high priest of Cybele’s temple. _See:_ Galli.

=Archigĕnes=, a physician, born at Apamea in Syria. He lived in the
  reign of Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan, and died in the 73rd year of
  his age. He wrote a treatise on adorning the hair, as also 10 books
  on fevers. _Juvenal_, satire 6, li. 235.

=Archilŏchus=, a poet of Paros; who wrote elegies, satires, odes, and
  epigrams, and was the first who introduced iambics in his verses.
  He had courted Neobule the daughter of Lycambes, and had received
  promises of marriage; but the father gave her to another superior
  to the poet in rank and fortune; upon which Archilochus wrote such a
  bitter satire, that Lycambes hanged himself in a fit of despair. The
  Spartans condemned his verses on account of their indelicacy, and
  banished him from their city as a petulant and dangerous citizen.
  He flourished 685 B.C., and it is said that he was assassinated.
  Some fragments of his poetry remain, which display vigour and
  animation, boldness and vehemence, in the highest degree; from which
  reason, perhaps, Cicero calls virulent edicts, _Archilochia edicta_.
  _Cicero_, _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, bk. 1.――_Quintilian_, bk. 10,
  ch. 1.――_Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 12.――_Horace_, _Art of Poetry_, li.
  79.――_Athenæus_, bks. 1, 2, &c.――――A son of Nestor, killed by Memnon
  in the Trojan war. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2.――――A Greek historian who
  wrote a chronological table, and other works, about the 20th or 30th

=Archimēdes=, a famous geometrician of Syracuse, who invented a machine
  of glass that faithfully represented the motion of all the heavenly
  bodies. When Marcellus the Roman consul besieged Syracuse Archimedes
  constructed machines which suddenly raised up in the air the ships
  of the enemy from the bay before the city, and let them fall with
  such violence into the water that they sunk. He set them also on
  fire with his burning glasses. When the town was taken, the Roman
  general gave strict orders to his soldiers not to hurt Archimedes,
  and he even offered a reward to him who should bring him alive and
  safe into his presence. All these precautions were useless; the
  philosopher was so deeply engaged in solving a problem, that he was
  even ignorant that the enemy were in possession of the town; and a
  soldier, without knowing who he was, killed him, because he refused
  to follow him, B.C. 212. Marcellus raised a monument over him,
  and placed upon it a cylinder and a sphere; but the place remained
  long unknown, till Cicero, during his questorship in Sicily, found
  it near one of the gates of Syracuse, surrounded with thorns and
  brambles. Some suppose that Archimedes raised the site of the towns
  and villages of Egypt, and began those mounds of earth by means of
  which communication is kept from town to town during the inundations
  of the Nile. The story of his burning glasses had always appeared
  fabulous to some of the moderns, till the experiments of Buffon
  demonstrated it beyond contradiction. These celebrated glasses were
  supposed to be reflectors made of metal, and capable of producing
  their effect at the distance of a bowshot. The manner in which
  he discovered how much brass a goldsmith had mixed with gold in
  making a golden crown for the king is well known to every modern
  hydrostatic, as well as the pumping screw which still bears his
  name. Among the wild schemes of Archimedes, is his saying that, by
  means of his machines, he could move the earth with ease, if placed
  on a fixed spot near it. Many of his works are extant, especially
  treatises _de sphærâ et cylindro, circuli dimensio_, _de lineis
  spiralibus_, _de quadraturâ paraboles_, _de numero arenæ_, &c.;
  the best edition of which is that of David Rivaltius, folio, Paris,
  1615. _Cicero_, _Tusculanæ Disputationes_, bk. 1, ch. 25; _De Natura
  Deorum_, bk. 2, ch. 34.――_Livy_, bk. 24, ch. 34.――_Quintilian_,
  bk. 1, ch. 10.――_Vitruvius_, bk. 9, ch. 3.――_Polybius_, bk. 7.
  ――_Plutarch_, _Marcellus_.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 8, ch. 7.

=Archīnus=, a man who, when he was appointed to distribute new arms
  among the populace of Argos, raised a mercenary band, and made
  himself absolute. _Polyænus_, bk. 3, ch. 8.――――A rhetorician of

=Archipĕlăgus=, a part of the sea where islands in great number are
  interspersed such as that part of the Mediterranean which lies
  between Greece and Asia Minor, and is generally called Mare Ægeum.

=Archipŏlis=, or =Archepolis=, a soldier who conspired against
  Alexander with Dymnus. _Curtius_, bk. 6, ch. 7.

=Archippe=, a city of the Marsi, destroyed by an earthquake, and lost
  in the lake of Fucinus. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 19.

=Archippus=, a king of Italy, from whom, perhaps, the town of
  Archippe received its name. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 752.――――A
  philosopher of Thebes, pupil to Pythagoras.――――An archon at Athens.
  ――――A comic poet of Athens, of whose eight comedies only one obtained
  the prize.――――A philosopher in the age of Trajan.

=Archītis=, a name of Venus, worshipped on mount Libanus.

=Archon=, one of Alexander’s generals, who received the provinces of
  Babylon, at the general division after the king’s death. _Diodorus_,
  bk. 18.

=Archontes=, the name of the chief magistrates of Athens. They were
  nine in number, and none were chosen but such as were descended
  from ancestors who had been free citizens of the republic for three
  generations. They were also to be without deformity in all the parts
  and members of their body, and were obliged to produce testimonies
  of their dutiful behaviour to their parents, of the services they
  had rendered their country, and the competency of their fortune
  to support their dignity. They took a solemn oath that they would
  observe the laws, administer justice with impartiality, and never
  suffer themselves to be corrupted. If they ever received bribes,
  they were compelled by the laws to dedicate to the god of Delphi
  a statue of gold of equal weight with their body. They all had the
  power of punishing malefactors with death. The chief among them
  was called _Archon_. The year took its denomination from him; he
  determined all causes between man and wife, and took care of legacies
  and wills; he provided for orphans, protected the injured, and
  punished drunkenness with uncommon severity. If he suffered himself
  to be intoxicated during the time of his office, the misdemeanour
  was punished with death. The second of the archons was called
  _Basileus_. It was his office to keep good order, and to remove all
  causes of quarrel in the families of those who were dedicated to the
  service of the gods. The profane and the impious were brought before
  his tribunal; and he offered public sacrifices for the good of the
  state. He assisted at the celebration of the Eleusinian festivals,
  and other religious ceremonies. His wife was to be related to
  the whole people of Athens, and of a pure and unsullied life. He
  had a vote among the Areopagites, but was obliged to sit among
  them without his crown. The _Polemarch_ was another archon of
  inferior dignity. He had the care of all foreigners, and provided a
  sufficient maintenance from the public treasury for the families of
  those who had lost their lives in defence of their country. These
  three chief archons generally chose each of them two persons of
  respectable character, and of an advanced age, whose counsels and
  advice might assist and support them in their public capacity.
  The six other archons were indistinctly called _Thesmothetæ_, and
  received complaints against persons accused of impiety, bribery,
  and ill behaviour. They settled all disputes between the citizens,
  redressed the wrongs of strangers and forbade any laws to be
  enforced but such as were conducive to the safety of the state.
  These officers of state were chosen after the death of king
  Codrus; their power was originally for life, but afterwards it was
  limited to 10 years, and at last to one year. After some time, the
  qualifications which were required to be an archon were not strictly
  observed. Adrian, before he was elected emperor of Rome, was made
  archon at Athens, though a foreigner; and the same honours were
  conferred upon Plutarch. The perpetual archons, after the death of
  Codrus, were Medon, whose office began B.C. 1070; Acastus, 1050;
  Archippus, 1014; Thersippus, 995; Phorbas, 954; Megacles, 923;
  Diognetus, 893; Pherecles, 865; Ariphron, 846; Thespius, 826;
  Agamestor, 799; Æschylus, 778; Alcmæon, 756; after whose death the
  archons were decennial, the first of whom was Charops, who began
  753; Æsimedes, 744; Clidicus, 734; Hippomenes, 724; Leocrates, 714;
  Apsander, 704; Eryxias, 694; after whom the office became annual,
  and of these annual archons Creon was the first. _Aristophanes_, _The
  Clouds_ & _The Birds_.――_Plutarch_, _Convivium Septem Sapientium_,
  ch. 1.――_Demosthenes._――_Pollux._――_Lysias._

=Archy̆lus Thurius=, a general of Dionysius the elder. _Diodorus_,
  bk. 14.

=Archytas=, a musician of Mitylene, who wrote a treatise on
  agriculture. _Diogenes Laërtius._――――The son of Hestiæus of Tarentum,
  was a follower of the Pythagorean philosophy, and an able astronomer
  and geometrician. He redeemed his master, Plato, from the hands of
  the tyrant Dionysius, and for his virtues he was seven times chosen,
  by his fellow-citizens, governor of Tarentum. He invented some
  mathematical instruments, and made a wooden pigeon which could fly.
  He perished in a shipwreck about 394 years before the christian
  era. He is also the reputed inventor of the screw and the pulley.
  A fragment of his writings has been preserved by Porphyry. _Horace_,
  bk. 1, ode 28.――_Cicero_, bk. 3, _On Oratory_.――_Diogenes Laërtius_,
  _Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers_.

=Arcĭtĕnens=, an epithet applied to Apollo, from his bearing a _bow_,
  with which, as soon as born, he destroyed the serpent Python.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 75.

=Arctīnus=, a Milesian poet, said to be pupil to Homer. _Dionysius of
  Halicarnassus_, bk. 1.

=Arctophy̆lax=, a star near the great bear, called also Bootes.
  _Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 2, ch. 42.

=Arctos=, a mountain near Propontis, inhabited by giants and monsters.
  ――――Two celestial constellations near the north pole, commonly
  called Ursa Major and Minor; supposed to be Arcas and his mother,
  who were made constellations. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 1.――_Aratus._
  ――_Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 107.

=Arctūrus=, a star near the tail of the great bear, whose rising and
  setting were generally supposed to portend great tempests. _Horace_,
  bk. 3, ode 1. The name is derived from its situation, ἀρκτος _ursus_,
  οὐρα _cauda_. It rises now about the beginning of October, and Pliny
  tells us it rose in his age on the 12th, or, according to Columella,
  on the 5th of September.

=Ardălus=, a son of Vulcan, said to have been the first who invented
  the pipe. He gave it to the Muses, who on that account have been
  called _Ardalides_ and _Ardalīotides_. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 31.

=Ardalia=, a country of Egypt. _Strabo._

=Ardaxānus=, a small river of Illyricum. _Polybius._

=Ardea=, formerly Ardua, a town of Latium, built by Danae, or,
  according to some, by a son of Ulysses and Circe. It was the capital
  of the Rutuli. Some soldiers set it on fire, and the inhabitants
  publicly reported that their city had been changed into a bird,
  called by the Latins _Ardea_. It was rebuilt, and it became a rich
  and magnificent city, whose enmity to Rome rendered it famous.
  Tarquin the Proud was pressing it with a siege, when his son
  ravished Lucretia. A road called _Ardeatina_ branched from the
  Appian road to Ardea. _Cornelius Nepos_, _Atticus_, ch. 14.――_Livy_,
  bk. 1, ch. 57; bk. 3, ch. 71; bk. 4, ch. 9, &c.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 7, li. 412.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 14, li. 573.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 5.

=Ardericca=, a small town on the Euphrates, north of Babylon.

=Ardiæi=, a people of Illyricum, whose capital was called Ardia.
  _Strabo_, bk. 7.

=Ardonea=, a town of Apulia. _Livy_, bk. 24, ch. 20.

=Ardua=, an ancient name of Ardea. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 411.

=Arduenna=, now _Ardenne_, a large forest of Gaul, in the time of
  Julius Cæsar, which extended 50 miles from the Rhine to the borders
  of the Nervii. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 8, ch. 42.――_Cæsar_, _Gallic
  War_, bk. 6, ch. 29.

=Arduine=, the goddess of hunting among the Gauls; represented with
  the same attributes as the Diana of the Romans.

=Ardyenses=, a nation near the Rhone. _Polybius_, bk. 3.

=Ardys=, a son of Gyges king of Lydia, who reigned 49 years, took
  Priene, and made war against Miletus. _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 15.

=Area=, a surname of Minerva, from her temple on Mars’ hill (ἀρης)
  erected by Orestes. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 28.

=Areacidæ=, a nation of Numidia. _Polybius._

=Areas=, a general chosen by the Greeks against Ætolia. _Justin_,
  bk. 24, ch. 1.

=Aregŏnis=, the mother of Mopsus by Ampyx. _Orpheus_, _Argonautica_.

=Arelātum=, a town of Gallia Narbonensis. _Strabo_, bk. 4.――_Mela_,
  bk. 2, ch. 5.

=Arellius=, a celebrated painter of Rome in the age of Augustus. He
  painted the goddesses in the form of his mistresses. _Pliny_, bk. 35,
  ch. 10.――――A miser in _Horace_.

=Aremorĭca=, a part of Gaul, at the north of the Loire, now called
  Britany. _Pliny_, bk. 4.

=Arēna= and =Arene=, a city of Messenia in Peloponnesus. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 2.

=Arenăcum=, a town of Germany. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 5, ch. 20.

=Areopagītæ=, the judges of the Areopagus, a seat of justice on a small
  eminence near Athens, whose name is derived from Αρεος παγος, _the
  hill of Mars_, because Mars was the first who was tried there, for
  the murder of Hallirhotius, who had offered violence to his daughter
  Alcippe. Some say that the place received the name of Areopagus
  because the Amazons pitched their camp there, and offered sacrifices
  to their progenitor Mars, when they besieged Athens; and others
  maintain that the name was given to the place because Mars is the
  god of bloodshed, war, and murder, which were generally punished by
  that court. The time in which this celebrated seat of justice was
  instituted is unknown. Some suppose that Cecrops, the founder of
  Athens, first established it, while others give the credit of it
  to Cranaus, and others to Solon. The number of judges that composed
  this august assembly is not known. They have been limited by some to
  9, to 31, to 51, and sometimes to a greater number. The most worthy
  and religious of the Athenians were admitted as members, and such
  archons as had discharged their duty with care and faithfulness. In
  the latter ages of the republic, this observance was often violated,
  and we find some of their members of loose and debauched morals. If
  any of them were convicted of immorality, if they were seen sitting
  at a tavern, or had used any indecent language, they were immediately
  expelled from the assembly, and held in the greatest disgrace,
  though the dignity of a judge of the Areopagus always was for life.
  The Areopagites took cognizance of murders, impiety, and immoral
  behaviour, and particularly of idleness, which they deemed the cause
  of all vice. They watched over the laws, and they had the management
  of the public treasury; they had the liberty of rewarding the
  virtuous, and of inflicting severe punishment upon such as blasphemed
  against the gods, or slighted the celebration of the holy mysteries.
  They always sat in the open air, because they took cognizance of
  murder; and by their laws it was not permitted for the murderer and
  his accuser to be both under the same roof. This custom also might
  originate because the persons of the judges were sacred, and they
  were afraid of contracting pollution by conversing in the same house
  with men who had been guilty of shedding innocent blood. They always
  heard causes and passed sentence in the night, that they might not
  be prepossessed in favour of the plaintiff or of the defendant by
  seeing them. Whatever causes were pleaded before them, were to be
  divested of all oratory and fine speaking, lest eloquence should
  charm their ears and corrupt their judgment. Hence arose the most
  just and most impartial decisions, and their sentence was deemed
  sacred and inviolable, and the plaintiff and defendant were equally
  convinced of its justice. The Areopagites generally sat on the 27th,
  28th, and 29th days of every month. Their authority continued in
  its original state till Pericles, who was refused admittance among
  them, resolved to lessen their consequence and destroy their power.
  From that time the morals of the Athenians were corrupted, and the
  Areopagites were no longer conspicuous for their virtue and justice;
  and when they censured the debaucheries of Demetrius, one of the
  family of Phalereus, he plainly told them, that if they wished to
  make a reform in Athens, they must begin at home.

=Areopăgus=, a hill in the neighbourhood of Athens. _See:_ Areopagitæ.

=Arestæ=, a people of India, conquered by Alexander. _Justin_, bk. 12,
  ch. 8.

=Aresthanas=, a countryman, whose goat suckled Æsculapius, when exposed
  by his mother. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 26.

=Arestorĭdes=, a patronymic given to the hundred-eyed Argus, as son of
  Arestor. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1, li. 584.

=Arĕta=, the mother of Aristippus the philosopher. _Diogenes Laërtius_,
  bk. 2.――――A daughter of Dionysius, who married Dion. She was thrown
  into the sea. _Plutarch_, _Dion_.――――A female philosopher of Cyrene,
  B.C. 377.

=Arēta=, a daughter of Rhexenor, descended from Neptune, who married
  her uncle Alcinous, by whom she had Nausicaa. _Homer_, _Odyssey_,
  bks. 7 & 8.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1.

=Aretæus=, a physician of Cappadocia, very inquisitive after the
  operations of nature. His treatise on agues has been much admired.
  The best edition of his works which are extant, is that of Boerhaave,
  Leiden, folio, 1735.

=Aretaphĭla=, the wife of Melanippus, a priest of Cyrene. Nicocrates
  murdered her husband to marry her. She, however, was so attached
  to Melanippus, that she endeavoured to poison Nicocrates, and at
  last caused him to be assassinated by his brother Lysander, whom
  she married. Lysander proved as cruel as his brother, upon which
  Aretaphila ordered him to be thrown into the sea. After this she
  retired to a private station. _Plutarch_, _de Mulierum Virtutes_.
  ――_Polyænus_, bk. 8, ch. 38.

=Aretāles=, a Cnidian, who wrote a history of Macedonia, besides a
  treatise on islands. _Plutarch._

=Arēte.= _See:_ Areta.

=Arētes=, one of Alexander’s officers. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 15.

=Arethūsa=, a nymph of Elis, daughter of Oceanus, and one of Diana’s
  attendants. As she returned one day from hunting, she sat near
  the Alpheus, and bathed in the stream. The god of the river was
  enamoured of her, and he pursued her over the mountains and all the
  country, when Arethusa, ready to sink under fatigue, implored Diana,
  who changed her into a fountain. The Alpheus immediately mingled his
  streams with hers, and Diana opened a secret passage under the earth
  and under the sea, where the waters of Arethusa disappeared, and
  rose in the island of Ortygia, near Syracuse in Sicily. The river
  Alpheus followed her also under the sea, and rose also in Ortygia;
  so that, as mythologists relate, whatever is thrown into the Alpheus
  in Elis, rises again, after some time, in the fountain Arethusa
  near Syracuse. _See:_ Alpheus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable
  10.――_Athenæus_, bk. 7.――_Pausanias._――――One of the Hesperides.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 5.――――A daughter of Herileus, mother of
  Abas by Neptune. _Hyginus_, fable 157.――――One of Actæon’s dogs.
  _Hyginus_, fable 181.――――A lake of Upper Armenia, near the fountains
  of the Tigris. Nothing can sink under its waters. _Pliny_, bk. 2,
  ch. 103.――――A town of Thrace.――――Another in Syria.

=Aretīnum=, a Roman colony in Etruria. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 5,
  li. 123.

=Arētus=, a son of Nestor and Anaxibia. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 3,
  li. 413.――――A Trojan against the Greeks. He was killed by Automedon.
  _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 17, li. 494.――――A famous warrior, whose only
  weapon was an iron club. He was treacherously killed by Lycurgus
  king of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 11.

=Areus=, a king of Sparta, preferred in the succession to Cleonymus,
  brother of Acrotatus, who had made an alliance with Pyrrhus. He
  assisted Athens when Antigonus besieged it, and died at Corinth.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 6.――_Plutarch._――――A king of Sparta, who
  succeeded his father Acrotatus II., and was succeeded by his son
  Leonidas, son of Cleonymus.――――A philosopher of Alexandria, intimate
  with Augustus. _Suetonius._――――A poet of Laconia.――――An orator
  mentioned by _Quintilian_.

=Argæus= and =Argēus=, a son of Apollo and Cyrene. _Justin_, bk. 13,
  ch. 7.――――A son of Perdiccas, who succeeded his father in the
  kingdom of Macedonia. _Justin_, bk. 7, ch. 1.――――A mountain of
  Cappadocia, covered with perpetual snows, at the bottom of which
  is the capital of the country called Maxara. _Claudian._――――A son
  of Ptolemy, killed by his brother. _Pausanias_, bk. 1.――――A son of
  Licymnius. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2.

=Argălus=, a king of Sparta, son of Amyclas. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 1.

=Argathŏna=, a huntress of Cios in Bithynia, whom Rhesus married before
  he went to the Trojan war. When she heard of his death, she died in
  despair. _Parthenius_, _Narrationum Amatoriarum Libellus_, ch. 36.

=Argathōnius=, a king of Tartessus, who, according to _Pliny_, bk. 7,
  ch. 48, lived 120 years, and 300 according to _Silius Italicus_,
  bk. 3, li. 396.

=Arge=, a beautiful huntress changed into a stag by Apollo. _Hyginus_,
  fable 205.――――One of the Cyclops. _Hesiod._――――A daughter of
  Thespius, by whom Hercules had two sons. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2.――――A
  nymph, daughter of Jupiter and Juno. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1.

=Argea=, a place at Rome where certain Argives were buried.

=Argæāthæ=, a village of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 23.

=Argennum=, a promontory of Ionia.

=Arges=, a son of Cœlus and Terra, who had only one eye in his
  forehead. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 1.

=Argestrătus=, a king of Lacedæmon, who reigned 35 years.

=Argēus=, a son of Perdiccas king of Macedonia, who obtained the
  kingdom when Amyntas was deposed by the Illyrians. _Justin_, bk. 7,
  ch. 2.

=Argi= (plural, masculine). _See:_ Argos.

=Argīa=, daughter of Adrastus, married Polynices, whom she loved with
  uncommon tenderness. When he was killed in the war, she buried his
  body in the night, against the positive orders of Creon, for which
  pious action she was punished with death. Theseus revenged her death
  by killing Creon. _Hyginus_, fables 69 & 72.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_,
  bk. 12. _See:_ Antigone and Creon.――――A country of Peloponnesus,
  called also Argolis, of which Argos was the capital.――――One of the
  Oceanides. _Hyginus_, _preface_.――――The wife of Inachus, and mother
  of Io. _Hyginus_, fable 145.――――The mother of Argos by Polybus.
  _Hyginus_, fable 145.――――A daughter of Autesion, who married
  Aristodemus, by whom she had two sons, Eurysthenes and Procles.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 2.――_Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 3.

=Argias=, a man who founded Chalcedon, A.U.C. 148.

=Argilētum=, a place at Rome near the Palatium, where the tradesmen
  generally kept their shops. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 355.
  ――_Martial_, bk. 1, ltr. 4.

=Argilius=, a favourite youth of Pausanias, who revealed his master’s
  correspondence with the Persian king to the Ephori. _Cornelius
  Nepos_, _Pausanias_.

=Argillus=, a mountain of Egypt near the Nile.

=Argĭlus=, a town of Thrace near the Strymon, built by a colony of
  Andrians. _Thucydides_, bk. 4, ch. 103.――_Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 115.

=Arginūsæ=, three small islands near the continent, between Mitylene
  and Methymna, where the Lacedæmonian fleet was conquered by Conon
  the Athenian. _Strabo_, bk. 13.

=Argiŏpe=, a nymph of mount Parnassus, mother of Thamyris by Philammon
  the son of Apollo. _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 33.

=Argiphontes=, a surname given to Mercury, because he _killed_ the
  hundred-eyed _Argus_, by order of Jupiter.

=Argippēi=, a nation among the Sauromatians, born bald, and with flat
  noses. They lived upon trees. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 23.

=Argīva=, a surname of Juno, worshipped at Argos. She had also a temple
  at Sparta, consecrated to her by Eurydice the daughter of Lacedæmon.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 13.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 547.

=Argīvi=, the inhabitants of the city of Argos and the neighbouring
  country. The word is indiscriminately applied by the poets to all
  the inhabitants of Greece.

=Argius=, a steward of Galba, who privately interred the body of his
  master in his gardens. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 1, ch. 49.

=Argo=, the name of the famous ship which carried Jason and his 54
  companions to Colchis, when they resolved to recover the golden
  fleece. The derivation of the word Argo has often been disputed.
  Some derive it from Argos, the person who first proposed the
  expedition, and who built the ship. Others maintain that it was
  built at Argos, whence its name. Cicero, _Tusculanæ Disputationes_,
  bk. 1, ch. 20, calls it Argo, because it carried Grecians, commonly
  called Argives. Diodorus, bk. 4, derives the word from ἀργος, which
  signifies _swift_. Ptolemy says, but falsely, that Hercules built
  the ship, and called it Argo after a son of Jason, who bore the same
  name. The ship Argo had 50 oars. According to many authors, she had
  a beam on her prow, cut in the forest of Dodona by Minerva, which
  had the power of giving oracles to the Argonauts. This ship was
  the first that ever sailed on the sea, as some report. After the
  expedition was finished, Jason ordered her to be drawn aground at
  the isthmus of Corinth, and consecrated to the god of the sea. The
  poets have made her a constellation in heaven. Jason was killed
  by a beam which fell from the top, as he slept on the ground near
  it. _Hyginus_, fable 14; _Poetica astronomica_, bk. 2, ch. 37.
  ――_Catullus_, _Marriage of Peleus and Thetis_.――_Valerius Flaccus_,
  bk. 1, li. 93, &c.――_Phædras_, bk. 4, fable 6.――_Seneca_, _Medea_.
  ――_Apollonius_, _Argonautica_.――_Apollodorus._――_Cicero_, _de Natura
  Deorum_.――_Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 56.――_Marcus Manilius_, bk. 1.

=Argolĭcus sinus=, a bay on the coast of Argolis.

=Argŏlis= and =Argia=, a country of Peloponnesus between Arcadia and
  the Ægean sea. Its chief city was called Argos.

=Argon=, one of the descendants of Hercules, who reigned in Lydia 505
  years before Gyges. _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 7.

=Argonautæ=, a name given to those ancient heroes who went with Jason
  on board the ship Argo to Colchis, about 79 years before the taking
  of Troy, or 1263 B.C. The causes of this expedition arose from the
  following circumstance:――Athamas king of Thebes had married Ino
  the daughter of Cadmus, whom he divorced to marry Nephele, by whom
  he had two children, Phryxus and Helle. As Nephele was subject to
  certain fits of madness, Athamas repudiated her, and took a second
  time Ino, by whom he had soon after two sons, Learchus and Melicerta.
  As the children of Nephele were to succeed to their father by
  right of birth, Ino conceived an immortal hatred against them, and
  she caused the city of Thebes to be visited by a pestilence, by
  poisoning all the grain which had been sown in the earth. Upon this
  the oracle was consulted; and as it had been corrupted by means of
  Ino, the answer was, that Nephele’s children should be immolated to
  the gods. Phryxus was apprised of this, and he immediately embarked
  with his sister Helle, and fled to the court of Æetes king of
  Colchis, one of his near relations. In the voyage Helle died, and
  Phryxus arrived safe at Colchis, and was received with kindness
  by the king. The poets have embellished the flight of Phryxus, by
  supposing that he and Helle fled through the air on a ram which had
  a golden fleece and wings, and was endowed with the faculties of
  speech. This ram, as they say, was the offspring of Neptune’s amours,
  under the form of a ram, with the nymph Theopane. As they were
  going to be sacrificed, the ram took them on his back, and instantly
  disappeared in the air. On their way Helle was giddy, and fell
  into that part of the sea which from her was called the Hellespont.
  When Phryxus came to Colchis, he sacrificed the ram to Jupiter, or,
  according to others, to Mars, to whom he also dedicated the golden
  fleece. He soon after married Chalciope the daughter of Æetes; but
  his father-in-law envied him the possession of the golden fleece,
  and therefore to obtain it he murdered him. Some time after this
  event, when Jason the son of Æson demanded of his uncle Pelias the
  crown which he usurped [_See:_ Pelias, Jason, Æson], Pelias said
  that he would restore it to him, provided he avenged the death of
  their common relation Phryxus, whom Æetes had basely murdered in
  Colchis. Jason, who was in the vigour of youth, and of an ambitious
  soul, cheerfully undertook the expedition, and embarked with all the
  young princes of Greece in the ship Argo. They stopped at the island
  of Lemnos, where they remained two years, and raised a new race of
  men from the Lemnian women who had murdered their husbands. _See:_
  Hypsipyle. After they had left Lemnos, they visited Samothrace,
  where they offered sacrifices to the gods, and thence passed to
  Troas and Cyzicum. Here they met with a favourable reception from
  Cyzicus the king of the country. The night after their departure,
  they were driven back by a storm again on the coast of Cyzicum, and
  the inhabitants, supposing them to be their enemies, the Pelasgi,
  furiously attacked them. In this nocturnal engagement the slaughter
  was great, and Cyzicus was killed by the hand of Jason, who, to
  expiate the murder he had ignorantly committed, buried him in a
  magnificent manner, and offered a sacrifice to the mother of the
  gods, to whom he built a temple on mount Dindymus. From Cyzicum they
  visited Bebrycia, otherwise called Bithynia, where Pollux accepted
  the challenge of Amycus king of the country in the combat of the
  cestus, and slew him. They were driven from Bebrycia by a storm to
  Salmydessa, on the coast of Thrace, where they delivered Phineus
  king of the place from the persecution of the harpies. Phineus
  directed their course through the Cyanean rock or the Symplegades
  [_See:_ Cyaneæ], and they safely entered the Euxine sea. They
  visited the country of the Mariandynians, where Lycus reigned,
  and lost two of their companions, Idmon, and Tiphys their pilot.
  After they had left this coast, they were driven upon the island of
  Arecia, where they found the children of Phryxus, whom Æetes their
  grandfather had sent to Greece to take possession of their father’s
  kingdom. From this island they at last arrived safe in Æa, the
  capital of Colchis. Jason explained the causes of his voyage to
  Æetes; but the conditions on which he was to recover the golden
  fleece were so hard, that the Argonauts must have perished in the
  attempt, had not Medea the king’s daughter fallen in love with their
  leader. She had a conference with Jason, and after mutual oaths of
  fidelity in the temple of Hecate, Medea pledged herself to deliver
  the Argonauts from her father’s hard conditions, if Jason married
  her, and carried her with him to Greece. He was to tame two bulls,
  which had brazen feet and horns, and which vomited clouds of fire
  and smoke, and to tie them to a plough made of adamant stone, and to
  plough a field of two acres of ground never before cultivated. After
  this he was to sow in the plain the teeth of a dragon, from which
  an armed multitude were to rise up, and to be all destroyed by his
  hands. This done, he was to kill an ever-watchful dragon, which was
  at the bottom of the tree, on which the golden fleece was suspended.
  All these labours were to be performed in one day; and Medea’s
  assistance, whose knowledge of herbs, magic, and potions was
  unparalleled, easily extricated Jason from all danger to the
  astonishment and terror of his companions, and of Æetes, and the
  people of Colchis, who had assembled to be spectators of this
  wonderful action. He tamed the bulls with ease, ploughed the field,
  sowed the dragon’s teeth, and when the armed men sprang from the
  earth, he threw a stone in the midst of them, and they immediately
  turned their weapons one against the other, till they all perished.
  After this he went to the dragon and by means of enchanted herbs,
  and a draught which Medea had given him he lulled the monster to
  sleep, and obtained the golden fleece, and immediately set sail with
  Medea. He was soon pursued by Absyrtus the king’s son, who came up
  to them, and was seized and murdered by Jason and Medea. The mangled
  limbs of Absyrtus were strewed in the way through which Æetes was
  to pass, that his further pursuit might be stopped. After the murder
  of Absyrtus, they entered the Palus Mæotis, and by pursuing their
  course towards the left, according to the foolish account of poets
  who were ignorant of geography, they came to the island Peucestes,
  and to that of Circe. Here Circe informed Jason that the cause of
  all his calamities arose from the murder of Absyrtus, of which she
  refused to expiate him. Soon after, they entered the Mediterranean
  by the columns of Hercules, and passed the straits of Charybdis and
  Scylla, where they must have perished, had not Tethys the mistress
  of Peleus, one of the Argonauts, delivered them. They were preserved
  from the Sirens by the eloquence of Orpheus, and arrived in the
  island of the Phæacians, where they met the enemy’s fleet, which
  had continued their pursuit by a different course. It was therefore
  resolved that Medea should be restored, if she had not been actually
  married to Jason; but the wife of Alcinous the king of the country,
  being appointed umpire between the Colchians and Argonauts, had
  the marriage privately consummated by night, and declared that the
  claims of Æetes to Medea were now void. From Phæacia the Argonauts
  came to the bay of Ambracia, whence they were driven by a storm
  upon the coast of Africa, and, after many disasters, at last came
  in sight of the promontory of Melea in the Peloponnesus, where Jason
  was purified of the murder of Absyrtus, and soon after arrived safe
  in Thessaly. The impracticability of such a voyage is well known.
  Apollonius Rhodius gives another account, equally improbable. He
  says that they sailed from the Euxine up one of the mouths of the
  Danube, and that Absyrtus pursued them by entering another mouth of
  the river. After they had continued their voyage for some leagues,
  the waters decreased, and they were obliged to carry the ship Argo
  across the country to the Adriatic, upwards of 150 miles. Here they
  met with Absyrtus, who had pursued the same measures, and conveyed
  his ships in like manner over the land. Absyrtus was immediately put
  to death; and soon after the beam of Dodona [_See:_ Argo] gave an
  oracle, that Jason should never return home if he was not previously
  purified of the murder. Upon this they sailed to the island of
  Æa, where Circe, who was the sister of Æetes, expiated him without
  knowing who he was. There is a third tradition, which maintains that
  they returned to Colchis a second time, and visited many places of
  Asia. This famous expedition has been celebrated in the ancient ages
  of the world; it has employed the pen of many writers, and among
  the historians, Diodorus, Siculus, Strabo, Apollodorus, and Justin;
  and among the poets, Onomacritus, more generally called Orpheus,
  Apollonius Rhodius, Pindar, and Valerius Flaccus, have extensively
  given an account of its most remarkable particulars. The number of
  the Argonauts is not exactly known. Apollodorus and Diodorus say
  that they were 54. Tzetzes admits the number of 50, but Apollodorus
  mentions only 45. The following list is drawn from the various
  authors who have made mention of the Argonautic expedition. Jason
  son of Æson, as is well known, was the chief of the rest. His
  companions were Acastus son of Pelias, Actor son of Hippasus,
  Admetus son of Pheres, Æsculapius son of Apollo, Ætalides son of
  Mercury and Eupoleme, Almenus son of Mars, Amphiaraus son of Œcleus,
  Amphidamus son of Aleus, Amphion son of Hyperasius, Anceus a son of
  Lycurgus, and another of the same name, Areus, Argus the builder of
  the ship Argo, Argus son of Phryxus, Armenus, Ascalaphus son of Mars,
  Asterion son of Cometes, Asterius son of Neleus, Augeas son of Sol,
  Atalanta daughter of Schœneus, disguised in a man’s dress, Autolycus
  son of Mercury, Azorus, Buphagus, Butes son of Teleon, Calais son
  of Boreas, Canthus son of Abas, Castor son of Jupiter, Ceneus son
  of Elatus, Cepheus son of Aleus, Cius, Clytius and Iphitus sons of
  Eurythus, Coronus, Deucalion son of Minos, Echion son of Mercury
  and Antianira, Ergynus son of Neptune, Euphemus son of Neptune
  and Macionassa, Eribotes, Euryalus son of Cisteus, Eurydamus and
  Eurythion sons of Iras, Eurytus son of Mercury, Glaucus, Hercules
  son of Jupiter, Idas son of Aphareus, Ialmenus son of Mars, Idmon
  son of Abas, Iolaus son of Iphiclus, Iphiclus son of Thestius,
  Iphiclus son of Philacus, Iphis son of Alector, Lynceus son of
  Aphareus, Iritus son of Naubolus, Laertes son of Arcesius, Laocoon,
  Leodatus son of Bias, Leitus son of Alector, Meleager son of Œneus,
  Menœtius son of Actor, Mopsus son of Amphycus, Nauplius son of
  Neptune, Neleus the brother of Peleus, Nestor son of Neleus, Oileus
  the father of Ajax, Orpheus son of Œager, Palemon son of Ætolus,
  Peleus and Telamon sons of Æacus, Periclymenes son of Neleus,
  Peneleus son of Hipalmus, Philoctetes son of Pœan, Phlias, Pollux
  son of Jupiter, Polyphemus son of Elates, Pœas son of Thaumacus,
  Phanus son of Bacchus, Phalerus son of Alcon, Phocas and Priasus
  sons of Ceneus one of the Lapithæ, Talaus, Tiphys son of Aginus,
  Staphilus son of Bacchus, two of the name of Iphitus, Theseus son
  of Ægeus, with his friend Pirithous. Among these Æsculapius was
  physician, and Tiphys was pilot.

=Argos= (singular neuter, and Argi, masculine plural), an ancient city,
  capital of Argolis in Peloponnesus, about two miles from the sea,
  on the bay called _Argolicus sinus_. Juno was the chief deity of the
  place. The kingdom of Argos was founded by Inachus 1856 years before
  the christian era, and after it had flourished for about 550 years,
  it was united to the crown of Mycenæ. Argos was built according to
  Euripides, _Iphigeneia in Aulis_, lis. 152, 534, by seven Cyclops
  who came from Syria. These Cyclops were not Vulcan’s workmen. The
  nine first kings of Argos were called _Inachides_, in honour of
  the founder. Their names were Inachus, Phoroneus, Apis, Argus,
  Chryasus, Phorbas, Triopas, Stelenus, and Gelanor. Gelanor gave
  a kind reception to Danaus, who drove him from his kingdom in
  return for his hospitality. The descendants of Danaus were called
  _Belides_. Agamemnon was king of Argos during the Trojan war; and,
  80 years after, the Heraclidæ seized the Peloponnesus and deposed
  the monarchs. The inhabitants of Argos were called _Argivi_ and
  _Argolici_; and this name has been often applied to all the Greeks
  without distinction. _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 56.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch.
  15, &c.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 7.――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 9,
  ch. 15.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 13, &c.; bk. 2, ch. 3.
  ――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, 4to, &c.――――A town of Thessaly, called
  Pelasgicon by the Pelasgians. _Lucan_, bk. 6, li. 355.――――Another in
  Epirus, called Amphilochium.

=Argus=, a king of Argos, who reigned 70 years.――――A son of Arestor,
  whence he is often called _Arestorides_. He married Ismene the
  daughter of the Asopus. As he had 100 eyes, of which only two were
  asleep at one time, Juno set him to watch Io, whom Jupiter had
  changed into a heifer: but Mercury, by order of Jupiter, slew him,
  by lulling all his eyes asleep with the sound of his lyre. Juno put
  the eyes of Argus on the tail of the peacock, a bird sacred to her
  divinity. _Moschus_, _Idyl_.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1, fables
  12 & 13.――_Propertius_, bk. 1, li. 585, &c.; poem 3.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 2, ch. 1.――――A son of Agenor. _Hyginus_, fable 145.
  ――――A son of Danaus, who built the ship Argo. _Hyginus_, fable 14.
  ――――A Son of Jupiter and Niobe, the first child which the father
  of the gods had by a mortal. He built Argos, and married Evadne the
  daughter of Strymon. _Hyginus_, fable 145.――――A son of Pyras and
  Callirhoe. _Hyginus_, fable 145.――――A son of Phryxus. _Hyginus_,
  fable 3.――――A son of Polybus. _Hyginus_, fable 14.――――One of
  Actæon’s dogs. _Apollodorus._――――A dog of Ulysses, which knew his
  master after an absence of 20 years. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 17,
  li. 300.

=Argyllæ=, an ancient name of Cære in Etruria. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 7, li. 652; bk. 8, li. 478.

=Argynnis=, a name of Venus, which she received from _Argynnus_,
  a favourite youth of Agamemnon, who was drowned in the Cephisus.
  _Propertius_, bk. 3, poem 5, li. 52.

=Argy̆ra=, a nymph greatly beloved by a shepherd called Selimnus. She
  was changed into a fountain, and the shepherd into a river of the
  same name, whose waters made lovers forget the object of their
  affections. _See:_ Selimnus. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 23.――――A city
  of Troas.――――Also the native place of Diodorus Siculus in Sicily.

=Argy̆raspĭdes=, a Macedonian legion which received this name from
  their silver helmets. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 13.

=Argy̆re=, an island beyond the mouth of the river Indus, abounding in
  metal. _Mela_, bk. 3, ch. 7.

=Argyrĭpa=, a town of Apulia built by Diomedes after the Trojan war,
  and called by Polybius _Argipana_. Only ruins remain to show where
  it once stood, though the place still preserves the name of Arpi.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 246.

=Aria=, a country of Asia, situate at the east of Parthia. _Mela_,
  bk. 1, ch. 2; bk. 2, ch. 7.――――The wife of Pætus Cecinna of Padua,
  a Roman senator who was accused of conspiracy against Claudius,
  and carried to Rome by sea. She accompanied him, and in the boat
  she stabbed herself, and presented the sword to her husband, who
  followed her example. _Pliny_, bk. 7.

=Ariadne=, daughter of Minos II. king of Crete by Pasiphae, fell in
  love with Theseus, who was shut up in the labyrinth to be devoured
  by the Minotaur, and gave him a clue of thread, by which he
  extricated himself from the difficult windings of his confinement.
  After he had conquered the Minotaur, he carried her away according
  to the promise he had made, and married her; but when he arrived at
  the island of Naxos he forsook her, though she was already pregnant,
  and repaid his love with the most endearing tenderness. Ariadne
  was so disconsolate upon being abandoned by Theseus, that she hung
  herself, according to some; but Plutarch says that she lived many
  years after, and had some children by Onarus the priest of Bacchus.
  According to some writers, Bacchus loved her after Theseus had
  forsaken her, and he gave her a crown of seven stars, which, after
  her death, was made a constellation. The Argives showed Ariadne’s
  tomb, and when one of their temples was repaired, her ashes were
  found in an earthen urn. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 11, li. 320, says
  that Diana detained Ariadne at Naxos. _Plutarch_, _Theseus_.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, fable 2; _Heroides_, poem 10; _De Ars
  Amatoria_, bk. 2; _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 462.――_Catullus_, _Marriage
  of Peleus and Thetis_; poem 61.――_Hyginus_, fables 14, 43, 270.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 1.

=Ariæus=, an officer who succeeded to the command of the surviving
  army after the death of Cyrus the younger, after the battle of
  Cunaxa. He made peace with Artaxerxes. _Xenophon._

=Ariāni= and =Ariēni=, a people of Asia. _Dionysius Periegetes_,
  li. 714.

=Ariantas=, a king of Scythia, who yearly ordered every one of his
  subjects to present him with an arrow. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 81.

=Ariamnes=, a king of Cappadocia, son of Ariarathes III.

=Ariarāthes=, a king of Cappadocia, who joined Darius Ochus in his
  expedition against Egypt, where he acquired much glory.――――His
  nephew, the second of that name, defended his kingdom against
  Perdiccas the general of Alexander, but he was defeated and hung
  on a cross in the 81st year of his age, 321 B.C.――――His son
  Ariarathes III. escaped the massacre which attended his father
  and his followers; and after the death of Perdiccas, he recovered
  Cappadocia, by conquering Amyntas the Macedonian general. He was
  succeeded by his son Ariamnes.――――Ariarathes IV. succeeded his
  father Ariamnes, and married Stratonice daughter of Antiochus Theos.
  He died after a reign of 28 years, B.C. 220, and was succeeded by
  his son Ariarathes V., a prince who married Antiochia the daughter
  of king Antiochus, whom he assisted against the Romans. Antiochus
  being defeated, Ariarathes saved his kingdom from invasion by paying
  the Romans a large sum of money remitted at the instance of the king
  of Pergamus.――――His son, the sixth of that name, called _Philopater_,
  from his piety, succeeded him 166 B.C. An alliance with the Romans
  shielded him against the false claims that were laid to his crown by
  one of the favourites of Demetrius king of Syria. He was maintained
  on his throne by Attalus, and assisted his friends of Rome against
  Aristonicus the usurper of Pergamus; but he was killed in the war,
  B.C. 130, leaving six children, five of whom were murdered by his
  surviving wife Laodice.――――The only one who escaped, Ariarathes VII.,
  was proclaimed king, and soon after married Laodice the sister of
  Mithridates Eupator, by whom he had two sons. He was murdered by an
  illegitimate brother, upon which his widow Laodice gave herself and
  kingdom to Nicomedes king of Bithynia. Mithridates made war against
  the new king, and raised his nephew to the throne. The young king,
  who was the eighth of the name of Ariarathes, made war against the
  tyrannical Mithridates, by whom he was assassinated in the presence
  of both armies, and the murderer’s son, a child eight years old,
  was placed on the vacant throne. The Cappadocians revolted, and made
  the late monarch’s brother, Ariarathes IX., king; but Mithridates
  expelled him, and restored his own son. The exiled prince died of
  a broken heart, and Nicomedes of Bithynia, dreading the power of
  the tyrant, interested the Romans in the affairs of Cappadocia.
  The arbiters wished to make the country free; but the Cappadocians
  demanded a king, and received Ariobarzanes, B.C. 91. On the death
  of Ariobarzanes, his brother ascended the throne, under the name of
  Ariarathes X.; but his title was disputed by Sisenna, the eldest son
  of Glaphyra by Arthelaus priest of Comana. Marcus Antony, who was
  umpire between the contending parties, decided in favour of Sisenna;
  but Ariarathes recovered it for a while, though he was soon after
  obliged to yield in favour of Archelaus, the second son of Glaphyra,
  B.C. 36. _Diodorus_, bk. 18.――_Justin_, bks. 13 & 29.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 12.

=Aribbæus=, a general mentioned by _Polyænus_, bk. 7, ch. 29.

=Arīcia=, an Athenian princess, niece to Ægeus, whom Hippolytus married
  after he had been raised from the dead by Æsculapius. He built a
  city in Italy, which he called by her name. He had a son by her
  called Virbius. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15, li. 544.――_Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 762, &c.――――A very ancient town of Italy, now
  _Riccia_, built by Hippolytus son of Theseus, after he had been
  raised from the dead by Æsculapius, and transported into Italy by
  Diana. In a grove in the neighbourhood of Aricia, Theseus built a
  temple to Diana, where he established the same rites as were in the
  temple of that goddess in Tauris. The priest of this temple, called
  _Rex_, was always a fugitive, and the murderer of his predecessor,
  and went always armed with a dagger, to prevent whatever attempts
  might be made upon his life by one who wished to be his successor.
  The Arician forest, frequently called _nemorensis_ or _nemoralis
  sylva_, was very celebrated, and no horses would ever enter it,
  because Hippolytus had been killed by them. Egeria, the favourite
  nymph, and invisible protectress of Numa, generally resided in this
  famous grove, which was situated on the Appian way, beyond mount
  Albanus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15; _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 263.
  ――_Lucan_, bk. 6, li. 74.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 761, &c.

=Aricīna=, a surname of Diana, from her temple near Aricia. _See:_
  Aricia.――――The mother of Octavius. _Cicero_, bk. 3, _Philippics_,
  ch. 6.

=Aridæus=, a companion of Cyrus the younger. After the death of his
  friend he reconciled himself to Artaxerxes, by betraying to him the
  surviving Greeks in their return. _Diodorus._――――An illegitimate
  son of Philip, who, after the death of Alexander, was made king of
  Macedonia till Roxane, who was pregnant by Alexander brought into
  the world a legitimate male successor. Aridæus had not the free
  enjoyment of his senses; and therefore Perdiccas, one of Alexander’s
  generals, declared himself his protector, and even married his
  sister to strengthen their connection. He was seven years in
  possession of the sovereign power, and was put to death, with his
  wife Eurydice, by Olympias. _Justin_, bk. 9, ch. 8.――_Diodorus._

=Ariēnis=, daughter of Alyattes, married Astyages king of Media.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 74.

=Arigæum=, a town of India, which Alexander found burnt, and without
  inhabitants. _Arrian_, bk. 4.

=Arīi=, a savage people of India,――――of Arabia. _Pliny_, bk. 6.――――Of
  Scythia. _Herodotus._――――Of Germany. _Tacitus._

=Arĭma=, a place of Cilicia or Syria, where Typhœus was overwhelmed
  under the ground. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2.

=Arimarius=, a god of Persia and Media.

=Arimaspi=, a people conquered by Alexander the Great. _Curtius_,
  bk. 7, ch. 3.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Arimaspias=, a river of Scythia with golden sands. The neighbouring
  inhabitants had but one eye, in the middle of their forehead, and
  waged continual wars against the griffins, monstrous animals that
  collected the gold of the river. _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 3.――_Herodotus_,
  bks. 3 & 4.――_Strabo_, bks. 1 & 13.

=Arimasthæ=, a people near the Euxine sea. _Orpheus_, _Argonautica_.

=Arimazes=, a powerful prince of Sogdiana, who treated Alexander with
  much insolence, and even asked whether he could fly to aspire to so
  extensive a dominion. He surrendered and was exposed on a cross with
  his friends and relations. _Curtius_, bk. 7, ch. 11.

=Arĭmi=, a nation of Syria. _Strabo._

=Arīmĭnum= (now _Rimini_), an ancient city of Italy, near the Rubicon,
  on the borders of Gaul, on the Adriatic founded by a colony of
  Umbrians. It was the cause of Cæsar’s civil wars. _Lucan_, bk. 1,
  li. 231.――_Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 15.

=Ariminus=, a river of Italy rising in the Apennine mountains. _Pliny_,
  bk. 3, ch. 15.

=Arimphœi=, a people of Scythia near the Riphæan mountains, who lived
  chiefly upon berries in the woods, and were remarkable for their
  innocence and mildness. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 7.

=Arĭmus=, a king of Mysia. _Varro._

=Ariobarzānes=, a man made king of Cappadocia by the Romans, after
  the troubles which the false Ariarathes had raised had subsided.
  Mithridates drove him from his kingdom, but the Romans restored him.
  He followed the interest of Pompey, and fought at Pharsalia against
  Julius Cæsar. He and his kingdom were preserved by means of Cicero.
  _Cicero_, bk. 5, _Letters to Atticus_, ltr. 29.――_Horace_, ltr. 6,
  li. 38.――_Florus_, bk. 3, ch. 5.――――A satrap of Phrygia, who, after
  the death of Mithridates, invaded the kingdom of Pontus, and kept it
  for 26 years. He was succeeded by the son of Mithridates. _Diodorus_,
  bk. 17.――――A general of Darius, who defended the passes of Susa
  with 15,000 foot against Alexander. After a bloody encounter with
  the Macedonians, he was killed as he attempted to seize the city of
  Persepolis. _Diodorus_, bk. 17.――_Curtius_, bks. 4 & 5.――――A Mede
  of elegant stature and great prudence, whom Tiberius appointed to
  settle the troubles of Armenia. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 2, ch. 4.
  ――――A mountain between Parthia and the country of the Massagetæ.
  ――――A satrap, who revolted from the Persian king.

=Ariomandes=, son of Gobryas, was general of Athens against the
  Persians. _Plutarch_, _Cimon_.

=Ariomardus=, a son of Darius, in the army of Xerxes when he went
  against Greece. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 78.

=Ariomēdes=, a pilot of Xerxes.

=Arīon=, a famous lyric poet and musician, son of Cyclos of Methymna,
  in the island of Lesbos. He went into Italy with Periander tyrant
  of Corinth, where he obtained immense riches by his profession.
  Some time after, he wished to revisit his country; and the sailors
  of the ship in which he embarked resolved to murder him, to obtain
  the riches which he was carrying to Lesbos. Arion, seeing them
  inflexible in their resolution, begged that he might be permitted
  to play some melodious tune; and as soon as he had finished it, he
  threw himself into the sea. A number of dolphins had been attracted
  round the ship by the sweetness of his music; and it is said that
  one of them carried him safe on his back to Tænarus, whence he
  hastened to the court of Periander, who ordered all the sailors to
  be crucified at their return. _Hyginus_, fable 194.――_Herodotus_,
  bk. 1, chs. 23 & 24.――_Ælian_, _de Natura Animalium_, bk. 13, ch. 45.
  ――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 11.――_Propertius_, bk. 2, poem 26, li. 17.
  ――_Plutarch_, _Convivium Septem Sapientium_.――――A horse, sprung from
  Ceres and Neptune. Ceres, when she travelled over the world in quest
  of her daughter Proserpine, had taken the figure of a mare, to avoid
  the importuning addresses of Neptune. The god changed himself also
  into a horse, and from their union arose a daughter called Hera,
  and the horse Arion, which had the power of speech, the feet on
  the right side like those of a man, and the rest of the body like a
  horse. Arion was brought up by the Nereides, who often harnessed him
  to his father’s chariot, which he drew over the sea with uncommon
  swiftness. Neptune gave him to Copreus, who presented him to
  Hercules. Adrastus king of Argos received him as a present from
  Hercules and with this wonderful animal he won the prize at the
  Nemæan games. Arion, therefore, is often called the horse of
  Adrastus. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 25.――_Propertius_, bk. 2, poem 34,
  li. 37.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 6.

=Ariovistus=, a king of Germany, who professed himself a friend of
  Rome. When Cæsar was in Gaul, Ariovistus marched against him, and
  was conquered with the loss of 80,000 men. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_,
  bk. 1.――_Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 4.

=Aris=, a river of Messenia. _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 31.

=Arisba=, a town of Lesbos, destroyed by an earthquake. _Pliny_, bk. 5,
  ch. 31.――――A colony of the Mityleneans in Troas, destroyed by the
  Trojans before the coming of the Greeks. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9,
  li. 264.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 7.――――The name of Priam’s first wife,
  divorced that the monarch might marry Hecuba.

=Aristænĕtus=, a writer whose epistles have been beautifully edited by
  Abresch. Zwollæ, 1749.

=Aristæum=, a city of Thrace at the foot of mount Hæmus. _Pliny_,
  bk. 4, ch. 11.

=Aristæus=, son of Apollo and the nymph Cyrene, was born in the deserts
  of Libya, and brought up by the Seasons, and fed upon nectar and
  ambrosia. His fondness for hunting procured him the surname of Nomus
  and Agreus. After he had travelled over the greatest part of the
  world, Aristæus came to settle in Greece, where he married Autonoe
  the daughter of Cadmus, by whom he had a son called Actæon. He fell
  in love with Eurydice the wife of Orpheus, and pursued her in the
  fields. She was stung by a serpent that lay in the grass, and died,
  for which the gods destroyed all the bees of Aristæus. In this
  calamity he applied to his mother, who directed him to seize the
  sea-god Proteus, and consult him how he might repair the losses he
  had sustained. Proteus advised him to appease the manes of Eurydice
  by the sacrifice of four bulls and four heifers; and as soon as he
  had done it and left them in the air, swarms of bees immediately
  sprang from the rotten carcases, and restored Aristæus to his former
  prosperity. Some authors say that Aristæus had the care of Bacchus
  when young, and that he was initiated in the mysteries of this god.
  Aristæus went to live on mount Hæmus, where he died. He was, after
  death, worshipped as a demi-god. Aristæus is said to have learned
  from the nymphs the cultivation of olives, and the management of
  bees, &c., which he afterwards communicated to the rest of mankind.
  _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 4, li. 317.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.――_Justin_,
  bk. 13, ch. 7.――_Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 1, li. 363.――_Cicero_, _de
  Natura Deorum_, bk. 3, ch. 18.――_Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 17.
  ――_Hyginus_, fables 161, 180, 247.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 4.
  ――_Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 4, &c.――_Polyænus_, bk. 1, ch. 24.――――A
  general who commanded the Corinthian forces at the siege of Potidæa.
  He was taken by the Athenians and put to death.

=Aristagŏras=, a writer who composed a history of Egypt. _Pliny_,
  bk. 36, ch. 12.――――A son-in-law of Histiæus tyrant of Miletus, who
  revolted from Darius, and incited the Athenians against Persia,
  and burnt Sardis. This so exasperated the king, that every evening
  before supper he ordered his servants to remind him of punishing
  Aristagoras. He was killed in a battle against the Persians, B.C.
  499. _Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 30, &c.; bk. 7, ch. 8.――_Polyænus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 14.――――A man of Cyzicus.――――Another of Cumæ. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 4.

=Aristander=, a celebrated soothsayer, greatly esteemed by Alexander.
  _Plutarch_, _Alexander_.――_Pliny_, bk. 17, ch. 25.――――An Athenian,
  who wrote on agriculture.

=Aristandros=, a statuary of Sparta. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 18.

=Aristarche=, a matron of Ephesus, who by order of Diana sailed to the
  coasts of Gaul with the Phocæans, and was made priestess. _Strabo_,
  bk. 4.

=Aristarchus=, a celebrated grammarian of Samos, disciple of
  Aristophanes. He lived the greatest part of his life at Alexandria,
  and Ptolemy Philometer entrusted him with the education of his sons.
  He was famous for his critical powers, and he revised the poems of
  Homer with such severity that ever after all severe critics were
  called _Aristarchi_. He wrote above 800 commentaries on different
  authors, much esteemed in his age. In his old age he became
  dropsical, upon which he starved himself, and died in his 72nd year,
  B.C. 157. He left two sons called Aristarchus and Aristagoras, both
  famous for their stupidity. _Horace_, _Art of Poetry_, li. 499.
  ――_Ovid_, bk. 3, _ex Ponto_, ltr. 9, li. 24.――_Cicero_, _Letters to
  his Friends_, bk. 3, ltr. 11; _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 1, ltr. 14.
  ――_Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――――A tragic poet of Tegea in Arcadia,
  about 454 years B.C. He composed 70 tragedies, of which two only
  were rewarded with the prize. One of them, called Achilles, was
  translated into Latin verse by Ennius. _Suidas._――――A physician
  to queen Berenice the widow of Antiochus. _Polyænus_, bk. 8.――――An
  orator of Ambracia.――――An astronomer of Samos, who first supposed
  that the earth turned round its axis, and revolved round the sun.
  This doctrine nearly proved fatal to him, as he was accused of
  disturbing the peace of the gods Lares. He maintained that the sun
  was 19 times further distant from the earth than the moon, and that
  the moon was 56 semi-diameters of our globe, and little more than
  one-third, and the diameter of the sun six or seven times more than
  that of the earth. The age in which he flourished is not precisely
  known. His treatise on the largeness and the distance of the sun and
  moon is extant, of which the best edition is that of Oxford, 8vo,

=Aristazānes=, a noble Persian in favour with Artaxerxes Ochus.
  _Diodorus_, bk. 16.

=Aristeas=, a poet of Proconnesus, who, as fables report, appeared
  seven years after his death to his countrymen, and 540 years after
  to the people of Metapontum in Italy, and commanded them to raise
  him a statue near the temple of Apollo. He wrote an epic poem on
  the Arimaspi in three books, and some of his verses are quoted by
  Longinus. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 13.――_Strabo_, bk. 14.――_Maximus
  Tyrius_, bk. 22.――――A ♦physician of Rhodes.――――A geometrician,
  intimate with Euclid.――――A poet, son of Demochares, in the age of

      ♦ ‘physican’ replaced with ‘physician’

=Aristĕræ=, an island on the coast of Peloponnesus. _Pausanias_, bk. 2,
  ch. 34.

=Aristeus=, a man of Argos, who excited king Pyrrhus to take up arms
  against his countrymen the Argives. _Polyænus_, bk. 8, ch. 68.

=Aristhĕnes=, a shepherd who found Æsculapius, when he had been
  exposed in the woods by his mother Coronis.

=Aristhus=, an historian of Arcadia. _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_,
  bk. 1.

=Aristībus=, a river of Pæonia. _Polyænus_, bk. 4, ch. 12.

=Aristīdes=, a celebrated Athenian, son of Lysimachus, whose great
  temperance and virtue procured him the surname of _Just_. He was
  rival to Themistocles, by whose influence he was banished for 10
  years, B.C. 484; but before six years of his exile had elapsed, he
  was recalled by the Athenians. He was at the battle of Salamis, and
  was appointed chief commander with Pausanias against Mardonius, who
  was defeated at Platæa. He died so poor, that the expenses of his
  funeral were defrayed at the public charge, and his two daughters,
  on account of their father’s virtues, received a dowry from the
  public treasury when they were come to marriageable years. Poverty,
  however, seemed hereditary in the family of Aristides, for the
  grandson was seen in the public streets, getting his livelihood by
  explaining dreams. The Athenians became more virtuous in imitating
  their great leader: and from the sense of his good qualities, at the
  representation of one of the tragedies of Æschylus, on the mentioning
  of a sentence concerning moral goodness, the eyes of the audience
  were all at once turned from the actor to Aristides. When he sat as
  judge, it is said that the plaintiff, in his accusation, mentioned
  the injuries his opponent had done to Aristides. “Mention the wrongs
  you have received,” replied the equitable Athenian; “I sit here as
  judge, and the lawsuit is yours, and not mine.” _Cornelius Nepos_
  & _Plutarch_, _Parallel Lives_.――――An historian of Miletus, fonder
  of stories, and of anecdotes, than of truth. He wrote a history
  of Italy, of which the 40th volume has been quoted by _Plutarch_,
  _Parallela minora_.――――An athlete, who obtained a prize at the
  Olympian, Nemæan, and Pythian games. _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 16.
  ――――A painter of Thebes in Bœotia, in the age of Alexander the Great,
  for one of whose pieces Attalus offered 6000 sesterces. _Pliny_,
  bks. 7 & 35.――――A Greek orator who wrote 50 orations, besides other
  tracts. When Smyrna was destroyed by an earthquake, he wrote so
  pathetic a letter to Marcus Aurelius, that the emperor ordered the
  city immediately to be rebuilt, and a statue was in consequence
  raised to the orator. His works consist of hymns in prose in honour
  of the gods, funeral orations, apologies, panegyrics, and harangues,
  the best edition of which is that of Jebb, 2 vols., 4to, Oxoford,
  1722, and that in a smaller size in 12mo, 3 vols., of Canterus
  apud P. Steph. 1604.――――A man of Locris, who died by the bite of a
  weasel. _Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 14.――――A philosopher of Mysia,
  intimate with Marcus Antoninus.――――An Athenian, who wrote treatises
  on animals, trees, and agriculture.

=Aristillus=, a philosopher of the Alexandrian school, who about 300
  years B.C. attempted, with Timocharis, to determine the place of
  the different stars in the heavens, and to trace the course of the

=Aristio=, a sophist of Athens, who by the support of Archelaus, the
  general of Mithridates, seized the government of his country, and
  made himself absolute. He poisoned himself when defeated by Sylla.
  _Livy_, bks. 81, 82.

=Aristippus=, _the elder_, a philosopher of Cyrene, disciple to
  Socrates, and founder of the Cyrenaic sect. He was one of the
  flatterers of Dionysius of Sicily, and distinguished himself for
  his epicurean voluptuousness, in support of which he wrote a book,
  as likewise a history of Libya. When travelling in the deserts of
  Africa, he ordered his servants to throw away the money they carried,
  as too burdensome. On another occasion, discovering that the ship
  in which he sailed belonged to pirates, he designedly threw his
  property into the sea, adding, that he chose rather to lose it than
  his life. Many of his sayings and maxims are recorded by _Diogenes
  Laërtius_, in his life. _Horace_, bk. 2, satire 3, li. 100.――――His
  grandson of the same name, called _the younger_, was a warm defender
  of his opinions, and supported that the principles of all things
  were pain and pleasure. He flourished about 363 years B.C.――――A
  tyrant of Argos, whose life was one continued series of apprehension.
  He was killed by a Cretan in a battle against Aratus, B.C. 242.
  _Diogenes Laërtius._――――A man who wrote a history of Arcadia.
  _Diogenes Laërtius_, bk. 2.

=Marcus Aristius=, a tribune of the soldiers in Cæsar’s army. _Cæsar_,
  _Gallic War_, bk. 7, ch. 42.――――Another. _See:_ Fuscus.――――A
  satirist, who wrote a poem called Cyclops.

=Aristo.= _See:_ Ariston.

=Aristobūla=, a name given to Diana by Themistocles.

=Aristobūlus=, a name common to some of the high priests and kings
  of Judæa, &c. _Josephus._――――A brother of Epicurus.――――One of
  Alexander’s attendants, who wrote the king’s life, replete with
  adulation and untruth.――――A philosopher of Judæa, B.C. 150.

=Aristoclēa=, a beautiful woman, seen naked by Strato as she was
  offering a sacrifice. She was passionately loved by Callisthenes,
  and was equally admired by Strato. The two rivals so furiously
  contended for her hand, that she died during their quarrel, upon
  which Strato killed himself, and Callisthenes was never seen after.
  _Plutarch_, _Amatoriæ Narrationes_.

=Aristŏcles=, a peripatetic philosopher of Messenia, who reviewed,
  in a treatise on philosophy, the opinions of his predecessors. The
  14th book of this treatise is quoted, &c. He also wrote on rhetoric,
  and likewise nine books on morals.――――A grammarian of Rhodes.――――A
  stoic of Lampsacus.――――An historian. _Strabo_, bk. 4.――――A musician.
  _Athenæus_, &c.――――A prince of Tegæa, &c. _Polyænus._――――This name
  is common to many Greeks, of whom few or no particulars are recorded.

=Aristoclīdes=, a tyrant of Orchomenes, who, because he could not win
  the affection of Stymphalis, killed her and her father, upon which
  all Arcadia took up arms and destroyed the murderer.

=Aristocrătes=, a king of Arcadia, put to death by his subjects for
  offering violence to the priestess of Diana. _Pausanias_, bk. 8,
  ch. 5.――――His grandson, of the same name, was stoned to death
  for taking bribes, during the second Messenian war, and being the
  cause of the defeat of his Messenian allies, B.C. 682. _Pausanias_,
  _ibid._――――A Rhodian.――――A man who endeavoured to destroy the
  democratical power at Athens.――――An Athenian general sent to the
  assistance of Corcyra with 25 galleys. _Diodorus_, bk. 15.――――An
  Athenian who was punished with death for flying from the field
  of battle.――――A Greek historian, son of Hipparchus. _Plutarch_,

=Aristocreon=, the writer of a book on geography.

=Aristocrĭtus=, wrote a treatise concerning Miletus.

=Aristodēme=, a daughter of Priam.

=Aristodēmus=, son of Aristomachus, was one of the Heraclidæ. He,
  with his brothers Temenus and Cresphontes, invaded Peloponnesus,
  conquered it, and divided the country among themselves, 1104 years
  before the christian era. He married Argia, by whom he had the twins
  Procles and Eurysthenes. He was killed by a thunderbolt at Naupactum,
  though some say that he died at Delphi in Phocis. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 18; bk. 3, chs. 1 & 16.――_Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 204;
  bk. 8, ch. 131.――――A king of Messenia, who maintained a famous war
  against Sparta. After some losses, he recovered his strength, and
  so effectually defeated the enemy’s forces, that they were obliged
  to prostitute their women to repeople their country. The offspring
  of this prostitution were called Partheniæ, and 30 years after
  their birth they left Sparta, and seized upon Tarentum. Aristodemus
  put his daughter to death for the good of his country; but being
  afterwards persecuted in a dream by her manes, he killed himself,
  after a reign of six years and some months, in which he had obtained
  much military glory, B.C. 724. His death was lamented by his
  countrymen, who did not appoint him a successor, but only invested
  Damis, one of his friends, with absolute power to continue the war,
  which was at last terminated after much bloodshed and many losses
  on both sides. _Pausanias_, _Messenia_.――――A tyrant of Cumæ.――――A
  philosopher of Ægina.――――An Alexandrian who wrote some treatises, &c.
  ――――A Spartan who taught the children of Pausanias.――――A man who was
  preceptor to the children of Pompey.――――A tyrant of Arcadia.――――A
  Carian who wrote a history of painting.――――A philosopher of Nysa,
  B.C. 68.

=Aristogĕnes=, a physician of Cnidos, who obtained great reputation
  by the cure of Demetrius Gonatus king of Macedonia.――――A Thasian who
  wrote 24 books on medicine.

=Aristogīton= and =Harmodius=, two celebrated friends of Athens, who
  by their joint efforts delivered their country from the tyranny of
  the Pisistratidæ, B.C. 510. They received immortal honours from the
  Athenians, and had statues raised to their memory. These statues
  were carried away by Xerxes when he took Athens. The conspiracy
  of Aristogiton was so secretly planned, and so wisely carried into
  execution, that it is said a courtesan bit her tongue off, not
  to betray the trust reposed in her. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 29.
  ――_Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 55.――_Plutarch_, _Lives of the Ten
  Orators_.――――An Athenian orator, surnamed _Canis_, from his
  impudence. He wrote orations against Timarchus, Timotheus, Hyperides,
  and Thrasyllus.――――A statuary. _Pausanias._

=Aristolāus=, a painter. _Pliny_, bk. 31, ch. 11.

=Aristomăche=, the wife of Dionysius of Syracuse. _Cicero_, _Tusculanæ
  Disputationes_, bk. 5, ch. 20.――――The wife of Dion.――――A poetess.
  _Plutarch_, _Convivium Septem Sapientium_.――――A daughter of Priam,
  who married Critolaus. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 26.

=Aristomăchus=, an Athenian, who wrote concerning the preparation
  of wine. _Pliny_, bk. 14, ch. 9.――――A man so excessively fond of
  bees, that he devoted 58 years of his life in raising swarms of
  them. _Pliny_, bk. 11, ch. 9.――――The son of Cleodæus and grandson
  of Hyllus, whose three sons, Cresphontes, Temenus, and Aristodemus,
  called Heraclidæ, conquered Peloponnesus. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 7;
  bk. 3, ch. 15.――_Herodotus_, bks. 6, 7, & 8.――――A man who laid aside
  his sovereign power at Argos, at the persuasion of Aratus.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 8.

=Aristomēdes=, a Thessalian general in the interest of Darius III.
  _Curtius_, bk. 3, ch. 9.

=Aristomĕnes=, a commander of the fleet of Darius on the Hellespont,
  conquered by the Macedonians. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 1.――――A famous
  general of Messenia, who encouraged his countrymen to shake off the
  Lacedæmonian yoke under which they had laboured for above 30 years.
  He once defended the virtue of some Spartan women, whom his soldiers
  had attempted; and when he was taken prisoner and carried to Sparta,
  the women whom he had protected interested themselves so warmly in
  his cause that they procured his liberty. He refused to assume the
  title of king, but was satisfied with that of commander. He acquired
  the surname of _Just_, from his equity, to which he joined the true
  valour, sagacity, and perseverance of a general. He often entered
  Sparta without being known and was so dexterous in eluding the
  vigilance of the Lacedæmonians, who had taken him captive, that
  he twice escaped from them. As he attempted to do it a third time,
  he was unfortunately killed, and his body being opened, his heart
  was found all covered with hair. He died 671 years B. C., and it is
  said that he left dramatical pieces behind him. _Diodorus_, bk. 15.
  ――_Pausanias_, _Messenia_.――――A Spartan sent to the assistance of
  Dionysius. _Polyænus_, bk. 2.

=Ariston=, the son of Agasicles king of Sparta. Being unable to raise
  children by two wives, he married another famous for her beauty, by
  whom he had, after seven months, a son Demaratus, whom he had the
  impudence to call not his own. _Herodotus_, bk. 6, ch. 61, &c.――――A
  general of Ætolia.――――A sculptor.――――A Corinthian who assisted
  the Syracusans against the Athenians.――――An officer in Alexander’s
  army.――――A tyrant of Methymna, who, being ignorant that Chios had
  surrendered to the Macedonians, entered into the harbour, and was
  taken and put to death. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 9.――――A philosopher
  of Chios, pupil to Zeno the stoic, and founder of a sect which
  continued but a little while. He supported that the nature of the
  divinity is unintelligible. It is said that he died by the heat of
  the sun, which fell too powerfully upon his bald head. In his old
  age he was much given to sensuality. _Diogenes Laërtius._――――A
  lawyer in Trajan’s reign, whose eulogium has been written by Pliny,
  ltr. 22, bk. 1.――――A peripatetic philosopher of Alexandria, who
  wrote concerning the course of the Nile. _Strabo._――――A wrestler of
  Argos, under whom Plato performed some exercises.――――A musician of
  Athens.――――A tragic poet.――――A peripatetic of Cos.――――A native of
  Pella, in the age of Adrian, who wrote on the rebellion of the Jews.

=Aristonautæ=, the naval dock of Pellene. _Pausanias_, bk. 2.

=Aristonīcus=, son of Eumenes by a concubine of Ephesus, 126 B.C.,
  invaded Asia and the kingdom of Pergamus, which Attalus had left by
  his will to the Roman people. He was conquered by the consul Perpenna,
  and strangled in prison. _Justin_, bk. 36, ch. 4.――_Florus_, bk. 2,
  ch. 20.――――A musician of Olynthus.――――A grammarian of Alexandria,
  who wrote a commentary on Hesiod and Homer, besides a treatise on
  the museum established in Alexandria by the Ptolemies.

=Aristonĭdes=, a noble statuary. _Pliny_, bk. 34, ch. 14.

=Aristŏnus=, a captain of Alexander’s cavalry. _Curtius_, bk. 9, ch. 5.

=Aristony̆mus=, a comic poet under Philadelphus, keeper of the library
  at Alexandria. He died of a retention of urine, in his 77th year.
  _Athenæus._――――One of Alexander’s musicians. _Plutarch_, _Alexander_.

=Aristophănes=, a celebrated comic poet of Athens, son of Philip of
  Rhodes. He wrote 54 comedies, of which only 11 are come down to us.
  He lived in the age of Socrates, Demosthenes, and Euripides, B.C.
  434, and lashed the vices of his age with a masterly hand. The wit
  and excellence of his comedies are well known; but they abound
  sometimes too much with obscenity; and his attack upon the venerable
  character of Socrates has been always censured, and with justice.
  As a reward for his mental greatness, the poet received a crown of
  olive, in a public assembly; but if he deserved praise, he merited
  blame for his licentiousness, which spared not even the gods, and was
  so offensive to his countrymen, that Alcibiades made a law at Athens,
  which forbade the comic writers from mimicking or representing on
  the stage any living character by name. Aristophanes has been called
  the prince of ancient comedy, as Menander of the new. The play
  called _Nubes_ is pointedly against Socrates, and the philosopher
  is exposed to ridicule, and his precepts placed in a most ludicrous
  point of view by the introduction of one of his pupils in the
  characters of the piece. It is said that St. Chrysostom used to
  keep the comedies of Aristophanes under his pillow, on account of
  the brilliancy of the composition. Plutarch has made a comparison
  between the princes of the new and old comedy, which abounds
  with many anecdotes concerning these original characters. The
  best editions of the works of Aristophanes are, Kuster’s, folio,
  Amsterdam, 1710, and the 12mo, Leiden, 1670, and that of Brunck,
  4 vols., 8vo, Strasbourg, 1783, which would still be more perfect
  did it contain the valuable scholia. _Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.
  ――_Paterculus_, bk. 1, ch. 16.――_Horace_, bk. 1, satire 4, li. 1.
  ――――A grammarian of Byzantium, keeper of the library of Alexandria
  under Ptolemy Evergetes. He wrote a treatise on the harlots of
  Attica. _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Plutarch_ & _Epicurus_.――_Athenæus_,
  bk. 9.――――A Greek historian of Bœotia, quoted by _Plutarch_, _de
  Herodoti Malignitate_.――――A writer on agriculture.

=Aristophilīdes=, a king of Tarentum in the reign of Darius son of
  Hystaspes. _Herodotus_, bk. 3.

=Aristŏphon=, a painter in the age of Socrates. He drew the picture
  of Alcibiades softly reclining on the bosom of the courtesan Nemea,
  and all the people of Athens ran in crowds to be spectators of the
  masterly piece. He also made a painting of Mars leaning on the arm
  of Venus. _Plutarch_, _Alcibiades_.――_Athenæus_, bk. 13.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 35, ch. 11.――――A comic poet in the age of Alexander, many of
  whose fragments are collected in Athenæus.

=Aristor=, the father of Argus the hundred-eyed keeper of Io.

=Aristorĭdes=, the patronymic of Argus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 1, li. 624.

=Aristoteleia=, festivals in honour of Aristotle, because he obtained
  the restitution of his country from Alexander.

=Aristotĕles=, a famous philosopher, son of the physician Nicomachus
  by Festiada, born at Stagira. After his father’s death he went to
  Athens to hear Plato’s lectures, where he soon signalized himself
  by the brightness of his genius. He had been of an inactive and
  dissolute disposition in his youth, but now he applied himself with
  uncommon diligence; and after he had spent 20 years in hearing the
  instructions of Plato, he opened a school for himself, for which he
  was accused of ingratitude and illiberality by his ancient master.
  He was moderate in his meals; he slept little, and always had one
  arm out of his couch with a bullet in it, which by falling into a
  brazen basin underneath, early awakened him. He was, according to
  some, 10 years preceptor to Alexander, who received his instructions
  with much pleasure and deference, and always respected him. According
  to Plutarch, the improvement that Alexander made under Aristotle
  was of more service to him than all the splendour and power which he
  received from Philip. Almost all his writings, which are composed on
  a variety of subjects, are extant: he gave them to Theophrastus at
  his death, and they were bought by one of the Ptolemies, and placed
  in the famous library of Alexandria. Diogenes Laertes has given
  us a very extensive catalogue of them. Aristotle had a deformed
  countenance, but his genius was a sufficient compensation for all
  his personal defects. He has been called by Plato the philosopher
  of truth; and Cicero compliments him with the title of a man of
  eloquence, universal knowledge, readiness and acuteness of invention,
  and fecundity of thought. The writings of Aristotle have been
  compared with those of Plato; but the one are the effusions of a
  lively and fruitful imagination, whilst the philosopher of Stagira
  studied nature more than art, and had recourse to simplicity of
  expression more than ornament. He neither worshipped nor cared for
  the divinity, concerning which his opinions were ever various and
  dissonant; and the more he disregarded the mythology of the ancients,
  the greater was the credit he acquired over his less philosophical
  predecessors. He was so authoritative in his opinions, that, as
  Bacon observes, he wished to establish the same dominion over men’s
  minds, as his pupil over nations. Alexander, it is said, wished
  and encouraged his learned tutor to write the history of animals;
  and the more effectually to assist him, he supplied him with 800
  talents, and in his Asiatic expedition employed above 1000 men to
  collect animals, either in fishing, hunting, or hawking, which were
  carefully transmitted to the philosopher. Aristotle’s logic has
  long reigned in the schools, and been regarded as the perfect model
  of all imitation. As he expired, the philosopher is said to have
  uttered the following sentiment: _Fœde hunc mundum intravi, anxius
  vixi, perturbatus egredior, causa causarum miserere mei_. The letter
  which Philip wrote to Aristotle has been preserved, and is in these
  words: “I inform you I have a son; I thank the gods, not so much
  for making me a father, as for giving me a son in an age when he
  can have Aristotle for his instructor. I hope you will make him a
  successor worthy of me, and a king worthy of Macedonia.” Aristotle
  wished to make his wife Pythias a deity, and to pay her the same
  worship as was paid to Ceres. He died in the 63rd year of his age,
  B.C. 322. His treatises have been published separately; but the best
  edition of the works collectively, is that of Duval, 2 vols., folio,
  Paris, 1629. Tyrwhitt’s edition of the Poetica, Oxford, 4to, 1794,
  is a valuable acquisition to literature. He had a son whom he called
  Nicomachus, by the courtesan Herpyllis. Some have accused him of
  being accessary to the death of Alexander, and said that he drowned
  himself in the Euripus, because he could not find out the cause of
  its flux and reflux. There are, however, different reports about
  the manner of his death, and some believe that he died at Athens of
  a cholic, two years after Alexander’s death. The people of Stagira
  instituted festivals in his honour, because he had rendered
  important services to their city. _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Lives of
  Eminent Philosophers_.――_Plutarch_, _Alexander_ & _de Alexandri
  Magni Fortuna Aut Virtute_, &c.――_Cicero_, _Academica Quæstiones_,
  bk. 4; _On Oratory_, bk. 3; _de Finibus_, bk. 5.――_Quintilian_, bks.
  1, 2, 5, 10.――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 4.――_Justin_, bk. 12.
  ――_Justin Martyr._――_Augustine_, _City of God_, bk. 8.――_Pliny_,
  bks. 2, 4, 5, &c.――_Athenæus._――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 5, ch. 6, &c.
  There were besides seven of the same name. A magistrate of Athens.
  ――――A commentator on Homer’s Iliad.――――An orator of Sicily, who
  answered the panegyric of Isocrates.――――A friend of Æschines.――――A
  man of Cyrene who wrote on poetry.――――A schoolmaster mentioned in
  Plato’s life, written by Aristoxenus.――――An obscure grammarian.
  _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Aristotle_.

=Aristotīmus=, a tyrant of Elis, 271 years B.C. _Pausanias_, bk. 5,
  ch. 5.

=Aristoxĕnus=, a celebrated musician, disciple of Aristotle, and born
  at Tarentum. He wrote 453 different treatises on philosophy, history,
  &c., and was disappointed in his expectations of succeeding in the
  school of Aristotle, for which he always spoke with ingratitude
  of his learned master. Of all his works nothing remains but three
  books upon music, the most ancient on that subject extant.――――A
  philosopher of Cyrene. _Athenæus._――――A physician whose writings are
  quoted by Galen.――――A poet of Selinus.――――A Pythagorean philosopher.

=Aristus=, a Greek historian of Salamas, who wrote an account of
  Alexander’s expedition. _Strabo_, bk. 14.――_Arrian_, bk. 7.

=Aristyllus=, an obscure poet. _Aristophanes._――――An astronomer of
  Alexandria, 292 B.C.

=Arius=, a river of Gaul, and――――of Asia. The inhabitants in the
  neighbourhood are called Arii.――――A celebrated writer, the origin
  of the Arian controversy, that denied the eternal divinity and
  consubstantiality of the Word. Though he was greatly persecuted for
  his opinions, he gained the favour of the emperor Constantine, and
  triumphed over his powerful antagonist Athanasius. He died the very
  night he was going to enter the church of Constantinople in triumph.
  Pressed by nature, he went aside to ease himself; but his bowels
  gushed out, and he expired on the spot, A.D. 336. _Athanasius._

=Armĕnes=, a son of Nabis, led in triumph at Rome. _Livy_, bk. 34,
  ch. 1.

=Armenia=, a large country of Asia, divided into Upper and Lower
  Armenia. Upper Armenia, called also Major, has Media on the east,
  Iberia on the north, and Mesopotamia on the south. Lower Armenia,
  or Minor, is bounded by Cappadocia, Armenia Major, Syria, Cilicia,
  and the Euphrates. The Armenians were a long time under the dominion
  of the Medes and Persians, till they were conquered with the rest
  of Asia, by Alexander and his successors. The Romans made it one of
  their provinces, and under some of the emperors the Armenians had
  the privilege of choosing their own kings, but they were afterwards
  reduced. The country received its name from Armenus, who was one
  of the Argonauts, and of Thessalian origin. They borrowed the names
  and attributes of their deities from the Persians. They paid great
  adoration to Venus Anaitis, and the chiefest of the people always
  prostituted their daughters in honour of this goddess. Armenia Major
  is now called Turcomania, and Minor, Aladulia. _Herodotus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 194; bk. 5, ch. 49.――_Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 12; bk. 5, ch. 1.
  ――_Strabo_, bks. 1 & 11.――_Mela_, bk. 3, chs. 5 & 8.――_Pliny_, bk. 6,
  ch. 4, &c.――_Lucan_, bk. 2.

=Armentarius=, a Cæsar in Diocletian’s reign.

=Armillatus=, one of Domitian’s favourites. _Juvenal_, satire 4, li. 53.

=Armilustrium=, a festival at Rome on the 19th of October. When the
  sacrifices were offered, all the people appeared under arms. The
  festival has often been confounded with that of the Salii, though
  easily distinguished; because the latter was observed the 2nd of
  March, and on the celebration of the Armilustrium they always played
  on a flute, and the Salii played upon the trumpet. It was instituted
  A.U.C. 543. _Varro_, _de Lingua Latina_, bk. 5, ch. 3.――_Livy_,
  bk. 27, ch. 37.

=Arminius=, a warlike general of the Germans, who supported a
  bloody war against Rome for some time, and was at last conquered
  by Germanicus in two great battles. He was poisoned by one of his
  friends, A.D. 19, in the 37th year of his age. _Dio Cassius_, bk.
  56.――_Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 1, &c.

=Armorĭcæ=, cities of Celtic Gaul, famous for the warlike, rebellious,
  and inconstant disposition of the inhabitants called Armorici.
  Armorica extended between the rivers Liger and Sequana, and
  comprehended those rich and populous provinces now called Britany
  and Normandy. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_.

=Arne=, a city of Lycia, called afterwards Xanthus.――――A town of
  Umbria in Italy.――――A daughter of Æolus, who gave her name to two
  towns, one in Thessaly, the other in Bœotia. Neptune changed himself
  into a bull to enjoy her company. _Strabo_, bks. 1 & 2.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 9, ch. 40.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 6, fable 4.

=Arni=, a people of Italy, destroyed by Hercules.

=Arniensis=, a tribe in Rome. _Livy_, bk. 6.

=Arnobius=, a philosopher in Diocletian’s reign, who became a convert
  to christianity. He applied for ordination, but was refused by the
  bishops till he gave them a proof of his sincerity. Upon this he
  wrote his celebrated treatise, in which he exposed the absurdity
  of irreligion, and ridiculed the heathen gods. Opinions are various
  concerning the purity of his style, though all agree in praise
  of his extensive erudition. The book that he wrote, _De Rhetoricâ
  Institutione_, is not extant. The best edition of his treatise
  _Adversus Gentes_ is the 4to, printed Leiden, 1651.

=Arnus=, a river of Etruria, rising in the Apennine mountains, and
  falling into the Mediterranean. _Livy_, bk. 22, ch. 2.

=Aroa=, a town of Achaia. _Pausanias_, bk. 7.

=Aroma=, a town of Caria,――――of Cappadocia.

=Arpāni=, a people of Italy.

=Arpi=, a city of Apulia, built by Diomedes after the Trojan war.
  _Justin_, bk. 20, ch. 1.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 28.

=Arpīnum=, a town of the Volsci, famous for giving birth to Cicero and
  Marius. The words _Arpinæ chartæ_ are sometimes applied to Cicero’s
  works. _Martial_, bk. 10, ltr. 19.――_Juvenal_, satire 8, li. 237.
  ――_Cicero_, _De Lege Agraria contra Rullum_, speech 3.――――A town of
  Magna Græcia.

=Arræi=, a people of Thrace. _Pliny._

=Arrharæus=, the king of a nation in the neighbourhood of Macedonia,
  who greatly distressed Archelaus. _Aristotle_, bk. 5, _Politics_,
  ch. 10.

=Arria=. _See:_ Aria.

=Arria Galla=, a beautiful but immodest woman in the reign of the
  emperors. _Tacitus_, bk. 15, ch. 19.

=Arriānus=, a philosopher of Nicomedia, priest of Ceres and Proserpine,
  and disciple of Epictetus, called a second Xenophon, from the
  elegance and sweetness of his diction, and distinguished for his
  acquaintance with military and political life. He wrote seven books
  on Alexander’s expedition, the periplus of the Euxine and Red seas,
  four books on the dissertations of Epictetus, besides an account of
  the Alani, Bithynians, and Parthians. He flourished about the 140th
  year of Christ, and was rewarded with the consulship and government
  of Cappadocia, by Marcus Antoninus. The best edition of Arrian’s
  _Expeditio Alexandri_, is the folio Gronovii, Leiden, 1704, and the
  8vo, à Raphelio, 2 vols., 1757, and the Tactica, 8vo, Amsterdam,
  1683.――――A Greek historian.――――An Athenian who wrote a treatise on
  hunting, and the manner of keeping dogs.――――A poet who wrote an epic
  poem in 24 books on Alexander; also another poem on Attalus king of
  Pergamus. He likewise translated Virgil’s Georgics into Greek verse.

=Arrius=, a friend of Cicero, whose sumptuous feast _Horace_ describes,
  bk. 2, satire 3, li. 86.――――Aper, a Roman general who murdered the
  emperor, &c.

=Arrius= and =Arius=, a philosopher of Alexandria, who so ingratiated
  himself with Augustus, after the battle of Actium, that the conqueror
  declared the people of Alexandria owed the preservation of their
  city to three causes; because Alexander was their founder, because
  of the beauty of the situation, and because Arrius was a native of
  the place. _Plutarch_, _Antonius_.

=Arruntius=, a Roman consul.――――A famous geographer who, upon being
  accused of adultery and treason, under Tiberius, opened his veins.
  _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 6.

=Arsabes=, a satrap of Armenia.――――Of Persia. _Polyænus._

=Arsăces=, a man of obscure origin, who, upon seeing Seleucus defeated
  by the Gauls, invaded Parthia, and conquered the governor of
  the province called Andragoras, and laid the foundations of an
  empire, 250 B.C. He added the kingdom of the Hyrcani to his newly
  acquired possessions, and spent his time in establishing his
  power, and regulating the laws. After death he was made a god of
  his nation, and all his successors were called, in honour of his
  name, _Arsacidæ_. _Justin_, bk. 41, chs. 5 & 6.――_Strabo_, bks.
  11 & 12.――――His son and successor bore the same name. He carried
  war against Antiochus the son of Seleucus, who entered the field
  with 100,000 foot and 20,000 horse. He afterwards made peace with
  Antiochus, and died B.C. 217. _Justin_, bk. 41, ch. 5.――――The third
  king of Parthia, of the family of the Arsacidæ, bore the same name,
  and was also called Priapatius. He reigned 12 years, and left two
  sons, Mithridates and Phraates. Phraates succeeded as being the
  elder, and at his death he left his kingdom to his brother, though
  he had many children; observing that a monarch ought to have in
  view, not the dignity of his family, but the prosperity of his
  subjects. _Justin_, bk. 31, ch. 5.――――A king of Pontus and Armenia,
  in alliance with the Romans. He fought long with success against
  the Persians, till he was deceived by the snares of king Sapor,
  his enemy, who put out his eyes, and soon after deprived him of
  life. _Marcellinus._――――The eldest son of Artabanus, appointed over
  Armenia by his father, after the death of king Artaxias. _Tacitus_,
  _Histories_, bk. 6.――――A servant of Themistocles.

=Arsacĭdæ=, a name given to some of the monarchs of Parthia, in honour
  of Arsaces, the founder of the empire. Their power subsisted till
  the 229th year of the christian era, when they were conquered by
  Artaxerxes king of Persia. _Justin_, bk. 41.

=Arsamĕnes=, a satrap of Persia, at the battle of the Granicus.

=Arsametes=, a river of Asia, near Parthia. _Tacitus_, _Annals_,
  bk. 15.

=Arsamosāta=, a town of Armenia Major, 70 miles from the Euphrates.
  _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 15.

=Arsānes=, the son of Ochus and father of Codomanus.

=Arsanias=, a river of Armenia, which, according to some, flows into
  the Tigris, and afterwards into the Euphrates. _Pliny_, bk. 5,
  ch. 24.

=Arsēna=, a marsh of Armenia Major whose fishes are all of the same
  sort. _Strabo._

=Arses=, the youngest son of Ochus, whom the eunuch Bagoas raised to
  the throne of Persia, and destroyed with his children, after a reign
  of three years. _Diodorus_, bk. 17.

=Arsia=, a wood of Etruria, famous for a battle between the Romans
  and the Veientes. _Plutarch_, _Poplicola_.――――A small river between
  Illyricum and Istria, falling into the Adriatic.――――A river of Italy,
  flowing through Campania.

=Arsidæus=, a son of Datames, &c.

=Arsinoe=, daughter of Leucippus and Philodice, was mother of
  Æsculapius by Apollo, according to some authors. She received divine
  honours after death at Sparta. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 26; bk. 3, ch. 12.――――A daughter of Phlegeus, promised
  in marriage to Alcmæon. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 7.――――A fountain
  of Peloponnesus. _Pausanias_, _Messenia_.――――The sister and wife of
  Ptolemy Philadelphus, worshipped after death under the name of Venus
  Zephyritis. Dinochares began to build her a temple with loadstones,
  in which there stood a statue of Arsinoe suspended in the air by the
  power of the magnet; but the death of the architect prevented its
  being perfected. _Pliny_, bk. 34, ch. 14.――――A daughter of Ptolemy
  Lagus, who married Lysimachus king of Macedonia. After her husband’s
  death, Ceraunus, her own brother, married her, and ascended the
  throne of Macedonia. He previously murdered Lysimachus and Philip,
  the sons of Arsinoe by Lysimachus, in their mother’s arms. Arsinoe
  was some time after banished to Samothrace. _Justin_, bk. 17, ch. 1,
  &c.――――A younger daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, sister to Cleopatra.
  Antony despatched her to gain the good graces of her sister.
  _Hirtius_, _Alexandrine War_, ch. 4.――_Appian._――――The wife of Magas
  king of Cyrene, who committed adultery with her son-in-law. _Justin_,
  bk. 26, ch. 3.――――A daughter of Lysimachus. _Pausanias._――――A town
  of Egypt, situated near the lake of Mœris, on the western shore of
  the Nile, where the inhabitants paid the highest veneration to the
  crocodiles. They nourished them in a splendid manner, and embalmed
  them after death, and buried them in the subterraneous cells of the
  labyrinth. _Strabo._――――A town of Cilicia,――――of Æolia,――――of Syria,
  ――――of Cyprus,――――of Lycia, &c.

=Arsites=, a satrap of Paphlagonia.

=Artabānus=, son of Hystaspes, was brother to Darius I. He dissuaded
  his nephew Xerxes from making war against the Greeks, and at his
  return, he assassinated him with the hopes of ascending the throne.
  Darius the son of Xerxes was murdered in a similar manner; and
  Artaxerxes his brother would have shared the same fate, had not he
  discovered the snares of the assassin, and punished him with death.
  _Diodorus_, bk. 11.――_Justin_, bk. 3, ch. 1, &c.――_Herodotus_, bk. 4,
  ch. 38; bk. 7, ch. 10, &c.――――A king of Parthia, after the death
  of his nephew Phraates II. He undertook a war against a nation of
  Scythia, in which he perished. His son Mithridates succeeded him,
  and merited the appellation of Great. _Justin_, bk. 42, ch. 2.――――A
  king of Media, and afterwards of Parthia, after the expulsion of
  Vonones, whom Tiberius had made king there. He invaded Armenia, from
  whence he was driven away by one of the generals of Tiberius. He
  was expelled from his throne, which Tiridates usurped; and some time
  after he was restored again to his ancient power, and died A.D. 48.
  _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 5, &c.――――A king of Parthia, very inimical
  to the interest of Vespasian.――――Another king of Parthia, who made
  war against the emperor Caracalla, who had attempted his life on
  pretence of courting his daughter. He was murdered, and the power of
  Parthia abolished, and the crown transferred to the Persian monarchs.
  _Dio Cassius._――_Herodian._

=Artabazānes=, or =Artamĕnes=, the eldest son of Darius, when a private
  person. He attempted to succeed to the Persian throne, in preference
  to Xerxes. _Justin._

=Artabāzus=, a son of Pharnaces, general in the army of Xerxes. He
  fled from Greece upon the ill success of Mardonius. _Herodotus_,
  bks. 7, 8, & 9.――――A general who made war against Artaxerxes, and
  was defeated. He was afterwards reconciled to his prince, and became
  the familiar friend of Darius III. After the murder of this prince,
  he surrendered himself up with his sons to Alexander, who treated
  him with much humanity and confidence. _Curtius_, bk. 5, chs. 9 & 12;
  bk. 6, ch. 5; bk. 7, chs. 3 & 5; bk. 8, ch. 1.――――An officer of
  Artaxerxes against Datames. _Diodorus_, bk. 15.

=Artabri= and =Artabrĭtæ=, a people of Lusitania, who received their
  name from Artabrum, a promontory on the coast of Spain, now called
  _Finisterre_. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 3, li. 362.

=Artacæas=, an officer in the army of Xerxes, the tallest of all the
  troops, the king excepted.

=Artacæna=, a city of Asia, near Aria.

=Artăce=, a town and seaport near Cyzicus. It did not exist in the age
  of Pliny. There was in its neighbourhood a fountain called Artacia.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 14.――_Procopius_, _The Persian War_, bk. 1,
  ch. 25.――_Strabo_, bk. 13.――_Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 32.――――A city of
  Phrygia.――――A fortified place of Bithynia.

=Artacēne=, a country of Assyria near Arbela, where Alexander conquered
  Darius. _Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Artăcia=, a fountain in the country of the Læstrygones. _Tibullus_,
  bk. 4, poem 1, li. 60.

=Artæi=, a name by which the Persians were called among their
  neighbours. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 61.

=Artagreras=, a town of Upper Armenia. _Strabo._

=Artagerses=, a general in the army of Artaxerxes, killed by Cyrus the
  younger.――_Plutarch_, _Artaxerxes_.

=Artanes=, a king of the southern parts of Armenia. _Strabo_, bk. 11.
  ――――A river of Thrace flowing into the Ister. _Herodotus_, bk. 4,
  ch. 49.――――A river of Colchis.

=Artaphernes=, a general whom Darius sent into Greece with Datis. He
  was conquered at the battle of Marathon, by Miltiades. _See:_ Datis.
  _Cornelius Nepos_, _Miltiades_.――_Herodotus._

=Artatus=, a river of Illyria. _Livy_, bk. 43, ch. 19.

=Artavasdes=, a son of Tigranes king of Upper Armenia, who wrote
  tragedies, and shone as an elegant orator and faithful historian. He
  lived in alliance with the Romans, but Crassus was defeated, partly
  on account of his delay. He betrayed Marcus Antony in his expedition
  against Parthia, for which Antony reduced his kingdom, and carried
  him to Egypt, where he adorned the triumph of the conqueror led in
  golden chains. He was some time after murdered. _Strabo_, bk. 11.
  ――――The crown of Armenia was given by Tiberius to a person of the
  same name, who was expelled.――――Augustus had also raised to the
  throne of Armenia a person of the same name. _Tacitus_, _Annals_,
  bk. 2.

=Artaxa= and =Artaxias=, a general of Antiochus the Great, who erected
  the province of Armenia into a kingdom, by his reliance on the
  friendship of the Romans. King Tigranes was one of his successors.
  _Strabo_, bk. 11.

=Artaxăta= (orum), now _Ardesh_, a strongly fortified town of Upper
  Armenia, the capital of the empire, where the kings generally
  resided. It is said that Annibal built it for Artaxias the king of
  the country. It was burnt by Corbulo, and rebuilt by Tiridates, who
  called it _Neronea_, in honour of Nero. _Strabo_, bk. 11.

=Artaxerxes I.=, succeeded to the kingdom of Persia, after his
  father Xerxes. He destroyed Artabanus, who had murdered Xerxes, and
  attempted to cut off the whole royal family to raise himself to the
  throne. He made war against the Bactrians, and reconquered Egypt
  that had revolted, with the assistance of the Athenians, and was
  remarkable for his equity and moderation. One of his hands was
  longer than the other, whence he has been called _Macrochir_ or
  _Longimanus_. He reigned 39 years, and died B.C. 425. _Cornelius
  Nepos_, _Kings_.――_Plutarch_, _Artaxerxes_.――――The second of
  that name, king of Persia, was surnamed Mnemon, on account of his
  extensive memory. He was son of Darius II. by Parysatis the daughter
  of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and had three brothers, Cyrus, Ostanes,
  and Oxathres. His name was Arsaces, which he changed into Artaxerxes
  when he ascended the throne. His brother Cyrus was of such an
  ambitious disposition, that he resolved to make himself king, in
  opposition to Artaxerxes. Parysatis always favoured Cyrus; and when
  he had attempted the life of Artaxerxes, she obtained his pardon
  by her entreaties and influence. Cyrus, who had been appointed
  over Lydia and the sea coasts, assembled a large army under various
  pretences, and at last marched against his brother at the head of
  100,000 barbarians and 13,000 Greeks. He was opposed by Artaxerxes
  with 900,000 men, and a bloody battle was fought at Cunaxa, in which
  Cyrus was killed, and his forces routed. It has been reported that
  Cyrus was killed by Artaxerxes, who was so desirous of the honour,
  that he put to death two men for saying that they had killed him.
  The Greeks, who had assisted Cyrus against his brother, though at
  the distance of above 600 leagues from their country, made their way
  through the territories of the enemy; and nothing is more famous in
  the Grecian history, than the retreat of the 10,000. After he was
  delivered from the attacks of his brother, Artaxerxes stirred up
  a war among the Grecian states against Sparta, and exerted all his
  influence to weaken the power of the Greeks. He married two of his
  own daughters, called Atossa and Amestria, and named his eldest son
  Darius to be his successor. Darius, however, conspired against his
  father, and was put to death; and Ochus, one of the younger sons,
  called also Artaxerxes, made his way to the throne, by causing his
  elder brothers Ariaspes and Arsames to be assassinated. It is said
  that Artaxerxes died of a broken heart, in consequence of his son’s
  unnatural behaviour, in the 94th year of his age, after a reign
  of 46 years, B.C. 358. Artaxerxes had 150 children by his 350
  concubines, and only four legitimate sons. _Plutarch_, _Parallel
  Lives_.――_Cornelius Nepos_, _Kings_.――_Justin_, bk. 10, ch. 1, &c.
  ――_Diodorus_, bk. 13, &c.――――The third, surnamed Ochus, succeeded
  his father Artaxerxes II., and established himself on his throne by
  murdering above 80 of his nearest relations. He punished with death
  one of his officers who conspired against him, and recovered Egypt,
  which had revolted, destroyed Sidon, and ravaged all Syria. He made
  war against the Cadusii, and greatly rewarded a private man called
  Codomanus for his uncommon valour. But his behaviour in Egypt, and
  his cruelty towards the inhabitants, offended his subjects, and
  Bagoas at last obliged his physician to poison him, B.C. 337, and
  afterwards gave his flesh to be devoured by cats, and made handles
  for swords with his bones. Codomanus, on account of his virtues,
  was soon after made king by the people; and that he might seem to
  possess as much dignity as the house of Artaxerxes, he reigned under
  the name of Darius III. _Justin_, bk. 10, ch. 3.――_Diodorus_, bk. 17.
  ――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 6, ch. 8.

=Artaxerxes=, or =Artaxares I.=, a common soldier of Persia, who
  killed Artabanus, A.D. 228, and erected Persia again into a kingdom,
  which had been extinct since the death of Darius. Severus the Roman
  emperor conquered him, and obliged him to remain within his kingdom.
  _Herodian_, bk. 5.――――One of his successors, son of Sapor, bore his
  name, and reigned 11 years, during which he distinguished himself by
  his cruelties.

=Artaxias=, son of Artavasdes king of Armenia, was proclaimed king by
  his father’s troops. He opposed Antony, by whom he was defeated, and
  became so odious that the Romans, at the request of the Armenians,
  raised Tigranes to the throne.――――Another, son of Polemon, whose
  original name was Zeno. After the expulsion of Vonones from Armenia,
  he was made king by Germanicus. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 6, ch. 31.
  ――――A general of Antiochus. _See:_ Artaxa.

=Artayctes=, a Persian appointed governor of Sestos by Xerxes. He was
  hung on a cross by the Athenians for his cruelties. _Herodotus_, bks.
  7 & 9.

=Artaynta=, a Persian lady whom Xerxes gave in marriage to his
  son Darius. She was one of the mistresses of her father-in-law.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 9, ch. 103, &c.

=Artayntes=, a Persian appointed over a fleet in Greece by Xerxes.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 8, ch. 13; bk. 9, ch. 107.

=Artembares=, a celebrated Mede in the reign of Cyrus the Great.
  _Herodotus_, bks. 1 & 9.

=Artemidōrus=, a native of Ephesus, who wrote a history and description
  of the earth, in 11 books. He flourished about 104 years B.C.――――A
  physician in the age of Adrian.――――A man in the reign of Antoninus,
  who wrote a learned work on the interpretation of dreams, still
  extant; the best edition of which is that of Rigaltius, Paris, 4to,
  1604, to which is annexed _Achmetis oneirocritica_.――――A man of
  Cnidus, son to the historian Theopompus. He had a school at Rome,
  and he wrote a book on illustrious men, not extant. As he was the
  friend of Julius Cæsar, he wrote down an account of the conspiracy
  which was formed against him. He gave it to the dictator from among
  the crowd as he was going to the senate, but Julius Cæsar put it
  with other papers which he held in his hand, thinking it to be of no
  material consequence. _Plutarch_, _Cæsar_.

=Artĕmis=, the Greek name of Diana. Her festivals, called Artemisia,
  were celebrated in several parts of Greece, particularly at Delphi,
  where they offered to the goddess a mullet, which, as was supposed,
  bore some affinity to the goddess of hunting, because it is said to
  hunt and kill the sea-hare. There was a solemnity of the same name
  at Syracuse; it lasted three days, which were spent in banqueting
  and diversions. _Athenæus_, bk. 7.

=Artemisia=, daughter of Lygdamis of Halicarnassus, reigned over
  Halicarnassus and the neighbouring country. She assisted Xerxes
  in his expedition against Greece with a fleet, and her valour was
  so great that the monarch observed that all his men fought like
  women, and all his women like men. The Athenians were so ashamed
  of fighting against a woman, that they offered a reward of 10,000
  drachms for her head. It is said that she was fond of a youth of
  Abydos, called Dardanus, and that, to punish his disdain, she put
  out his eyes while he was asleep, and afterwards leaped down the
  promontory of Leucas. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 99; bk. 8, ch. 68, &c.
  ――_Justin_, bk. 2, ch. 12.――――There was also another queen of Caria
  of that name, often confounded with the daughter of Lygdamis. She
  was daughter of Hecatomnus king of Caria or Halicarnassus, and was
  married to her own brother Mausolus famous for his personal beauty.
  She was so fond of her husband, that at his death she drank in her
  liquor his ashes after his body had been burned, and erected to his
  memory a monument, which, for its grandeur and magnificence, was
  called one of the seven wonders of the world. This monument she
  called _Mausoleum_, a name which has been given from that time to
  all monuments of unusual splendour. She invited all the literary
  men of her age, and proposed rewards to him who composed the best
  elegiac panegyric upon her husband. The prize was adjudged to
  Theopompus. She was so inconsolable for the death of her husband
  that she died through grief two years after. _Vitruvius._――_Strabo_,
  bk. 14.――_Pliny_, bk. 25, ch. 7; bk. 36, ch. 5.

=Artemisia.= _See:_ Artemis.

=Artemisium=, a promontory of Eubœa, where Diana had a temple. The
  neighbouring part of the sea bore the same name. The fleet of Xerxes
  had a skirmish there with the Grecian ships. _Herodotus_, bk. 7,
  ch. 175, &c.――――A lake near the grove Aricia, with a temple sacred
  to Artemis, whence the name.

=Artemīta=, a city at the east of Seleucia.――――An island opposite the
  mouth of the Achelous. _Strabo._

=Artĕmon=, an historian of Pergamus.――――A native of Clazomenæ, who was
  with Pericles at the siege of Samos, where it is said he invented
  the battering ram, the _testudo_, and other equally valuable military
  engines.――――A man who wrote a treatise on collecting books.――――A
  native of Magnesia, who wrote the history of illustrious women.――――A
  physician of Clazomenæ.――――A painter.――――A Syrian, whose features
  resembled, in the strongest manner, those of Antiochus. The queen,
  after the king’s murder, made use of Artemon to represent her husband
  in a lingering state, that, by his seeming to die a natural death,
  she might conceal her guilt, and effect her wicked purpose. _See:_

=Artimpasa=, a name of Venus among the Scythians. _Herodotus_, bk. 4,
  ch. 59.

=Artobarzănes=, a son of Darius, who endeavoured to ascend the throne
  in preference to his brother Xerxes, but to no purpose. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 7, chs. 2 & 3.

=Artochmes=, a general of Xerxes, who married one of the daughters of
  Darius. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 73.

=Artōna=, a town of the Latins, taken by the Æqui. _Livy_, bk. 2,
  ch. 43.

=Artontes=, a son of Mardonius. _Pausanias_, _Bœotia_.

=Artonius=, a physician of Augustus, who, on the night previous to the
  battle of Philippi, saw Minerva in a dream, who told him to assure
  Augustus of victory. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 1, ch. 7.

=Artoxares=, a eunuch of Paphlagonia, in the reign of Artaxerxes I.,
  cruelly put to death by Parysatis.

=Arturius=, an obscure fellow, raised to honours and wealth by his
  flatteries, &c. _Juvenal_, satire 3, li. 29.

=Artynes=, a king of Media.

=Artynia=, a lake of Asia Minor.

=Artystŏna=, a daughter of Darius. _Herodotus_, bk. 3, ch. 88.

=Aruæ=, a people of Hyrcania, where Alexander kindly received the chief
  officers of Darius. _Curtius_, bk. 6, ch. 4.

=Arvāles=, a name given to 12 priests who celebrated the festivals
  called Ambarvalia. According to some, they were descended from the
  12 sons of Acca Laurentia, who suckled Romulus. They wore a crown of
  ears of corn, and a white fillet. _Varro_, _de Lingua Latina_, bk. 4.
  _See:_ Ambarvalia.

=Arueris=, a god of the Egyptians, son of Isis and Osiris. According
  to some accounts, Osiris and Isis were married together in their
  mother’s womb, and Isis was pregnant of Arueris before she was born.

=Arverni=, a powerful people of Gaul, now _Auvergne_, near the Ligeris,
  who took up arms against Julius Cæsar. They were conquered with
  great slaughter. They pretended to be descended from the Trojans as
  well as the Romans. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 7.――_Strabo_, bk. 14.

=Arvĭrăgus=, a king of Britain. _Juvenal_, satire 4, li. 127.

=Arvīsium= and =Arvīsus=, a promontory of Chios, famous for its wine.
  _Virgil_, _Eclogues_, poem 5.

=Lucius Arunculeius Costa [Cotta]=, an officer sent by Julius Cæsar
  against the Gauls, by whom he was killed. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_.

=Aruns=, an Etrurian soothsayer in the age of Marius. _Lucan_, bk. 1,
  li. 586.――――A soldier who slew Camilla, and was killed by a dart of
  Diana. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 759.――――A brother of Tarquin
  the Proud. He married Tullia, who murdered him to espouse Tarquin,
  who had assassinated his wife.――――A son of Tarquin the Proud, who,
  in the battle that was fought between the partisans of his father
  and the Romans, attacked Brutus the Roman consul, who wounded him
  and threw him down from his horse. _Livy_, bk. 2, ch. 6.――――A son of
  Porsenna king of Etruria, sent by his father to take Aricia. _Livy_,
  bk. 2, ch. 14.

=Aruntius=, a Roman who ridiculed the rites of Bacchus, for which the
  god inebriated him to such a degree that he offered violence to his
  daughter Medullina, who murdered him when she found that he acted
  so dishonourably to her virtue. _Plutarch_, _Parallela minora_.――――A
  man who wrote an account of the Punic wars in the style of Sallust,
  in the reign of Augustus. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 1.――_Seneca_,
  ltr. 14.――――Another Latin writer. _Seneca_, _de Beneficiis_, bk. 6.
  ――――Paterculus, a man who gave Æmylius Censorinus tyrant of Ægesta
  a brazen horse to torment criminals. The tyrant made the first
  experiment upon the body of the donor. _Plutarch_, _Parallela
  minora_.――――Stella, a poet descended of a consular family in the age
  of Domitian.

=Arupīnus=, a maritime town of Istria. _Tibullus_, bk. 4, poem 1,
  li. 110.

=Aruspex.= _See:_ Haruspex.

=Aryxăta=, a town of Armenia, near the Araxes. _Strabo_, bk. 11.

=Aryandes=, a Persian appointed governor of Egypt by Cambyses. He
  was put to death because he imitated Darius in whatever he did, and
  wished to make himself immortal. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 166.

=Arybas=, a native of Sidon, whose daughter was carried away by
  pirates. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 15, li. 425.――――A king of the
  Molossi, who reigned 10 years.

=Aryptæus=, a prince of the Molossi, who privately encouraged the
  Greeks against Macedonia, and afterwards embraced the party of the

=Asander=, a man who separated, by a wall, Chersonesus Taurica from
  the continent. _Strabo_, bk. 7.

=Asbestæ= and =Asbystæ=, a people of Libya above Cyrene, where the
  temple of Ammon is built. Jupiter is sometimes called, on that
  account, _Asbystius_. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 170.――_Ptolemy_, bk. 4,
  ch. 3.

=Asbŏlus= (_black hair_), one of Actæon’s dogs. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 3.

=Ascalăphus=, a son of Mars and Astyoche, who was among the Argonauts,
  and went to the Trojan war at the head of the Ochomenians, with
  his brother Ialmenus. He was killed by Deiphobus. _Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 2, li. 13; bk. 9, li. 82; bk. 13, li. 518.――――A son of Acheron
  by Gorgyra or Orphne, stationed by Pluto to watch over Proserpine
  in the Elysian fields. When Ceres had obtained from Jupiter her
  daughter’s freedom and return upon earth, provided she had eaten
  nothing in the kingdom of Pluto, Ascalaphus discovered that she
  had eaten some pomegranates from a tree; upon which Proserpine was
  ordered by Jupiter to remain six months with Pluto, and the rest
  of the year with her mother. Proserpine was so displeased with
  Ascalaphus, that she sprinkled water on his head, and immediately
  turned him into an owl. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 5; bk. 2, ch. 5.
  ――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable 8.

=Ascălon=, a town of Syria, near the Mediterranean, about 520 stadia
  from Jerusalem, still in being. It was anciently famous for its
  onions. _Josephus_, _The Jewish War_, bk. 3, ch. 2.――_Theophrastus_,
  _Enquiry into Plants_, bk. 7, ch. 4.

=Ascania=, an island of the Ægean sea.――――A city of Troas, built by

=Ascănius=, son of Æneas by Creusa, was saved from the flames of Troy
  by his father, whom he accompanied in his voyage to Italy. He was
  afterwards called Iulus. He behaved with great valour in the war
  which his father carried on against the Latins, and succeeded Æneas
  in the kingdom of Latinus, and built Alba, to which he transferred
  the seat of his empire from Lavinium. The descendants of Ascanius
  reigned in Alba for above 420 years, under 14 kings, till the age
  of Numitor. Ascanius reigned 38 years; 30 at Lavinium, and eight at
  Alba; and was succeeded by Sylvius Posthumus son of Æneas by Lavinia.
  Iulus the son of Ascanius disputed the crown with him; but the
  Latins gave it in favour of Sylvius, as he was descended from the
  family of Latinus, and Iulus was invested with the office of high
  priest, which remained a long while in his family. _Livy_, bk. 1,
  ch. 3.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, &c.――――According to _Dionysius of
  Halicarnassus_, bk. 1, ch. 15, &c., the son of Æneas by Lavinia was
  also called Ascanius.――――A river of Bithynia. _Virgil_, _Georgics_,
  bk. 3, li. 270.

=Ascii=, a nation of India, in whose country objects at noon have no
  shadow. _Pliny_, bk. 2.

=Asclēpia=, festivals in honour of Asclepius, or Æsculapius, celebrated
  all over Greece, when prizes for poetical and musical compositions
  were honourably distributed. At Epidaurus they were called by a
  different name.

=Asclēpiădes=, a rhetorician in the age of Eumenes, who wrote an
  historical account of Alexander. _Arrian_.――――A disciple of Plato.
  ――――A philosopher, disciple to Stilpo, and very intimate with
  Menedemus. The two friends lived together, and that they might not
  be separated when they married, Asclepiades married the daughter,
  and Menedemus, though much the younger, the mother. When the wife
  of Asclepiades was dead, Menedemus gave his wife to his friend, and
  married another. He was blind in his old age, and died in Eretria.
  _Plutarch_.――――A physician of Bithynia, B.C. 90, who acquired great
  reputation at Rome, and was the founder of a sect in physic. He
  relied so much on his skill that he laid a wager he should never
  be sick; and won it, as he died of a fall, in a very advanced age.
  Nothing of his medical treatises is now extant.――――An Egyptian,
  who wrote hymns on the gods of his country, and also a treatise on
  the coincidence of all religions.――――A native of Alexandria, who
  gave a history of the Athenian archons.――――The writer of a treatise
  on Demetrius Phalereus.――――A disciple of Isocrates, who wrote six
  books on those events which had been the subject of tragedies.――――A
  physician in the age of Pompey.――――A tragic poet.――――Another
  physician of Bithynia, under Trajan. He lived 70 years, and was a
  great favourite of the emperor’s court.

=Asclepiodōrus=, a painter in the age of Apelles, 12 of whose pictures
  of the gods were sold, for 300 minæ each, to an African prince.
  _Pliny_, bk. 35.――――A soldier who conspired against Alexander with
  Hermolaus. _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 6.

=Asclepiodotus=, a general of Mithridates.

=Asclepius.= _See:_ Æsculapius.

=Ascletarion=, a mathematician in the age of Domitian, who said that
  he should be torn by dogs. The emperor ordered him to be put to
  death, and his body carefully secured; but as soon as he was set
  on the burning pile, a sudden storm arose which put out the flames,
  and the dogs came and tore to pieces the mathematician’s body.
  _Suetonius_, _Domitian_, ch. 15.

=Asclus=, a town of Italy. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 8.

=Ascolia=, a festival in honour of Bacchus, celebrated about December
  by the Athenian husbandmen, who generally sacrificed a goat to the
  god, because that animal is a great enemy to the vine. They made
  a bottle with the skin of the victim, which they filled with oil
  and wine, and afterwards leaped upon it. He who could stand upon
  it first was victorious, and received the bottle as a reward. This
  was called ἀσκωλιαζειν παρα το ἐπι ἀσκον ἀλλεσθαι, _leaping upon
  the bottle_, whence the name of the festival is derived. It was also
  introduced in Italy, where the people besmeared their faces with the
  dregs of wine, and sang hymns to the god. They always hanged some
  small images of the god on the tallest trees in their vineyards,
  and these images they called Oscilla. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 2,
  li. 384.――_Pollux_, bk. 9, ch. 7.

=Asconius Labeo=, a preceptor of Nero.――――Pedia, a man intimate
  with Virgil and Livy.――――Another of the same family in the age of
  Vespasian, who became blind in his old age, and lived 12 years after.
  He wrote, besides some historical treatises, annotations on Cicero’s

=Ascra=, a town of Bœotia, built, according to some, by the giants Otus
  and Ephialtes, at the foot of Mount Helicon. Hesiod was born there,
  whence he is often called the _Ascrean_ poet, and whatever poem
  treats on agricultural subjects _Ascræum carmen_. The town received
  its name from Ascra, a nymph, mother of Œoclus by Neptune. _Strabo_,
  bk. 9.――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 29.――_Paterculus_, bk. 1.

=Ascŭlum=, now _Ascoli_, a town of Picenum, famous for the defeat of
  Pyrrhus by Curius and Fabricius. _Florus_, bk. 3, ch. 18.――――Another
  in Apulia, near the Aufidus.

=Asdrŭbal=, a Carthaginian, son-in-law of Hamilcar. He distinguished
  himself in the Numidian war, and was appointed chief general on the
  death of his father-in-law, and for eight years presided with much
  prudence and valour over Spain, which submitted to his arms with
  cheerfulness. Here he laid the foundation of new Carthage, and saw
  it complete. To stop his progress towards the east, the Romans, in
  a treaty with Carthage, forbade him to pass the Iberus, which was
  faithfully observed by the general. He was killed in the midst of
  his soldiers, B.C. 220, by a slave whose master he had murdered. The
  slave was caught and put to death in the greatest torments, which he
  bore with patience, and even ridiculed. Some say that he was killed
  in hunting. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 1, li. 165.――_Appian_, _Wars in
  Spain_.――_Polybius_, bk. 2.――_Livy_, bk. 21, ch. 2, &c.――――A son
  of Hamilcar, who came from Spain with a large reinforcement for his
  brother Annibal. He crossed the Alps and entered Italy; but some of
  his letters to Annibal having fallen into the hands of the Romans,
  the consuls Marcus Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero attacked
  him suddenly near the Metaurus, and defeated him, B.C. 207. He was
  killed in the battle, and 56,000 of his men shared his fate, and
  5400 were taken prisoners; about 8000 Romans were killed. The head
  of Asdrubal was cut off, and some days after thrown into the camp of
  Annibal, who, in the moment that he was in the greatest expectations
  for a promised supply, exclaimed at the sight, “In losing Asdrubal,
  I lose all my happiness, and Carthage all her hopes.” Asdrubal had
  before made an attempt to penetrate into Italy by sea, but had been
  defeated by the governor of Sardinia. _Livy_, bks. 21, 23, 27, &c.
  ――_Polybius._――_Horace_, bk. 4, ode 4.――――A Carthaginian general,
  surnamed _Calvus_, appointed governor of Sardinia, and taken
  prisoner by the Romans. _Livy._――――Another, son of Gisgon, appointed
  general of the Carthaginian forces in Spain, in the time of the
  great Annibal. He made head against the Romans in Africa, with the
  assistance of Scyphax, but he was soon after defeated by Scipio.
  He died B.C. 206. _Livy._――――Another, who advised his countrymen
  to make peace with Rome, and upbraided Annibal for laughing in the
  Carthaginian senate. _Livy._――――A grandson of Masinissa, murdered
  in the senate house by the Carthaginians.――――Another, whose camp
  was destroyed in Africa by Scipio, though at the head of 20,000 men,
  in the last Punic war. When all was lost, he fled to the enemy, and
  begged his life. Scipio showed him to the Carthaginians, upon which
  his wife, with a thousand imprecations, threw herself and her two
  children into the flames of the temple of Æsculapius, which she and
  others had set on fire. He was not of the same family as Annibal.
  _Livy_, bk. 51.――――A Carthaginian general, conquered by Lucius
  Cæcilius Metellus in Sicily, in a battle in which he lost 130
  elephants. These animals were led in triumph all over Italy by the

=Asellio Sempronius=, an historian and military tribune, who wrote
  an account of the actions in which he was present. _Dionysius of

=Asia=, one of the three parts of the ancient world, separated from
  Europe by the Tanais, the Euxine, Ægean, and Mediterranean seas.
  The Nile and Egypt divide it from Africa. It received its name
  from Asia the daughter of Oceanus. This part of the globe has given
  birth to many of the greatest monarchies of the universe, and to the
  ancient inhabitants of Asia we are indebted for most of the arts and
  sciences. The soil is fruitful, and abounds with all the necessaries
  as well as luxuries of life. Asia was divided into many different
  empires, provinces, and states, of which the most conspicuous
  were the Assyrian and Persian monarchies. The Assyrian monarchy,
  according to Eusebius, lasted 1240 years, and according to Justin
  1300 years, down to the year of the world 4380. The empire of Persia
  existed 228 years, till the death of Darius III., whom Alexander
  the Great conquered. The empire of the Medes lasted 259 years,
  according to Eusebius, or less, according to others, till the reign
  of Astyages, who was conquered by Cyrus the Great, who transferred
  the power from the Medes, and founded the Persian monarchy. It was
  in Asia that the military valour of the Macedonians, and the bold
  retreat of the 10,000 Greeks, were so conspicuously displayed. It is
  in that part of the world that we are to look for the more visible
  progress of luxury, despotism, sedition, effeminacy, and dissipation.
  Asia was generally divided into Major and Minor. Asia Major was
  the most extensive, and comprehended all the eastern parts; and
  Asia Minor was a large country in the form of a peninsula, whose
  boundaries may be known by drawing a line from the bay of Issus, in
  a northern direction, to the eastern part of the Euxine sea. Asia
  Minor has been subject to many revolutions. It was tributary to
  the Scythians for upwards of 1500 years, and was a long time in the
  power of the Lydians, Medes, &c. The western parts of Asia Minor
  were the receptacle of all the ancient emigrations from Greece, and
  it was totally peopled by Grecian colonies. The Romans generally and
  indiscriminately called Asia Minor by the name of Asia. _Strabo._
  ――_Mela._――_Justin._――_Pliny._――_Tacitus_, &c.――――One of the
  Oceanides, who married Japetus, and gave her name to one of the
  three divisions of the ancient globe. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 2.
  ――――One of the Nereides. _Hyginus._――――A mountain of Laconia.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 24.

=Asia Palus=, a lake in Mysia. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 701.

=Asiātĭcus=, a Gaul in the age of Vitellius. _Tacitus_, _Histories_,
  bk. 2.――――The surname of one of the Scipios, and others, from their
  conquests or campaigns in Asia.

=Asĭlas=, an augur, who assisted Æneas against Turnus.――――A Trojan
  officer. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bks. 9, 10, &c.

=Asināria=, a festival in Sicily, in commemoration of a victory
  obtained over Demosthenes and Nicias at the river Asinarius.

=Asinārius=, a river of Sicily, where the Athenian generals,
  Demosthenes and Nicias, were taken prisoners.

=Asĭne=, one of the Sporades.――――An island of the Adriatic.――――Three
  towns of Peloponnesus bore that name, viz. in Laconia, Argolis, and

=Asĭnes=, a river of Sicily.

=Asinius Gallus=, son of Asinius Pollio the orator, married Vipsania,
  after she had been divorced by Tiberius. This marriage gave rise to
  a secret enmity between the emperor and Asinius, who starved himself
  to death, either voluntarily, or by order of his imperial enemy. He
  had six sons by his wife. He wrote a comparison between his father
  and Cicero, in which he gave a decided superiority to the former.
  _Tacitus_ bks. 1 & 5, _Annals_.――_Dio Cassius_, bk. 58.――_Pliny_, bk.
  7, ltr. 4.――――Marcellus, grandson of Asinius Pollio, was accused of
  some misdemeanours, but acquitted, &c. _Tacitus_, bk. 14, _Annals_.
  ――――Pollio, an excellent orator, poet, and historian, intimate with
  Augustus. He triumphed over the Dalmatians, and wrote an account
  of the wars of Cæsar and Pompey, in 17 books, besides poems. He
  refused to answer some verses against him by Augustus, “because,”
  said he, “you have the power to proscribe me, should my answer
  prove offensive.” He died in the 80th year of his age, A.D. 4. He
  was consul with Cnaeus Domitius Calvinus, A.U.C. 714. It is to him
  that the fourth of Virgil’s Bucolics is inscribed. _Quintilian._
  ――_Suetonius_, _Cæsar_, chs. 30 & 55.――_Dio Cassius_, bks. 37,
  49, 55.――_Seneca_, _de Tranquilitate Animi_ & ltr. 100.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 7, ch. 30.――_Tacitus_, bk. 6.――_Paterculus_, bk. 2.――_Plutarch_,
  _Cæsar_.――――A commander of Mauritania, under the first emperors, &c.
  _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 2.――――An historian in the age of Pompey.
  ――――Another in the third century.――――Quadratus, a man who published
  the history of Parthia, Greece, and Rome.

=Asius=, a son of Dymas, brother of Hecuba. He assisted Priam in the
  Trojan war, and was killed by Idomeneus. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2, li.
  342; bk. 12, li. 95; bk. 13, li. 384.――――A poet of Samos, who wrote
  about the genealogy of ancient heroes and heroines. _Pausanias_, bk.
  7, ch. 4.――――A son of Imbracus, who accompanied Æneas into Italy.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 123.

=Asius Campus=, a place near the Cayster.

=Asnāus=, a mountain of Macedonia, near which the river Aous flows.
  _Livy_, bk. 32, ch. 5.

=Asōphis=, a small country of Peloponnesus, near the Asopus.

=Asōpia=, the ancient name of Sicyon. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Asōpiădes=, a patronymic of Æacus, son of Ægina, the daughter of
  Asopus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 7, li. 484.

=Asōpis=, the daughter of the Asopus.――――A daughter of Thespius mother
  of Mentor. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 7.

=Asōpus=, a river of Thessaly, falling into the bay of Malta at the
  north of Thermopylæ. _Strabo_, bk. 8.――――A river of Bœotia, rising
  near Platæa, and flowing into the Euripus, after it has separated
  the country of the Thebans and Platæans. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 4.
  ――――A river of Asia, flowing into the Lycus, near Laodicea.――――A
  river of Peloponnesus, passing by Sicyon.――――Another of Macedonia,
  flowing near Heraclea. _Strabo_, &c.――――A river of Phœnicia.――――A
  son of Neptune, who gave his name to a river of Peloponnesus. Three
  of his daughters are particularly celebrated, Ægina, Salamis, and
  Ismene. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 3, ch. 12.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 12.

=Aspa=, a town of Parthia, now _Ispahan_, the capital of the Persian

=Aspamithres=, a favourite eunuch of Xerxes, who conspired with
  Artabanus to destroy the king and the royal family, &c. _Ctesias._

=Asparagium=, a town near Dyrrhachium. _Cæsar_, _Civil War_, bk. 3,
  ch. 30.

=Aspăsia=, a daughter of Hermotimus of Phocæa, famous for her personal
  charms and elegance. She was priestess of the sun, mistress to
  Cyrus, and afterwards to his brother Artaxerxes, from whom she
  passed to Darius. She was called _Milto_, _vermilion_, on account of
  the beauty of her complexion. _Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 12, ch.
  1.――_Plutarch_, _Artaxerxes_.――――Another woman, daughter of Axiochus,
  born at Miletus. She came to Athens, where she taught eloquence,
  and Socrates was proud to be among her scholars. She so captivated
  Pericles, by her mental and personal accomplishments, that he became
  her pupil, and at last took her for his mistress and wife. He was so
  fond of her, that he made war against Samos at her instigation. The
  behaviour of Pericles towards Aspasia greatly corrupted the morals
  of the Athenians, and introduced dissipation and lasciviousness
  into the state. She, however, possessed the merit of a superior
  excellence in mind as well as person, and her instructions helped
  to form the greatest and most eloquent orators of Greece. Some have
  confounded the mistress of Pericles with Aspasia the daughter of
  Hermotimus. _Plutarch_, _Pericles_.――_Quintilian_, bk. 11.――――The
  wife of Xenophon was also called Aspasia, if we follow the improper
  interpretation given by some to _Cicero_, _de Inventione_, bk. 1,
  ch. 31.

=Aspasius=, a peripatetic philosopher in the second century, whose
  commentaries on different subjects were highly valued.――――A sophist,
  who wrote a panegyric on Adrian.

=Aspastes=, a satrap of Carmania, suspected of infidelity to his trust
  while Alexander was in the east. _Curtius_, bk. 9, ch. 20.

=Aspathīnes=, one of the seven noblemen of Persia who conspired
  against the usurper Smerdis. _Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 70, &c.――――A
  son of Prexaspes. _Herodotus_, bk. 7.

=Aspendus=, a town of Pamphylia, at the mouth of the river Eurymedon.
  _Cicero_, _Against Verres_, bk. 1, ch. 20. The inhabitants
  sacrificed swine to Venus.

=Asphaltītes=, a lake. _See:_ Mare Mortuum.

=Aspis=, a satrap of Chaonia, who revolted from Artaxerxes. He was
  reduced by Datames. _Cornelius Nepos_, _Datames_.――――A city and
  mountain of Africa.――――One of the Cyclades.――――A city of Macedonia.

=Asplēdon=, a son of Neptune by the nymph Midea. He gave his name to
  a city of Bœotia, whose inhabitants went to the Trojan war. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 2, li. 18.――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 38.

=Asporēnus=, a mountain of Asia Minor near Pergamus, where the mother
  of the gods was worshipped, and called _Asporena_. _Strabo_, bk. 13.

=Assa=, a town near mount Athos.

=Assabīnus=, the Jupiter of the Arabians.

=Assărăcus=, a Trojan prince, son of Tros by Callirhoe. He was father
  to Capys, the father of Anchises. The Trojans were frequently called
  the descendants of Assaracus, _Gens Assaraci_. _Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 20.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1.――――Two friends of Æneas in the
  Rutulian war. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 124.

=Asserīni=, a people of Sicily.

=Assōrus=, a town of Sicily, between Enna and Argyrium.

=Assos=, a town of Lycia on the sea coast.

=Assy̆ria=, a large country of Asia, whose boundaries have been
  different in its flourishing times. At first it was bounded by
  the Lycus and Caprus; but the name of Assyria, more generally
  speaking, is applied to all that territory which lies between Media,
  Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Babylon. The Assyrian empire is the most
  ancient in the world. It was founded by Ninus or Belus, B.C. 2059,
  according to some authors, and lasted till the reign of Sardanapalus,
  the 31st sovereign since Ninus, B.C. 820. According to Eusebius,
  it flourished for 1240 years; according to Justin, 1300 years; but
  Herodotus says that its duration was not above 500 or 600 years.
  Among the different monarchs of the Assyrian empire Semiramis
  greatly distinguished herself, and extended the boundaries of her
  dominions as far as Æthiopia and Libya. In ancient authors the
  Assyrians are often called Syrians, and the Syrians Assyrians. The
  Assyrians assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and sent him Memnon with
  an army. The king of Assyria generally styled himself king of kings,
  as a demonstration of his power and greatness. The country is now
  called Curdistan. _See:_ Syria. _Strabo_, bk. 16.――_Herodotus_, bks.
  1 & 2.――_Justin_, bk. 1.――_Pliny_, bk. 6, chs. 13 & 26.――_Ptolemy_,
  bk. 1, ch. 2.――_Diodorus_, bk. 2.――_Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 2.

=Asta=, a city in Spain.

=Astacœni=, a people of India near the Indus. _Strabo_, bk. 15.

=Astăcus=, a town of Bithynia, built by Acastus son of Neptune and
  Olbia, or rather by a colony from Megara and Athens. Lysimachus
  destroyed it, and carried the inhabitants to the town of Nicomedia,
  which was then lately built. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 12.――_Arrian._
  ――_Strabo_, bk. 17.――――A city of Acarnania. _Pliny_, bk. 5.

=Astăpa=, a town of Hispania Bætica. _Livy_, bk. 38, ch. 20.

=Astăpus=, a river of Æthiopia, falling into the Nile.

=Astarte=, a powerful divinity of Syria, the same as the Venus of
  the Greeks. She had a famous temple at Hierapolis in Syria, which
  was served by 300 priests, who were always employed in offering
  sacrifices. She was represented in medals with a long habit, and
  a mantle over it, tucked up on the left arm. She had one hand
  stretched forward, and held in the other a crooked staff in the form
  of a cross. _Lucian_, _de Deâ Syriâ_.――_Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_,
  bk. 3, ch. 23.

=Aster=, a dexterous archer of Amphipolis, who offered his service to
  Philip king of Macedonia. Upon being slighted, he retired into the
  city, and aimed an arrow at Philip, who pressed it with a siege. The
  arrow, on which was written “Aimed at Philip’s right eye,” struck
  the king’s eye, and put it out; and Philip, to return the pleasantry,
  threw back the same arrow, with these words, “If Philip takes the
  town, Aster shall be hanged.” The conqueror kept his word. _Lucian_,
  _Quomodo historia conscribenda sit_.

=Astĕria=, a daughter of Ceus, one of the Titans, by Phœbe daughter
  of Cœlus and Terra. She married Perses son of Crius, by whom she
  had the celebrated Hecate. She enjoyed for a long time the favours
  of Jupiter, under the form of an eagle; but falling under his
  displeasure, she was changed into a quail, called _Ortyx_ by the
  Greeks; whence the name of _Ortygia_, given to that island in the
  Archipelago, where she retired. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 6,
  fable 4.――_Hyginus_, fable 58.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 2, &c.
  ――――A town of Greece, whose inhabitants went to the Trojan war.
  _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2, li. 782.――――One of the daughters of Danaus,
  who married Chætus son of Ægyptus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2.――――One of
  the daughters of Atlas, mother of Œnomaus king of Pisa. _Hyginus_,
  fable 250.――――A mistress of Gyges, to whom Horace wrote three odes
  to comfort her during her lover’s absence.

=Astĕrion= and =Astĕrius=, a river of Peloponnesus, which flowed
  through the country of Argolis. This river had three daughters,
  Eubœa, Prosymna, and Acræa, who nursed the goddess Juno. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 2, ch. 17.――――A son of Cometes, who was one of the Argonauts.
  _Apollonius_, bk. 1.――――A statuary, son of Æschylus. _Pausanias._
  ――――A son of Minos II., king of Crete, by Pasiphæ. He was killed by
  Theseus, though he was thought the strongest of his age. Apollodorus
  supposes him to be the same as the famous Minotaur. According
  to some, Asterion was son of Teutamus, one of the descendants of
  Æolus, and they say that he was surnamed Jupiter, because he had
  carried away Europa, by whom he had Minus I. _Diodorus_, bk. 4.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 31.――――A son of
  Neleus and Chloris. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 12.

=Asterodia=, the wife of Endymion. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 1.

=Asterŏpe= and =Asteropēa=, one of the Pleiades, who were beloved by
  the gods and most illustrious heroes, and made constellations after
  death.――――A daughter of Pelias king of Iolchos, who assisted her
  sisters to kill her father, whom Medea promised to restore to life.
  Her grave was seen in Arcadia, in the time of _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch.
  11.――――A daughter of Deion by Diomede. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1.――――The
  wife of Æsacus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3.

=Asteropæus=, a king of Pæonia, son of Pelegon. He assisted Priam
  in the Trojan war, and was killed, after a brave resistance, by
  Achilles. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 17, &c.

=Asterūsius=, a mountain at the south of Crete.――――A town of Arabia

=Astinŏme=, the wife of Hipponous.

=Astiŏchus=, a general of Lacedæmon, who conquered the Athenians near
  Cnidus, and took Phocæa and Cumæ, B.C. 411.

=Astræa=, a daughter of Astræus king of Arcadia, or, according
  to others, of Titan, Saturn’s brother, by Aurora. Some make her
  daughter of Jupiter and Themis, and others consider her to be the
  same as Rhea wife of Saturn. She was called _Justice_, of which
  virtue she was the goddess. She lived upon the earth, as the poets
  mention, during the golden age, which is often called the age of
  Astræa; but the wickedness and impiety of mankind drove her to
  heaven in the brazen and iron ages, and she was placed among the
  constellations of the zodiac, under the name of Virgo. She is
  represented as a virgin, with a stern but majestic countenance,
  holding a pair of scales in one hand and a sword in the other.
  _Seneca_, _Octavia_.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1, li. 149.
  ――_Aratus_, bk. 1, _Phænomena_, li. 98.――_Hesiod_, _Theogony_.

=Astræus=, one of the Titans who made war against Jupiter.――――A river
  of Macedonia, near Thermæ. _Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 15, ch. 1.

=Astu=, a Greek word which signifies _city_, generally applied, by way
  of distinction, to Athens, which was the most capital city of Greece.
  The word _urbs_ is applied with the same meaning of superiority to
  Rome, and πολις to Alexandria the capital of Ægypt, as also to Troy.

=Astur=, an Etrurian who assisted Æneas against Turnus. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 180.

=Astŭra=, a small river and village of Latium, where Antony’s soldiers
  cut off Cicero’s head.

=Astŭres=, a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, who spent all their
  lives in digging for mines of ore. _Lucan_, bk. 4, li. 298.――_Silius
  Italicus_, bk. 1, li. 231.

=Astyăge=, a daughter of Hypseus, who married Periphas, by whom she
  had some children, among whom was Antion the father of Ixion.

=Astyăges=, a son of Cyaxares, was the last king of Media. He was
  father to Mandane, whom he gave in marriage to Cambyses, an ignoble
  person of Persia, because he was told by a dream that his daughter’s
  son would dispossess him of his crown. From such a marriage he hoped
  that none but mean and ignorant children could be raised; but he
  was disappointed, and though he had exposed his daughter’s son by
  the effects of a second dream, he was deprived of his crown by his
  grandson, after a reign of 35 years. Astyages was very cruel and
  oppressive; and Harpagus, one of his officers, whose son he had
  wantonly murdered, encouraged Mandane’s son, who was called Cyrus,
  to take up arms against his grandfather, and he conquered him and
  took him prisoner, 559 B.C. Xenophon, in his Cyropædia, relates a
  different story, and asserts that Cyrus and Astyages lived in the
  most undisturbed friendship together. _Justin_, bk. 1, ch. 4, &c.
  ――_Herodotus_, bk. 1, chs. 74, 75, &c.――――A grammarian who wrote a
  commentary on Callimachus.――――A man changed into a stone by Medusa’s
  head. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable 6.

=Astyălus=, a Trojan killed by Neoptolemus. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 6.

=Astyănax=, a son of Hector and Andromache. He was very young when
  the Greeks besieged Troy; and when the city was taken, his mother
  saved him in her arms from the flames. Ulysses, who was afraid lest
  the young prince should inherit the virtues of his father, and one
  day avenge the ruin of his country upon the Greeks, seized him,
  and threw him down from the walls of Troy. According to Euripides,
  he was killed by Menelaus; and Seneca says that Pyrrhus the son
  of Achilles put him to death. Hector had given him the name of
  Scamandrius; but the Trojans, who hoped he might prove as great as
  his father, called him Astyanax, or the bulwark of the city. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 6, li. 400; bk. 22, li. 500.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 2,
  li. 457; bk. 3, li. 489.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, li. 415.
  ――――An Arcadian, who had a statue in the temple of Jupiter, on
  mount Lyceus. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 38.――――A son of Hercules.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 7.――――A writer in the age of Gallienus.

=Astycratia=, a daughter of Æolus. _Homer_, _Iliad_.――――A daughter of
  Amphion and Niobe.

=Astydămas=, an Athenian, pupil to Isocrates. He wrote 240 tragedies,
  of which only 15 obtained the poetical prize.――――A Milesian, three
  times victorious at Olympia. He was famous for his strength, as
  well as for his voracious appetite. He was once invited to a feast
  by king Ariobarzanes, and he ate what had been prepared for nine
  persons. _Athenæus_, bk. 10.――――Two tragic writers bore the same
  name, one of whom was disciple to Socrates.――――A comic poet of

=Astydămīa=, or =Astyadamia=, daughter of Amyntor king of Orchomenos
  in Bœotia, married Acastus son of Pelias, who was king of Iolchos.
  She became enamoured of Peleus son of Æacus, who had visited her
  husband’s court, and because he refused to gratify her passion,
  she accused him of attempting her virtue. Acastus readily believed
  his wife’s accusation; but as he would not violate the laws of
  hospitality by punishing his guest with instant death, he waited
  for a favourable opportunity, and dissembled his resentment. At
  last they went in a hunting party to mount Pelion, where Peleus was
  tied to a tree by order of Acastus, that he might be devoured by
  wild beasts. Jupiter was moved at the innocence of Peleus, and sent
  Vulcan to deliver him. When Peleus was set at liberty, he marched
  with an army against Acastus, whom he dethroned, and punished with
  death the cruel and false Astydamia. She is called by some Hippolyte,
  and by others Cretheis. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 13.――_Pindar_,
  _Nemean_, bk. 4.――――A daughter of Ormenus, carried away by Hercules,
  by whom she had Tlepolemus. _Ovid_, _Heroides_, poem 9, li. 50.

=Asty̆lus=, one of the centaurs who had the knowledge of futurity. He
  advised his brothers not to make war against the Lapithæ. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 12, li. 338.――――A man of Crotona, who was
  victorious three successive times at the Olympic games. _Pausanias._

=Astymedūsa=, a woman whom Œdipus married after he had divorced Jocasta.

=Astynŏme=, the daughter of Chryses the priest of Apollo, sometimes
  called _Chryseis_. She fell to the share of Achilles, at the
  division of the spoils of Lyrnessus.――――A daughter of Amphion,――――of
  Talaus. _Hyginus._

=Astynous=, a Trojan prince. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 5, li. 144.

=Astyŏche= and =Astyochīa=, a daughter of Actor, who had by Mars,
  Ascalaphus and Ialmenus, who were at the Trojan war. _Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 2, li. 20.――――A daughter of Phylas king of Ephyre, who
  had a son called Tlepolemus by Hercules. _Hyginus_, fables 97, 162.
  ――――A daughter of Laomedon by Strymo. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3.――――A
  daughter of Amphion and Niobe. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 4.――――A
  daughter of the Simois, who married Erichthonius. _Apollodorus_,
  bk. 3, ch. 12.――――The wife of Strophius, sister to Agamemnon.

=Astypalæa=, one of the Cyclades, between Cos and Carpathos, called
  after Astypalæa the daughter of Phœnix, and mother of Ancæus by
  Neptune. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 4.――_Strabo_, bk. 14.

=Astyphĭlus=, a soothsayer, well skilled in the knowledge of futurity.
  _Plutarch_, _Cimon_.

=Astȳron=, a town built by the Argonauts on the coast of Illyricum.

=Asychis=, a king of Egypt, who succeeded Mycerinus, and made a law,
  that whoever borrowed money, must deposit his father’s body in the
  hand of his creditors, as a pledge of his promise of payment. He
  built a magnificent pyramid. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 136.

=Asȳlas=, a friend of Æneas, skilled in auguries. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 9, li. 571; bk. 10, li. 175.

=Asyllus=, a gladiator. _Juvenal_, satire 6, li. 266.

=Atābŭlus=, a wind which was frequent in Apulia. _Horace_, bk. 1,
  satire 5, li. 78.

=Atabȳris=, a mountain in Rhodes, where Jupiter had a temple, whence
  he was surnamed _Atabyris_. _Strabo_, bk. 14.

=Atăce=, a town of Gaul, whence the adjective _Atacinus_.

=Atalanta=, a daughter of Schœneus king of Scyros. According to some
  she was the daughter of Jasus or Jasius by Clymene; but others
  say that Menalion was her father. This uncertainty of not rightly
  knowing the name of her father has led the mythologists into error,
  and some have maintained that there were two persons of that name,
  though their supposition is groundless. Atalanta was born in Arcadia,
  and according to Ovid she determined to live in perpetual celibacy;
  but her beauty gained her many admirers, and to free herself from
  their importunities, she proposed to run a race with them. They were
  to run without arms, and she was to carry a dart in her hand. Her
  lovers were to start first, and whoever arrived at the goal before
  her would be made her husband; but all those whom she overtook were
  to be killed by the dart with which she had armed herself. As she
  was almost invincible in running, many of her suitors perished in
  the attempt, till Hippomenes the son of Macareus proposed himself
  as her admirer. Venus had presented him with three golden apples
  from the garden of the Hesperides, or, according to others, from an
  orchard in Cyprus; and as soon as he had started in the course, he
  artfully threw down the apples at some distance one from the other.
  While Atalanta, charmed at the sight, stopped to gather the apples,
  Hippomenes hastened on his course, arrived first at the goal,
  and obtained Atalanta in marriage. These two fond lovers, in the
  impatience of consummating their nuptials, entered the temple of
  Cybele; and the goddess was so offended at their impiety, and at
  the profanation of her house, that she changed them into two lions.
  Apollodorus says that Atalanta’s father was desirous of raising male
  issue, and that therefore she was exposed to wild beasts as soon
  as born. She was, however, suckled by a she-bear, and preserved
  by shepherds. She dedicated her time to hunting, and resolved
  to live in celibacy. She killed two centaurs, Hyleus and Rhecus,
  who attempted her virtue. She was present at the hunting of the
  Calydonian boar, which she first wounded, and she received the head
  as a present from Meleager, who was enamoured of her. She was also
  at the games instituted in honour of Pelias, where she conquered
  Peleus; and when her father, to whom she had been restored, wished
  her to marry, she consented to give herself to him who could
  overcome her in running, as has been said above. She had a son
  called Parthenopæus by Hippomenes. Hyginus says that that son was
  the fruit of her love with Meleager; and Apollodorus says she had
  him by Milanion, or, according to others, by the god Mars. _See:_
  Meleager. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 8; bk. 3, ch. 9, &c.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 1, chs. 36, 45, &c.――_Hyginus_, fables 99, 174, 185, 270.
  ――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 13.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, fable 4; bk. 10, fable 11.――_Euripides_,
  _Phœnician Women_.――――An island near Eubœa and Locris. _Pausanias._

=Atarantes=, a people of Africa, ten days’ journey from the Garamantes.
  There was in their country a hill of salt with a fountain of sweet
  water upon it. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 184.

=Atarbĕchis=, a town in one of the islands of the Delta, where Venus
  had a temple.

=Atargătis=, a divinity among the Syrians represented as a Syren. She
  is considered by some to be the same as Venus, and honoured by the
  Assyrians under the name of Astarte. _Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Atarnea=, a part of Mysia opposite Lesbos, with a small town in the
  neighbourhood of the same name. _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 35.

=Atas= and =Athas=, a youth of wonderful velocity, who is said to have
  run 75 miles between noon and the evening. _Martial_, bk. 4, ltr. 19.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 7.

=Atax=, now _Aude_, a river of Gaul Narbonensis, rising in the Pyrenean
  mountains, and falling into the Mediterranean sea. _Mela_, bk. 2.

=Ate=, the goddess of all evil, and daughter of Jupiter. She raised
  such jealousy and sedition in heaven among the gods, that Jupiter
  dragged her away by the hair, and banished her for ever from
  heaven, and sent her to dwell on earth, where she incited mankind
  to wickedness, and sowed commotions among them. _Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 19. She is the same as the Discord of the Latins.

=Atella=, a town of Campania, famous for a splendid amphitheatre, where
  interludes were first exhibited, and thence called Atellanæ fabulæ.
  _Juvenal_, satire 6.

=Atenomārus=, a chieftain of Gaul, who made war against the Romans.
  _Plutarch_, _Parallela minora_.

=Athamānes=, an ancient people of Epirus, who existed long before the
  Trojan war, and still preserved their name and customs in the age of
  Alexander. There was a fountain in their territories, whose waters,
  about the last quarter of the moon, were so sulphureous that they
  would set wood on fire. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15, li. 311.
  ――_Strabo_, bk. 7.――_Pliny_, bk. 2, ch. 103.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 3.

=Athămas=, king of Thebes in Bœotia, was son of Æolus. He married
  Themisto, whom some call Nephele, and Pindar, Demotice, and by her
  he had Phryxus and Helle. Some time after, on pretence that Nephele
  was subject to fits of madness, he married Ino the daughter of
  Cadmus, by whom he had two sons, Learchus and Melicerta. Ino became
  jealous of the children of Nephele. Because they were to ascend
  their father’s throne in preference to her own, therefore she
  resolved to destroy them; but they escaped from her fury to Colchis,
  on a golden ram. _See:_ Phryxus and Argonautæ. According to the
  Greek scholiast of Lycophron, li. 22, Ino attempted to destroy the
  corn of the country; and as if it were the consequence of divine
  vengeance, the soothsayers, at her instigation, told Athamas, that
  before the earth would yield her usual increase, he must sacrifice
  one of the children of Nephele to the gods. The credulous father led
  Phryxus to the altar, where he was saved by Nephele. The prosperity
  of Ino was displeasing to Juno, and more particularly because she
  was descended from Venus. The goddess therefore sent Tisiphone, one
  of the furies, to the house of Athamas, who became inflamed with
  such sudden fury that he took Ino to be a lioness, and her two sons
  to be whelps. In this fit of madness he snatched Learchus from her,
  and killed him against a wall; upon which Ino fled with Melicerta,
  and, with him in her arms, she threw herself into the sea from a
  high rock, and was changed into a sea deity. After this, Athamas
  recovered the use of his senses; and as he was without children,
    he adopted Coronus and Aliartus, the sons of Thersander his nephew.
  _Hyginus_, fables 1, 2, 5, 239.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, chs. 7 & 9.
  ――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4, li. 467, &c.; _Fasti_, bk. 6, li.
  419.――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 34.――――A servant of Atticus. _Cicero_,
  _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 12, ltr. 10.――――A stage dancer. _Cicero_,
  _Piso_, ch. 36.――――A tragic poet. _Cicero_, _Piso_, ch. 20.――――One
  of the Greeks, concealed in the wooden horse at the siege of Troy.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 2, li. 263.

=Athamantiădes=, a patronymic of Melicerta, Phryxus, or Helle, children
  of Athamas. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 13, li. 319; _Fasti_, bk. 4,
  li. 903.

=Athanasius=, a bishop of Alexandria, celebrated for his sufferings,
  and the determined opposition he maintained against Arius and his
  doctrines. His writings, which were numerous, and some of which
  have perished, contain a defence of the mystery of the Trinity,
  the divinity of the Word and of the Holy Ghost, and an apology to
  Constantine. The creed which bears his name, is supposed by some
  not to be his composition. Athanasius died 2nd May, 373 A.D., after
  filling the archiepiscopal chair 47 years, and leading alternately
  a life of exile and of triumph. The latest edition of his works is
  that of the Benedictines, 3 vols., folio, Paris, 1698.

=Athanis=, a man who wrote an account of Sicily. _Athenæus_, bk. 3.

=Atheas=, a king of Scythia, who implored the assistance of Philip
  of Macedonia against the Istrians, and laughed at him when he had
  furnished him with an army. _Justin_, bk. 9, ch. 2.

=Athēna=, the name of Minerva among the Greeks; and also among the
  Egyptians, before Cecrops had introduced the worship of the goddess
  into Greece. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 2.

=Athēnæ=, a celebrated city of Attica, founded about 1556 years before
  the christian era, by Cecrops and an Egyptian colony. It was called
  _Cecropia_ from its founder, and afterwards _Athenæ_ in honour
  of Minerva, who had obtained the right of giving it a name in
  preference to Neptune. _See:_ Minerva. It was governed by 17 kings
  in the following order:――After a reign of 50 years, Cecrops was
  succeeded by Cranaus, who began to reign 1506 B.C.; Amphictyon, 1497;
  Erichthonius, 1487; Pandion, 1437; Erichtheus, 1397; Cecrops II.,
  1347; Pandion II., 1307; Ægeus, 1283; Theseus, 1235; Menestheus,
  1205; Demophoon, 1182; Oxyntes, 1149; Aphidas, 1137; Thymœtes, 1136;
  Melanthus, 1128; and Codrus, 1091, who was killed after a reign of
  21 years. The history of the 12 first of these monarchs is mostly
  fabulous. After the death of Codrus the monarchical power was
  abolished, and the state was governed by 13 perpetual, and 317 years
  after, by seven decennial, and lastly, B.C. 684, after an anarchy of
  three years, by annual magistrates, called Archons. _See:_ Archontes.
  Under this democracy, the Athenians signalized themselves by their
  valour in the field, their munificence, and the cultivation of
  the fine arts. They were deemed so powerful by the Persians, that
  Xerxes, when he invaded Greece, chiefly directed his arms against
  Athens, which he took and burnt. Their military character was chiefly
  displayed in the battles of Marathon, of Salamis, of Platæa, and of
  Mycale. After these immortal victories, they rose in consequence and
  dignity, and they demanded the superiority in the affairs of Greece.
  The town was rebuilt and embellished by Themistocles, and a new
  and magnificent harbour erected. Their success made them arrogant,
  and they raised contentions among the neighbouring states, that
  they might aggrandize themselves by their fall. The luxury and
  intemperance, which had been long excluded from the city by the
  salutary laws of their countrymen, Draco and Solon, crept by degrees
  among all ranks of people, and soon after all Greece united to
  destroy that city, which claimed a sovereign power over all the rest.
  The Peloponnesian war, though at first a private quarrel, was soon
  fomented into a universal war; and the arms of all the states of
  Peloponnesus [_See:_ Peloponnesiacum bellum] were directed against
  Athens, which, after 28 years of misfortunes and bloodshed, was
  totally ruined, the 24th April, 404 years before the christian era,
  by Lysander. After this, the Athenians were oppressed by 30 tyrants,
  and for a while laboured under the weight of their own calamities.
  They recovered something of their usual spirit in the age of Philip,
  and boldly opposed his ambitious views; but their short-lived
  efforts were not of great service to the interest of Greece, and
  they fell into the hands of the Romans, B.C. 86. The Athenians have
  been admired in all ages for their love of liberty, and for the
  great men that were born among them; but favour there was attended
  with danger; and there are very few instances in the history of
  Athens that can prove that the jealousy and frenzy of the people did
  not persecute and disturb the peace of the man who had fought their
  battles and exposed his life in the defence of his country. Perhaps,
  not one single city in the world can boast, in such a short space
  of time, of such a number of truly illustrious citizens, equally
  celebrated for their humanity, their learning, and their military
  abilities. The Romans, in the more polished ages of their republic,
  sent their youths to finish their education at Athens, and respected
  the learning, while they despised the military character of the
  inhabitants. The reputation which the Athenian schools had acquired
  under Socrates and Plato was maintained by their degenerate and less
  learned successors; and they flourished with diminished lustre, till
  an edict of emperor Justinian suppressed, with the Roman consulship,
  the philosophical meetings of the academy. It has been said by
  Plutarch that the good men whom Athens produced were the most just
  and equitable in the world; but that its bad citizens could not be
  surpassed in any age or country, for their impiety, perfidiousness,
  or cruelties. Their criminals were always put to death by drinking
  the juice of hemlock. The ancients, to distinguish Athens in a
  more particular manner, called it Astu, one of the eyes of Greece,
  the learned city, the school of the world, the common patroness of
  Greece. The Athenians thought themselves the most ancient nation of
  Greece, and supposed themselves the original inhabitants of Attica,
  for which reason they were called ἀυτοχθονες, produced from the
  _same earth_ which they inhabited, γηγενες _sons of the earth_, and
  τεττιγες _grasshoppers_. They sometimes wore golden grasshoppers
  in their hair as badges of honour, to distinguish them from other
  people of later origin and less noble extraction, because those
  insects are supposed to be sprung from the ground. The number of men
  able to bear arms at Athens in the reign of Cecrops was computed at
  20,000, and there appeared no considerable augmentation in the more
  civilized age of Pericles; but in the time of Demetrius Phalereus
  there were found 21,000 citizens, 10,000 foreigners, and 40,000
  slaves. Among the numerous temples and public edifices none was more
  celebrated than that of Minerva, which, after being burnt by the
  Persians, was rebuilt by Pericles, with the finest marble, and
  still exists a venerable monument of the hero’s patriotism, and
  of the abilities of the architect. _Cicero_, _Letters to Atticus_,
  Against Verres, &c.――_Thucydides_, bk. 1, &c.――_Justin_, bk. 2,
  &c.――_Diodorus_, bk. 13, &c.――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 7, ch. 56.――_Xenophon_, _Memorabilia_.――_Plutarch_, _in vitis_,
  &c.――_Strabo_, bk. 9, &c.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, &c.――_Valerius
  Maximus._――_Livy_, bk. 31, &c.――_Cornelius Nepos_, _Miltiades_,

=Athenæa=, festivals celebrated at Athens in honour of Minerva. One
  of them was called ♦_Panathenæa_, and the other _ Chalcea_; for an
  account of which see those words.

      ♦ ‘Bana, thenæe’ replaced with ‘Panathenæa’

=Athenæum=, a place at Athens sacred to Minerva, where the poets,
  philosophers, and rhetoricians generally declaimed and repeated
  their compositions. It was public to all the professors of the
  liberal arts. The same thing was adopted at Rome by Adrian, who made
  a public building for the same laudable purposes.――――A promontory
  of Italy.――――A fortified place between Ætolia and Macedonia. _Livy_,
  bk. 38, ch. 1; bk. 39, ch. 25.

=Athenæus=, a Greek cosmographer.――――A peripatetic philosopher of
  Cilicia in the time of Augustus. _Strabo._――――A Spartan sent by his
  countrymen to Athens, to settle the peace during the Peloponnesian
  war.――――A grammarian of Naucratis, who composed an elegant and
  miscellaneous work, called ♦_Deipnosophistæ_, replete with very
  curious and interesting remarks and anecdotes of the manners of the
  ancients, and likewise valuable for the scattered pieces of ancient
  poetry which it preserves. The work consists of 15 books, of which
  the two first, part of the third, and almost the whole of the last,
  are lost. Athenæus wrote, besides this, a history of Syria, and
  other works now lost. He died A.D. 194. The best edition of his
  works is that of Casaubon, folio, 2 vols., Lugdunum, 1612, by far
  superior to the editions of 1595 and 1657.――――An historian, who
  wrote an account of Semiramis. _Diodorus._――――A brother of king
  Eumenes II., famous for his paternal affection.――――A Roman historian,
  in the age of Gallienus, who is supposed to have written a book on
  military engines.――――A physician of Cilicia in the age of Pliny, who
  made heat, cold, wet, dry, and air the elements, instead of the four
  commonly received.

      ♦ ‘Deipnosphistæ’ replaced with ‘Deipnosophistæ’

=Athenagŏras=, a Greek in the time of Darius, to whom Pharnabazus gave
  the government of Chios, &c. _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 5.――――A writer
  on agriculture. _Varro._――――A christian philosopher, in the age of
  Aurelius, who wrote a treatise on the resurrection, and an apology
  for the christians, still extant. He died A.D. 177. The best edition
  of his works is that of Dechair, 8vo, Oxford, 1706. The romance of
  Theagenes and Charis is falsely ascribed to him.

=Athenāis=, a Sibyl of Erythræa, in the age of Alexander. _Strabo._
  ――――A daughter of the philosopher Leontius.

=Athenion=, a peripatetic philosopher, 108 B.C.――――A general of the
  Sicilian slaves.――――A tyrant of Athens, surnamed Ariston.

=Athenŏcles=, a general, &c. _Polyænus_, bk. 6.――――A turner of
  Mitylene. _Pliny_, bk. 34.

=Athenodōrus=, a philosopher of Tarsus, intimate with Augustus. The
  emperor often profited by his lessons, and was advised by him always
  to repeat the 24 letters of the Greek alphabet before he gave way
  to the impulse of anger. Athenodorus died in his 82nd year, much
  lamented by his countrymen. _Suetonius._――――A poet who wrote comedy,
  tragedy, and elegy, in the age of Alexander. _Plutarch_, _Alexander_.
  ――――A stoic philosopher of Cana, near Tarsus, in the age of Augustus.
  He was intimate with Strabo. _Strabo_, bk. 14.――――A philosopher,
  disciple to Zeno, and keeper of the royal library at Pergamus.――――A
  marble sculptor.――――A man assassinated at Bactra for making himself

=Atheos=, a surname of Diagoras and Theodorus, because they denied the
  existence of a deity. _Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 1, ch. 1.

=Athĕsis=, now _Adige_, a river of Cisalpine Gaul, near the Po, falling
  into the Adriatic sea. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9, li. 680.

=Athos=, a mountain of Macedonia, 150 miles in circumference,
  projecting into the Ægean sea like a promontory. It is so high that
  it overshadows the island of Lemnos, though at the distance of 87
  miles; or, according to modern calculation, only 8 leagues. When
  Xerxes invaded Greece, he made a trench of a mile and a half in
  length at the foot of the mountain, into which he brought the sea
  water, and conveyed his fleet over it, so that two ships could pass
  one another, thus desirous either to avoid the danger of sailing
  round the promontory, or to show his vanity and the extent of his
  power. A sculptor, called Dinocrates, offered Alexander to cut mount
  Athos, and to make with it a statue of the king holding a town in
  his left hand, and in the right a spacious basin to receive all the
  waters which flowed from it. Alexander greatly admired the plan,
  but objected to the place; and he observed, that the neighbouring
  country was not sufficiently fruitful to produce corn and provisions
  for the inhabitants which were to dwell in the city, in the hand of
  the statue. Athos is now called Monte Santo, famous for monasteries,
  said to contain some ancient and valuable manuscripts. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 6, ch. 44; bk. 7, ch. 21, &c.――_Lucan_, bk. 2, li. 672.――_Ælian_,
  _de Natura Animalium_, bk. 13, ch. 20, &c.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 10.
  ――_Aeschines_, _Against Ctesiphon_.

=Athrulla=, a town of Arabia. _Strabo._

=Athymbra=, a city of Caria, afterwards called Nyssa. _Strabo_, bk. 14.

=Atia=, a city of Campania.――――A law enacted A.U.C. 690 by Titus Atius
  Labienus, the tribune of the people. It abolished the Cornelian law,
  and put in full force the Lex Domitia, by transferring the right of
  electing priests from the college of priests to the people.――――The
  mother of Augustus. _See:_ Accia.

=Atilia lex=, gave the pretor and a majority of the tribunes power
  of appointing guardians to those minors who were not previously
  provided for by their parents. It was enacted about A.U.C. 560.
  ――――Another, A.U.C. 443, which gave the people power of electing
  20 tribunes of the soldiers in four legions. _Livy_, bk. 9, ch. 30.

=Atilius=, a freedman, who exhibited combats of gladiators at Fidenæ.
  The amphitheatre, which contained the spectators, fell during
  the exhibition, and about 50,000 persons were killed or mutilated.
  _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 4, ch. 62.

=Atilla=, the mother of the poet Lucan. She was accused of conspiracy
  by her son, who expected to clear himself of the charge. _Tacitus_,
  _Annals_, bk. 15, ch. 56.

=Atīna=, an ancient town of the Volsci, one of the first which began
  hostilities against Æneas. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 630.

=Atinas=, a friend of Turnus, &c. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 869.

=Atinia lex=, was enacted by the tribune Atinius. It gave a tribune of
  the people the privileges of a senator, and the right of sitting in
  the senate.

=Atlantes=, a people of Africa, in the neighbourhood of mount Atlas,
  who lived chiefly on the fruits of the earth, and were said not to
  have their sleep at all disturbed by dreams. They daily cursed the
  sun at his rising and at his setting, because his excessive heat
  scorched and tormented them. _Herodotus._

=Atlantiades=, a patronymic of Mercury as grandson of Atlas. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1, li. 639.

=Atlantĭdes=, a people of Africa near mount Atlas. They boasted
  of being in possession of the country in which all the gods of
  antiquity received their birth. Uranus was their first king, whom,
  on account of his knowledge in astronomy, they enrolled in the
  number of their gods. _Diodorus_, bk. 3.――――The daughters of Atlas,
  were seven in number, Maia, Electra, Taygeta, Asterope, Merope,
  Alcyone, and Celæno. They married some of the gods, and most
  illustrious heroes, and their children were founders of many nations
  and cities. The Atlantides were called nymphs, and even goddesses,
  on account of their great intelligence and knowledge. The name of
  Hesperides was also given them, on account of their mother Hesperis.
  They were made constellations after death. _See:_ Pleiades.

=Atlantis=, a celebrated island mentioned by the ancients. Its
  situation is unknown, and even its existence is doubted by some

=Atlas=, one of the Titans, son of Japetus and Clymene, one of the
  Oceanides. He was brother to Epimetheus, Prometheus, and Menœtius.
  His mother’s name, according to Apollodorus, was Asia. He married
  Pleione daughter of Oceanus, or Hesperis, according to others, by
  whom he had seven daughters, called Atlantides. _See:_ Atlantides.
  He was king of Mauritania, and master of 1000 flocks of every kind,
  as also of beautiful gardens, abounding in every species of fruit,
  which he had entrusted to the care of a dragon. Perseus, after the
  conquest of the Gorgons, passed by the palace of Atlas, and demanded
  hospitality. The king, who was informed by an oracle of Themis
  that he should be dethroned by one of the descendants of Jupiter,
  refused to receive him, and even offered him violence. Perseus, who
  was unequal in strength, showed him Medusa’s head, and Atlas was
  instantly changed into a large mountain. This mountain, which runs
  across the deserts of Africa east and west, is so high that the
  ancients have imagined that the heavens rested on its top, and
  that Atlas supported the world on his shoulders. Hyginus says that
  Atlas assisted the giants in their wars against the gods, for which
  Jupiter compelled him to bear the heavens on his shoulders. The
  fable that Atlas supported the heavens on his back, arises from his
  fondness for astronomy, and his often frequenting elevated places
  and mountains, whence he might observe the heavenly bodies. The
  daughters of Atlas were carried away by Busiris king of Egypt, but
  redeemed by Hercules, who received, as a reward from the father,
  the knowledge of astronomy, and a celestial globe. This knowledge
  Hercules communicated to the Greeks; whence the fable has further
  said, that he eased for some time the labours of Atlas by taking
  upon his shoulders the weight of the heavens. According to some
  authors there were two other persons of that name, a king of Italy,
  father of Electra, and a king of Arcadia, father of Maia the mother
  of Mercury. _Virgil_,, _Æneid_, bk. 4, li. 481; bk. 8, li. 186.
  ――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4, fable 17.――_Diodorus_, bk. 3.
  ――_Lucan_, bk. 9, li. 667, &c.――_Valerius Flaccus_, bk. 5.
  ――_Hyginus_, fables 83, 125, 155, 157, 192.――_Aratus_, _Astronomia_.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1.――_Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 508, &c.――――A
  river flowing from mount Hæmus into the Ister. _Herodotus_, bk. 4,
  ch. 49.

=Atossa=, a daughter of Cyrus, who was one of the wives of Cambyses,
  of Smerdis, and afterwards of Darius, by whom she had Xerxes. She
  was cured of a dangerous cancer by Democedes. She is supposed by
  some to be the Vashti of scripture. _Herodotus_, bk. 3, ch. 68, &c.

=Atrăces=, a people of Ætolia, who received their name from Atrax son
  of Ætolus. Their country was called Atracia.

=Atramyttium=, a town of Mysia.

=Atrăpes=, an officer of Alexander, who, at the general division of
  the provinces, received Media. _Diodorus_, bk. 18.

=Atrax=, son of Ætolus, or, according to others, of the river Peneus.
  He was king of Thessaly, and built a town which he called Atrax
  or Atracia. This town became so famous that the word _Atracias_
  has been applied to any inhabitant of Thessaly. He was father of
  Hippodamia, who married Pirithous, and whom we must not confound
  with the wife of Pelops, who bore the same name. _Propertius_, bk. 1,
  poem 8, li. 25.――_Statius_, bk. 1, _Thebiad_, li. 106.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 12, li. 209.――――A city of Thessaly, whence the
  epithet of Atracius.――――A river of Ætolia, which falls into the
  Ionian sea.

=Atrebātæ=, a people of Britain, who were in possession of the modern
  counties of Berks, Oxford, &c.

=Atrĕbātes=, now _Artois_, a people of Gaul, who, together with the
  Nervii, opposed Julius Cæsar with 15,000 men. They were conquered,
  and Comius, a friend of the general, was set over them as king. They
  were reinstated in their former liberty and independence, on account
  of the services of Comius. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 2, &c.

=Atrēni=, a people of Armenia.

=Atreus=, a son of Pelops by Hippodamia, daughter of Œnomaus king of
  Pisa, was king of Mycenæ, and brother to Pittheus, Trœzon, Thyestes,
  and Chrysippus. As Chrysippus was an illegitimate son, and at the
  same time a favourite of his father, Hippodamia resolved to remove
  him. She persuaded her sons Thyestes and Atreus to murder him; but
  their refusal exasperated her more, and she executed it herself.
  This murder was grievous to Pelops: he suspected his two sons,
  who fled away from his presence. Atreus retired to the court
  of Eurystheus king of Argos, his nephew, and upon his death he
  succeeded him on the throne. He married, as some report, Ærope, his
  predecessor’s daughter, by whom he had Plisthenes, Menelaus, and
  Agamemnon. Others affirm that Ærope was the wife of Plisthenes,
  by whom he had Agamemnon and Menelaus, who are the reputed sons
  of Atreus, because that prince took care of their education, and
  brought them up as his own. _See:_ Plisthenes. Thyestes had followed
  his brother to Argos, where he lived with him, and debauched his
  wife, by whom he had two, or, according to some, three children.
  This incestuous commerce offended Atreus, and Thyestes was banished
  from his court. He was, however, soon after recalled by his brother,
  who determined cruelly to revenge the violence offered to his bed.
  To effect this purpose, he invited his brother to a sumptuous feast,
  where Thyestes was served up with the flesh of the children he had
  had by his sister-in-law the queen. After the repast was finished,
  the arms and the heads of the murdered children were produced, to
  convince Thyestes of what he had feasted upon. This action appeared
  so cruel and impious, that the sun is said to have shrunk back in
  his course at the bloody sight. Thyestes immediately fled to the
  court of Thesprotus, and thence to Sicyon, where he ravished his
  own daughter Pelopea, in a grove sacred to Minerva, without knowing
  who she was. This incest he committed intentionally, as some report,
  to revenge himself on his brother Atreus, according to the words of
  the oracle, which promised him satisfaction for the cruelties he had
  suffered only from the hand of a son who should be born of himself
  and his own daughter. Pelopea brought forth a son whom she called
  Ægisthus, and soon after she married Atreus, who had lost his
  wife. Atreus adopted Ægisthus, and sent him to murder Thyestes,
  who had been seized at Delphi and imprisoned. Thyestes knew his
  son, and made himself known to him; he made him espouse his cause,
  and instead of becoming his father’s murderer, he rather avenged
  his wrongs, and returned to Atreus, whom he assassinated. _See:_
  Thyestes, Ægisthus, Pelopea, Agamemnon, and Menelaus. _Hyginus_,
  fables 83, 86, 87, 88, & 258.――_Euripides_, _Orestes_; _Iphigeneia
  in Taurus_.――_Plutarch_, _Parallela minora_.――_Pausanias_, bk. 9,
  ch. 40.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 10.――_Seneca_ on _Atreus_.

=Atrīdæ=, a patronymic given by Homer to Agamemnon and Menelaus,
  as being the sons of Atreus. This is false, upon the authority of
  Hesiod, Lactantius [Placidus], Dictys of Crete, &c., who maintain
  that these princes were not the sons of Atreus, but of Plisthenes,
  and that they were brought up in the house and under the eye of
  their grandfather. _See:_ Plisthenes.

=Atronius=, a friend of Turnus, killed by the Trojans. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 10.

=Atropatia=, a part of Media. _Strabo._

=Atrŏpos=, one of the Parcæ, daughters of Nox and Erebus. According
  to the derivation of her name (_a non_, τρεπω _muto_), she is
  inexorable and inflexible, and her duty among the three sisters
  is to cut the thread of life, without any regard to sex, age, or
  quality. She was represented by the ancients in a black veil, with
  a pair of scissors in her hand. _See:_ Parcæ.

=T. Q. Atta=, a writer of merit in the Augustan age, who seems to
  have received this name from some deformity in his legs or feet.
  His compositions, dramatical as well as satirical, were held in
  universal admiration, though Horace thinks of them with indifference.
  _Horace_, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 79.

=Attălia=, a city of Pamphylia, built by king Attalus. _Strabo._

=Attalĭcus.= _See:_ Attalus III.

=Attălus I.=, king of Pergamus, succeeded Eumenes I. He defeated the
  Gauls who had invaded his dominions, extended his conquests to mount
  Taurus, and obtained the assistance of the Romans against Antiochus.
  The Athenians rewarded his merit with great honours. He died at
  Pergamus after a reign of 44 years, B.C. 197. _Livy_, bks. 26, 27,
  28, &c.――_Polybius_, bk. 5.――_Strabo_, bk. 13.――――The second of that
  name was sent on an embassy to Rome by his brother Eumenes II., and
  at his return was appointed guardian to his nephew Attalus III.,
  who was then an infant. Prusias made successful war against him, and
  seized his capital; but the conquest was stopped by the interference
  of the Romans, who restored Attalus to his throne. Attalus, who has
  received the name of _Philadelphus_, from his fraternal love, was
  a munificent patron of learning, and the founder of several cities.
  He was poisoned by his nephew in the 82nd year of his age, B.C. 138.
  He had governed the nation with great prudence and moderation
  for 20 years. _Strabo_, bk. 13.――_Polybius_, bk. 5.――――The third
  succeeded to the kingdom of Pergamus, by the murder of Attalus II.,
  and made himself odious by his cruelty to his relations and his
  wanton exercise of power. He was son to Eumenes II., and surnamed
  _Philopater_. He left the cares of government to cultivate his
  garden, and to make experiments on the melting of metals. He lived
  in great amity with the Romans; and as he died without issue by
  his wife Berenice, he left in his will the words _Populus Romanus
  meorum hæres esto_, which the Romans interpreted as themselves,
  and therefore took possession of his kingdom, B.C. 133, and made
  of it a Roman province, which they governed by a proconsul. From
  this circumstance, whatever was a valuable acquisition, or an ample
  fortune, was always called by the epithet _Attalicus_. Attalus,
  as well as his predecessors, made themselves celebrated for the
  valuable libraries which they collected at Pergamus, and for the
  patronage which merit and virtue always found at their court.
  _Livy_, bk. 24, &c.――_Pliny_, bks. 7, 8, 33, &c.――_Justin_, bk.
  39.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 1.――――An officer in Alexander’s army.
  _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 13.――――Another very inimical to Alexander.
  He was put to death by Parmenio, and Alexander was accused of the
  murder. _Curtius_, bk. 6, ch. 9; bk. 8, ch. 1.――――A philosopher,
  preceptor to Seneca. _Seneca_ ltr. 108.――――An astronomer of Rhodes.

=Attarras=, an officer who seized those that had conspired with Dymnus
  against Alexander. _Curtius_, bk. 6.

=Atteius Capĭto=, a consul in the age of Augustus, who wrote treatises
  on sacerdotal laws, public courts of justice, and the duty of a
  senator. _See:_ ♦Ateius.

      ♦ No reference to ‘Ateius’ found.

=Attes=, a son of Calaus of Phrygia, who was born impotent. He
  introduced the worship of Cybele among the Lydians, and became a
  great favourite of the goddess. Jupiter was jealous of his success,
  and sent a wild boar to lay waste the country and destroy Attes.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 17. =Atthis=, a daughter of Cranaus II. king
  of Athens, who gave her name to Attica, according to _Apollodorus_,
  bk. 3, ch. 14. =Attĭca=, a country of Achaia or Hellas, at the south
  of Bœotia, west of the Ægean sea, north of the Saronicus Sinus,
  and east of Megara. It received its name from Atthis, the daughter
  of Cranaus. It was originally called Ionia, from the Ionians, who
  settled there; and also Acte, which signifies _shore_, and Cecropia,
  from Cecrops the first of its kings. The most famous of its cities
  is called Athens, whose inhabitants sometimes bear the name of
  _Attici_. Attica was famous for its gold and silver mines, which
  constituted the best part of the public revenues. The face of the
  country was partly level and partly mountainous, divided into the 13
  tribes of Acamantis, Æantis, Antiochis, Attalis, Ægeis, Erechtheis,
  Adrianis, Hippothoontis, Cecropis, Leontis, Æneis, Ptolemais, and
  Pandionis; whose inhabitants were numbered in the 116th olympiad,
  at 31,000 citizens, and 400,000 slaves, within 174 villages, some
  of which were considerable towns. _See:_ Athenæ.

=Attĭcus=, one of Galba’s servants, who entered his palace with
  a bloody sword, and declared he had killed Otho. _Tacitus_,
  _Histories_, bk. 1.――――Titus Pomponius, a celebrated Roman knight,
  to whom Cicero wrote a great number of letters, which contained
  the general history of the age. They are now extant, and divided
  into 17 books. In the time of Marius and Sylla, Atticus retired to
  Athens, where he so endeared himself to the citizens, that after
  his departure they erected statues to him in commemoration of his
  munificence and liberality. He was such a perfect master of the
  Greek writers, and spoke their language so fluently, that he was
  surnamed _Atticus_; and, as a proof of his learning, he favoured
  the world with some of his compositions. He behaved in such a
  disinterested manner, that he offended neither of the inimical
  parties at Rome, and both were equally anxious of courting his
  approbation. He lived in the greatest intimacy with the illustrious
  men of his age, and he was such a lover of truth, that he not
  only abstained from falsehood even in a joke, but treated with
  the greatest contempt and indignation a lying tongue. It is said
  that he refused to take aliments when unable to get the better of a
  fever; and died in the 77th year, B.C. 32, after bearing the amiable
  character of peacemaker among his friends. _Cornelius Nepos_, one
  of his intimate friends, has written a minute account of his life.
  _Cicero_, _Letters to Atticus_, &c.――――Herodes, an Athenian in the
  age of the Antonines, descended from Miltiades, and celebrated for
  his munificence. His son of the same name was honoured with the
  consulship, and he generously erected an aqueduct at Troas, of which
  he had been made governor by the emperor Adrian, and raised, in
  other parts of the empire, several public buildings as useful as
  they were magnificent. _Philostratus_, _Lives of the Sophists_,
  bk. 2, p. 548.――_Aulus Gellius_, _Noctes Atticæ_.――――A consul in the
  age of Nero, &c. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 15.

=Attĭla=, a celebrated king of the Huns, a nation in the southern parts
  of Scythia, who invaded the Roman empire in the reign of Valentinian,
  with an army of 500,000 men, and laid waste the provinces. He took
  the town of Aquileia, and marched against Rome; but his retreat and
  peace were purchased with a large sum of money by the feeble emperor.
  Attila, who boasted in the appellation of _the scourge of God_, died
  A.D. 453, of an uncommon effusion of blood, the first night of his
  nuptials. He had expressed his wish to extend his conquests over the
  whole world; and he often feasted his barbarity by dragging captive
  kings in his train. _Jornandes_, _Getica_.

=Attilius=, a Roman consul in the first Punic war. _See:_ Regulus.
  ――――Calatinus, a Roman consul who fought the Carthaginian fleet.
  ――――Marcus, a poet who translated the Electra of Sophocles into
  Latin verse, and wrote comedies whose unintelligible language
  procured him the appellation of _Ferreus_.――――Regulus, a Roman
  censor who built a temple to the goddess of concord. _Livy_, bk. 23,
  ch. 23, &c.――――The name of Attilius was common among the Romans,
  and many of the public magistrates are called Attilii; their life,
  however, is not famous for any illustrious event.

=Attinas=, an officer set over Bactriana by Alexander. _Curtius_,
  bk. 8.

=Attius Pelignus=, an officer of Cæsar. _Cæsar_, _Civil War_, bk. 1.
  ――――Tullius, the general of the Volsci, to whom Coriolanus fled when
  banished from Rome. _Livy._――――Varius seized Auxinum in Pompey’s
  name, whence he was expelled. After this he fled to Africa, which
  he alienated from Julius Cæsar. _Cæsar_, bk. 1, _Civil War_.――――A
  poet. _See:_ Accius.――――The family of the Attii was descended from
  Atys, one of the companions of Æneas, according to the opinion which
  Virgil has adopted, _Æneid_, bk. 5, li. 568.

=Atūrus=, a river of Gaul, now the _Adour_, which runs at the foot
  of the Pyrenean mountains into the bay of Biscay. _Lucan_, bk. 1,
  li. 420.

=Atyădæ=, the descendants of Atys the Lydian.

=Atys=, an ancient king of Lydia, who sent away his son Tyrrhenus
  with a colony of Lydians, who settled in Italy. _Herodotus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 7.――――A son of Crœsus king of Lydia. He was forbidden the use of
  all weapons by his father, who had dreamt that he had been killed.
  Some time after this, Atys prevailed on his father to permit him to
  go to hunt a wild boar which laid waste the country of Mysia, and
  he was killed in the attempt by Adrastus, whom Crœsus had appointed
  guardian over his son, and thus the apprehensions of the monarch
  were realized. _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 34, &c. _See:_ Adrastus.――――A
  Trojan who came to Italy with Æneas, and is supposed to be the
  progenitor of the family of the Atti at Rome. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 5, li. 568.――――A youth to whom Ismene the daughter of Œdipus was
  promised in marriage. He was killed by Tydeus before his nuptials.
  _Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 8, li. 598.――――A son of Limniace the
  daughter of the river Ganges, who assisted Cepheus in preventing
  the marriage of Andromeda, and was killed by Perseus with a burning
  log of wood. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, li. 47.――――A celebrated
  shepherd of Phrygia, of whom the mother of the gods, generally
  called Cybele, became enamoured. She entrusted him with the care
  of her temple, and made him promise that he always would live in
  celibacy. He violated his vow by an amour with the nymph Sangaris,
  for which the goddess made him so insane and delirious, that
  he castrated himself with a sharp stone. This was afterwards
  intentionally done by his sacerdotal successors in the service of
  Cybele, to prevent their breaking their vows of perpetual chastity.
  This account is the most general and most approved. Others say
  that the goddess became fond of Atys, because he had introduced her
  festivals in the greatest part of Asia Minor, and that she herself
  mutilated him. _Pausanias_ relates, in _Achaia_, ch. 17, that Atys
  was the son of the daughter of the Sangar, who became pregnant
  by putting the bough of an almond tree in her bosom. Jupiter, as
  the passage mentions, once had an amorous dream, and some of the
  impurity of the god fell upon the earth, which soon after produced a
  monster of a human form, with the characteristics of the two sexes.
  This monster was called Agdistis, and was deprived by the gods of
  those parts which distinguished the male sex. From the mutilated
  parts which were thrown upon the ground, rose an almond tree, one
  of whose branches a nymph of the Sangar gathered, and placed in her
  bosom as mentioned above. Atys, as soon as born, was exposed in a
  wood, but preserved by a she-goat. The genius Agdistis saw him in
  the wood, and was captivated with his beauty. As Atys was going to
  celebrate his nuptials with the daughter of the king of Pessinus,
  Agdistis, who was jealous of his rival, inspired by his enchantments
  the king and his future son-in-law with such an uncommon fury,
  that they both attacked and ♦mutilated one another in the struggle.
  _Ovid_ says, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 10, fable 2, &c., that Cybele
  changed Atys into a pine tree as he was going to lay violent hands
  upon himself, and ever after that tree was sacred to the mother
  of the gods. After his death, Atys received divine honours, and
  temples were raised to his memory, particularly at Dymæ. _Catullus_,
  _the Adventures of Atys [Attis] and Berecynthia [Cybele]_.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 10, fable 3; _Fasti_, bk. 4, li. 223, &c.
  ――_Lucian_, _Deâ Syriâ_.――――Sylvius, son of Albius Sylvius, was king
  of Alba. _Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 3.

      ♦ ‘multilated’ replaced with ‘mutilated’

=Avarīcum=, a strong and fortified town of Gaul, now called Bourges,
  the capital of Berry. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 7.

=Avella=, a town of Campania, abounding in nuts, whence nuts have been
  called _avellinæ_. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 45, &c.――_Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, ♦bk. 7, li. 740.

      ♦ ‘Book 7’ omitted from reference

=Aventīnus=, a son of Hercules by Rhea, who assisted Turnus against
  Æneas, and distinguished himself by his valour. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 7, li. 657.――――A king of Alba, buried upon mount Aventine.
  _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 4, li. 51.――――One of the seven hills on
  which part of the city of Rome was built, it was 13,300 feet in
  circumference, and was given to the people to build houses upon, by
  king Ancus Martius. It was not reckoned within the precincts of the
  city till the reign of the emperor Claudius, because the soothsayers
  looked upon it as a place of ill omen, as Remus had been buried
  there, whose blood had been criminally shed. The word is derived,
  according to some, _ab avibus_, because birds were fond of the place.
  Others suppose that it receives its name because Aventinus, one of
  the Alban kings, was buried upon it. Juno, the Moon, Diana, Bona Dea,
  Hercules, and the goddess of Victory and Liberty, had magnificent
  temples built upon it. _Varro_, _de Lingua Latina_, bk. 4.――_Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 235.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 33.

=Avernus=, or =Averna=, a lake of Campania near Baiæ, whose waters
  were so unwholesome and putrid, that no birds were seen on its
  banks; hence its original name was ἀορνος, _avibus carens_. The
  ancients made it the entrance of hell, as also one of its rivers.
  Its circumference was five stadia, and its depth could not be
  ascertained. The waters of the Avernus were indispensably necessary
  in all enchantments and magical processes. It may be observed, that
  all lakes whose stagnated waters were putrid and offensive to the
  smell, were indiscriminately called Averna. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 4,
  lis. 5, 12, &c.; bk. 6, li. 201, &c.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 5.――_Diodorus_, bk. 4.――_Aristotle_, _on Admethics [Ethics]_.

=Avesta=, a book composed by Zoroaster.

=Aufeia aqua=, called afterwards Marcia, was the sweetest and most
  wholesome water in Rome, and it was first conveyed into the city by
  Ancus Martius.

=Aufidēna=, now _Alfidena_, a city of the Peligni in Italy, whose
  inhabitants, called _Aufidenates_, were among the Sabines. _Livy_,
  bk. 10, ch. 12.

=Aufĭdia lex=, was enacted by the tribune Aufidius Lurco, A.U.C. 692.
  It ordained, that if any candidate, in canvassing for an office,
  promised money to the tribunes, and failed in the performance,
  he should be excused; but if he actually paid it, he should be
  compelled to pay every tribune 6000 sesterces.

=Aufidius=, an effeminate person of Chios. _Juvenal_, satire 9, li. 25.
  ――――Bassus, a famous historian in the age of Quintilian, who wrote
  an account of Germany, and of the civil wars.――――A Roman senator,
  famous for his blindness and abilities. _Cicero_, _Tusculanæ
  Disputations_, bk. 5.――――Lurco, a man who enriched himself by
  fattening peacocks, and selling them for meat. _Pliny_, bk. 10.
  ――――Luscus, a man obscurely born, and made pretor of Fundi, in the
  age of Horace. _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 5, li. 34.

=Aufĭdus=, a river of Apulia falling into the Adriatic sea, and now
  called Ofanto. It was on its banks that the Romans were defeated by
  Hannibal at Cannæ. The spot is still shown by the inhabitants, and
  bears the name of the field of blood. _Horace_, bk. 3, ode 30; bk. 4,
  ode 9.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 405.

=Auga=, =Auge=, and =Augea=, daughter of Aleus king of Tegea by Neæra,
  was ravished by Hercules, and brought forth a son, whom she exposed
  in the woods to conceal her amours from her father. The child was
  preserved, and called Telephus. Aleus was informed of his daughter’s
  shame, and gave her to Nauplius to be put to death. Nauplius refused
  to perform the cruel office, and gave Auge to Teuthras king of Mysia,
  who, being without issue, adopted her as his daughter. Some time
  after the dominions of Teuthras were invaded by an enemy, and the
  king promised his crown and daughter to him who could deliver him
  from the impending calamity. Telephus, who had been directed by the
  oracle to go to the court of Teuthras, if he wished to find his
  parents, offered his services to the king, and they were accepted.
  As he was going to unite himself to Auge, in consequence of the
  victory he had obtained, Auge rushed from him with secret horror,
  and the gods sent a serpent to separate them. Auge implored the aid
  of Hercules, who made her son known to her, and she returned with
  him to Tegea. _Pausanias_ says, that Auge was confined in a coffer
  with her infant son, and thrown into the sea, where, after being
  preserved and protected by Minerva, she was found by king Teuthras.
  _Apollodorus_, bks. 2 & 3.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 4.――_Hyginus_,
  fables 99 & 100.

=Augarus=, an Arabian who, for his good offices obtained the favours of
  Pompey, whom he vilely deceived. _Dio Cassius._――――A king of Osroene,
  whom Caracalla imprisoned, after he had given him solemn promises of
  friendship and support. _Dio Cassius_, bk. 78.

=Augeæ=, a town of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 21.――――Another of

=Augias= and =Augeas=, son of Eleus, or Elius, was one of the
  Argonauts, and afterwards ascended the throne of Elis. He had an
  immense number of oxen and goats, and the stables in which they were
  kept had never been cleaned, so that the task seemed an impossibility
  to any man. Hercules undertook it, on promise of receiving as a
  reward the tenth part of the herds of Augias, or something equivalent.
  The hero changed the course of the river Alpheus, or, according
  to others, of the Peneus, which immediately carried away the dung
  and filth from the stables. Augias refused the promised recompense
  on pretence that Hercules had made use of artifice, and had not
  experienced any labour or trouble, and he further drove his own son
  Phyleus from his kingdom, because he supported the claims of the
  hero. The refusal was a declaration of war. Hercules conquered Elis,
  put to death Augias, and gave the crown to Phyleus. _Pausanias_ says,
  bk. 5, chs. 2 & 3, that Hercules spared the life of Augias for the
  sake of his son, and that Phyleus went to settle in Dulichium; and
  that at the death of Augias his other son, Agasthenes succeeded
  to the throne. Augias received, after his death, the honours which
  were generally paid to a hero. Augias has been called the son of
  Sol, because Elius signifies the sun. The proverb of _Augean stable_
  is now applied to an impossibility. _Hyginus_, fables 14, 30, 157.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 17, ch. 9.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2.

=Augĭlæ=, a people of Africa, who supposed that there were no gods
  except the manes of the dead, of whom they sought oracles. _Mela_,
  bk. 1.

=Augīnus=, a mountain of Liguria. _Livy_, bk. 39, ch. 2.

=Augŭres=, certain officers at Rome who foretold future events,
  whence their name, _ab avium garritu_. They were first created by
  Romulus, to the number of three. Servius Tullius added a fourth,
  and the tribunes of the people, A.U.C. 454, increased the number to
  nine; and Sylla added six more during his dictatorship. They had a
  particular college, and the chief amongst them was called _Magister
  collegii_. Their office was honourable; and if any one of them was
  convicted of any crime, he could not be deprived of his privileges;
  an indulgence granted to no other sacerdotal body at Rome. The augur
  generally sat on a high tower to make his observations. His face was
  turned towards the east, and he had the north to his left, and the
  south at his right. With a crooked staff he divided the face of
  the heavens into four different parts, and afterwards sacrificed to
  the gods, covering his head with his vestment. There were generally
  five things from which the augurs drew omens. The first consisted in
  observing the phænomena of the heavens, such as thunder, lightning,
  comets, &c. The second kind of omen was drawn from the chirping
  or flying of birds. The third was from the sacred chickens, whose
  eagerness or indifference in eating the bread which was thrown
  to them, was looked upon as lucky or unlucky. The fourth was from
  quadrupeds, from their crossing or appearing in some unaccustomed
  place. The fifth was from different casualties, which were called
  _Dira_, such as spilling salt upon a table, or wine upon one’s
  clothes, hearing strange noises, stumbling or sneezing, meeting a
  wolf, hare, fox, or pregnant bitch. From such superstitious notions
  did the Romans draw their prophecies. The sight of birds on the left
  hand was always deemed a lucky object, and the words _sinister_ and
  _lævus_, though generally supposed to be terms of ill luck, were
  always used by the augurs in an auspicious sense. _Cicero_, _de
  Divinatione_.――_Livy_, bk. 1, &c.――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus._
  ――_Ovid_, _Fasti_.

♦=Augurīnus Julius=, a Roman knight who conspired against Nero, &c.
  _Tacitus_, ♠_Annals_, bk. 15, ch. 70.

      ♦ ‘Tugurīnus Julius’ replaced with ‘Augurīnus Julius’
        Placed in correct alphebetical order.
      ♠ ‘H. 15, c. 70’ replaced with ‘Annals, bk. 15, ch. 50’

=Augusta=, a name given to 70 cities in the Roman provinces in honour
  of Augustus Cæsar.――――London, as capital of the country of the
  Trinobantes, was called Augusta Trinobantia.――――Messalina, famous
  for her debaucheries, was called Augusta, as wife of the emperor
  Claudius. _Juvenal_, satire 6, li. 118.

=Augustālia=, a festival at Rome, in commemoration of the day on which
  Augustus returned to Rome, after he had established peace over the
  different parts of the empire.

=Augustīnus=, a bishop of Hippo in Africa, distinguished himself by
  his writings, as well as by the austerity of his life. In his works,
  which are numerous, he displayed the powers of a great genius, and
  an extensive acquaintance with the philosophy of Plato. He died in
  the 76th year of his age, A.D. 430. The best edition of his works is
  that of the Benedict, folio, Antwerp, 1700 to 1703, 12 vols.

=Augustodūnum=, now _Autun_, a town of Gaul, the capital of the
  ancient Ædui.

=Augustŭlus=, the last Roman emperor of the west, A.D. 475, conquered
  by Odoacer king of the Heruli.

=Augustus Octaviānus Cæsar=, second emperor of Rome, was son of
  Octavius a senator, and Accia daughter of Julius, and sister to
  Julius Cæsar. He was adopted by his uncle Cæsar, and inherited
  the greatest part of his fortune. He lost his father at the age of
  four; and though only 18 when his uncle was murdered, he hastened
  to Rome, where he ingratiated himself with the senate and people,
  and received the honours of the consulship two years after, as the
  reward of his hypocrisy. Though his youth and his inexperience were
  ridiculed by his enemies, who branded him with the appellation of
  _boy_, yet he rose in consequence by his prudence and valour, and
  made war against his opponents, on pretence of avenging the death of
  his murdered uncle. But when he perceived that by making him fight
  against Antony, the senate wished to debilitate both antagonists, he
  changed his views, and uniting himself with his enemy, soon formed
  the second triumvirate, in which his cruel proscriptions shed the
  innocent blood of 300 senators and 200 knights, and did not even
  spare the life of his friend Cicero. By the divisions which were
  made among the triumvirs, Augustus retained for himself the more
  important provinces of the west, and banished, as it were, his
  colleagues, Lepidus and Antony, to more distant territories. But as
  long as the murderers of Cæsar were alive, the reigning tyrants had
  reason for apprehension, and therefore the forces of the triumvirate
  were directed against the partisans of Brutus and the senate. The
  battle was decided at Philippi, where it is said that the valour and
  conduct of Antony alone preserved the combined armies, and effected
  the defeat of the republican forces. The head of the unfortunate
  Brutus was carried to Rome, and in insolent revenge thrown at the
  feet of Cæsar’s statue. On his return to Italy, Augustus rewarded
  his soldiers with the lands of those that had been proscribed; but
  among the sufferers were many who had never injured the conqueror of
  Philippi, especially Virgil, whose modest application procured the
  restitution of his property. The friendship which subsisted between
  Augustus and Antony was broken as soon as the fears of a third rival
  vanished away, and the aspiring heir of Cæsar was easily induced to
  take up arms by the little jealousies and resentment of Fulvia. Her
  death, however, retarded hostilities; the two rivals were reconciled;
  their united forces were successfully directed against the younger
  Pompey; and, to strengthen their friendship, Antony agreed to marry
  Octavia the sister of Augustus. But as this step was political, and
  not dictated by affection, Octavia was slighted, and Antony resigned
  himself to the pleasures and company of the beautiful Cleopatra.
  Augustus was incensed, and immediately took up arms to avenge the
  wrongs of his sister, and perhaps more eagerly to remove a man
  whose power and existence kept him in continual alarms, and made
  him dependent. Both parties met at Actium, B.C. 31, to decide the
  fate of Rome. Antony was supported by all the power of the east,
  and Augustus by Italy. Cleopatra fled from the battle with 60
  ships, and her flight ruined the interest of Antony, who followed
  her into Egypt. The conqueror soon after passed into Egypt,
  besieged Alexandria, and honoured, with a magnificent funeral, the
  unfortunate Roman and the celebrated queen, whom the fear of being
  led in the victor’s triumph at Rome had driven to commit suicide.
  After he had established peace all over the world, Augustus shut up
  the gates of the temple of Janus, the year our Saviour was born. It
  is said he twice resolved to lay down the supreme power, immediately
  after the victory obtained over Antony, and afterwards on account of
  his ill-health; but his friend Mecænas dissuaded him, and observed
  that he would leave it to be the prey of the most powerful, and
  expose himself to ingratitude and to danger. He died at Nola, in the
  76th year of his age, A.D. 14, after he had held the sovereign power
  during 44 years. Augustus was an active emperor, and consulted the
  good of the Romans with the most anxious care. He visited all the
  provinces except Africa and Sardinia, and his consummate prudence
  and experience gave rise to many salutary laws, but it may be said,
  that be finished with a good grace what he began with cruelty.
  While making himself absolute, he took care to leave his countrymen
  the shadow of liberty; and if, under the character and office ♦of
  perpetual tribune, of priest and imperator, he was invested with all
  the power of sovereignty, he guarded against offending the jealous
  Romans, by not assuming the regal title. His refusal to read the
  letters he found after Pompey’s defeat arose more from fear than
  honour, and he dreaded the discovery of names which would have
  perhaps united to sacrifice his ambition. His good qualities, and
  many virtues he perhaps never possessed, have been transmitted to
  posterity by the pen of adulation or gratitude, in the poems of
  Virgil, Horace, and Ovid. To distinguish himself from the obscurity
  of the Octavii, and, if possible, to suppress the remembrance
  of his uncle’s violent fate, he aspired after a new title; and
  the submissive senate yielded to his ambition, by giving him
  the honourable appellation of _Augustus_. He has been accused of
  licentiousness and adultery by his biographer; but the goodness
  of his heart, and the fidelity of his friendship, which in some
  instances he possessed, made some amends for his natural foibles.
  He was ambitious of being thought handsome; and as he was publicly
  reported to be the son of Apollo, according to his mother’s
  declaration, he wished his flatterers to represent him with the
  figure and attributes of that god. Like Apollo, his eyes were clear,
  and he affected to have it thought that they possessed some divine
  irradiation; and was well pleased if, when he fixed his looks upon
  anybody, they held down their eyes as if overcome by the glaring
  brightness of the sun. He distinguished himself by his learning; he
  was a perfect master of the Greek language, and wrote some tragedies,
  besides memoirs of his life, and other works, all now lost. He was
  married three times; to Claudia, to Scribonia, and to Livia; but he
  was unhappy in his matrimonial connections, and his only daughter
  Julia by Scribonia disgraced herself and her father by the debauchery
  and licentiousness of her manners. He recommended, at his death, his
  adopted son Tiberius as his successor. He left his fortune, partly
  to Tiberius and to Drusus, and made donations to the army and to
  the Roman people. Virgil wrote his heroic poem at the desire of
  Augustus, whom he represented under the amiable and perfect character
  of Æneas. _Suetonius_, _The Twelve Caesars_.――_Horace._――_Virgil._
  ――_Pausanias._――_Tacitus._――_Paterculus._――_Dio Cassius._――_Ovid._
  ――――The name of _Augustus_ was afterwards given to the successors
  of Octavianus in the Roman empire as a personal, and the name of
  _Cæsar_ as a family, distinction. In a more distant period of the
  empire, the title of Augustus was given only to the emperor, while
  that of Cæsar was bestowed on the second person in the state, who
  was considered as presumptive heir.

      ♦ ‘or’ replaced with ‘of’

=Avĭdiēnus=, a rich and sordid man, whom _Horace_ styles happy, bk. 2,
  satire 2, li. 55.

=Avidius Cassius=, a man saluted emperor, A.D. 175. He reigned only
  three months, and was assassinated by a centurion. He was called a
  second Catiline, from his excessive love of bloodshed. _Diodorus._

=Rufus Festus Aviēnus=, a poet in the age of Theodosius, who translated
  the phænomena of Aratus, as also all Livy, into iambic verses. The
  best edition of what remains of him is that of Cannegetier, 8vo,

=Avitus=, a governor of Britain under Nero. _Tacitus_, _Annals_,
  bk. 14.――――Alcinus, a christian poet, who wrote a poem in six books
  on original sin, &c.

=Avium=, a city between Tyre and Sidon. _Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Aulerci=, a people of Gaul, between the Seine and the Loire.

=Aulestes=, a king of the Etrurians when Æneas came into Italy.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 12, li. 290.

=Aulētes=, a general who assisted Æneas in Italy, with 100 ships.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 207.――――The surname of one of the
  Ptolemean kings, father to Cleopatra.

=Aulis=, a daughter of Ogyges. _Pausanias_, _Bœotia_.――――A town of
  Bœotia near Chalcis on the sea coast, where all the Greeks conspired
  against Troy. They were detained there by contrary winds, by the
  anger of Diana, whose favourite stag had been killed by Agamemnon.
  To appease the resentment of the goddess, Agamemnon was obliged to
  sacrifice his own daughter Iphigenia, whom, however, Diana spared
  by substituting a ram. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 4, li. 426.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 12, li. 9, &c.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2, li. 303.

=Aulon=, a mountain of Calabria, opposite Tarentum, famous for its
  wine, which, according to _Horace_ bk. 2, ode 6, li. 18, is superior
  to that of Falernum. _Martial_, bk. 13, ltr. 125.――_Strabo_, bk. 6.
  ――――A place of Messenia. _Pausanias._

=Aulonius=, a surname of Æsculapius.

=Aulus=, a prænomen common among the Romans.――――Gellius. _See:_ Gellius.

=Auras=, a European river, flowing into the Ister from mount Hæmus.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 49.

=Aurelia lex=, was enacted A.U.C. 653, by the pretor Lucius Aurelius
  Cotta, to invest the Senatorian and Equestrian orders, and the
  Tribuni Ærarii, with judicial power.――――Another, A.U.C. 678. It
  abrogated a clause of the Lex Cornelia and permitted the tribunes
  to hold other offices after the expiration of the tribuneship.

=Aurelia=, a town of Hispania Bætica.――――The mother of Julius Cæsar.
  _Suetonius_, _Cæsar_, ch. 74.――――A fishwoman. _Juvenal_, satire 4,
  li. 98.

=Aureliānus=, emperor of Rome after Flavius Claudius, was austere, and
  even cruel in the execution of the laws, and punished his soldiers
  with unusual severity. He rendered himself famous for his military
  character; and his expedition against Zenobia, the celebrated
  queen of Palmyra, gained him great honours. He beautified Rome, was
  charitable to the poor, and the author of many salutary laws. He was
  naturally brave, and in all the battles he fought, it is said, he
  killed no less than 800 men with his own hand. In his triumph, he
  exhibited to the Romans people of 15 different nations, all of which
  he had conquered. He was the first emperor who wore a diadem. After
  a glorious reign of six years, as he marched against the northern
  barbarians, he was assassinated near Byzantium, A.D. 275, January
  29th, by his soldiers, whom Mnestheus had incited to rebellion
  against their emperor. This Mnestheus had been threatened with death,
  for some ill behaviour to the emperor, and therefore he meditated
  his death. The soldiers, however, soon repented of their ingratitude
  and cruelty to Aurelian, and threw Mnestheus to be devoured by wild
  beasts.――――A physician of the fourth century.

=Aurelius=, emperor of Rome. _See:_ Antoninus Bassianus.――――A painter
  in the age of Augustus. _Pliny_, bk. 35.――――Victor, an historian in
  the age of Julian, two of whose compositions are extant――an account
  of illustrious men, and a biography of all the Cæsars to Julian. The
  best edition of Aurelius are the 4to of Artuzenius, Amsterdam, 1733,
  and the 8vo of Pitiscus, Utrecht, 1696.――――Antoninus, an emperor.
  _See:_ Antoninus.

=Aureolus=, a general who assumed the purple in the age of Gallienus.

=Aurinia=, a prophetess held in great veneration by the Germans.
  _Tacitus_, _Germania_, ch. 8.

=Aurōra=, a goddess, daughter of Hyperion and Thia or Thea, or,
  according to others, of Titan and Terra. Some say that Pallas, son
  of Crius and brother to Perseus, was her father; hence her surname
  of _Pallantias_. She married Astræus, by whom she had the winds, the
  stars, &c. Her amours with Tithonus and Cephalus are also famous; by
  the former she had Memnon and Æmathion, and Phaeton by the latter.
  _See:_ Cephalus and Tithonus. She had also an intrigue with Orion,
  whom she carried to the island of Delos, where he was killed by
  Diana’s arrows. Aurora is generally represented by the poets drawn
  in a rose-coloured chariot, and opening with her rosy fingers the
  gates of the east, pouring the dew upon the earth, and making the
  flowers grow. Her chariot is generally drawn by white horses, and
  she is covered with a veil. Nox and Somnus fly before her, and the
  constellations of heaven disappear at her approach. She always sets
  out before the sun, and is the forerunner of his rising. The Greeks
  call her Eos. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 8; _Odyssey_, bk. 10; _Hymn to
  Aphrodite_.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bks. 3, 9, 15.――_Apollodorus_,
  bks. 1, 3.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 535.――_Varro_, _de Lingua
  Latina_, bk. 5, &c.――_Hesiod_, _Theogony_.――_Hyginus_, preface to

=Aurunce=, an ancient town of Latium, built by Auson the son of
  Ulysses by Calypso. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 727, &c.

=Auschīsæ=, a people of Libya. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 171.

=Ausci=, a people of Gaul.

=Auser=, =Auseris=, and =Anser=, a river of Etruria, which joins the
  Arnus before it falls into the Tyrrhene sea.

=Auses=, a people of Africa, whose virgins yearly fight with sticks in
  honour of Minerva. She who behaves with the greatest valour receives
  unusual honour, &c. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 180.

=Auson=, a son of Ulysses and Calypso, from whom the Ausones, a people
  of Italy, are descended.

=Ausonia=, one of the ancient names of Italy, which it received from
  Auson the son of Ulysses. If Virgil makes Æneas speak of Ausonia, it
  is by anticipation. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 171.

=Decimius Magnus Ausōnius=, a poet, born at Bordeaux in Gaul, in the
  fourth century, preceptor to Gratian son of the emperor Valentinian,
  and made consul by the means of his pupil. His compositions have
  been long admired. The thanks he returned the emperor Gratian is
  one of the best of his poems, which were too often hurried for
  publication, and consequently not perfect. He wrote the _consular
  fasti_ of Rome, a useful performance, now lost. His style is
  occasionally obscene, and he has attempted upon the words of Virgil,
  what revolts everything against his indelicacy. The best edition
  is that of Tollius, 8vo, Leiden, 1671; or that of Jaubert, with a
  French translation, 4 vols., 12mo, Paris, 1769.

=Auspĭces=, a sacerdotal order at Rome, nearly the same as the Augurs.
  _See:_ Augures.

=Auster=, one of the winds blowing from the south, whose breath was
  pernicious to flowers as well as to health. He was parent of rain.
  _Virgil_, _Eclogues_, poem 2, li. 58. _See:_ Venti.

=Austesion=, a Theban, son of Tisamenus. His son Theras led a colony
  into an island which, from him, was called Thera. _Herodotus_, bk. 4.

=Autobūlus=, a painter. _Pliny_, bk. 35.

=Autochthŏnes=, the original inhabitants of a country who are the first
  possessors of it, and who never have mingled with other nations. The
  Athenians called themselves Autochthones, and boasted that they were
  as old as the country which they inhabited. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch.
  14.――_Tacitus_, _Germania_.――_Cicero_, _On Oratory_, bk. 3, ch. 83.

=Autŏcles=, an Athenian, sent by his countrymen with a fleet to the
  assistance of Alexander of Pheræ.

=Autocrătes=, an historian mentioned by _Athenæus_, bks. 9 & 11.

=Autolŏlæ=, a people of Mauritania descended from the Gætuli. They
  excelled all their neighbours in running. _Lucan_, bk. 4, li. 677.

=Autŏly̆cus=, a son of Mercury by Chione a daughter of Dædalion. He
  was one of the Argonauts. His craft as a thief has been greatly
  celebrated. He stole the flocks of his neighbours, and mingled them
  with his own, after he had changed their marks. He did the same
  to Sisyphus son of Æolus; but Sisyphus was as crafty as Autolycus,
  and he knew his own oxen by a mark which he had made under their
  feet. Autolycus was so pleased with the artifice of Sisyphus, that
  he immediately formed an intimacy with him, and even permitted
  him freely to enjoy the company of his daughter Anticlea, who
  became pregnant of Ulysses, and was soon after married to Laertes.
  _See:_ Sisyphus, Laertes. _Hyginus_, fable 200, &c.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 1, fable 8.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1.――_Homer_,
  _Odyssey_, bk. 14.――――A son of Phryxus and Chalciope. _Hyginus_,
  fable 14.

=Automăte=, one of the Cyclades, called also Hera. _Pliny_,
  bks. 2, 6, 37.――――A daughter of Danaus.

=Automĕdon=, a son of Dioreus, who went to the Trojan war with 10
  ships. He was the charioteer of Achilles, after whose death he
  served Pyrrhus in the same capacity. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bks. 9, 16,
  &c.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 2, li. 477.

=Automedūsa=, a daughter of Alcathous, killed by Tydeus. _Apollodorus_,
  bk. 2.

=Automĕnes=, one of the Heraclidæ, king of Corinth. At his death, B.C.
  779, annual magistrates, called Prytanes, were chosen at Corinth,
  and their power continued 90 years, till Cypselus and his son
  Periander made themselves absolute.

=Automŏli=, a nation of Æthiopia. _Herodotus_, bk. 2.

=Autonoe=, a daughter of Cadmus, who married Aristæus, by whom she
  had Actæon, often called _Autoneius heros_. The death of her son
  [_See:_ Actæon] was so painful to her, that she retired from Bœotia
  to Megara, where she soon after died. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 44.
  ――_Hyginus_, fable 179.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 3, li. 720.
  ――――One of the Danaides. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2.――――One of the
  Nereides. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_.――――A female servant of Penelope.
  _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 18.

=Autophradātes=, a satrap of Lydia, who revolted from Artaxerxes.

=Autūra=, the _Eure_, a river of Gaul which falls into the Seine.

=Auxesia= and =Damia=, two virgins who came from Crete to Trœzene,
  where the inhabitants stoned them to death in a sedition. The
  Epidaurians raised them statues by order of the oracle, when their
  country was become barren. They were held in great veneration at
  Trœzene. _Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 82.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 30.

=Axĕnus=, the ancient name of the Euxine sea. The word signifies
  _inhospitable_, which was highly applicable to the manners of the
  ancient inhabitants of the coast. _Ovid_, bk. 4; _Tristia_, poem 4,
  li. 56.

=Axiŏchus=, a philosopher, to whom Plato dedicated a treatise
  concerning death.

=Axīon=, brother of Alphesibœa, murdered Alcmæon his sister’s husband,
  because he wished to recover from her a golden necklace. _See:_
  Alcmæon and Alphesibœa.

=Axiotea=, a woman who regularly went in a man’s dress to hear the
  lectures of Plato.

=Axiothea=, the wife of Nicocles king of Cyprus. _Polyænus_, bk. 8.

=Axis=, a town of Umbria. _Propertius_, poem 4.

=Axius=, a river of Macedonia. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 123.

=Axona=, a river of Belgic Gaul, which falls into the Seine below
  Paris. The inhabitants of the neighbourhood were called Axones.

=Axur= and =Anxur=, a surname of Jupiter, who had a temple at Trachis
  in Thessaly. He was represented as a beardless youth.

=Axus=, a town about the middle of Crete. _Apollodus._

=Azan=, a mountain of Arcadia, sacred to Cybele.――――A son of Arcas
  king of Arcadia by Erato, one of the Dryades. He divided his father’s
  kingdom with his brothers Aphidas and Elatus, and called his share
  Azania. There was in Azania a fountain called _Clitorius_, whose
  waters gave a dislike for wine to those who drank them. _Vitruvius_,
  bk. 8, ch. 3.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15, li. 322.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 8, ch. 4.

=Azīris=, a place of Libya, surrounded on both sides by delightful
  hills covered with trees, and watered by a river where Battus built
  a town. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 157.

=Azonax=, a man who taught Zoroaster the art of magic. _Pliny_, bk. 30.

=Azorus=, one of the Argonauts.

=Azōtus=, now _Asdod_, a large town of Syria on the borders of the
  Mediterranean. _Josephus_, _Antiquities of the Jews_, bk. 15.


=Babilius=, a Roman, who, by the help of a certain herb, is said to
  have passed in six days from the Sicilian sea to Alexandria. _Pliny_,
  preface to ch. 19.

=Babilus=, an astrologer in Nero’s age, who told the emperor to avert
  the danger which seemed to hang upon his head, from the appearance
  of a hairy comet, by putting all the leading men of Rome to death.
  His advice was faithfully followed. _Suetonius_, _Nero_, ch. 36.

=Baby̆lon=, a son of Belus, who, as some suppose, founded a city which
  bears his name.――――A celebrated city, the capital of the Assyrian
  empire, on the banks of the Euphrates. It had 100 brazen gates; and
  its walls, which were cemented with bitumen, and greatly enlarged
  and embellished by the activity of Semiramis; measured 480 stadia
  in circumference, 50 cubits in thickness, and 200 in height. It was
  taken by Cyrus, B.C. 538, after he had drained the waters of the
  Euphrates into a new channel, and marched his troops by night into
  the town, through the dried bed; and it is said that the fate of
  the extensive capital was unknown to the inhabitants of the distant
  suburbs till late in the evening. Babylon became famous for the
  death of Alexander, and for the new empire which was afterwards
  established there under the Seleucidæ. _See:_ Syria. Its greatness
  was so reduced in succeeding ages, according to Pliny’s observations,
  that in his time it was but a desolate wilderness, and at present
  the place where it stood is unknown to travellers. The inhabitants
  were early acquainted with astrology. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 26.
  ――_Herodotus_, bks. 1, 2, 3.――_Justin_, bk. 1, &c.――_Diodorus_, bk.
  2.――_Xenophon_, _Cyropædia_, bk. 7, &c.――_Propertius_, bk. 3, poem
  11, li. 21.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4, fable 2.――_Martial_,
  bk. 9, ltr. 77.――――There is also a town of the same name near the
  Bubastic branch of the Nile, in Egypt.

=Babylōnia=, a large province of Assyria, of which Babylon was the
  capital. The inhabitants shook off the Assyrian yoke, and afterwards
  became very powerful.――――The surname of Seleucia, which arose from
  the ruins of Babylon, under the successors of Alexander. _Pliny_,
  bk. 6, ch. 26.

=Babylōnii=, the inhabitants of Babylon, famous for their knowledge
  of astrology, first divided the year into 12 months, and the zodiac
  into 12 signs.

=Babyrsa=, a fortified castle near Artaxata. _Strabo_, bk. 11.

=Babytăce=, a city of Armenia, whose inhabitants despise gold. _Pliny_,
  bk. 6, ch. 27.

=Bacabasus=, betrayed the snares of Artabanus, brother of Darius,
  against Artaxerxes. _Justin_, bk. 3, ch. 1.

=Bacchæ=, the priestesses of Bacchus. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 7.

=Bacchanālia=, festivals in honour of Bacchus at Rome, the same as the
  Dionysia of the Greeks. _See:_ Dionysia.

=Bacchantes=, ♦priestesses of Bacchus, who are represented at the
  celebration of the orgies almost naked, with garlands of ivy, with a
  thyrsus, and dishevelled hair. Their looks are wild, and they utter
  dreadful sounds, and clash different musical instruments together.
  They were also called Thyades and Menades. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 6, li. 592.――_Horace_, bk. 3, ode 25.――_Propertius_, bk. 3, poem
  21.――_Lucan_, bk. 1, li. 674.

      ♦ ‘priestessess’ replaced with ‘priestesses’

=Bacchi=, a mountain of Thrace, near Philippi. _Appian._

=Bacchiădæ=, a Corinthian family descended from Bacchia daughter of
  Dionysius. In their nocturnal orgies they, as some report, tore to
  pieces Actæon son of Mellissus, which so enraged the father, that
  before the altar he entreated the Corinthians to revenge the death
  of his son, and immediately threw himself into the sea. Upon this
  the Bacchiadæ were banished, and went to settle in Sicily, between
  Pachynum and Pelorus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, li. 407.
  ――_Strabo_, bk. 8.

=Bacchĭdes=, a general who betrayed the town of Sinope to Lucullus.
  _Strabo_, bk. 12.

=Bacchis=, or =Balus=, king of Corinth, succeeded his father Prumnides.
  His successors were always called _Bacchidæ_, in remembrance of the
  equity and moderation of his reign. The Bacchidæ increased so much,
  that they chose one of their number to preside among them with regal
  authority, and it is said that the sovereign power continued in
  their hands near 200 years. Cypselus overturned this institution
  by making himself absolute. _Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2,
  ch. 4.――_Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 92.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5,
  li. 407.

=Bacchium=, a small island in the Ægean sea, opposite Smyrna. _Pliny_,
  bk. 5, ch. 3.

=Bacchius= and =Bithus=, two celebrated gladiators of equal age and
  strength; whence the proverb to express equality: _Bithus contra
  Bacchium_. _Suetonius_, _Augustus_.――_Horace_, bk. 1, satire 7,
  li. 20.

=Bacchus=, was son of Jupiter and Semele the daughter of Cadmus. After
  she had enjoyed the company of Jupiter, Semele was deceived, and
  perished by the artifice of Juno. This goddess, always jealous of
  her husband’s amours, assumed the shape of Beroe, Semele’s nurse,
  and persuaded Semele that the lover whom she entertained was not
  Jupiter, but a false lover, and that to prove his divinity she
  ought to beg of him, if he really were Jupiter, to come to her bed
  with the same majesty as when he courted the embraces of Juno. The
  artifice succeeded, and when Jupiter promised his mistress whatever
  she asked, Semele required him to visit her with all the divinity of
  a god. Jupiter was unable to violate his oath, and Semele unwilling
  to retract it; therefore, as she was a mortal, and unable to bear
  the majesty of Jupiter, she was consumed and reduced to ashes. The
  child, of which she had been pregnant for seven months, was with
  difficulty saved from the flames, and put in his father’s thigh,
  where he remained the full time which he naturally was to have been
  in his mother’s womb. From this circumstance Bacchus has been called
  _Bimater_. According to some, Dirce, a nymph of the Achelous, saved
  him from the flames. There are different traditions concerning the
  manner of his education. Ovid says that, after his birth, he was
  brought up by his aunt Ino, and afterwards entrusted to the care
  of the nymphs of Nysa. Lucian supposes that Mercury carried him, as
  soon as born, to the nymphs of Nysa; and Apollonius says that he was
  carried by Mercury to a nymph in the island of Eubœa, whence he was
  driven by the power of Juno, who was the chief deity of the place.
  Some support that Naxus can boast of the place of his education,
  under the nymphs Philia, Coronis, and Clyda. Pausanias relates a
  tradition which prevailed in the town of Brasiæ in Peloponnesus;
  and accordingly mentions that Cadmus, as soon as he heard of his
  daughter’s amours, shut her up, with her child lately born, in a
  coffer, and exposed them on the sea. The coffer was carried safe
  by the waves to the coast of Brasiæ; but Semele was found dead, and
  the child alive. Semele was honoured with a magnificent funeral,
  and Bacchus properly educated. This diversity of opinion shows that
  there were many of the same name. Diodorus speaks of three, and
  Cicero of a greater number; but among them all, the son of Jupiter
  and Semele seems to have obtained the merit of the rest. Bacchus
  is the Osiris of the Egyptians, and his history is drawn from the
  Egyptian traditions concerning that ancient king. Bacchus assisted
  the gods in their wars against the giants, and was cut to pieces;
  but the son of Semele was not then born. This tradition, therefore,
  is taken from the history of Osiris, who was killed by his brother
  Typhon, and the worship of Osiris has been introduced by Orpheus
  into Greece, under the name of Bacchus. In his youth he was taken
  asleep in the island of Naxos, and carried away by some mariners
  whom he changed into dolphins, except the pilot, who had expressed
  some concern at his misfortune. His expedition into the east is
  most celebrated. He marched, at the head of an army composed of men,
  as well as of women, all inspired with divine fury, and armed with
  thyrsi, cymbals, and other musical instruments. The leader was drawn
  in a chariot by a lion and a tiger, and was accompanied by Pan and
  Silenus, and all the Satyrs. His conquests were easy, and without
  bloodshed: the people easily submitted, and gratefully elevated to
  the rank of a god the hero who taught them the use of the vine, the
  cultivation of the earth, and the manner of making honey. Amidst his
  benevolence to mankind, he was relentless in punishing all want of
  respect to his divinity; and the punishment he inflicted on Pentheus,
  Agave, Lycurgus, &c., is well known. He has received the name of
  Liber, Bromius, Lyæus, Evan, Thyonæus, Psilas, &c., which are mostly
  derived from the places where he received adoration, or from the
  ceremonies observed in his festivals. As he was the god of vintage,
  of wine, and of drinkers, he is generally represented crowned with
  vine and ivy leaves, with a thyrsus in his hand. His figure is
  that of an effeminate young man, to denote the joys which commonly
  prevail at feasts; and sometimes that of an old man, to teach us
  that wine taken immoderately will enervate us, consume our health,
  render us loquacious and childish like old men, and unable to
  keep secrets. The panther is sacred to him, because he went in his
  expedition covered with the skin of that beast. The magpie is also
  his favourite bird, because in triumphs people were permitted to
  speak with boldness and liberty. Bacchus is sometimes represented
  like an infant, holding a thyrsus and clusters of grapes with a horn.
  He often appears naked, and riding upon the shoulders of Pan, or in
  the arms of Silenus, who was his foster-father. He also sits upon a
  celestial globe, bespangled with stars, and is then the same as the
  Sun or Osiris of Egypt. The festivals of Bacchus, generally called
  Orgies, Bacchanalia, or Dionysia, were introduced into Greece from
  Egypt by Danaus and his daughters. The infamous debaucheries which
  arose from the celebration of these festivals are well known. _See:_
  Dionysia. The amours of Bacchus are not numerous. He married Ariadne,
  after she had been forsaken by Theseus in the island of Naxos;
  and by her he had many children, among whom were Ceranus, Thoas,
  Œnopion, Tauropolis, &c. According to some, he was the father of
  Hymenæus, whom the Athenians made the god of marriage. The Egyptians
  sacrificed pigs to him, before the doors of their houses. The fir
  tree, the yew tree, the fig tree, the ivy, and the vine, were sacred
  to him; and the goat was generally sacrificed to him, on account of
  the great propensity of that animal to destroy the vine. According
  to Pliny, he was the first who ever wore a crown. His beauty is
  compared to that of Apollo, and, like him, he is represented with
  fine hair loosely flowing down his shoulders, and he is said to
  possess eternal youth. Sometimes he has horns, either because he
  taught the cultivation of the earth with oxen, or because Jupiter
  his father appeared to him in the deserts of Libya under the shape
  of a ram, and supplied his thirsty army with water. Bacchus went
  down to hell to recover his mother, whom Jupiter willingly made a
  goddess, under the name of Thyone. The three persons of the name
  of Bacchus, whom Diodorus mentions, are, the one who conquered the
  Indies, and is surnamed the bearded Bacchus; a son of Jupiter and
  Proserpine, who was represented with horns; and the son of Jupiter
  and Semele, called the Bacchus of Thebes. Those mentioned by Cicero
  are, a son of Proserpine; a son of Nisus, who built Nysa; a son of
  Caprius, who reigned in the Indies; a son of Jupiter and the moon;
  and a son of Thyone and Nisus. _Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bks.
  2 & 3.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, chs. 22, 37; bk. 3, ch. 24; bk. 5,
  ch. 19, &c.――_Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 150; bk. 2, chs. 42, 48, 49.
  ――_Plutarch_, _De Iside et Osiride_.――_Diodorus_, bks. 1, 3, &c.
  ――_Orpheus_, _Dionysius_.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 3, ch. 4,
  &c.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 3, fable 3, &c.――_Amores_, bk. 3,
  poem 3.――_Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 715.――_Hyginus_, fables 155, 167, &c.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 56; bk. 8, ch. 2; bk. 36, ch. 5.――_Homer_,
  _Iliad_, bk. 6.――_Lactantius_, _de falsa religione_, bk. 1, ch. 22.
  ――_Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 2, &c.――_Euripides_, _Bacchæ_.――_Lucian_,
  _de Sacrificiis_; _Bacchus_; _Dialogi Deorum_.――_Oppian_,
  _Cynegetica_.――_Philostratus_, bk. 1, _Imagines_, ch. 50.――_Seneca_,
  _Chorus of Œdipus_.――_Martial_, bk. 8, ltr. 26; bk. 14, ltr. 107.

=Bacchylides=, a lyric poet of Cos, nephew to Simonides, who, like
  Pindar, wrote the praises of Hiero. Some of his verses have been
  preserved. _Marcellinus._

=Bacenis=, a wood of Germany. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 6, ch. 10.

=Bacis=, a famous soothsayer of Bœotia. _Cicero_, bk. 1, _de
  Divinatione_, ch. 34.――――A king of Corinth, called also Bacchis.
  _See:_ Bacchis.――――An athlete of Trœzene. _Pausanias_, bk. 6.

=Bactra= (orum), now _Balk_, the capital of Bactriana, on the river
  Bactros in Asia. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 2, li. 138.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 2.

=Bactri= and =Bactriāni=, the inhabitants of Bactriana, who lived
  upon plunder, and were always under arms. They gave to their dogs
  those that died through old age or disease, and suffered slaves and
  strangers to take whatever liberties they pleased with their wives.
  They were conquered by Alexander the Great. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 6,
  &c.――_Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 23.――_Plutarch_, _An vitiositas ad
  infelicitatem sufficia_.――_Herodotus_, bks. 1 & 3.

=Bactriāna=, a country of Asia, fruitful as well as extensive. It
  formed once part of the Persian empire, on the eastern parts of
  which it is situated. Zoroaster was the most ancient king of this
  country, who taught his subjects the art of magic and astrology.
  _Diodorus_, bk. 2.――_Justin_, bk. 1, ch. 1.

=Bactros=, now _Dahesh_, a river on the borders of Asiatic Scythia,
  from which Bactriana receives its name. _Lucan_, bk. 3, li. 267.

=Bacuntius=, a river of Pannonia, which falls into the Save above

=Badaca=, a town of Media. _Diodorus_, bk. 19.

=Badia=, a town of Spain. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 3, ch. 7.

=Badius=, a Campanian, who challenged Titus Quinctius Crispinus, one
  of his friends, by whom he was killed. _Livy_, bk. 35, ch. 18.

=Baduhennæ=, a place in the country of the Frisii, where 900 Romans
  were killed. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 4, ch. 73.

=Bæbia lex=, was enacted for the election of four pretors every other
  year. _Livy_, bk. 40.――――Another law by Massa Bæbius a tribune
  of the people, which forbade the division of the lands, whilst it
  substituted a yearly tax to be paid by the possessors, and to be
  divided among the people. _Appian_, bk. 1.

=Massa Bæbius=, a Roman, in whose consulship the tomb of Numa was
  discovered. _Plutarch_, _Numa_.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 1, ch. 1.
  ――――Lucius, a Roman pretor, who, being surprised by the Ligurians,
  fled to Marseilles, where he died three days after. _Livy_, bk. 37,
  ch. 57.

=Bætis=, a river of Spain, from which a part of the country has
  received the name of _Bætica_. It was formerly called Tartessus,
  and now bears the name of Guadalquiver. The wool produced there was
  so good that _Bætica_ was an epithet of merit, applied to garments.
  _Martial_, bk. 12, ltr. 100.

=Bæton=, a Greek historian in the age of Alexander.

=Bagistame=, a delightful country of Media. _Diodorus_, bk. 17.

=Bagistanes=, a friend of Bessus, whom he abandoned when he murdered
  Darius. _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 13.

=Bagōas= and =Bagōsas=, an Egyptian eunuch in the court of Artaxerxes
  Ochus, so powerful that nothing could be done without his consent.
  He led some troops against the Jews, and profaned their temple. He
  poisoned Ochus, gave his flesh to cats, and made knife handles with
  his bones, because he had killed the god Apis. He placed on the
  throne Arses, the youngest of the slaughtered Prince’s children,
  and afterwards put him to death. He was at last killed, B.C. 335, by
  Darius, whom, after raising to the crown, he had attempted to poison.
  _Diodorus_, bks. 16 & 17.――――Another, greatly esteemed by Alexander.
  He was the cause that one of the satraps was put to death by the
  most excruciating torments. _Curtius_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――_Plutarch_
  in _Alexander_.――――The name of Bagoas occurs very frequently in
  the Persian history; and it seems that most of the eunuchs of the
  monarchs of Persia were generally known by that appellation.

=Bagodares=, a friend of Bessus, whom he abandoned when he attempted
  the life of Darius. _Diodorus_, bk. 17.

=Bagophănes=, a governor of Babylon, who, when Alexander approached
  the city, strewed all the streets and burned incense on the altars,
  &c. _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 1.

=Bagrăda=, now _Megerda_, a river of Africa near Utica, where Regulus
  killed a serpent 120 feet long. _Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 14.

♦=Baiæ=, a city of Campania near the sea, founded by Baius, one of the
  companions of Ulysses. It was famous for its delightful situation
  and baths, where many of the Roman senators had country houses.
  Its ancient grandeur, however, has now disappeared, and Baiæ, with
  its magnificent villas, has yielded to the tremendous earthquakes
  which afflict and convulse Italy, and it is no longer to be found.
  _Martial_, bk. 14, ltr. 81.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ltr. 1.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 5.

    ♦ ‘Balæ’ replaced with ‘Baiæ’

=Bala=, a surname of Alexander king of Syria. _Justin_, bk. 35, ch. 1.

=Balacrus=, an officer in Alexander’s army, who took Miletus.
  _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 13.――――Another officer, who commanded some
  auxiliaries. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 5.

=Balanagræ=, a town of Cyrene. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 26.

=Balanea=, a town between Syria and Phœnicia. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 20.

=Balanus=, a prince of Gaul, who assisted the Romans in their
  Macedonian war, A.U.C. 581.――_Livy_, bk. 44, ch. 14.

=Balari=, a people of Sardinia. _Livy_, bk. 41, ch. 6.

=Claudius Balbillus=, a learned and benevolent man, governor of Egypt,
  of which he wrote the history, under Nero. _Tacitus_, _Annals_,
  bk. 13, ch. 22.

=Balbīnus=, an admirer of Agna, mentioned _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 3,
  li. 40.――――A Roman who, after governing provinces with credit and
  honour, assassinated the Gordians, and seized the purple. He was
  some time after murdered by his ♦soldiers. A.D. 238.

    ♦ ‘soldier’ replaced with ‘soldiers’

=Balbus=, a mountain of Africa, famous for the retreat of Masinissa,
  after he had fought a battle against Syphax.

=Lucius Balbus=, a lawyer, &c., one among the pupils of Scævola.――――A
  man killed by the assassins of the triumvirs.

=Baleares=, three islands in the Mediterranean, modernly called
  _Majorca_, _Minorca_, and _Yvica_, on the coast of Spain. The word
  is derived from βαλλειν, _to throw_, because the inhabitants were
  expert archers and slingers, besides great pirates. We are told by
  Florus, that the mothers never gave their children breakfast before
  they had struck with an arrow a certain mark in a tree. When a woman
  was married, she was not admitted to her husband’s bed before she
  had received the embraces of all her relations. The inhabitants
  were naturally of a lascivious propensity, and in their wars they
  required nothing but females and wine, and often exchanged four men
  for one woman. _Strabo_, bk. 14.――_Florus_, bk. 3, ch. 8.――_Diodorus_,
  bk. 5.

=Balētus=, a son of Hippo, who first founded Corinth. _Paterculus_
  bk. 1, ch. 3.

=Balius=, a horse of Achilles. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 16, li. 146.

=Balista=, a mountain of Liguria. _Livy_, bk. 40, ch. 41.

=Ballonŏti=, a people of European Sarmatia. _Flaccus_, bk. 6, li. 160.

=Balneæ= (_baths_), were very numerous at Rome, private as well as
  public. In the ancient times simplicity was observed; but in the age
  of the emperors they became expensive; they were used after walking,
  exercise, or labour, and were deemed more necessary than luxurious.
  Under the emperors it became so fashionable to bathe, that without
  this the meanest of the people seemed to be deprived of one of the
  necessaries of life. There were certain hours of the day appointed
  for bathing, and a small piece of money admitted the poorest,
  as well as the most opulent. In the baths there were separate
  apartments for the people to dress and to undress; and after they
  had bathed, they commonly covered themselves, the hair was plucked
  out of the skin, and the body rubbed over with a pumice stone, and
  perfumed to render it smooth and fair. The Roman emperors generally
  built baths, and all endeavoured to eclipse each other in the
  magnificence of the building. It is said that ♦Diocletian employed
  40,000 of his soldiers in building his baths; and when they were
  finished, he destroyed all the workmen. Alexander Severus first
  permitted the people to use them in the night, and he himself often
  bathed with the common people. For some time both sexes bathed
  promiscuously and without shame, and the edicts of the emperors
  proved abortive for a while in abolishing that indecent custom,
  which gradually destroyed the morals of the people. They generally
  read in bathing, and we find many compositions written in the midst
  of this luxurious enjoyment.

    ♦ ‘Dioclesian’ replaced with ‘Diocletian’ for consistency

=Balventius=, a centurion of great valour in Cæsar’s army, killed by
  Ambiorix. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 5, ch. 35.

=Balyras=, a river of Peloponnesus. _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 33.

=Bamurūæ=, a people of Libya. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 3, li. 303.

=Bantia=, now _St. Maria de Vanse_, a town of Apulia, whence
  _Bantinus_. _Horace_, bk. 3, ode 4, li. 15.

=Lucius Bantius=, a gallant youth of Nola, whom Annibal found after
  the battle of Cannæ, almost dead among the heaps of slain. He was
  sent home with great humanity, upon which he resolved to betray his
  country to so generous an enemy. Marcellus the Roman general heard
  of it, and rebuked Bantius, who continued firm and faithful to the
  interest of Rome. _Livy_, bk. 35, ch. 15.

=Baphy̆rus=, a river of Macedonia. _Livy_, bk. 44, ch. 6.

=Baptæ=, the priests of Cotytto, the goddess of lasciviousness and
  debauchery at Athens. Her festivals were celebrated in the night;
  and so infamous and obscene was the behaviour of the priests, that
  they disgusted even Cotytto herself, though the goddess of obscenity.
  The name is derived from βαπτειν, _to wash_, because the priests
  bathed themselves in the most effeminate manner. _Juvenal_, satire 2,
  li. 91.――――A comedy of Eupolis, on which men are introduced dancing
  on the stage, with all the indecent gestures of common prostitutes.

=Baræi=, a people of Cholcis and Iberia, who burnt the bodies of their
  friends who died by disease, but gave to the fowls of the air such
  as fell in war. _Ælian_, _de Natura Animalium_, bk. 10, ch. 22.

=Barăthrum=, a deep and obscure gulf at Athens, where criminals were
  thrown.――――The word is applied to the infernal regions by _Valerius
  Flaccus_, bk. 2, lis. 86 & 192.

=Barbări=, a name originally applied to those who spoke inelegantly,
  or with harshness and difficulty. The Greeks and Romans generally
  called all nations, except their own, by the despicable name of

=Barbăria=, a river of Macedonia. _Livy_, bk. 44, ch. 31.――――A name
  given to Phrygia and Troy. _Horace_, bk. 1, ltr. 2, li. 7.

=Barbătus=, the surname of a Roman family. _Suetonius_, _Claudius_,
  ch. 21.

=Barbosthĕnes=, a mountain of Peloponnesus, 10 miles from Sparta.
  _Livy_, bk. 35, ch. 27.

=Barbythăce=, a city of Persia. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 27.

=Barca=, a friend of Cato the elder. _Plutarch_, _Cato the Younger_.

=Barcæi=, or =Barcitæ=, a warlike nation of Africa, near the city of
  Carthage. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 4, li. 43.

=Barce=, the nurse of Sichæus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 4, li. 632.――――A
  large country of Africa.――――Also a city about nine miles from the
  sea, founded by the brothers of Arcesilaus king of Cyrene, 515 years
  before the christian era. Strabo says, that in his age it was called
  Ptolemais; but this arises because most of the inhabitants retired
  to Ptolemais, which was on the sea coast, to enrich themselves by
  commerce. _Strabo_, bk. 17.――_Ptolemy_, bk. 4, ch. 4.――――A small
  village of Bactriana, where the people who had been taken prisoners
  by Darius in Africa, were confined. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 204.
  ――――A city of Media. _Justin_, bk. 1, ch. 7.

=Barcha=, the surname of a noble family at Carthage, from which Annibal
  and Hamilcar were descended. By means of their bribes and influence,
  they excited a great faction, which is celebrated in the annals of
  Carthage by the name of the _Barchinian faction_, and at last raised
  themselves to power, and to the independent disposal of all the
  offices of trust or emolument in the state. _Livy_, bk. 21, chs. 2
  & 9.

=Bardæi=, a people of Illyricum concerned in the factions of Marius.
  _Plutarch_, _Marius_.

=Bardi=, a celebrated sacerdotal order among the ancient Gauls, who
  praised their heroes, and published their fame in their verses, or
  on musical instruments. They were so esteemed and respected by the
  people, that, at their sight, two armies which were engaged in
  battle laid down their arms, and submitted to their orders. They
  censured, as well as commended, the behaviour of the people. _Lucan_,
  bk. 1, li. 447.――_Strabo_, bk. 4.――_Marcellinus_, bk. 15, ch. 24.

=Bardyllis=, an Illyrian prince, whose daughter Bircenna married king
  Pyrrhus. _Plutarch_, _Pyrrhus_.

=Bareas Soranus=, a youth killed by his tutor Egnatius, a Stoic
  philosopher. _Juvenal_, satire 3, li. 116.

=Bares=, a naval officer of Persia, who wished to destroy Cyrene, but
  was opposed by Amasis. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 203.

=Bargusii=, a people of Spain, at the east of the Iberus. _Livy_,
  bk. 21, ch. 19.

=Bargyliæ=, a town of Caria.

=Barīne=, a prostitute whom _Horace_ accuses of perjury. Bk. 2, ode 8.

=Barisses=, one of the seven conspirators against the usurper Smerdis.

=Barium=, a town of Apulia, on the Adriatic, now called Bari, and
  remarkable for its fine fish. _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 5, li. 97.

=Barnuus=, a town of Macedonia near Heraclea. _Strabo_, bk. 7.

=Barrus=, a man ridiculed by Horace as proud of his beauty. _Horace_,
  bk. 1, satire 6, li. 30.

=Barsīne= and =Barsēne=, a daughter of Darius, who married Alexander,
  by whom she had a son called Hercules. Cassander ordered her and her
  child to be put to death. _Justin_, bk. 13, ch. 2; bk. 15, ch. 2.

=Barzaentes=, a satrap who revolted from Alexander, &c. _Curtius_,
  bk. 8, ch. 13.

=Barzanes=, a king of Armenia, tributary to Ninus. _Diodorus_, bk. 2.

=Basilēa=, a daughter of Cœlus and Terra, who was mother of all the
  gods. _Diodorus_, bk. 3.――――An island at the north of Gaul, famous
  for its amber. _Diodorus_, bk. 5.――――An island in the Euxine sea.
  _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 13.

=Basilīdæ=, European Sarmatians, descended from Hercules and Echidna.
  _Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Basilīdes=, the father of Herodotus, who, with others, attempted to
  destroy Strattes tyrant of Chios. _Herodotus_, bk. 8, ch. 132.――――A
  family who held an oligarchical power at Erythræ. _Strabo_, bk. 14.
  ――――A priest of mount Carmel, who foretold many momentous events to
  Vespasian, when he offered sacrifices. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 2,
  ch. 87.――_Suetonius_, _Vespasian_, ch. 7.

=Basilĭpŏtămos=, the ancient name of the Eurotas. _Strabo_, bk. 6.

=Basĭlis=, an historian who wrote concerning India. _Athenæus._――――A
  city of Arcadia, built by Cypselus, near the river Alpheus.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 29.

=Basilius=, a river of Mesopotamia falling into the Euphrates.
  _Strabo._――――A celebrated bishop of Africa, very animated against
  the Arians, whose tenets and doctrines he refuted with warmth, but
  great ability. He was eloquent as well as ingenious, and possessed
  of all those abilities which constitute the persuasive orator and
  the elegant writer. Erasmus has placed him in the number of the
  greatest orators of antiquity. He died in his 51st year, A.D. 379.
  The latest edition of his works is that of the Benedictines, folio,
  Paris, 1721.

=Basĭlus=, a general who assisted Antony. _Lucan_, bk. 4, li. 416.
  ――――An insignificant lawyer. _Juvenal_, satire 7, li. 146.――――A
  pretor who plundered the provinces. _Juvenal_, satire 10, li. 222.

=Bassæ=, a place of Arcadia, where Apollo had a temple. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 8, chs. 30 & 41.

=Bassania=, a town of Macedonia near Illyricum. _Livy_, bk. 44, ch. 30.

=Bassăreus=, a surname of Bacchus, from the dress or long robe, called
  _Bassaris_, which his priests wore. _Horace_, bk. 1, ode 18.

=Bassărĭdes=, a name given to the votaries of Bacchus, and to Agave by
  Persius, which seems derived from _Bassara_, a town of Libya sacred
  to the god, or from a particular dress worn by his priestesses, and
  so called by the Thracians. _Persius_, bk. 1, li. 101.

=Bassus Aufidius=, an historian in the age of Augustus, who wrote on
  the Germanic war. _Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――――Cæsius, a lyric
  poet in Nero’s age, to whom Persius addressed his sixth satire.
  Some of his verses are extant.――――Julius, an orator in the reign of
  Augustus, some of whose orations have been preserved by Seneca.――――A
  man spoken of by _Horace_, bk. 1, ode 36, li. 14, and described as
  fond of wine and women.

=Bastarnæ= and =Basternæ=, a people of European Sarmatia, destroyed
  by a sudden storm as they pursued the Thracians. _Livy_, bk. 40,
  ch. 58.――_Ovid_, _Tristia_, bk. 2, li. 198.――_Strabo_, bk. 7.

=Bastia=, the wife of Metellus. _Livy_, fragment, bk. 89.

=Bata=, a seaport of Asia, on the Euxine, opposite Sinope. _Strabo_,
  bk. 6.

=Batāvi=, a people of Germany who inhabited that part of the continent
  known under the modern name of Holland, and called by the ancients,
  _Batavorum insula_. _Livy_, bk. 4, ch. 15.――_Lucan_, bk. 1, li. 431.

=Bathos=, a river near the Alpheus. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 29.

=Bathycles=, a celebrated artist of Magnesia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3,
  ch. 19.

=Bathyllus=, a beautiful youth of Samos, greatly beloved by Polycrates
  the tyrant, and by Anacreon. _Horace_, epode 14, li. 9.――――Mecænas
  was also fond of a youth of Alexandria, of the same name. _Juvenal_,
  satire 6, li. 63.――――The poet who claimed as his own Virgil’s
  distich, _Nocte pluit totâ_, &c., bore also the same name.――――A
  fountain of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 31.

=Lentulus Batiātus=, a man of Campania, who kept a house full of
  gladiators who rebelled against him. _Plutarch_, _Crassus_.

=Batīa=, a naiad who married Œbalus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 10.
  ――――A daughter of Teucer, who married Dardanus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3,
  ch. 10.

=Batīna= and =Bantīna=. _See:_ Bantia.

=Bātis=, a eunuch, governor of Gaza, who, upon being unwilling to
  yield, was dragged round the city tied by the heels to Alexander’s
  chariot. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 6.

=Bato=, a Dardanian, who revolted to Rome from king Philip. _Livy_,
  bk. 31, ch. 28.

=Baton= of Sinope, wrote commentaries on the Persian affairs. _Strabo_,
  bk. 12.――――A charioteer of Amphiaraus. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 17.

=Batrachomyomachia=, a poem, describing the _fight_ between _frogs_
  and _mice_, written by Homer, which has been printed sometimes
  separately from the Iliad or Odyssey. The best edition of it is
  Maittaire’s, 8vo, London, 1721.

=Battiădes=, a patronymic of Callimachus, from his father Battus.
  _Ovid_, _Ibis_, li. 53.――――A name given to the people of Cyrene from
  king Battus. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 3, li. 253.

=Battis=, a girl, celebrated by Philetus the elegiac poet. _Ovid_,
  _Tristia_, bk. 1, poem 5.

=Battus I.=, a Lacedæmonian who built the town of Cyrene, B.C. 630,
  with a colony from the island of Thera. He was son of Polymnestus
  and Phronime, and reigned in the town he had founded, and after
  death received divine honours. The difficulty with which he spoke
  first procured him the name of Battus. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch.
  155, &c.――_Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 15.――――The second of that name
  was grandson to Battus I. by Arcesilaus. He succeeded his father
  on the throne of Cyrene, and was surnamed _Felix_, and died 554
  B.C. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 159, &c.――――A shepherd of Pylos, who
  promised Mercury that he would not discover his having stolen the
  flocks of Admetus, which Apollo tended. He violated his promise,
  and was turned into a pumice stone. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2,
  li. 702.――――A general of Corinth against Athens. _Thucydides_, bk. 4,
  ch. 43.――――A buffoon of Caesar’s. _Plutarch_, _Convivium Septem
  Sapientium_, ch. 6.

=Batŭlum=, a town of Campania, whose inhabitants assisted Turnus
  against Æneas. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 739.

=Batŭlus=, a surname of Demosthenes, from his effeminacy when young.
  _Plutarch_, _Demosthenes_.

=Batyllus=, a celebrated dancer in Domitian’s reign. _Juvenal_,
  satire 6, li. 63.

=Baubo=, a woman who received Ceres when she sought her daughter all
  over the world, and gave her some water to quench her thirst. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, fable 7.

=Baucis=, an old woman of Phrygia, who, with her husband Philemon,
  lived in a small cottage, in a penurious manner, when Jupiter
  and Mercury travelled in disguise over Asia. The gods came to
  the cottage, where they received the best things it afforded; and
  Jupiter was so pleased with their hospitality, that he metamorphosed
  their dwelling into a magnificent temple, of which Baucis and her
  husband were made priests. After they had lived happy to an extreme
  old age, they died both at the same hour, according to their request
  to Jupiter, that one might not have the sorrow of following the
  other to the grave. Their bodies were changed into trees before the
  doors of the temple. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, li. 631, &c.

=Bavius= and =Mævius=, two stupid and malevolent poets in the age
  of Augustus, who attacked the superior talents of the contemporary
  writers. _Virgil_, _Eclogues_, poem 3.

=Bauli=, a small town of Latium near Baiæ. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 12,
  li. 155.

=Bazaentes=, a friend of Bessus, &c.

=Bazaria=, a country of Asia. _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 1.

=Bebius=, a famous informer in Vespasian’s reign. _Juvenal_, satire 1,
  li. 35. _See:_ Bæbius.

=Bebriăcum=, now _Caneto_, a village between Cremona and Verona, where
  Vitellius overcame Otho. _Juvenal_, satire 2, li. 106.――_Tacitus_,
  _Histories_, bk. 3, ch. 15.

=Bebry̆ce=, a daughter of Danaus, who is said to have spared her
  husband. Most authors, however, attribute that character of humanity
  to Hypermnestra. _See:_ Danaides.

=Bebry̆ces= and =Bebry̆cii=, a nation of Asia near Pontus, of Thracian
  origin, and, according to Arrian, descended from Bebryce. They
  were expert in the battle of the cestus. The Argonauts touched on
  their coasts in their expedition to Colchis. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1.
  ――_Strabo_, bks. 7 & 12.

=Bebry̆cia=, an ancient name of Bithynia, from Bebryce the daughter of
  Danaus. _Strabo_, bk. 13.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 5, li. 373.

=Belemīna=, a town of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 21.

=Belēnus=, a divinity of the Gauls, the same as the Apollo of the
  Greeks, and the Orus of the Ægyptians.

=Belephantes=, a Chaldean, who, from his knowledge of astronomy, told
  Alexander that his entering Babylon would be attended with fatal
  consequences to him. _Diodorus_, bk. 17.

=Belĕsis=, priest of Babylon, who told Arbaces governor of Media
  that he should reign one day in the place of Sardanapalus. His
  prophecy was verified, and he was rewarded by the new king with the
  government of Babylon, B.C. 826. _Diodorus_, bk. 2.

=Belgæ=, a warlike people of ancient Gaul, separated from the Celtæ by
  the rivers Matrona and Sequana. Their country, according to Strabo,
  extended from the Rhine to the river modernly called the Loire.
  _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bks. 1 & 2.

=Belgĭca=, one of the four provinces of Gaul near the Rhine.

=Belgium=, the capital of Gallia Belgica. The word is often used to
  express the whole country. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 5, ch. 24.

=Belgius=, a general of Gaul, who destroyed an army of Macedonians.
  _Justin_, bk. 23, ch. 2.――_Polybius_, bk. 2.

=Belĭdes=, a surname given to the daughters of Belus. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4, li. 463.

=Belīdes=, a name applied to Palamedes, as descended from Belus.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_ bk. 2, li. 82.

=Belisama=, the name of Minerva among the Gauls, signifying _queen of
  heaven_. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 6.

=Belisarius=, a celebrated general, who, in a degenerate and an
  effeminate age, in the reign of Justinian emperor of Constantinople,
  renewed all the glorious victories, battles, and triumphs which
  had rendered the first Romans so distinguished in the time of their
  republic. He died after a life of military glory, and the trial of
  royal ingratitude, in the 565th year of the christian era. The story
  of his begging charity, with _date obolum Belisario_, is said to be
  a fabrication of modern times.

=Belistīda=, a woman who obtained a prize at Olympia. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 5, ch. 8.

=Belitæ=, a nation of Asia. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 12.

=Bellerŏphon=, a son of Glaucus king of Ephyre by Eurymede, was at
  first called Hipponous. The murder of his brother, whom some call
  Alcimenus or Beller, procured him the name of Bellerophon, or
  _murderer of Beller_. After this murder, Bellerophon fled to the
  court of Prœtus king of Argos. As he was of a handsome appearance,
  the king’s wife, called Antæa or Stenobœa, fell in love with him;
  and as he slighted her passion, she accused him before her husband
  of attempts upon her virtue. Prœtus, unwilling to violate the
  laws of hospitality by punishing Bellerophon, sent him away to
  his father-in-law Jobates king of Lycia, and gave him a letter,
  in which he begged the king to punish with death a man who had so
  dishonourably treated his daughter. From that circumstance, all
  letters which are of an unfavourable tendency to the bearer have
  been called _letters of Bellerophon_. Jobates, to satisfy his
  son-in-law, sent Bellerophon to conquer a horrible monster called
  Chimæra, in which dangerous expedition he hoped, and was even
  assured, he must perish. _See:_ Chimæra. But the providence of
  Minerva supported him, and, with the aid of the winged horse
  Pegasus, he conquered the monster, and returned victorious. After
  this Jobates sent him against the Solymi, in hopes of seeing him
  destroyed; but he obtained another victory, and conquered afterwards
  the Amazons, by the king’s order. At his return from this third
  expedition, he was attacked by a party sent against him by Jobates;
  but he destroyed all his assassins, and convinced the king that
  innocence is always protected by the gods. Upon this, Jobates no
  longer sought to destroy his life; but he gave him his daughter
  in marriage, and made him his successor on the throne of Lycia,
  as he was without male issue. Some authors have supported that he
  attempted to fly to heaven upon the horse Pegasus, but that Jupiter
  sent an insect which stung the horse, and threw down the rider who
  wandered upon the earth in the greatest melancholy and dejection
  till the day of his death, one generation before the Trojan war.
  Bellerophon had two sons, Isander, who was killed in his war against
  the Solymi, and Hippolochus, who succeeded to the throne after his
  death, besides one daughter called Hippodamia, who had Sarpedon by
  Jupiter. The wife of Bellerophon is called Philonoe by Apollodorus,
  and Achemone by Homer. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 6, li. 156, &c.
  ――_Juvenal_, satire 10.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 3; bk. 3, ch. 1.
  ――_Hyginus_, fables 157 & 243; _Poeticon Astronomicon_, bk. 2,
  ch. 18.――_Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 325.――_Horace_, bk. 4, ode 11,
  li. 26.――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 31.

=Bellĕrus= and =Beller=, a brother of Hipponous. _See:_ Bellerophon.

=Belliēnus=, a Roman whose house was set on flames at Cæsar’s funeral.
  _Cicero_, _Philippics_, bk. 2, ch. 36.

=Bellōna=, the goddess of war, daughter to Phorcys and Ceto, was
  called by the Greeks _Enyo_, and often confounded with Minerva.
  She was anciently called _Duelliona_, and was the sister of Mars,
  or, according to others, his daughter or his wife. She prepared
  the chariot of Mars when he was going to war; and she appeared
  in battles armed with a whip to animate the combatants, with
  dishevelled hair, and a torch in her hand. The Romans paid great
  adoration to her; but she was held in the greatest veneration by
  the Cappadocians, and chiefly at Comana, where she had about 3000
  priests. Her temple at Rome was near the Porta Carmentalis. In it
  the senators gave audience to foreign ambassadors, and to generals
  returned from war. At the gate was a small column called the _column
  of war_, against which they threw a spear whenever war was declared
  against an enemy. The priests of this goddess consecrated themselves
  by great incisions in their body, and particularly in the thigh, of
  which they received the blood in their hands to offer as a sacrifice
  to the goddess. In their wild enthusiasm they often predicted
  bloodshed and wars, the defeat of enemies, or the besieging of
  towns. _Juvenal_, satire 4, li. 124.――_Varro_, _de Lingua Latina_,
  bk. 5.――_Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 270.――_Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 30.
  ――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 703.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 2,
  li. 718; bk. 7, li. 73.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 5, li. 221.

=Bellōnarii=, the priests of Bellona.

=Bellovăci=, a people of Gaul conquered by Julius Cæsar. They inhabited
  the modern Beauvais in the isle of France. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_,
  bk. 2, ch. 4.

=Bellovēsus=, a king of the Celtæ, who, in the reign of Tarquin
  Priscus, was sent at the head of a colony to Italy by his uncle
  Ambigatus. _Livy_, bk. 5, ch. 34.

=Belon=, a general of Alexander’s. _Curtius_, bk. 6, ch. 11.――――A city
  and river of Hispania Bætica. _Strabo_, bk. 3.

=Belus=, one of the most ancient kings of Babylon, about 1800 years
  before the age of Semiramis, was made a god after death, and
  worshipped with much ceremony by the Assyrians and Babylonians.
  He was supposed to be the son of the Osiris of the Egyptians. The
  temple of Belus was the most ancient and most magnificent in the
  world. It was originally the tower of Babel, which was converted
  into a temple. It had lofty towers, and it was enriched by all
  the succeeding monarchs till the age of Xerxes, who, after his
  unfortunate expedition against Greece, plundered and demolished it.
  Among the riches it contained, were many statues of massive gold,
  one of which was 40 feet high. In the highest of the towers was a
  magnificent bed, where the priests daily conducted a woman, who,
  as they said, was honoured with the company of the god. _Josephus_,
  _Antiquities of the Jews_, bk. 10.――_Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 181,
  &c.――_Strabo_, bk. 16.――_Arrian_, bk. 7.――_Diodorus_, bk. 1, &c.
  ――――A king of Egypt, son of Epaphus and Libya, and father of Agenor.
  ――――Another, son of Phœnix the son of Agenor, who reigned in
  Phœnicia.――――A river of Syria, where the making of glass was first
  invented. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 19.

=Benācus=, a lake of Italy, now _Lago di Garda_, from which the
  Mincius flows into the Po. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 2, li. 160;
  _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 205.

=Bendidium=, a temple of Diana Bendis. _Livy_, bk. 38, ch. 41.

=Bendis=, a name of Diana among the Thracians and their northern
  neighbours. _Strabo_, bk. 9. Her festivals, called _Bendidia_, were
  introduced from Thrace into Athens.

=Beneventum=, a town of the Hirpini, built by Diomedes, 28 miles from
  Capua. Its original name was _Maleventum_, changed into the more
  auspicious word of _Beneventum_, when the Romans had a colony there.
  It abounds in remains of ancient sculpture above any other town in
  Italy. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 11.

=Benthesicyme=, a daughter of Neptune the nurse of Eumolpus.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 15.

=Bepolitānus=, a youth whose life was saved by the delay of the
  executioner, who wished not to stain the youth’s fine clothes with
  blood. _Plutarch_, _Mulierum virtutes_.

=Berbicæ=, a nation who destroyed their relations when arrived at a
  certain age. _Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 4, ch. 1.

=Beræa=, a town of Syria, 90 miles from the sea, and 100 from the
  Euphrates, now called Aleppo.

=Berecynthia=, a surname of Cybele, from mount Berecynthus in Phrygia,
  where she was particularly worshipped. She has been celebrated in a
  poem by Catullus. _Diodorus_, bk. 5.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 4,
  li. 782.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9, li. 82.

=Berenīce= and =Beronice=, a woman famous for her beauty, mother of
  Ptolemy Philadelphus by Lagus. _Ælian_, _Varia Historia_, bk. 14,
  ch. 43.――_Theocritus._――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 7.――――A daughter
  of Philadelphus, who married Antiochus king of Syria, after he had
  divorced Laodice his former wife. After the death of Philadelphus,
  Laodice was recalled, and mindful of the treatment which she had
  received, she poisoned her husband, placed her son on the vacant
  throne, and murdered Berenice and her child at Antioch, where she
  had fled, B.C. 248.――――A daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, who usurped
  her father’s throne for some time, strangled her husband Seleucus,
  and married Archelaus, a priest of Bellona. Her father regained his
  power, and put her to death B.C. 55.――――The wife of Mithridates,
  who, when conquered by Lucullus, ordered all his wives to destroy
  themselves, for fear the conqueror should offer violence to them.
  She accordingly drank poison, but this not operating soon enough,
  she was strangled by a eunuch.――――The mother of Agrippa, who
  shines in the history of the Jews as daughter-in-law of Herod the
  Great.――――A daughter of Agrippa, who married her uncle Herod, and
  afterwards Polemon king of Cilicia. She was accused by Juvenal of
  committing incest with her brother Agrippa. It is said that she was
  passionately loved by Titus, who would have made her empress but for
  fear of the people.――――A wife of king Attalus.――――Another, daughter
  of Philadelphus and Arsinoe, who married her own brother Evergetes,
  whom she loved with much tenderness. When he went on a dangerous
  expedition, she vowed all the hair of her head to the goddess
  Venus, if he returned. Some time after his victorious return, the
  locks which were in the temple of Venus disappeared; and Conon, an
  astronomer, to make his court to the queen, publicly reported that
  Jupiter had carried them away, and had made them a constellation.
  She was put to death by her son, B.C. 221. _Catullus_, poem 67.
  ――_Hyginus_, _Poeticon Astronomicon_, bk. 2, ch. 24.――_Justin_,
  bk. 26, ch. 3.――――This name is common to many of the queens and
  princesses in the Ptolemean family in Egypt.――――A city of Libya.
  _Strabo._――_Mela_, bk. 3, ch. 8.――――Two towns of Arabia. _Strabo_,
  bk. 16.――――One in Egypt on the Red sea, where the ships from India
  generally landed their cargoes. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 23.――――Another
  near the Syrtes, &c. _Pliny_, bk. 17.

=Berenīcis=, a part of Africa near the town of Berenice. _Lucan_,
  bk. 9, li. 523.

=Bergion= and =Albion=, two giants, sons of Neptune, who opposed
  Hercules as he attempted to cross the Rhone, and were killed with
  stones from heaven. _Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 5.

=Bergistăni=, a people of Spain, at the east of the Iberus. _Livy_,
  bk. 34, ch. 16.

=Beris= and =Baris=, a river of Cappadocia.――――A mountain of Armenia.

=Bermius=, a mountain of Macedonia. _Herodotus_, bk. 8, ch. 138.

=Beroe=, an old woman of Epidaurus, nurse to Semele. Juno assumed
  her shape when she persuaded Semele not to grant her favours to
  Jupiter, if he did not appear in the majesty of a god. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 3, li. 278.――――The wife of Doryclus, whose form
  was assumed by Iris at the instigation of Juno, when she advised the
  Trojan women to burn the fleet of Æneas in Sicily. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 5, li. 620.――――One of the Oceanides, attendant upon Cyrene.
  _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 4, li. 341.

=Berœa=, a town of Thessaly. _Cicero_, _Piso_, ch. 36.

=Beronīce.= _See:_ Berenice.

=Berōsus=, a native of Babylon, priest to Belus. He passed into Greece,
  and remained a long time at Athens. He composed a history of Chaldæa,
  and signalized himself by his astronomical predictions, and was
  rewarded for his learning with a statue in the gymnasium at Athens.
  The age in which he lived is not precisely known, though some fix
  it in the reign of Alexander, or 268 years B.C. Some fragments of
  his Chaldæan history are preserved by Josephus, _Against Appion_ &
  _Antiquities of the Jews_, bk. 105. The book that is now extant
  under his name, and speaks of kings that never existed, is a
  supposititious fabrication.

=Berrhœa=, a town of Macedonia. _Thucydides_, bk. 1, ch. 61.

=Bery̆tus=, now _Berut_, an ancient town of Phœnicia, on the coast of
  the Mediterranean, famous in the age of Justinian for the study of
  law. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 20.

=Besa=, a fountain in Thessaly. _Strabo_, bk. 8.

=Besidlæ=, a town of the Brutii. _Livy_, bk. 30, ch. 19.

=Besippo=, a town of Hispania Bætica, where Mela was born. _Mela_,
  bk. 2, ch. 6.

=Bessi=, a people of Thrace, on the left side of the Strymon, who
  lived upon rapine. _Ovid_, _Tristia_, bk. 4, poem 1, li. 67.
  ――_Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 111.

=Bessus=, a governor of Bactriana, who, after the battle of Arbela,
  seized Darius his sovereign and put him to death. After this murder,
  he assumed the title of king, and was some time after brought before
  Alexander, who gave him to Oxatres the brother of Darius. The prince
  ordered his hands and ears to be cut off, and his body to be exposed
  on a cross, and shot at by the soldiers. _Justin_, bk. 12, ch. 5.
  ――_Curtius_, bks. 6 & 7.――――A parricide who discovered the murder
  he had committed, upon observing a nest of swallows, which, as he
  observed, reproached him with his crime. _Plutarch._

=Lucius Bestia=, a seditious Roman, who conspired with Catiline against
  his country. _Cicero_, bk. 2, _Philippics_.

=Betis=, a river in Spain, _See:_ Bætis.――――A governor of Gaza, who
  bravely defended himself against Alexander, for which he was treated
  with cruelty by the conqueror.

=Beturia=, a country in Spain.

=Bia=, a daughter of Pallas by Styx. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 2.

=Biānor=, a son of Tiberius and Manto the daughter of Tiresias, who
  received the surname of Ocnus, and reigned over Etruria. He built
  a town which he called Mantua, after his mother’s name. His tomb
  was seen in the age of Virgil on the road between Mantua and Andes.
  _Virgil_, _Eclogues_, poem 9, li. 60.――――A Trojan chief killed by
  Agamemnon. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 11, li. 92.――――A centaur killed by
  Theseus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 12, li. 342.

=Bias=, son of Amythaon and Idomene, was king of Argos, and brother
  to the famous soothsayer Melampus. He fell in love with Perone,
  daughter of Neleus king of Pylos; but the father refused to give
  his daughter in marriage before he received the oxen of Iphiclus.
  Melampus, at his brother’s request, went to seize the oxen, and
  was caught in the act. He, however, in one year after received his
  liberty from Iphiclus who presented him with his oxen as a reward
  for his great services. Bias received the oxen from his brother,
  and obliged Neleus to give him his daughter in marriage. _Homer_,
  _Odyssey_, bk. 11.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, chs. 6 & 18; bk. 4, ch. 34.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――――A Grecian prince, who went to
  the Trojan war. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 4, lis. 13 & 20.――――A river
  of Peloponnesus. _Pausanias_, bk. 4, ch. 34.――――One of the seven
  wise men of Greece, son of Teutamidas, born at Priene, which he
  long saved from ruin. He flourished B.C. 566, and died in the
  arms of his grandson, who begged a favour of him for one of his
  friends. _Diogenes Laërtius_, bk. 1.――_Plutarch_, _Convivium Septem
  Sapientium_.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 7, ch. 2.――_Pausanias_, bk. 10,
  ch. 24.

=Bibācŭlus Marcus Furius=, a Latin poet in the age of Cicero. He
  composed annals in iambic verses, and wrote epigrams full of wit
  and humour, and other poems now lost. _Horace_, bk. 2, satire 5,
  li. 41.――_Quintilian_, bk. 10.――――A pretor, &c. _Valerius Maximus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 1.

=Biblia= and =Billia=, a Roman lady famous for her chastity. She
  married Duillius.

=Biblis=, a woman who became enamoured of her brother Caunus, and was
  changed into a fountain near Miletus. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9,
  li. 662.

=Biblina=, a country of Thrace.

=Biblus=, a city of Phœnicia. _Curtius_, bk. 4.

=Bibracte=, a large town of the Ædui in Gaul, where Cæsar often
  wintered. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 7, ch. 55, &c.

=Bibŭlus=, a son of Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus by Portia, Cato’s
  daughter. He was Cæsar’s colleague in the consulship, but of no
  consequence in the state, according to this distich mentioned by
  _Suetonius_, _Julius Cæsar_, ch. 20:

         _Non Bibulo quicquam nuper, sed Cæsare factum est;
          Nam Bibulo fieri consule nil memini._

  ――――One of the friends of Horace bore that name. Bk. 1, satire 10,
  li. 86.

=Bices=, a marsh near the Palus Mœotis. _Flaccus_, bk. 6, li. 68.

=Bicon=, a Greek who assassinated Athenodorus, because he made himself
  master of a colony which Alexander had left at Bactra. _Curtius_,
  bk. 9, ch. 7.

=Bicornĭger=, a surname of Bacchus.

=Bicornis=, the name of Alexander among the Arabians.

=Biformīs= (_two forms_), a surname of Bacchus and of Janus. Bacchus
  received it because he changed himself into an old woman to fly
  from the persecution of Juno; or perhaps because he was represented
  sometimes as a young, and sometimes as an old, man.

=Bifrons=, a surname of Janus, because he was represented with _two
  faces_ among the Romans, as acquainted with the past and future.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 180.

=Bilbĭlis=, a town of Celtiberia, where Martial was born. _Martial_,
  bk. 1, ltr. 50.――――A river of Spain. _Justin_, bk. 44, ch. 3.

=Bimāter=, a surname of Bacchus, which signifies that he had _two
  mothers_, because, when he was taken from his mother’s womb, he was
  placed in the thigh of his father Jupiter. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 4, li. 12.

=Bingium=, a town of Germany. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 4, ch. 70.

=Bion=, a philosopher and sophist of Borysthenes in Scythia, who
  rendered himself famous for his knowledge of poetry, music, and
  philosophy. He made everybody the object of his satire, and rendered
  his compositions distinguished for clearness of expression, for
  facetiousness, wit, and pleasantry. He died 241 B.C. _Diogenes
  Laërtius_, _Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers_.――――A Greek
  poet of Smyrna, who wrote pastorals in an elegant style. Moschus,
  his friend and disciple, mentions in an elegiac poem that he died by
  poison, about 300 years B.C. His Idyllia are written with elegance
  and simplicity, purity and ease, and they abound with correct images,
  such as the view of the country may inspire. There are many good
  editions of this poet’s works, generally printed with those of
  Moschus, the best of which is that of Heskin, 8vo, Oxford, 1748.
  ――――A soldier in Alexander’s army, &c. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 13.
  ――――A native of Propontis, in the age of Pherecydes.――――A native of
  Abdera, disciple to Democritus. He first found out that there were
  certain parts of the earth where there were six months of perpetual
  light and darkness alternately.――――A man of Soli, who composed a
  history of Æthiopia.――――Another of Syracuse, who wrote nine books
  on rhetoric, which he called by the names of the muses, and hence
  _Bionei sermones_ mentioned by _Horace_, bk. 2, ltr. 2, li. 60.
  ――_Diogenes Laërtius_, bk. 4.

=Birrhus.= _See:_ Cœlius.

=Bisaltæ=, a people of Scythia, or, according to some, of Thrace or
  Macedonia. Their country is called Bisaltia. _Livy_, bk. 45, ch. 29.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 10.

=Bisaltes=, a man of Abydos, &c. _Herodotus_, bk. 6, ch. 26.

♦=Bisaltis=, a patronymic of Theophane, by whom Neptune, under the
  form of a ram, had the golden ram. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 6,
  li.117.――_Hyginus_, fable 18.

    ♦ ‘Bisaltes’ replaced with ‘Bisaltis’

=Bisanthe=, a town on the Hellespont. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 137.

=Biston=, son of Mars and Callirhoe, built _Bistonia_ in Thrace,
  whence the Thracians are often called _Bistones_. _Herodotus_, bk. 7,
  ch. 110.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 14.――_Lucan_, bk. 7, li. 569.

=Bistŏnis=, a lake of Thrace near Abdera. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 109.

=Bithus.= _See:_ Bacchius.

=Bithyæ=, a certain race of women of Scythia, whose eyes, as _Pliny_
  reports, bk. 7, ch. 2, killed those who gazed upon them for some

=Bithȳnia=, a country of Asia Minor, formerly called Bebrycia. It
  was bounded by the Euxine on the north, on the south by Phrygia and
  Mysia, on the west by the Propontis, and the east by Paphlagonia.
  The country was first invaded by the Thracians, under Bithynus the
  son of Jupiter, who gave it the name of Bithynia. It was once a
  powerful kingdom. _Strabo_, bk. 12.――_Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 75.
  ――_Mela_, bks. 1 & 2. According to _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 9, the
  inhabitants were descended from Mantinea in Peloponnesus.

=Bitias=, a Trojan, son of Alcanor and Hiera, brought up in a wood
  sacred to Jupiter. He followed the fortune of Æneas, and, with
  his brother, was killed by the Rutuli in Italy. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 9, li. 672, &c.――――One of Dido’s lovers, present when Æneas and
  the Trojans were introduced to the queen. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1,
  li. 742.

=Biton.= _See:_ Cleobis.

=Bituītus=, a king of the Allobroges, conquered by a small number of
  Romans, &c.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 9, ch. 6.――_Florus_, bk. 3,
  ch. 2.

=Bituntum=, a town of Spain. _Martial_, bk. 4, ltr. 55.

=Bitŭrĭges=, a people of Gaul, divided from the Ædui by the Ligeris.
  _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 7, ch. 21.

=Biturĭcum=, a town of Gaul, formerly the capital of the Belgæ.
  _Strabo_, bk. 4.

=Bizia=, a citadel near Rhodope belonging to the kings of Thrace.
  Tereus was born there.

=Blæna=, a fruitful country of Pontus, where the general of Mithridates
  Eupator destroyed the forces of Nicomedes the Bithynian. _Strabo_,
  bk. 12.

=Blæsii=, two Romans who killed themselves because Tiberius deprived
  them of the priesthood. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 6, ch. 40.

=Junius Blæsus=, a governor of Gaul. _Tacitus._

=Blandenona=, a place near Placentia. _Cicero_, bk. 2, ltr. 15,
  _Letters to his brother Quintus_.

=Blandŭsia=, a fountain on the borders of the country of the Sabines
  near Mandela, Horace’s country seat. _Horace_, bk. 3, ode 13.

=Blastophœnīces=, a people of Lusitania. _Appian._

=Blemmyes=, a people of Africa, who, as is fabulously reported, had
  no heads, but had the eyes and mouth placed in the breast. _Mela_,
  bk. 1, ch. 4.

=Blenīna=, a town of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 27.

=Blitius Catulinus=, was banished into the Ægean sea, after Piso’s
  conspiracy, &c. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 15, ch. 71.

=Blucium=, a castle where king Dejotarus kept his treasures in
  Bithynia. _Strabo_, bk. 12.

=Boadicea.= _See:_ Boudicea.

=Boæ= and =Boea=, a town of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 21.

=Boagrius=, a river of Locris. _Strabo_, bk. 9.

=Bocalias=, a river in the island of Salamis.

=Boccar=, a king of Mauritania. _Juvenal_, satire 4, li. 90, applies
  the word in a general sense to any native of Africa.

=Bocchŏris=, a wise king and legislator of Egypt. _Diodorus_, bk. 1.

=Bocchus=, a king of Gætulia, in alliance with Rome, who perfidiously
  delivered Jugurtha to Sylla the lieutenant of Marius. _Sallust_,
  _Jugurthine War_.――_Paterculus_, bk. 2, ch. 12.

=Boduagnātus=, a leader of the Nervii, when Cæsar made war against
  them. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 2, ch. 23.

=Bodūni=, a people of Britain who surrendered to Claudius. _Dio
  Cassius_, bk. 60.

=Boea.= _See:_ Boæ.

=Bœbe=, a town of Thessaly. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 7, fable 5.
  ――――A lake of Crete. _Strabo_, bk. 9.

=Bœbēis=, a lake of Thessaly, near mount Ossa. _Lucan_, bk. 7, li. 176.

=Bœbia lex=, was enacted to elect four pretors every year.――――Another
  to insure proprietors in the possession of their lands.――――Another,
  A.U.C. 571, against using bribes at elections.

=Boedromia=, an Athenian festival instituted in commemoration of
  the assistance which the people of Athens received in the reign
  of Erechtheus, from Ion son of Xuthus, when their country was
  invaded by Eumolpus son of Neptune. The word is derived ἁπο του
  βοηδρομειν, _coming to help_. Plutarch in _Theseus_ mentions it
  as in commemoration of the victory which Theseus obtained over the
  Amazons, in a month called at Athens Boedromion.

=Bœotarchæ=, the chief magistrates in Bœotia. _Livy_, bk. 42, ch. 43.

=Bœotia=, a country of Greece, bounded on the north by Phocis, south
  by Attica, east by Eubœa, and west by the bay of Corinth. It has
  been successively called Aonia, Mesapia, Hyantis, Ogygia, and
  Cadmeis, and now forms a part of Livadia. It was called Bœotia,
  from Bœotus son of Itonus; or, according to others, _a bove_, from a
  cow, by which Cadmus was led into the country where he built Thebes.
  The inhabitants were reckoned rude and illiterate, fonder of bodily
  strength than of mental excellence; yet their country produced many
  illustrious men, such as Pindar, Hesiod, Plutarch, &c. The mountains
  of Bœotia, particularly Helicon, were frequented by the Muses,
  to whom also many of their fountains and rivers were consecrated.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 49; bk. 5, ch. 57.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 3, li. 10.――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 1, &c.――_Cornelius Nepos_,
  bk. 7, ch. 11.――_Strabo_, bk. 9.――_Justin_, bk. 3, ch. 6; bk. 8, ch.
  4.――_Horace_, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 244.――_Diodorus_, bk. 19.――_Livy_,
  bk. 27, ch. 30, &c.

=Bœotus=, a son of Itonus by Menalippa. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 1.

=Bœorobistas=, a man who made himself absolute among the Getæ, by the
  strictness of his discipline. _Strabo_, bk. 7.

=Boethius=, a celebrated Roman, banished and afterwards punished with
  death, on a suspicion of a conspiracy, by Theodoric king of the
  Ostrogoths, A.D. 525. It was during his imprisonment that he wrote
  his celebrated poetical treatise _De consolatione philosophiæ_, in
  five books. The best edition of his works is that of Hagenau, 4to,
  1491, or that of Leiden, 1671, with the _notis variorum_.

=Boetus=, a foolish poet of Tarsus, who wrote a poem on the battle
  of Philippi. _Strabo_, bk. 14.――――A river of Spain, more properly
  called Bætis. _See:_ Bætis.

=Boeus=, one of the Heraclidæ.

=Boges= and =Boes=, a Persian who destroyed himself and family when
  besieged by the Athenians. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 107.――_Pausanias_,
  bk. 8, ch. 8.

=Bogud=, a king of Mauritania in the interest of Cæsar. _Cæsar_,
  _Alexandrine War_, ch. 59.

=Bogus=, a king of the Maurusii, present at the battle of Actium.
  _Strabo_, bk. 8.

=Boii=, a people of Celtic Gaul, who migrated into Cisalpine Gaul, and
  the north of Italy on the banks of the Po. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_,
  bk. 1, ch. 28; bk. 7, ch. 17.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 4, li. 158.

=Bojocalus=, a general of the Germans in the age of Tiberius, &c.
  _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 13, ch. 55.

=Bola=, a town of the Æqui in Italy. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 775.

=Bolānus.= _See:_ Bollanus.

=Bolbe=, a marsh near Mygdonia. _Thucydides_, bk. 1, ch. 58.

=Bolbitīnum=, one of the mouths of the Nile, with a town of the same
  name. Naucrautis was built near it. _Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 17.

=Bolgius=, a general of Gaul, in an expedition against Ptolemy king of
  Macedonia. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 19.

=Bolīna=, a virgin of Achaia, who rejected the addresses of Apollo,
  and threw herself into the sea to avoid his importunities. The god
  made her immortal. There is a city which bears her name in Achaia.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 23.

=Bolinæus=, a river near Bolina. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 23.

=Bolissus=, a town and island near Chios. _Thucydides_, bk. 8, ch. 24.

=Bollānus=, a man whom Horace represents, bk. 1, satire 9, li. 11, as
  of the most irascible temper and the most inimical to loquacity.

=Bolus=, a king of the Cimbri, who killed a Roman ambassador. _Livy_,
  bk. 67.

=Bomienses=, a people near Ætolia. _Thucydides_, bk. 3, ch. 96.

=Bomilcar=, a Carthaginian general, son of Amilcar. He was suspected
  of a conspiracy with Agathocles, and hung in the forum, where he
  had received all his dignity. _Diodorus_, bk. 26.――_Justin_, bk. 22,
  ch. 7.――――An African, for some time the instrument of all Jugurtha’s
  cruelties. He conspired against Jugurtha, who put him to death.
  _Sallust_, _Jugurthine War_.

=Bomonīcæ=, youths that were whipped at the altar of Diana Orthia
  during the festivals of the goddess. He who bore the lash of the
  whip with the greatest patience, and without uttering a groan, was
  declared victorious, and received an honourable prize. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 3, ch. 16.――_Plutarch_, _Lycurgus_.

=Bona Dea=, a name given to Ops, Vesta, Cybele, and Rhea, by the
  Greeks; and by the Latins, to Fauna, or Fatua. This goddess was
  so chaste that no man but her husband saw her after her marriage;
  from which reason, her festivals were celebrated only in the night
  by the Roman matrons in the houses of the highest officers of the
  state, and all the statues of the men were carefully covered with a
  veil where the ceremonies were observed. In the latter ages of the
  republic, however, the sanctity of these mysteries was profaned
  by the introduction of lasciviousness and debauchery. _Juvenal_,
  satire 6, li. 313.――_Propertius_, bk. 4, poem 10, li. 25.――_Ovid_,
  _de Ars Amatoria_, bk. 3, li. 637.

=Bonōnia=, called also Felsina, a town on the borders of the Rhine,
  or Rheno, which falls into the Po. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 8, ch. 1.
  ――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 599.

=Bonosius=, an officer of Probus, who assumed the imperial purple in

=Bonus Eventus=, a Roman deity, whose worship was first introduced by
  the peasants. He was represented holding a cup in his right hand,
  and in his left, ears of corn. _Varro_, _de Re Rustica_, bk. 1.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 34, ch. 8.

=Boosūra= (_bovis cauda_), a town of Cyprus, where Venus had an
  ancient temple. _Strabo._

=Boōtes=, a northern constellation near the Ursa Major, also called
  Bubulcus and Arctophylax. Some suppose it to be Icarus the father
  of Erigone, who was killed by shepherds for inebriating them. Others
  maintain that it is Arcas, whom Jupiter placed in heaven. _Ovid_,
  _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 405.――_Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_, bk. 2,
  ch. 42.

=Bootus= and =Bœotus=, a son of Neptune and Menalippe, exposed by his
  mother, but preserved by shepherds. _Hyginus_, fable 186.

=Borea=, a town taken by Sextus Pompey. _Cicero_, bk. 16, _Letters to
  Atticus_, ltr. 4.

=Boreădes=, the descendants of Boreas, who long possessed the
  supreme power and the priesthood in the island of the Hyperboreans.
  _Diodorus_, bks. 1 & 2.

=Boreas=, the name of the north wind blowing from the Hyperborean
  mountains. According to the poets, he was son of Astræus and Aurora,
  but others make him son of the Strymon. He was passionately fond
  of Hyacinthus [_See:_ Hyacinthus], and carried away Orithyia, who
  refused to receive his addresses, and by her he had Zetes and Calais,
  Cleopatra and Chione. He was worshipped as a deity, and represented
  with wings and white hair. The Athenians dedicated altars to him,
  and to the winds, when Xerxes invaded Europe. Boreas changed himself
  into a horse, to unite himself with the mares of Dardanus, by which
  he had 12 mares so swift, that they ran or rather flew over the sea,
  without scarce wetting their feet. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 20, li. 222.
  ――_Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 379.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 15.
  ――_Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 189.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 6,
  li. 700.

=Boreasmi=, A festival at Athens in honour of Boreas, who, as the
  Athenians supposed, was related to them on account of his marriage
  with Orithyia the daughter of one of their kings. They attributed
  the overthrow of the enemy’s fleet to the respect which he paid to
  his wife’s native country. There were also sacrifices at Megalopolis
  in Arcadia, in honour of Boreas. _Pausanias_, _Attica_ & _Arcadia_.

=Boreus=, a Persian, &c. _Polyænus_, bk. 7, ch. 40.

=Borges=, a Persian who burnt himself rather than submit to the enemy,
  &c. _Polyænus_, bk. 7, ch. 24.

=Bornos=, a place of Thrace. _Cornelius Nepos_, _Alcibiades_, ch. 7.

=Borsippa=, a town of Babylonia, sacred to Apollo and Diana. The
  inhabitants ate bats. _Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Borus=, a son of Perieres, who married Polydora the daughter of
  Peleus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 13.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 16,
  li. 177.

=Borysthĕnes=, a large river of Scythia, falling into the Euxine sea,
  now called the _Dnieper_, and inferior to no other European river
  but the Danube, according to _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 45, &c.――――There
  was a city of the same name on the borders of the river, built by a
  colony of Milesians, 655 years before the christian era. It was also
  called _Olba Salvia_. _Mela_, bk. 2, chs. 1 & 7.――――A horse with
  which the emperor Adrian used to hunt. At his death he was honoured
  with a monument. _Diodorus._

=Bosphŏrus= and =Bospŏrus=, two narrow straits, situate at the confines
  of Europe and Asia. One was called Cimmerian, and joined the Palus
  Mœotis to the Euxine, now known by the name of the straits of Caffa;
  and the other, which was called the Thracian Bosphorus, and by the
  moderns the straits of Constantinople, made a communication between
  the Euxine sea and the Propontis. It is 16 miles long, and one and a
  half broad, and where narrowest 500 paces or four stadia, according
  to Herodotus. The word is derived from Βοος πορος, _bovis meatus_,
  because, on account of its narrowness, an ox could easily cross it.
  Cocks were heard to crow, and dogs to bark, from the opposite banks,
  and in a calm day persons could talk one to the other. _Pliny_, bk.
  4, ch. 12; bk. 6, ch. 1.――_Ovid_, _Tristia_, bk. 3, poem 4, li. 49.
  ――_Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 1.――_Strabo_, bk. 12.――_Herodotus_, bk. 4,
  ch. 85.

=Boter=, a freedman of Claudius. _Suetonius_, _Claudius_.

=Bottia=, a colony of Macedonians in Thrace. The people were called
  _Bottiæi_. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 1.――_Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 185, &c.
  ――_Thucydides_, bk. 2, ch. 99.

=Bottiæis=, a country at the north of Macedonia, on the bay of Therma.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 123, &c.

=Boudicea=, a queen in Britain, who rebelled upon being insulted by
  the Romans. She poisoned herself when conquered, A.D. 61. _Tacitus_,
  _Annals_, bk. 14, ch. 31.

=Bouiānum=, an ancient colony of the Samnites, at the foot of the
  Apennines not far from Beneventum. _Livy_, bk. 9, ch. 28.

=Bovillæ=, a town of Latium near Rome. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 3,
  li. 607.――――Another in Campania.

=Brachmanes=, Indian philosophers, who derive their name from Brahma,
  one of the three beings whom God, according to their theology,
  created, and with whose assistance he formed the world. They devoted
  themselves totally to the worship of the gods, and were accustomed
  from their youth to endure labours, and to live with frugality and
  abstinence. They never ate flesh, and abstained from the use of
  wine, and all carnal enjoyments. After they had spent 37 years
  in the greatest trials, they were permitted to marry and indulge
  themselves in a more free and unbounded manner. According to modern
  authors, Brahma is the parent of all mankind, and he produced as
  many worlds as there are parts in the body, which they reckoned 14.
  They believed that there were seven seas, of water, milk, curds,
  butter, salt, sugar, and wine, each blessed with its particular
  paradise. _Strabo_, bk. 15.――_Diodorus_, bk. 17.

=Bræsia=, a daughter of Cinyras and Metharme. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3,
  ch. 14.

=Branciădes=, a surname of Apollo.

=Branchĭdæ=, a people of Asia, near the river Oxus, put to the sword
  by Alexander. They were originally of Miletus, near the temple of
  Branchus, but had been removed from thence by Xerxes. _Strabo_, bk.
  11.――_Curtius_, bk. 7, ch. 5.――――The priests of Apollo Didymæus, who
  gave oracles in Caria. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 29.

=Branchyllĭdes=, a chief of the Bœotians. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 13.

=Branchus=, a youth of Miletus, son of Smicrus, beloved by Apollo,
  who gave him the power of prophecy. He gave oracles at Didyme,
  which became inferior to none of the Grecian oracles except Delphi,
  and which exchanged the name of Didymean for that of Branchidæ.
  The temple, according to Strabo, was set on fire by Xerxes, who
  took possession of the riches it contained, and transported the
  people into Sogdiana, where they built a city, which was afterwards
  destroyed by Alexander. _Strabo_, bk. 15.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_,
  bk. 3, li. 479.――_Lucian_, _de Domo_.

=Braslæ=, a town of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 24.

=Brasĭdas=, a famous general of Lacedæmon, son of Tellus, who, after
  many great victories over Athens and other Grecian states, died of
  a wound at Amphipolis, which Cleon the Athenian had besieged, B.C.
  422. A superb monument was raised to his memory. _Pausanias_, bk. 3,
  ch. 24.――_Thucydides_, bks. 4 & 5.――_Diodorus_, bk. 3.――――A man of
  Cos. _Theocritus_, _Idylls_, poem 7.

=Brasidēia=, festivals at Lacedæmon, in honour of Brasidas. None but
  freemen born Spartans were permitted to enter the lists, and such as
  were absent were fined.

=Brasĭlas=, a man of Cos. _Theocritus_, poem 7.

=Braure=, a woman who assisted in the murder of Pittacus king of the
  Edoni. _Thucydides_, bk. 4, ch. 107.

=Brauron=, a town of Attica, where Diana had a temple. The goddess had
  three festivals called _Brauronia_, celebrated once every fifth year
  by 10 men, who were called ἱεροποιοι. They sacrificed a goat to the
  goddess, and it was usual to sing one of the books of Homer’s Iliad.
  The most remarkable that attended were young virgins in yellow gowns,
  consecrated to Diana. They were about 10 years of age, and not under
  five, and therefore their consecration was called δεκατευειν, from
  δεκα, _decem_; and sometimes ἀρκτευειν, as the virgins themselves
  bore the name of ἀρκτοι, _bears_, from this circumstance. There was
  a bear in one of the villages of Attica so tame, that he ate with
  the inhabitants, and played harmlessly with them. This familiarity
  lasted long, till a young virgin treated the animal too roughly,
  and was killed by it. The virgin’s brother killed the bear, and
  the country was soon after visited by a pestilence. The oracle was
  consulted, and the plague removed by consecrating virgins to the
  service of Diana. This was so faithfully observed, that no woman
  in Athens was ever married before a previous consecration to the
  goddess. The statue of Diana of Tauris, which had been brought into
  Greece by Iphigenia, was preserved in the town of Brauron. Xerxes
  carried it away when he invaded Greece. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 46.
  ――_Strabo_, bk. 9.

=Brenni= and =Breuni=, a people of Noricum. _Horace_, bk. 4, ode 14.

=Brennus=, a general of the Galli Senones, who invaded Italy, defeated
  the Romans at the river Allia, and entered their city without
  opposition. The Romans fled into the capitol, and left the whole
  city in the possession of the enemies. The Gauls climbed the
  Tarpeian rock in the night, and the capitol would have been taken
  had not the Romans been awakened by the noise of geese which were
  before the doors, and immediately repelled the enemy. Camillus, who
  was in banishment, marched to the relief of his country, and so
  totally defeated the Gauls, that not one remained to carry the news
  of their destruction. _Livy_, bk. 5, ch. 36, &c.――_Plutarch_,
  _Camillus_.――――Another Gaul, who made an irruption into Greece with
  150,000 men and 15,000 horse, and endeavoured to plunder the temple
  of Apollo at Delphi. He was destroyed, with all his troops, by the
  god, or more properly, he killed himself in a fit of intoxication,
  B.C. 278, after being defeated by the Delphians. _Pausanias_, bk. 10,
  chs. 22 & 23.――_Justin_, bk. 24, ch. 6, &c.

=Brenthe=, a ruined city of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 28.

=Brescia=, a city of Italy, which had gods peculiar to itself.

=Brettii=, a people of Italy. _Strabo_, bk. 6.

=Briăreus=, a famous giant, son of Cœlus and Terra, who had 100 hands
  and 50 heads, and was called by men Ægeon, and only by the gods
  Briareus. When Juno, Neptune, and Minerva conspired to dethrone
  Jupiter, Briareus ascended the heavens, and seated himself next to
  him, and so terrified the conspirators by his fierce and threatening
  looks that they desisted. He assisted the giants in their war
  against the gods, and was thrown under mount Ætna, according to
  some accounts. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 148.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 1.――_Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 1, li. 403.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6,
  li. 287; bk. 10, li. 565.――――A Cyclops, made judge between Apollo
  and Neptune, in their dispute about the isthmus and promontory of
  Corinth. He gave the former to Neptune, and the latter to Apollo.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Brias=, a town of Pisidia.

=Brigrantes=, a people in the northern parts of Britain. _Juvenal_,
  satire 14, li. 196.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 43.

=Brigrantīnus=, a lake of Rhœtia between the Alps, now the lake of
  Constance. The town on its eastern banks is now Bregentz in the
  Tyrol, anciently called Brigantium. _Pliny_, bk. 9, ch. 17.

=Brilessus=, a mountain of Attica. _Thucydides_, bk. 2, ch. 23.

=Brīmo= (_terror_), a name given to Proserpine and Hecate. _Propertius_,
  bk. 2, poem 2, li. 11.

=Brisēis=, a woman of Lyrnessus, called also Hippodamia. When her
  country was taken by the Greeks, and her husband Mines and brother
  killed in the fight, she fell to the share of Achilles in the
  division of the spoils. Agamemnon took her away some time after
  from Achilles, who made a vow to absent himself from the field of
  battle. Briseis was very faithful to Achilles; and when Agamemnon
  restored her to him, he swore he had never offended her chastity.
  _Homer_, _Iliad_, bks. 1, 2, &c.――_Ovid_, _Heroides_, poem 3; _De
  Ars Amatoria_, bks. 2 & 3.――_Propertius_, bk. 2, poems 8, 20, & 22.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 24.――_Horace_, bk. 2, ode 4.

=Brises=, a man of Lyrnessus, brother to the priest Chryses. His
  daughter Hippodamia was called _Briseis_, from him.

=Briseus=, a surname of Bacchus, from his nurse Briso, or his temple
  at Brisa, a promontory at Lesbos. _Persius_, bk. 1, li. 76.

=Britanni=, the inhabitants of Britain. _See:_ Britannia.――――A man in
  Gallia Belgica. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 17.

=Britannia=, an island in the northern ocean, the greatest in Europe,
  conquered by Julius Cæsar during his Gallic wars, B.C. 55, and first
  known to be an island by Agricola, who sailed round it. It was a
  Roman province from the time of its conquest till the 448th year
  of the christian era. The inhabitants, in the age of Cæsar, used
  to paint their bodies, to render themselves more terrible in the
  eyes of their enemies. The name of Britain was unknown to the Romans
  before Cæsar conquered it. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 4.――_Diodorus_,
  bk. 5.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 33.――_Tacitus_, _Agricola_, ch. 10.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 34, ch. 17.

=Britannĭcus=, a son of Claudius Cæsar by Messalina. Nero was raised
  to the throne in preference to him, by means of Agrippina, and
  caused him to be poisoned. His corpse was buried in the night;
  but it is said that a shower of rain washed away the white paint
  which the murderer had put over his face, so that it appeared quite
  black, and discovered the effects of poison. _Tacitus_, _Annals_.
  ――_Suetonius_, _Nero_, ch. 33.

=Britomartis=, a beautiful nymph of Crete, daughter of Jupiter and
  Charme, who devoted herself to hunting, and became a great favourite
  of Diana. She was loved by Minos, who pursued her so closely,
  that, to avoid his importunities, she threw herself into the sea.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 30; bk. 3, ch. 14.――――A surname of Diana.

=Britomarus=, a chief of the Galli Insubres conquered by Æmilius.
  _Florus_, bk. 2, ch. 4.

=Britŏnes=, the inhabitants of Britain. _Juvenal_, satire 15, li. 124.

=Brixellum=, a town in Italy near Mantua, where Otho slew himself when
  defeated. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 2, ch. 32.

=Brixia=, a town of Italy beyond the Po, at the north of Cremona, now
  Brescia. _Justin_, bk. 20, ch. 5.

=Brizo=, the goddess of dreams worshipped in Delos.

=Brocubēlus=, a governor of Syria, who fled to Alexander, when Darius
  was murdered by Bessus. _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 13.

=Bromius=, a surname of Bacchus, from βρεμειν, _frendere_, alluding
  to the groans which Semele uttered when consumed by Jupiter’s
  fire. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 4, li. 11.――――A son of Ægyptus.
  _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Bromus=, one of the Centaurs. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 12,
  li. 459.

=Brongus=, a river falling into the Ister. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 49.

=Brontēs= (_thunder_), one of the Cyclops. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8,
  li. 425.

=Brontīnus=, a Pythagorean philosopher.――――The father of Theano the
  wife of Pythagoras. _Diogenes Laërtius._

=Broteas= and =Ammon=, two men famous for their skill in the cestus.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 5, li. 107.――――One of the Lapithæ.

=Brotheus=, a son of Vulcan and Minerva, who burned himself to avoid
  the ridicule to which his deformity subjected him. _Ovid_, _Ibis_,
  li. 517.

=Bructēri=, a people of Germany, inhabiting the country at the east of
  Holland. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 1, ch. 51.

=Brumālia=, festivals celebrated at Rome in honour of Bacchus, about
  the month of December. They were first instituted by Romulus.

=Brundusium=, now _Brundisi_, a city of Calabria, on the Adriatic sea
  where the Appian road was terminated. It was founded by Diomedes
  after the Trojan war, or, according to Strabo, by Theseus, with
  a Cretan colony. The Romans generally embarked at Brundusium for
  Greece. It is famous for the birth of the poet Pacuvius and the
  death of Virgil, and likewise for its harbour, which is capacious
  and sheltered by the land, and by a small island at the entrance,
  against the fury of the winds and waves. Little remains of the
  ancient city, and even its harbour has now been choked up by the
  negligence of the inhabitants. _Justin_, bk. 3, ch. 4; bk. 12, ch. 2.
  ――_Strabo_, bk. 5.――_Cæsar_, _Civil War_, bk. 1, ch. 24.――_Cicero_,
  _Letters to Atticus_, bk. 4, ltr. 1.

=Brutidius=, a man dragged to prison in Juvenal’s age, on suspicion of
  his favouring Sejanus. _Juvenal_, satire 10, li. 82.

=Brutii=, a people in the furthest parts of Italy, who were originally
  shepherds of the Lucanians, but revolted, and went in quest of a
  settlement. They received the name of _Brutii_, from their stupidity
  and cowardice in submitting, without opposition, to Annibal in
  the second Punic war. They were ever after held in the greatest
  disgrace, and employed in every servile work. _Justin_, bk. 23,
  ch. 9.――_Strabo_, bk. 6.――_Diodorus_, bk. 16.

=Brutŭlus=, a Samnite, who killed himself, upon being delivered to the
  Romans for violating a treaty. _Livy_, bk. 8, ch. 39.

=Brutus Lucius Junius=, a son of Marcus Junius and Tarquinia, second
  daughter of Tarquin Priscus. The father, with his eldest son, were
  murdered by Tarquin the Proud, and Lucius, unable to revenge their
  death, pretended to be insane. The artifice saved his life; he was
  called _Brutus_ for his stupidity, which he, however, soon after
  showed to be feigned. When Lucretia killed herself, B.C. 509, in
  consequence of the brutality of Tarquin, Brutus snatched the dagger
  from the wound, and swore, upon the reeking blade, immortal hatred
  to the royal family. His example animated the Romans. The Tarquins
  were proscribed by a decree of the senate, and the royal authority
  vested in the hands of consuls chosen from patrician families.
  Brutus, in his consular office, made the people swear they never
  would again submit to kingly authority; but the first who violated
  their oath were in his own family. His sons conspired with the
  Tuscan ambassador to restore the Tarquins; and when discovered, they
  were tried and condemned before their father, who himself attended
  at their execution. Some time after, in a combat that was fought
  between the Romans and Tarquins, Brutus engaged with Aruns, and
  so fierce was the attack that they pierced one another at the same
  time. The dead body was brought to Rome, and received as in triumph;
  a funeral oration was spoken over it, and the Roman matrons showed
  their grief by mourning a year for the father of the republic.
  _Florus_, bk. 1, ch. 2.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 56; bk. 2, ch. 1, &c.
  ――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bks. 4 & 5.――_Cornelius Nepos_,
  _Atticus_, ch. 8.――_Eutropius_ on _Tarquin_.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 6, li. 818.――_Plutarch_, _Brutus_ & _Cæsar_.――――Marcus Junius,
  father of Cæsar’s murderer, wrote three books on civil law. He
  followed the party of Marius, and was conquered by Pompey. After
  the death of Sylla, he was besieged in Mutina by Pompey, to whom he
  surrendered, and by whose orders he was put to death. He had married
  Servilia, Cato’s sister, by whom he had a son and two daughters.
  _Cicero_, _On Oratory_, ch. 55.――_Plutarch_, _Brutus_.――――His son
  of the same name by Servilia, was lineally descended from Junius
  Brutus, who expelled the Tarquins from Rome. He seemed to inherit
  the republican principles of his great progenitor, and in the
  civil wars joined himself to the side of Pompey, though he was his
  father’s murderer, only because he looked upon him as more just and
  patriotic in his claims. At the battle of Pharsalia, Cæsar not only
  spared the life of Brutus, but he made him one of his most faithful
  friends. He, however, forgot the favour because Cæsar aspired to
  tyranny. He conspired with many of the most illustrious citizens
  of Rome against the tyrant, and stabbed him in Pompey’s Basilica.
  The tumult which this murder occasioned was great; the conspirators
  fled to the capitol, and by proclaiming freedom and liberty to the
  populace, they re-established tranquillity in the city. Antony, whom
  Brutus, contrary to the opinion of his associates, refused to seize,
  gained ground in behalf of his friend Cæsar, and the murderers were
  soon obliged to leave Rome. Brutus retired into Greece, where he
  gained himself many friends by his arms, as well as by persuasion,
  and he was soon after pursued thither by Antony, whom young Octavius
  accompanied. A battle was fought at Philippi. Brutus, who commanded
  the right wing of the republican army, defeated the enemy; but
  Cassius, who had the care of the left, was overpowered, and as he
  knew not the situation of his friend, and grew desperate, he ordered
  one of his freedmen to run him through. Brutus deeply deplored
  his fall, and in the fulness of his grief called him the last of
  the Romans. In another battle, the wing which Brutus commanded
  obtained a victory; but the other was defeated, and he found himself
  surrounded by the soldiers of Antony. He, however, made his escape,
  and soon after fell upon his sword, B.C. 42. Antony honoured him
  with a magnificent funeral. Brutus is not less celebrated for his
  literary talents, than his valour in the field. When he was in the
  camp, the greatest part of his time was employed in reading and
  writing; and the day which preceded one of his most bloody battles,
  while the rest of his army was under continual apprehensions, Brutus
  calmly spent his hours till the evening, in writing an epitome of
  Polybius. He was fond of imitating the austere virtues of Cato, and
  in reading the histories of nations he imbibed those principles of
  freedom which were so eminently displayed in his political career.
  He was intimate with Cicero, to whom he would have communicated
  his conspiracy, had he not been apprehensive of his great timidity.
  He severely reprimanded him in his letters for joining the side of
  Octavius, who meditated the ruin of the republic. Plutarch mentions
  that Cæsar’s ghost made its appearance to Brutus in his tent, and
  told him that he would meet him at Philippi. Brutus married Portia
  the daughter of Cato, who killed herself by swallowing burning coals
  when she heard the fate of her husband. _Cornelius Nepos_, _Atticus_.
  ――_Paterculus_, bk. 2, ch. 48.――_Plutarch_, _Brutus_, &c.; _Cæsar_,
  ch. 1.――_Florus_, bk. 4.――――Decimus Junius Albinus, one of Cæsar’s
  murderers, who, after the battle of Mutina, was deserted by the
  legions, with which he wished to march against Antony. He was put to
  death by Antony’s orders, though consul elect.――――Junius, one of the
  first tribunes of the people. _Plutarch._――――One of Carbo’s generals.

=Bryas=, a general of the Argives against Sparta, put to death by a
  woman, to whom he had offered violence. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 20.
  ――――A general in the army of Xerxes. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 72.

=Bryaxis=, a marble sculptor, who assisted in making the Mausoleum.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 40.

=Bryce=, a daughter of Danaus by Polyxo. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Brygres=, a people of Thrace, afterwards called Phryges. _Strabo_,
  bk. 7.

=Brygri=, a people of Macedonia, conquered by Mardonius. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 6, ch. 45.

=Brysea=, a town of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 20.

=Bubacēne=, a town of Asia. _Curtius_, bk. 5.

=Bubāces=, a eunuch of Darius, &c. _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 11.

=Bubăris=, a Persian who married the daughter of Amyntas, against whom
  he had been sent with an army. _Justin_, bk. 7, ch. 13.

=Bubastiăcus=, one of the mouths of the Nile.

=Bubastis=, a city of Egypt, in the eastern parts of the Delta, where
  cats were held in great veneration, because Diana Bubastis, who is
  the chief deity of the place, is said to have transformed herself
  into a cat when the gods fled into Egypt. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, chs.
  59, 137, & 154.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9, li. 690.

=Bubăsus=, a country of Caria, whence _Bubasides_ applied to the
  natives. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9, li. 643.

=Bubon=, an inland city of Lycia. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 27.

=Bucephăla=, a city of India near the Hydaspes, built by Alexander in
  honour of his favourite horse Bucephalus. _Curtius_, bk. 9, ch. 3.
  ――_Justin_, bk. 12, ch. 8.――_Diodorus_, bk. 17.

=Bucephălus=, a horse of Alexander’s, whose head resembled that of
  a bull, whence his name (βους κεφαλος, _bovis caput_). Alexander
  was the only one who could mount on his back, and he always knelt
  down to take up his master. He was present in an engagement in Asia,
  where he received a heavy wound, and hastened immediately out of the
  battle, and dropped down dead as soon as he had set down the king in
  a safe place. He was 30 years old when he died, and Alexander built
  a city which he called after his name. _Plutarch_, _Alexander_.
  ――_Curtius._――_Arrian_, bk. 5, ch. 3.――_Pliny_, bk. 8, ch. 42.

=Buciliānus=, one of Cæsar’s murderers. _Cicero_, _Letters to Atticus_,
  ch. 14.

=Bucolĭca=, a sort of poem which treats of the care of the flocks, and
  of the pleasures and occupations of the rural life, with simplicity
  and elegance. The most famous pastoral writers of antiquity are
  Moschus, Bion, Theocritus, and Virgil. The invention of Bucolics, or
  pastoral poetry, is attributed to a shepherd of Sicily.

=Bucolĭcum=, one of the mouths of the Nile, situate between the
  Sebennytican and Mendesian mouths, and called by Strabo, Phatniticum.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 17.

=Bucolion=, a king of Arcadia, after Lais. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 5.
  ――――A son of Laomedon and the nymph Calybe.――――A son of Hercules and
  Praxithea. He was also called Bucolus.――――A son of Lycaon king of
  Arcadia. _Apollodorus_, bks. 2 & 3.

=Bucŏlus=, a son of Hercules and Marse.――――A son of Hippocoon.
  _Apollodorus_, bks. 2 & 3.

=Budii=, a nation of Media. _Herodotus._

=Budīni=, a people of Scythia. _Herodotus._

=Budōrum=, a promontory of Salamis. _Thucydides_, bk. 2, ch. 94.

=Bulbus=, a Roman senator, remarkable for his meanness. _Cicero_,
  _Against Verres_.

=Bulis=, a town of Phocis, built by a colony from Doris, near the sea,
  above the bay of Corinth. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 37.――――A Spartan
  given up to Xerxes, to atone for the offence which his countrymen
  had done in putting the king’s messengers to death. _Herodotus_,
  bk. 7, ch. 134, &c.

=Bullatius=, a friend of Horace to whom the poet addressed, bk. 1,
  ltr. 11, in consequence of his having travelled over part of Asia.

=Bullis=, a town of Illyricum, near the sea, south of Apollonia.
  _Livy_, bk. 36, ch. 7; bk. 44, ch. 30.

=Bumellus=, a river of Assyria. _Curtius_, bk. 4, ch. 9.

=Bunea=, a surname of Juno.

=Bunus=, a son of Mercury and Alcidamea, who obtained the government
  of Corinth when Ætes went to Colchis. He built a temple to Juno.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 2, chs. 3 & 4.

=Bupălus=, a statuary of Clazomenæ. _See:_ Anthermus.

=Buphăgus=, a son of Japetus and Thornax killed by Diana, whose virtue
  he had attempted. A river of Arcadia bears his name. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 8, ch. 24.――――A surname of Hercules, given him on account of his

=Buphŏnia=, a festival in honour of Jupiter at Athens, where an ox was
  immolated. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 24.――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_,
  bk. 8, ch. 3.

=Buprāsium=, a city, country, and river of Elis. _Homer._

=Bura=, a daughter of Jupiter, or, according to others, of Ion and
  Helice, from whom _Bura_ or _Buris_, once a flourishing city in the
  bay of Corinth, received its name. This city was destroyed by the
  sea. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15, li. 293.――_Pausanias_, bk. 7,
  ch. 25.――_Strabo_, bks. 1 & 8.――_Diodorus_, bk. 15.

=Buraicus=, an epithet applied to Hercules, from his temple near Bura.
  ――――A river of Achaia. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 25.

=Burrhus Afranius=, a chief of the pretorian guards, put to death by
  Nero.――――A brother-in-law of the emperor Commodus.

=Bursa=, a capital city of Bithynia, supposed to have been called
  Prusa, from its founder Prusias. _Strabo_, bk. 12.

=Bursia=, a town of Babylonia. _Justin_, bk. 12, ch. 13.

=Busa=, a woman of Apulia who entertained 1000 Romans after the battle
  of Cannæ. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 4, ch. 8.

=Busæ=, a nation of Media. _Herodotus_, bk. 1.

=Busīris=, a king of Egypt, son of Neptune and Libya, or Lysianassa,
  who sacrificed all foreigners to Jupiter with the greatest cruelty.
  When Hercules visited Egypt, Busiris carried him to the altar bound
  hand and foot. The hero soon disentangled himself, and offered the
  tyrant, his son Amphidamas, and the ministers of his cruelty, on
  the altar. Many Egyptian princes have borne the same name. One of
  them built a town called _Busiris_, ♦in the middle of the Delta,
  where Isis had a famous temple. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, chs. 59 & 61.
  ――_Strabo_, bk. 17.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9, li. 132;
  _Heroides_, poem 9, li. 69.――_Plutarch_, _Theseus_.――_Virgil_,
  _Georgics_, bk. 3, li. 5.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 5.

    ♦ extraneous ‘and’ removed

=Buta=, a town of Achaia. _Diodorus_, bk. 20.

=Buteo=, a surname of Marcus Fabius. _Livy_, bk. 30, ch. 26.――――A
  Roman orator. _Seneca._

=Butes=, one of the descendants of Amycus king of the Bebryces, very
  expert in the combat of the cestus. He came to Sicily, where he was
  received by Lycaste, a beautiful harlot, by whom he had a son called
  Eryx. Lycaste, on account of her beauty, was called Venus; hence
  Eryx is often called the son of Venus.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 5,
  li. 372.――――One of the Argonauts. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――――A
  Trojan slain by Camilla. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 690.――――A
  son of Boreas who built Naxos. _Diodorus_, bk. 5.――――A son of Pandion
  and Zeuxippe, priest of Minerva and Neptune. He married Chthonia
  daughter of Erechtheus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 14, &c.――――An
  armbearer to Anchises, and afterwards to Ascanius. Apollo assumed
  his shape when he descended from heaven to encourage Ascanius to
  fight. Butes was killed by Turnus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9, li. 647;
  bk. 12, li. 632.――――A governor of Darius, besieged by Conon the

=Buthrōtum=, now _Butrinto_, a seaport town of Epirus, opposite
  Corcyra, visited by Æneas, in his way from Troy to Italy. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 293.――_Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 1.

=Buthrōtus=, a river in Italy, near Locri.

=Buthyreus=, a noble statuary, disciple to Myron. _Pliny_, bk. 34,
  ch. 8.

=Butoa=, an island in the Mediterranean, near Crete. _Pliny_, bk. 4,
  ch. 12.

=Butorĭdes=, an historian who wrote concerning the pyramids. _Pliny_,
  bk. 36, ch. 12.

=Butos=, a town of Egypt, where there was a temple of Apollo and Diana,
  and an oracle of Latona. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, chs. 59 & 63.

=Butuntum=, an inland town of Apulia. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 11.

=Butus=, a son of Pandion.

=Buzȳges=, an Athenian who first ploughed with harnessed oxen.
  Demophoon gave him the Palladium, with which Diomedes had entrusted
  him to be carried to Athens. _Polyænus_, bk. 1, ch. 5.

=Byblesia= and =Bybassia=, a country of Caria. _Herodotus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 174.

=Byblia=, a name of Venus.

=Byblii=, a people of Syria. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Byblis=, a daughter of Miletus and Cyanea. She fell in love with
  her brother Caunus, and when he refused to gratify her passion, she
  destroyed herself. Some say that Caunus became enamoured of her,
  and fled from his country to avoid incest; and others report that he
  fled from his sister’s importunities, who sought him all over Lycia
  and Caria, and at last sat down all bathed in tears, and was changed
  into a fountain of the same name. _Ovid_, _de Ars Amatoria_, bk. 1,
  li. 284; _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9, li. 451.――_Hyginus_, fable 243.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 5.――――A small island in the Mediterranean.

=Byblus=, a town of Syria, not far from the sea, where Adonis had a
  temple. _Strabo_, bk. 16.

=Bylliones=, a people of Illyricum.

=Byrrhus=, a robber, famous for his dissipation. _Horace_, bk. 1,
  satire 4, li. 69.

=Byrsa=, a citadel in the middle of Carthage, on which was the temple
  of Æsculapius. Asdrubal’s wife burnt it when the city was taken.
  When Dido came to Africa, she bought of the inhabitants as much
  land as could be encompassed by a bull’s hide. After the agreement,
  she cut the hide in small thongs, and inclosed a large piece of
  territory, on which she built a citadel which she called Byrsa
  (Βυρσα, _a hide_). _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 371.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 17.――_Justin_, bk. 18, ch. 5.――_Florus_, bk. 2, ch. 15.――_Livy_,
  bk. 34, ch. 62.

=Byzacium=, a country of Africa.

=Byzantium=, a town situate on the Thracian Bosphorus, founded by a
  colony of Megara, under the conduct of Byzas, 658 years before the
  christian era. Paterculus says it was founded by the Milesians, and
  by the Lacedæmonians according to Justin, and according to Ammianus
  by the Athenians. The pleasantness and convenience of its situation
  were observed by Constantine the Great, who made it the capital of
  the eastern Roman empire, A.D. 328, and called it Constantinopolis.
  A number of Greek writers, who have deserved or usurped the name of
  _Byzantine historians_, flourished at Byzantium, after the seat of
  the empire had been translated thither from Rome. Their works, which
  more particularly relate to the time in which they flourished, and
  are seldom read but by those who wish to form an acquaintance with
  the revolutions of the lower empire, were published in one large
  collection, in 36 vols., folio, 1648, &c., at Paris, and recommended
  themselves by the notes and supplements of du Fresne and du Cange.
  They were likewise printed at Venice, 1729, in 28 vols., though
  perhaps this edition is not so valuable as that of the French.
  _Strabo_, bk. 1.――_Paterculus_, bk. 2, ch. 15.――_Cornelius Nepos_,
  _Pausanias_, _Alcibiades_, & _Timotheus_.――_Justin_, bk. 9, ch. 1.
  ――_Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 12, chs. 62 & 63.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 2.
  ――_Marcellinus_, bk. 22, ch. 8.

=Byzas=, a son of Neptune king of Thrace, from whom it is said
  Byzantium receives its name. _Diodorus_, bk. 4.

=Byzeres=, a people of Pontus, between Cappadocia and Colchis.
  _Dionysius Periegetes._――_Flaccus_, bk. 5, li. 153.

=Byzes=, a celebrated artist in the age of Astyages. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 5, ch. 10.

=Byzia=, a town in the possession of the kings of Thrace, hated by
  swallows, on account of the horrible crimes of Tereus. _Pliny_,
  bk. 4, ch. 11.


=Caanthus=, a son of Oceanus and Tethys. He was ordered by his father
  to seek his sister Malia, whom Apollo had carried away, and he burnt
  in revenge the ravisher’s temple near the ♦Isthmus. He was killed
  for this impiety by the god, and a monument was raised to his memory.
  _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 10.

      ♦ ‘Ithmus’ replaced with ‘Isthmus’

=Cabades=, a king of Persia, &c.

=Cabăla=, a place of Sicily where the Carthaginians were conquered by
  Dionysius. _Diodorus_, bk. 15.

=Cabāles=, a people of Africa. _Herodotus._

=Cabalii=, a people of Asia Minor. _Herodotus._

=Caballīnus=, a clear fountain on mount Helicon, sacred to the muses,
  and called also _Hippocrene_, as raised from the ground by the foot
  of Pegasus. _Persius._

=Caballīnum=, a town of the Ædui, now _Chalons_, on the Saone. _Cæsar_,
  _Gallic War_, ch. 42.

=Caballio=, a town of Gaul.

=Cabarnos=, a deity worshipped at Paros. His priests were called

=Cabassus=, a town of Cappadocia.――――A village near Tarsus.

=Cabīra=, a wife of Vulcan, by whom she had three sons.――――A town of

=Cabīri=, certain deities held in the greatest veneration at Thebes,
  Lemnos, Macedonia, and Phrygia, but more particularly in the islands
  of Samothrace and Imbros. The number of these deities is uncertain.
  Some say there were only two, Jupiter and Bacchus; others mention
  three, and some four, Aschieros, Achiochersa, Achiochersus, and
  Camillus. It is unknown where their worship was first established;
  yet Phœnicia seems to be the place according to the authority of
  Sanchoniathon, and from thence it was introduced into Greece by the
  Pelasgi. The festivals or mysteries of the Cabiri were celebrated
  with the greatest solemnity at Samothrace, where all the ancient
  heroes and princes were generally initiated, as their power seemed
  to be great in protecting persons from shipwreck and storms. The
  obscenities which prevailed in the celebration have obliged the
  authors of every country to pass over them in silence, and say that
  it was unlawful to reveal them. These deities are often confounded
  with the Corybantes, Anaces, Dioscuri, &c., and, according to
  Herodotus, Vulcan was their father. This author mentions the
  sacrilege which Cambyses committed in entering their temple, and
  turning to ridicule their sacred mysteries. They were supposed to
  preside over metals. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 51.――_Strabo_, bk. 10,
  &c.――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 22, &c.――_Cicero_, _de Natura Deorum_,
  bk. 1.

=Cabiria=, a surname of Ceres.――――The festivals of the Cabiri. _See:_

=Cabūra=, a fountain of Mesopotamia, where Juno bathed. _Pliny_,
  bk. 31, ch. 3.

=Cabūrus=, a chief of the Helvii. _Cæsar._

=Caca=, a goddess among the Romans, sister to Cacus, who is said to
  have discovered to Hercules where her brother had concealed his oxen.
  She presided over the excrements of the body. The vestals offered
  sacrifices in her temple. _Lactantius [Placidus]_, bk. 1, ch. 20.

=Cachăles=, a river of Phocis. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 32.

=Cacus=, a famous robber, son of Vulcan and Medusa, represented as a
  three-headed monster, and as vomiting flames. He resided in Italy,
  and the avenues of his cave were covered with human bones. He
  plundered the neighbouring country; and when Hercules returned
  from the conquest of Geryon, Cacus stole some of his cows, and
  dragged them backwards into his cave to prevent discovery. Hercules
  departed without perceiving the theft; but his oxen having lowed,
  were answered by the cows in the cave of Cacus, and the hero became
  acquainted with the loss he had sustained. He ran to the place,
  attacked Cacus, squeezed and strangled him in his arms, though
  vomiting fire and smoke. Hercules erected an altar to Jupiter
  Servator, in commemoration of his victory; and an annual festival
  was instituted by the inhabitants in honour of the hero, who had
  delivered them from such a public calamity. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 1,
  li. 551.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 8, li. 194.――_Propertius_, bk. 4,
  poem 10.――_Juvenal_, satire 5, li. 125.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 7.
  ――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.

=Cacūthis=, a river of India, flowing into the Ganges. _Arrian_,

=Cacyparis=, a river of Sicily.

=Cadi=, a town of Phrygia. _Strabo_, bk. 12.――――Of Lydia. _Propertius_,
  bk. 4, poem 6, li. 7.

=Cadmēa=, a citadel of Thebes, built by Cadmus. It is generally
  taken for Thebes itself, and the Thebans are often called Cadmeans.
  _Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 8, li. 601.――_Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 5.

=Cadmēis=, an ancient name of Bœotia.

=Cadmus=, son of Agenor king of Phœnicia by Telephassa or Agriope,
  was ordered by his father to go in quest of his sister Europa, whom
  Jupiter had carried away, and he was never to return to Phœnicia
  if he did not bring her back. As his search proved fruitless, he
  consulted the oracle of Apollo, and was ordered to build a city
  where he should see a young heifer stop in the grass, and to call
  the country Bœotia. He found the heifer according to the directions
  of the oracle; and as he wished to thank the god by a sacrifice, he
  sent his companions to fetch water from a neighbouring grove. The
  waters were sacred to Mars, and guarded by a dragon, which devoured
  all the Phœnician’s attendants. Cadmus, tired of their seeming delay,
  went to the place, and saw the monster still feeding on their flesh.
  He attacked the dragon, and overcame it by the assistance of Minerva,
  and sowed the teeth in a plain, upon which armed men suddenly rose
  up from the ground. He threw a stone in the midst of them, and they
  instantly turned their arms one against another, till all perished
  except five, who assisted him in building his city. Soon after he
  married Hermione the daughter of Venus, with whom he lived in the
  greatest cordiality, and by whom he had a son Polydorus, and four
  daughters, Ino, Agave, Autonoe, and Semele. Juno persecuted these
  children; and their well-known misfortunes so distracted Cadmus
  and Hermione, that they retired to Illyricum, loaded with grief and
  infirm with age. They intreated the gods to remove them from the
  misfortunes of life, and they were immediately changed into serpents.
  Some explain the dragon’s fable, by supposing that it was a king of
  the country whom Cadmus conquered by war; and the armed men rising
  from the field, is no more than men armed with brass, according
  to the ambiguous signification of a Phœnician word. Cadmus was
  the first who introduced the use of letters into Greece; but some
  maintain, that the alphabet which he brought from Phœnicia, was
  only different from that which was used by the ancient inhabitants
  of Greece. This alphabet consisted only of 16 letters, to which
  Palamedes afterwards added four, and Simonides of Melos the same
  number. The worship of many of the Egyptian and Phœnician deities
  was also introduced by Cadmus, who is supposed to have come into
  Greece 1493 years before the christian era, and to have died 61
  years after. According to those who believe that Thebes was built
  at the sound of Amphion’s lyre, Cadmus built only a small citadel
  which he called Cadmea, and laid the foundations of a city which
  was finished by one of his successors. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 3, fables 1, 2, &c.――_Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 49; bk. 4, ch.
  147.――_Hyginus_, fables 6, 76, 155, &c.――_Diodorus_, bk. 1, &c.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 5, &c.――_Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 937,
  &c.――――A son of Pandion of Miletus, celebrated as an historian
  in the age of Crœsus, and as the writer of an account of some
  cities of Ionia, in four books. He is called the _ancient_, in
  contradistinction from another of the same name and place, son of
  Archelaus, who wrote a history of Attica in 16 books, and a treatise
  on love in 14 books. _Diodorus_, bk. 1.――_Dionysius of Halicarnassus_,
  bk. 2.――_Clement of Alexandria_, bk. 3.――_Strabo_, bk. 1.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 5, ch. 29.――――A Roman executioner, mentioned _Horace_, bk. 1,
  satire 5, li. 39.

=Cadra=, a hill of Asia Minor. _Tacitus._

=Cadūceus=, a rod entwined at one end by two serpents, in the form
  of two equal semi-circles. It was the attribute of Mercury and
  the emblem of power, and it had been given him by Apollo in return
  for the lyre. Various interpretations have been put upon the two
  serpents round it. Some suppose them to be a symbol of Jupiter’s
  amours with Rhea, when these two deities transformed themselves into
  snakes. Others say that it originates from Mercury’s having appeased
  the fury of two serpents that were fighting, by touching them
  with his rod. Prudence is generally supposed to be represented by
  these two serpents, and the wings are the symbol of diligence; both
  necessary in the pursuit of business and commerce, which Mercury
  patronized. With it Mercury conducted to the infernal regions the
  souls of the dead, and could lull to sleep, and even raise to life
  a dead person. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 4, li. 242.――_Horace_, bk. 1,
  ode 10.

=Cadurci=, a people of Gaul, at the east of the Garonne. _Cæsar._

=Cadusci=, a people near the Caspian sea. _Plutarch._

=Cadytis=, a town of Syria. _Herodotus_, bk. 2, ch. 159.

=Cæa=, an island of the Ægean sea among the Cyclades, called also
  _Ceos_ and _Cea_, from Ceus the son of Titan. _Ovid_, poem 20.
  _Heroides_.――_Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 1, li. 14.

=Cæcias=, a wind blowing from the north.

=Cæcĭlia=, the wife of Sylla. _Plutarch_, _Sulla_.――――The mother of
  Lucullus. _Plutarch_, _Lucullus_.――――A daughter of Atticus.

=Cæcilia Caia=, or =Tanaquil=. _See:_ Tanaquil.

=Cæcilia lex=, was proposed A.U.C. 693, by Cæcilius Metellus Nepos,
  to remove taxes from all the Italian states, and to give them free
  exportation.――――Another, called also Didia, A.U.C. 656, by the
  consul Quintus Cæcilius Metellus and Titus Didius. It required that
  no more than one single matter should be proposed to the people in
  one question, lest by one word they should give their assent to a
  whole bill, which might contain clauses worthy to be approved, and
  others unworthy. It required that every law, before it was preferred,
  should be exposed to public view on three market-days.――――Another,
  enacted by Cæcilius Metellus the censor, concerning fullers. _Pliny_,
  bk. 35, ch. 17.――――Another, A.U.C. 701, to restore to the censors
  their original rights and privileges, which had been lessened by
  Publius Clodius the tribune.――――Another, called also Gabinia, A.U.C.
  685, against usury.

=Cæciliānus=, a Latin writer before the age of Cicero.

=Cæcĭlii=, a plebeian family at Rome, descended from Cæcas, one of the
  companions of Æneas, or from Cæculus the son of Vulcan, who built
  Præneste. This family gave birth to many illustrious generals and

=Cæcĭlius Claudius Isidorus=, a man who left in his will to his heirs,
  4116 slaves, 3600 yokes of oxen, 257,000 small cattle, 600,000
  pounds of silver. _Pliny_, bk. 33, ch. 10.――――Epirus, a freedman
  of Atticus, who opened a school at Rome, and is said to have first
  taught reading to Virgil and some other growing poets.――――A Sicilian
  orator in the age of Augustus, who wrote on the Servile wars, a
  comparison between Demosthenes and Cicero, and an account of the
  orations of Demosthenes.――――Metellus. _See:_ Metellus.――――Statius,
  a comic poet, deservedly commended by Cicero and Quintilian, though
  the orator, _Letters to Atticus_, calls him _Malum Latinitatis
  auctorem_. Above 30 of his comedies are mentioned by ancient
  historians, among which are his Nauclerus, Phocius, Epiclerus,
  Syracusæ, Fœnerator, Fallacia, Pausimachus, &c. He was a native of
  Gaul, and died at Rome 168 B.C., and was buried on the Janiculum.
  _Horace_, bk. 2, ltr. 1.

=Cæcīna Tuscus=, a son of Nero’s nurse, made governor of Egypt.
  _Suetonius_, _Nero_.――――A Roman who wrote some physical treatises.
  ――――A citizen of Volaterræ defended by Cicero.

=Cæcŭbum=, a town of Campania in Italy, near the bay of Caieta,
  famous for the excellence and plenty of its wines. _Strabo_, bk. 5.
  ――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 20; bk. 2, ode 14, &c.

=Cæcŭlus=, a son of Vulcan, conceived, as some say, by his mother,
  when a spark of fire fell into her bosom. He was called Cæculus
  because his eyes were small. After a life spent in plundering and
  rapine, he built Præneste; but being unable to find inhabitants, he
  implored Vulcan to show whether he really was his father. Upon this
  a flame suddenly shone among a multitude who were assembled to see
  some spectacle, and they were immediately persuaded to become the
  subjects of Cæculus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 680, says that
  he was found in fire by shepherds, and on that account called son
  of Vulcan, who is the god of fire.

=Quintus Cædicius=, a consul, A.U.C. 498.――――Another, A.U.C. 465.――――A
  military tribune in Sicily, who bravely devoted himself to rescue
  the Roman army from the Carthaginians, B.C. 254. He escaped with his
  life.――――A rich person, &c. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 9, li. 362.――――A
  friend of Turnus. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, lis. 7, 47.

=Cælia lex=, was enacted, A.U.C. 635, by Cælius, a tribune. It ordained,
  that in judicial proceedings before the people, in cases of treason,
  the votes should be given upon tablets contrary to the exception of
  the Cassian law.

=Cælius=, an orator, disciple to Cicero. He died very young. Cicero
  defended him when he was accused by Clodius of being accessary to
  Catiline’s conspiracy, and of having murdered some ambassadors from
  Alexandria, and carried on an illicit amour with Clodia the wife
  of Metellus. _Pro Cælio_.――_Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――――A man
  of Tarracina, found murdered in his bed. His sons were suspected
  of the murder, but acquitted. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 8, ch. 1.
  ――――Aurelianus, a writer about 300 years after Christ, the best
  edition of whose works is that of Almeloveen, Amsterdam, 1722 and
  1755.――――Lucius Antipater, wrote a history of Rome, which Marcus
  Brutus epitomized, and which Adrian preferred to the histories of
  Sallust. Cælius flourished 120 years B.C. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 7.――_Cicero_, bk. 13, _Letters to Atticus_, ltr. 8.――――Tubero, a
  man who came to life after he had been carried to the burning pile.
  _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 52.――――Vibienus, a king of Etruria, who assisted
  Romulus against the Cæninenses, &c.――――Sabinus, a writer in the age
  of Vespasian, who composed a treatise on the edicts of the curule
  ediles.――――One of the seven hills on which Rome was built. Romulus
  surrounded it with a ditch and rampart, and it was enclosed by
  walls by the succeeding kings. It received its name from Cælius,
  who assisted Romulus against the Sabines.

=Cæmaro=, a Greek, who wrote an account of India.

=Cæne=, a small island in the Sicilian sea.――――A town on the coast
  of Laconia, whence Jupiter is called Cænius. _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 5.
  ――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9, li. 136.

=Cæneus=, one of the Argonauts. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――――A
  Trojan killed by Turnus. _Virgil._

=Cænides=, a patronymic of Eetion, as descended from Cæneus.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 5, ch. 92.

=Cænīna=, a town of Latium near Rome. The inhabitants, called
  _Cæninenses_, made war against the Romans when their virgins had
  been stolen away. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 2, li. 135.――_Propertius_,
  bk. 4, poem 11, li. 9.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 9.

=Cænis=, a promontory of Italy, opposite to Pelorus in Sicily, a
  distance of about one mile and a half.

=Cænis=, a Thessalian woman, daughter of Elatus, who, being forcibly
  ravished by Neptune, obtained from the god the power to change her
  sex, and to become invulnerable. She also changed her name, and was
  called _Cæneus_. In the wars of the Lapithæ against the Centaurs,
  she offended Jupiter, and was overwhelmed with a huge pile of wood,
  and changed into a bird. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 12, lis. 172
  & 479.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 448, says that she returned
  again to her pristine form.

=Quintus Servilius Cæpio=, a Roman consul, A.U.C. 648, in the Cimbrian
  war. He plundered a temple at Tolossa, for which he was punished by
  divine vengeance, &c. _Justin_, bk. 32, ch. 3.――_Paterculus_, bk. 2,
  ch. 12.――――A questor who opposed Saturninus. _Cicero_, _Rhetorica ad

=Cæratus=, a town of Crete. _Strabo._――――A river.

=Cære=, =Cæres=, anciently _Agylla_, now _Cerveteri_, a city of
  Etruria, once the capital of the whole country. It was in being in
  the age of Strabo. When Æneas came to Italy, Mezentius was king over
  the inhabitants, called _Cæretes_ or _Cærites_; but they banished
  their prince, and assisted the Trojans. The people of Cære received
  with all possible hospitality the Romans who fled with the fire
  of Vesta, when the city was besieged by the Gauls, and for this
  humanity they were made citizens of Rome, but without the privilege
  of voting; whence _Cærites tabulæ_ was applied to those who had no
  suffrage, and _Cærites cera_ appropriated as a mark of contempt.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bks. 8 & 10.――_Livy_, bk. 1, ch. 2.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 5.

=Cæresi=, a people of Germany. _Cæsar._

=Cæsar=, a surname given to the Julian family at Rome, either because
  one of them kept an _elephant_, which bears the same name in the
  Punic tongue, or because one was born with a thick _head of hair_.
  This name, after it had been dignified in the person of Julius
  Cæsar and of his successors, was given to the apparent heir of
  the empire, in the age of the Roman emperors. The 12 first Roman
  emperors were distinguished by the surname of _Cæsar_. They reigned
  in the following order: Julius Cæsar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula,
  Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, and
  Domitian. In Domitian, or rather in Nero, the family of Julius Cæsar
  was extinguished. But after such a lapse of time, the appellation
  of Cæsar seemed inseparable from the imperial dignity, and therefore
  it was assumed by the successors of the Julian family. Suetonious
  has written an account of these 12 characters, in an extensive and
  impartial manner.――――Caius Julius Cæsar, the first emperor of Rome,
  was son of ♦Caius Cæsar and Aurelia the daughter of Cotta. He was
  descended, according to some accounts, from Julus the son of Æneas.
  When he reached his 15th year he lost his father, and the year after
  he was made priest of Jupiter. Sylla was aware of his ambition, and
  endeavoured to remove him; but Cæsar understood his intentions, and
  to avoid discovery changed every day his lodgings. He was received
  into Sylla’s friendship some time after; and the dictator told those
  who solicited the advancement of young Cæsar, that they were warm
  in the interest of a man who would prove some day or other the ruin
  of their country and of their liberty. When Cæsar went to finish his
  studies at Rhodes, under Apollonius Molo, he was seized by pirates,
  who offered him his liberty for 30 talents. He gave them 40, and
  threatened to revenge their insults; and he no sooner was out of
  their power, than he armed a ship, pursued them, and crucified them
  all. His eloquence procured him friends at Rome; and the generous
  manner in which he lived equally served to promote his interest.
  He obtained the office of high priest at the death of Metellus; and
  after he had passed through the inferior employments of the state,
  he was appointed over Spain, where he signalized himself by his
  valour and intrigues. At his return to Rome, he was made consul, and
  soon after he effected a reconciliation between Crassus and Pompey.
  He was appointed for the space of five years over the Gauls, by
  the interest of Pompey, to whom he had given his daughter Julia in
  marriage. Here he enlarged the boundaries of the Roman empire by
  conquest, and invaded Britain, which was then unknown to the Roman
  people. He checked the Germans, and soon after had his government
  over Gaul prolonged to five other years, by means of his friends
  at Rome. The death of Julia and of Crassus, the corrupted state of
  the Roman senate, and the ambition of Cæsar and Pompey, soon became
  the causes of a civil war. Neither of these celebrated Romans would
  suffer a superior, and the smallest matters were sufficient ground
  for unsheathing the sword. Cæsar’s petitions were received with
  coldness or indifference by the Roman senate; and, by the influence
  of Pompey, a decree was passed to strip him of his power. Antony,
  who opposed it as tribune, fled to Cæsar’s camp with the news; and
  the ambitious general no sooner heard this, than he made it a plea
  of resistance. On pretence of avenging the violence which had been
  offered to the sacred office of tribune in the person of Antony,
  he crossed the Rubicon, which was the boundary of his province. The
  passage of the Rubicon was a declaration of war, and Cæsar entered
  Italy sword in hand. Upon this, Pompey, with all the friends of
  liberty, left Rome, and retired to Dyrrachium; and Cæsar, after
  he had subdued all Italy, in 60 days, entered Rome, and provided
  himself with money from the public treasury. He went to Spain, where
  he conquered the partisans of Pompey, under Petreius, Afranius,
  and Varro; and, at his return to Rome, was declared dictator, and
  soon after consul. When he left Rome he went in quest of Pompey,
  observing that he was marching against a general without troops,
  after having defeated troops without a general in Spain. In the
  plains of Pharsalia, B.C. 48, the two hostile generals engaged.
  Pompey was conquered, and fled into Egypt, where he was murdered.
  Cæsar, after he had made a noble use of victory, pursued his
  adversary into Egypt, where he for some time forgot his fame and
  character in the arms of Cleopatra, by whom he had a son. His
  danger was great while at Alexandria; but he extricated himself
  with wonderful success, and made Egypt tributary to his power. After
  several conquests in Africa, the defeat of Cato, Scipio, and Juba,
  and that of Pompey’s sons in Spain, he entered Rome, and triumphed
  over five different nations, Gaul, Alexandria, Pontus, Africa, and
  Spain, and was created perpetual dictator. But now his glory was at
  an end, his uncommon success created him enemies, and the chiefest
  of the senators, among whom was Brutus his most intimate friend,
  conspired against him, and stabbed him in the senate house on the
  ides of March. He died, pierced with 23 wounds, the 15th of March,
  B.C. 44, in the 56th year of his age. Casca gave him the first blow,
  and immediately he attempted to make some resistance; but when he
  saw Brutus among the conspirators, he submitted to his fate, and
  fell down at their feet, muffling up his mantle, and exclaiming, _Tu
  quoque Brute_! Cæsar might have escaped the sword of the conspirators
  if he had listened to the advice of his wife, whose dreams on the
  night previous to the day of his murder were alarming. He also
  received, as he went to the senate house, a paper from Artemidorus,
  which discovered the whole conspiracy to him; but he neglected the
  reading of what might have saved his life. When he was in his first
  campaign in Spain, he was observed to gaze at a statue of Alexander,
  and even shed tears at the recollection that that hero had conquered
  the world at an age in which he himself had done nothing. The
  learning of Cæsar deserves commendation, as well as his military
  character. He reformed the calendar. He wrote his commentaries
  on the Gallic wars, on the spot where he fought his battles; and
  the composition has been admired for the elegance as well as the
  correctness of its style. This valuable book was nearly lost; and
  when Cæsar saved his life in the bay of Alexandria, he was obliged
  to swim from his ship, with his arms in one hand and his commentaries
  in the other. Besides the Gallic and civil wars, he wrote other
  pieces, which are now lost. The history of the war in Alexandria and
  Spain is attributed to him by some, and by others to Hirtius. Cæsar
  has been blamed for his debaucheries and expenses; and the first
  year he had a public office, his debts were rated at 830 talents,
  which his friends discharged: yet, in his public character, he must
  be reckoned one of the few heroes that rarely make their appearance
  among mankind. His qualities were such that in every battle he could
  not but be conqueror, and in every republic, master; and to his
  sense of his superiority over the rest of the world, or to his
  ambition, we are to attribute his saying, that he wished rather
  to be first in a little village, than second at Rome. It was after
  his conquest over Pharnaces in one day, that he made use of these
  remarkable words, to express the celerity of his operations: _Veni,
  vidi, vici_. Conscious of the services of a man who in the intervals
  of peace, beautified and enriched the capital of his country with
  public buildings, libraries, and porticoes, the senate permitted
  the dictator to wear a laurel crown on his bald head; and it is said
  that, to reward his benevolence, they were going to give him the
  title of authority of king all over the Roman empire, except Italy,
  when he was murdered. In his private character, Cæsar has been
  accused of seducing one of the vestal virgins, and suspected of
  being privy to Catiline’s conspiracy; and it was his fondness for
  dissipated pleasures which made his countrymen say, that he was the
  husband of all the women at Rome, and the woman of all men. It is
  said that he conquered 300 nations, took 800 cities, and defeated
  three millions of men, one of which fell in the field of battle.
  _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 25, says that he could employ at the same time,
  his ears to listen, his eyes to read, his hand to write, and his
  mind to dictate. His death was preceded, as many authors mention, by
  uncommon prodigies; and immediately after his death, a large comet
  made its appearance. The best editions of Cæsar’s commentaries,
  are the magnificent one by Dr. Clarke, folio, London, 1712; that of
  Cambridge, with a Greek translation, 4to, 1727; that of Oudendorp,
  2 vols., 4to, Leiden, 1737; and that of Elzevir, 8vo, Leiden, 1635.
  _Suetonius_ & _Plutarch_, _Lives_.――_Dio Cassius._――_Appian._
  ――_Orosius._――_Diodorus_, bk. 16 & fragments of bks. 31 & 37.
  ――_Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 1, li. 466.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_,
  bk. 15, li. 782.――_Marcellinus._――_Florus_, bks. 3 & 4.――――Lucius
  was father to the dictator. He died suddenly, when putting on his
  shoes.――――Octavianus. _See:_ Augustus.――――Caius, a tragic poet
  and orator, commended by _Cicero_, _Brutus_. His brother C. Lucius
  was consul, and followed, as well as himself, the party of Sylla.
  They were both put to death by order of Marius.――――Lucius, an uncle
  of Marcus Antony, who followed the interest of Pompey, and was
  proscribed by Augustus, for which Antony proscribed Cicero the
  friend of Augustus. His son Lucius was put to death by Julius Cæsar
  in his youth.――――Two sons of Agrippa bore also the name of Cæsar,
  Caius and Lucius. _See:_ Agrippa.――――Augusta, a town of Spain, built
  by Augustus, on the Iberus, and now called _Saragossa_.

      ♦ ‘L.’ replaced with ‘Caius’

=Cæsarēa=, a city of Cappadocia,――――of Bithynia,――――of Mauritania,
  ――――of Palestine. There are many small insignificant towns of that
  name, either built by the emperors, or called by their name, in
  compliment to them.

=Cæsarion=, the son of Julius Cæsar by queen Cleopatra, was, at the
  age of 13, proclaimed by Antony and his mother, king of Cyprus,
  Egypt, and Cœlosyria. He was put to death five years after by
  Augustus. _Suetonius_, _Augustus_, ch. 17, & _Cæsar_, ch. 52.

=Cæsennius Pætus=, a general sent by Nero to Armenia, &c. _Tacitus_,
  _Annals_, bk. 15, chs. 6 & 25.

=Cæsetius=, a Roman who protected his children against Cæsar.
  _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 5, ch. 7.

=Cæsia=, a surname of Minerva.――――A wood in Germany. _Tacitus_,
  _Annals_, bk. 1, ch. 50.

=Cæsius=, a Latin poet, whose talents were not of uncommon brilliancy.
  _Catullus_, poem 14.――――A lyric and heroic poet in the reign of Nero.

=Cæso=, a son of Quinctius Cincinnatus, who revolted to the Volsci.

=Cæsonia=, a lascivious woman who married Caligula, and was murdered
  at the same time with her daughter Julia. _Suetonius_, _Caligula_,
  ch. 59.

=Cæsonius Maximus=, was banished from Italy by Nero, on account of his
  friendship with Seneca, &c. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 15, ch. 71.

=Cætŭlum=, a town of Spain. _Strabo_, bk. 2.

=Cagāco=, a fountain of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 24.

=Caicīnus=, a river of Locris. _Thucydides_, bk. 3, ch. 103.

=Caīcus=, a companion of Æneas. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 1, li. 187;
  bk. 9, li. 35.――――A river of Mysia, falling into the Ægean sea,
  opposite Lesbos. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk. 4, li. 370.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, li. 243.

=Caiēta=, a town, promontory, and harbour of Campania, which received
  its name from Caieta the nurse of Æneas, who was buried there.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 1.

=Caius= and =Caia=, a prænomen very common at Rome to both sexes. C,
  in its natural position, denoted the man’s name, and when reversed Ↄ
  it implied Cais. _Quintilian_, bk. 1, ch. 7.

=Caius=, a son of Agrippa by Julia. _See:_ Agrippa.

=Quintus Calăber=, called also Smyrnæus, wrote a Greek poem in 14
  books, as a continuation of Homer’s Iliad, about the beginning of
  the third century. The best editions of this elegant and well-written
  book are that of Rhodoman, 12mo, Hanover, 1604, with the notes of
  Dausqueius; and that of Pauw, 8vo, Leiden, 1734.

=Calābria=, a country of Italy in Magna Græcia. It has been called
  Messapia, Japygia, Salentinia, and Peucetia. The poet Ennius was
  born there. The country was fertile, and produced a variety of
  fruits, much cattle, and excellent honey. _Virgil_, _Georgics_, bk.
  3, li. 425.――_Horace_, bk. 1, ode 31; _Epodes_, poem 1, li. 27; bk.
  1, ltr. 7, li. 14.――_Strabo_, bk. 6.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 8, ch. 48.

=Calăbrus=, a river of Calabria. _Pausanias_, bk. 6.

=Calagurritāni=, a people of Spain, who ate their wives and children
  rather than yield to Pompey. _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 7, ch. 6.

=Calais= and =Zethes=. _See:_ Zethes.

=Calagutis=, a river of Spain. _Florus_, bk. 3, ch. 22.

=Calămis=, an excellent carver. _Propertius_, bk. 3, poem 9, li. 10.

=Calămīsa=, a place of Samos. _Herodotus_, bk. 9.

=Calămos=, a town of Asia, near mount Libanus. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 20.
  ――――A town of Phœnicia.――――Another of Babylonia.

=Calămus=, a son of the river Mæander, who was tenderly attached to
  Carpo, &c. _Pausanias_, bk. 9, ch. 35.

=Calānus=, a celebrated Indian philosopher, one of the gymnosophists.
  He followed Alexander in his Indian expedition, and being sick,
  in his 83rd year, he ordered a pile to be raised, upon which he
  mounted, decked with flowers and garlands, to the astonishment of
  the king and of the army. When the pile was fired, Alexander asked
  him whether he had anything to say. “No,” said he, “I shall meet you
  again in a very short time.” Alexander died three months after in
  Babylon. _Strabo_, bk. 15.――_Cicero_, _de Divinatione_, bk. 1, ch.
  23.――_Arrian_ & _Plutarch_, _Alexander_.――_Ælian_, bk. 2, ch. 41;
  bk. 5, ch. 6.――_Valerius Maximus_, bk. 1, ch. 8.

=Calaon=, a river of Asia, near Colophon. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 3.

=Calăris=, a city of Sardinia. _Florus_, bk. 2, ch. 6.

=Calathāna=, a town of Macedonia. _Livy_, bk. 32, ch. 13.

=Calathes=, a town of Thrace near Tomus, on the Euxine sea. _Strabo_,
  bk. 7.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 2.

=Calathion=, a mountain of Laconia. _Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 26.

=Calathus=, a son of Jupiter and Antiope.

=Calātia=, a town of Campania, on the Appian way. It was made a Roman
  colony in the age of Julius Cæsar. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 543.

=Calatiæ=, a people of India, who ate the flesh of their parents.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 3, ch. 38.

=Calavii=, a people of Campania. _Livy_, bk. 26, ch. 27.

=Calavius=, a magistrate of Capua, who rescued some Roman senators
  from death, &c. _Livy_, bk. 23, chs. 2 & 3.

=Calaurēa= and =Calaurīa=, an island near Trœzene in the bay of Argos.
  Apollo, and afterwards Neptune, was the chief deity of the place.
  The tomb of Demosthenes was seen there, who poisoned himself to fly
  from the persecutions of Antipater. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 7,
  li. 384.――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 8, &c.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.――_Mela_,
  bk. 2, ch. 7.

=Calbis=, a river of Caria. _Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 16.

=Calce=, a city of Campania. _Strabo_, bk. 5.

=Calchas=, a celebrated soothsayer, son of Thestor. He accompanied
  the Greeks to Troy, in the office of high priest; and he informed
  them that the city could not be taken without the aid of Achilles,
  that their fleet could not sail from Aulis before Iphigenia was
  sacrificed to Diana, and that the plague could not be stopped in the
  Grecian army before the restoration of Chryseis to her father. He
  told them also that Troy could not be taken before 10 years’ siege.
  He had received the power of divination from Apollo. Calchas was
  informed that as soon as he found a man more skilled than himself in
  divination, he must perish; and this happened near Colophon, after
  the Trojan war. He was unable to tell how many figs were in the
  branches of a certain fig tree; and when Mopsus mentioned the exact
  number, Calchas died through grief. _See:_ Mopsus. _Homer_, _Iliad_,
  bk. 1, li. 69.――_Aeschylus_, _Agamemnon_.――_Euripides_, _Iphigeneia_.
  ――_Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 43.

=Calchedonia.= _See:_ Chalcedon.

=Calchinia=, a daughter of Leucippus. She had a son by Neptune, who
  inherited his grandfather’s kingdom of Sicyon. _Pausanias_, bk. 2,
  ch. 5.

=Caldus Cælius=, a Roman who killed himself when detained by the
  Germans. _Paterculus_, bk. 2, ch. 120.

=Cale= (es), =Cales= (ium), and =Calēnum=, now _Calvi_, a town of
  Campania. _Horace_, bk. 4, ode 12.――_Juvenal_, satire 1, li. 69.
  ――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 8, li. 413.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7,
  li. 728.

=Calēdonia=, a country at the north of Britain, now called Scotland.
  The reddish hair and lofty stature of its inhabitants seemed
  to denote a German extraction, according to _Tacitus_, _Life of
  Agricola_. It was so little known to the Romans, and its inhabitants
  so little civilized, that they called it _Britannia Barbara_, and
  they never penetrated into the country either for curiosity or
  conquest. _Martial_, bk. 10, ltr. 44.――_Silius Italicus_, bk. 3,
  li. 598.

=Calēntum=, a place of Spain, where it is said they made bricks so
  light that they swam on the surface of the water. _Pliny_, bk. 35,
  ch. 14.

=Calēnus=, a famous soothsayer of Etruria in the age of Tarquin.
  _Pliny_, bk. 28, ch. 2.――――A lieutenant of Cæsar’s army. After
  Cæsar’s murder, he concealed some that had been proscribed by
  the triumvirs, and behaved with great honour to them. _Plutarch_,

=Cales.= _See:_ Cale.――――A city of Bithynia on the Euxine. _Arrian._

=Calesius=, a charioteer of Axylus, killed by Diomedes in the Trojan
  war. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 16, li. 16.

=Calētæ=, a people of Belgic Gaul, now _Pays de Caux_, in Normandy.
  _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 2, ch. 4. Their town was called Caletum.

=Caletor=, a Trojan prince, slain by Ajax as he was going to set fire
  to the ship of Protesilaus. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 15, li. 419.

=Calex=, a river of Asia Minor, falling into the Euxine sea.
  _Thucydides_, bk. 4, ch. 75.

=Caliadne=, the wife of Ægyptus. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2, ch. 1.

=Calicēni=, a people of Macedonia.

=Marcus Calidius=, an orator and pretorian who died in the civil wars,
  &c. _Cæsar_, _Civil War_, bk. 1, ch. 2.――――Lucius Julius, a man
  remarkable for his riches, the excellency of his character, his
  learning and poetical abilities. He was proscribed by Volumnius,
  but delivered by Atticus. _Cornelius Nepos_, _Atticus_, ch. 12.

=Caius Calĭgŭla=, the emperor, received this surname from his wearing
  in the camp the _Caliga_, a military covering for the leg. He was
  son of Germanicus by Agrippina, and grandson to Tiberius. During
  the first eight months of his reign, Rome experienced universal
  prosperity, the exiles were recalled, taxes were remitted, and
  profligates dismissed; but Caligula soon became proud, wanton,
  and cruel. He built a temple to himself, and ordered his head to
  be placed on the images of the gods, while he wished to imitate
  the thunders and powers of Jupiter. The statues of all great men
  were removed, as if Rome would sooner forget their virtues in their
  absence; and the emperor appeared in public places in the most
  indecent manner, encouraged roguery, committed incest with his three
  sisters, and established public places of prostitution. He often
  amused himself with putting innocent people to death; he attempted
  to famish Rome by a monopoly of corn; and as he was pleased with
  the greatest disasters which befel his subjects, he often wished
  the Romans had but one head, that he might have the gratification
  to strike it off. Wild beasts were constantly fed in his palace with
  human victims, and a favourite horse was made high priest and consul,
  and kept in marble apartments, and adorned with the most valuable
  trappings and pearls which the Roman empire could furnish. Caligula
  built a bridge upwards of three miles in the sea; and would perhaps
  have shown himself more tyrannical had not Chæreas, one of his
  servants, formed a conspiracy against his life, with others equally
  tired with the cruelties and the insults that were offered with
  impunity to the persons and feelings of the Romans. In consequence
  of this, the tyrant was murdered January 24th, in his 29th year,
  after a reign of three years and ten months, A.D. 41. It has been
  said that Caligula wrote a treatise on rhetoric; but his love of
  learning is better understood from his attempts to destroy the
  writings of Homer and of Virgil. _Dio Cassius._――_Suetonius_, _Lives
  of the Twelve Caesars_.――_Tacitus_, _Annals_.

=Calĭpus=, a mathematician of Cyzicus, B.C. 330.

=Calis=, a man in Alexander’s army, tortured for conspiring against
  the king. _Curtius_, bk. 6, ch. 11.

=Callæscherus=, the father of Critias. _Plutarch_, _Alcibiades_.

=Callaĭci=, a people of Lusitania, now _Gallicia_, at the north of
  Spain. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 6, li. 461.

=Callas=, a general of Alexander. _Diodorus_, bk. 17.――――Of Cassander
  against Polyperchon. _Diodorus_, bk. 19.――――A river of Eubœa.

=Callatēbus=, a town of Caria. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 32.

=Calle=, a town of ancient Spain, now _Oporto_, at the mouth of the
  Douro in Portugal.

=Calleteria=, a town of Campania.

=Callēni=, a people of Campania.

=Callia=, a town of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 27.

=Calliădes=, a magistrate of Athens when Xerxes invaded Greece.
  _Herodotus_, bk. 8, ch. 51.

=Callias=, an Athenian appointed to make peace between Artaxerxes and
  his country. _Diodorus_, bk. 12.――――A son of Temenus, who murdered
  his father with the assistance of his brothers. _Apollodorus_, bk. 2,
  ch. 6.――――A Greek poet, son of Lysimachus. His compositions are lost.
  He was surnamed Schœnion, from his twisting ropes (σχοινος), through
  poverty. _Athenæus_, bk. 10.――――A partial historian of Syracuse.
  He wrote an account of the Sicilian wars, and was well rewarded
  by Agathocles, because he had shown him in a favourable view.
  _Athenæus_, bk. 12.――_Dionysius._――――An Athenian greatly revered
  for his patriotism. _Herodotus_, bk. 6, ch. 121.――――A soothsayer.
  ――――An Athenian commander of a fleet against Philip, whose ships
  he took, &c.――――A rich Athenian, who liberated Cimon from prison,
  on condition of marrying his sister and wife Elpinice. _Cornelius
  Nepos_ & _Plutarch_, _Cimon_.――――An historian, who wrote an
  explanation of the poems of Alcæus and Sappho.

=Callibius=, a general in the war between Mantinea and Sparta.
  _Xenophon_, _Hellenica_.

=Callicērus=, a Greek poet, some of whose epigrams are preserved in
  the Anthologia.

=Callichŏrus=, a place of Phocis, where the orgies of Bacchus were
  yearly celebrated.

=Callĭcles=, an Athenian, whose house was not searched on account of
  his recent marriage, when an inquiry was made after the money given
  by Harpalus, &c. _Plutarch_, _Demosthenes_.――――A statuary of Megara.

=Callicolōna=, a place of Troy, near the Simois.

=Callicrătes=, an Athenian, who seized upon the sovereignty of
  Syracuse, by imposing upon Dion when he had lost his popularity.
  He was expelled by the sons of Dionysius, after reigning 13 months.
  He is called _Calippus_ by some authors. _Cornelius Nepos_, _Dion_.
  ――――An officer entrusted with the care of the treasures of Susa by
  Alexander. _Curtius_, bk. 5, ch. 2.――――An artist, who made, with
  ivory, ants and other insects, so small that they could scarcely
  be seen. It is said that he engraved some of Homer’s verses upon a
  grain of millet. _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 21.――_Ælian_, _Varia Historia_,
  bk. 1, ch. 17.――――An Athenian, who, by his perfidy, constrained the
  Athenians to submit to Rome. _Pausanias_, bk. 7, ch. 10.――――A Syrian,
  who wrote an account of Aurelian’s life.――――A brave Athenian, killed
  at the battle of Platæa. _Herodotus_, bk. 9, ch. 72.

=Callicratĭdas=, a Spartan, who succeeded Lysander in the command of
  the fleet. He took Methymna, and routed the Athenian fleet under
  Conon. He was defeated and killed near the Arginusæ, in a naval
  battle, B.C. 406. _Diodorus_, bk. 13.――_Xenophon_, _Hellenica_.
  ――――One of the four ambassadors sent by the Lacedæmonians to Darius,
  upon the rupture of their alliance with Alexander. _Curtius_, bk. 3,
  ch. 13.――――A Pythagorean writer.

=Callidius=, a celebrated Roman orator, contemporary with Cicero,
  who speaks of his abilities with commendation. _Cicero_, _Brutus_,
  ch. 274.――_Paterculus_, bk. 2, ch. 36.

=Callidrŏmus=, a place near Thermopylæ. _Thucydides_, bk. 8, ch. 6.

=Calligētus=, a man of Megara, received in his banishment by
  Pharnabazus. _Thucydides_, bk. 8, ch. 6.

=Callĭmăchus=, an historian and poet of Cyrene, son of Battus and
  Mesatma, and pupil to Hermocrates the grammarian. He had, in the
  age of Ptolemy Philadelphus, kept a school at Alexandria, and had
  Apollonius of Rhodes among his pupils, whose ingratitude obliged
  Callimachus to lash him severely in a satirical poem, under the name
  of _Ibis_. _See:_ Apollonius. The Ibis of Ovid is in imitation of
  this piece. He wrote a work, in 120 books, on famous men, besides
  treatises on birds; but of all his numerous compositions, only 31
  epigrams, an elegy, and some hymns on the gods, are extant; the
  best editions of which are that of Ernestus, 2 vols., 8vo, Leiden,
  1761, and that of Vulcanius, 12mo, Antwerp, 1584. Propertius styled
  himself the _Roman Callimachus_. The precise time of his death, as
  well as of his birth, is unknown. _Propertius_, bk. 4, poem 1, li.
  65.――_Cicero_, _Tusculanæ Disputations_, bk. 1, ch. 84.――_Horace_,
  bk. 2, ltr. 2, li. 109.――_Quintilian_, bk. 10, ch. 1.――――An Athenian
  general killed in the battle of Marathon. His body was found in an
  erect posture, all covered with wounds. _Plutarch._――――A Colophonian,
  who wrote the life of Homer. _Plutarch._

=Callimĕdon=, a partisan of Phocion, at Athens, condemned by the

=Callimĕles=, a youth ordered to be killed and served up as meat by
  Apollodorus of Cassandrea. _Polyænus_, bk. 6, ch. 7.

=Callinus=, an orator, who is said to have first invented elegiac
  poetry, B.C. 776. Some of his verses are to be found in Stobæus.
  _Athenæus._――_Strabo_, bk. 13.

=Calliŏpe=, one of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, who
  presided over eloquence and heroic poetry. She is said to be the
  mother of Orpheus by Apollo, and Horace supposes her able to play
  on any musical instrument. She was represented with a trumpet in her
  right hand, and with books in the other, which signified that her
  office was to take notice of the famous actions of heroes, as Clio
  was employed in celebrating them; and she held the three most famous
  epic poems of antiquity, and appeared generally crowned with laurels.
  She settled the dispute between Venus and Proserpine, concerning
  Adonis, whose company these two goddesses wished both perpetually to
  enjoy. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_.――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 3.――_Horace_,

=Callipatīra=, daughter of Diagoras and wife of Callianax the athlete,
  went disguised in man’s clothes with her son Pisidorus to the
  Olympic games. When Pisidorus was declared victor, she discovered
  her sex through excess of joy, and was arrested, as women were not
  permitted to appear there on pain of death. The victory of her son
  obtained her release; and a law was instantly made, which forbade
  any wrestlers to appear but naked. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 6; bk. 6,
  ch. 7.

=Callĭphon=, a painter of Samos, famous for his historical pieces.
  _Pliny_, bk. 10, ch. 26.――――A philosopher who made the _summum
  bonum_ consist in pleasure joined to the love of honesty. This
  system was opposed by _Cicero_. _Academic Questions_, bk. 4, chs.
  131 & 139; _De Officiis_, bk. 3, ch. 119.

=Callĭphron=, a celebrated dancing master, who had Epaminondas among
  his pupils. _Cornelius Nepos_, _Epaminondas_.

=Callipĭdæ=, a people of Scythia. _Herodotus_, bk. 4, ch. 17.

=Callipŏlis=, a city of Thrace on the Hellespont. _Silius Italicus_,
  bk. 14, li. 250.――――A town of Sicily near Ætna.――――A city of
  Calabria on the coast of Tarentum, on a rocky island, joined by a
  bridge to the continent. It is now called _Gallipoli_, and contains
  6000 inhabitants, who trade in oil and cotton.

=Callĭpus=, or =Calippus=, an Athenian, disciple to Plato. He
  destroyed Dion, &c. _See:_ Callicrates. _Cornelius Nepos_, _Dion_.
  ――――A Corinthian, who wrote a history of Orchomenos. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 6, ch. 20.――――A philosopher. _Diogenes Laërtius_, _Zeno_.
  ――――A general of the Athenians, when the Gauls invaded Greece by
  Thermopylæ. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, ch. 3.

=Callipyges=, a surname of Venus.

=Callirhoe=, a daughter of the Scamander, who married Tros, by whom
  she had Ilus, Ganymede, and Assaracus.――――A fountain of Attica
  where Callirhoe killed herself. _See:_ Coresus. _Pausanias_, bk. 7,
  ch. 21.――_Statius_, bk. 12, _Thebiad_, li. 629.――――A daughter of
  Oceanus and Tethys, mother of Echidna, Orthus, and Cerberus by
  Chrysaor. _Hesiod._――――A daughter of Lycus tyrant of Libya, who
  kindly received Diomedes at his return from Troy. He abandoned her,
  upon which she killed herself.――――A daughter of the Achelous, who
  married Alcmæon. _See:_ Alcmæon. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 24.――――A
  daughter of Phocus the Bœotian, whose beauty procured her many
  admirers. Her father behaved with such coldness to her lovers that
  they murdered him. Callirhoe avenged his death with the assistance
  of the Bœotians. _Plutarch_, _Amatoriæ narrationes_.――――A daughter
  of Piras and Niobe. _Hyginus_, fable 145.

=Calliste=, an island of the Ægean sea, called afterwards _Thera_.
  _Pliny_, bk. 4, ch. 12.――_Pausanias_, bk. 3, ch. 1.――Its chief town
  was founded 1150 years before the christian era, by Theras.

=Callisteia=, a festival at Lesbos, during which all the women
  presented themselves in the temple of Juno, and the fairest was
  rewarded in a public manner. There was also an institution of the
  same kind among the Parrhasians, first made by Cypselus, whose wife
  was honoured with the first prize. The Eleans had one also, in which
  the fairest man received as a prize a complete suit of armour, which
  he dedicated to Minerva.

=Callisthĕnes=, a Greek who wrote a history of his own country in 10
  books, beginning from the peace between Artaxerxes and Greece, down
  to the plundering of the temple of Delphi by Philomelus. _Diodorus_,
  bk. 14.――――A man who with others attempted to expel the garrison of
  Demetrius from Athens. _Polyænus_, bk. 5, ch. 17.――――A philosopher
  of Olynthus, intimate with Alexander, whom he accompanied in his
  oriental expedition in the capacity of a preceptor, and to whom he
  had been recommended by his friend and master Aristotle. He refused
  to pay divine honours to the king, for which he was accused of
  conspiracy, mutilated and exposed to wild beasts, dragged about
  in chains, till Lysimachus gave him poison, which ended together
  his tortures and his life, B.C. 328. None of his compositions are
  extant. _Curtius_, bk. 8, ch. 6.――_Plutarch_, _Alexander_.――_Arrian_,
  bk. 4.――_Justin_, bk. 12, chs. 6 & 7.――――A writer of Sybaris.――――A
  freedman of Lucullus. It is said that he gave poison to his master.
  _Plutarch_, _Lucullus_.

=Callisto= and =Calisto=, called also Helice, was daughter of Lycaon
  king of Arcadia, and one of Diana’s attendants. Jupiter saw her, and
  seduced her after he had assumed the shape of Diana. Her pregnancy
  was discovered as she bathed with Diana; and the fruit of her amour
  with Jupiter called Arcas, was hid in the woods and preserved. Juno,
  who was jealous of Jupiter, changed Calisto into a bear; but the
  god, apprehensive of her being hurt by the huntsmen, made her a
  constellation of heaven, with her son Arcas, under the name of the
  bear. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 2, fable 4, &c.――_Apollodorus_,
  bk. 3, ch. 8.――_Hyginus_, fable 176 & 177.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8,
  ch. 3.

=Callistonicus=, a celebrated statuary at Thebes. _Pausanias_, bk. 9,
  ch. 16.

=Callistrătus=, an Athenian, appointed general with Timotheus and
  Chabrias against Lacedæmon. _Diodorus_, bk. 15.――――An orator of
  Aphidna, in the time of Epaminondas, the most eloquent of his
  age.――――An Athenian orator with whom Demosthenes made an intimate
  acquaintance after he had heard him plead. _Xenophon._――――A Greek
  historian praised by _Dionysius of Halicarnassus_.――――A comic poet,
  rival of Aristophanes.――――A statuary. _Pliny_, bk. 34, ch. 8.――――A
  secretary of Mithridates. _Plutarch_, _Lucullus_.――――A grammarian,
  who made the alphabet of the Samians consist of 24 letters. Some
  suppose that he wrote a treatise on courtesans.

=Callixĕna=, a courtesan of Thessaly, whose company Alexander refused,
  though requested by his mother Olympias. This was attributed by the
  Athenians to other causes than chastity, and therefore the prince’s
  ambition was ridiculed.

=Callixĕnus=, a general who perished by famine.――――An Athenian
  imprisoned for passing sentence of death upon some prisoners.
  _Diodorus_, bk. 13.

=Calon=, a statuary. _Quintilian_, bk. 12, ch. 10.――_Pliny_, bk. 34,
  ch. 8.

=Calor=, now _Calore_, a river in Italy near Beneventum. _Livy_,
  bk. 24, ch. 14.

=Calpe=, a lofty mountain in the most southern parts of Spain, opposite
  to mount Abyla on the African coast. These two mountains were called
  the pillars of Hercules. Calpe is now called Gibraltar.

=Calphurnia=, a daughter of Lucius Piso, who was Julius Cæsar’s fourth
  wife. The night previous to her husband’s murder, she dreamed that
  the roof of her house had fallen, and that he had been stabbed in
  her arms; and on that account she attempted, but in vain, to detain
  him at home. After Cæsar’s murder she placed herself under the
  patronage of Marcus Antony. _Suetonius_, _Julius_.

=Calphurnius Bestia=, a noble Roman bribed by Jugurtha. It is said
  that he murdered his wives when asleep. _Pliny_, bk. 27, ch. 2.
  ――――Crassus, a patrician who went with Regulus against the Massyli.
  He was seized by the enemy as he attempted to plunder one of their
  towns, and he was ordered to be sacrificed to Neptune. Bisaltia the
  king’s daughter fell in love with him, and gave him an opportunity
  of escaping and conquering her father. Calphurnius returned
  victorious, and Bisaltia destroyed herself.――――A man who conspired
  against the emperor Nerva.――――Galerianus, son of Piso, put to death,
  &c. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 4, ch. 11.――――Piso, condemned for
  using seditious words against Tiberius. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk.
  4, ch. 21.――――Another, famous for his abstinence. _Valerius Maximus_,
  bk. 4, ch. 3.――――Titus, a Latin poet, born in Sicily in the age
  of Diocletian, seven of whose eclogues are extant, and generally
  found with the works of the poets who have written on hunting.
  Though abounding in many beautiful lines, they are, however, greatly
  inferior to the elegance and simplicity of Virgil. The best edition
  is that of Kempher, 4to, Leiden, 1728.――――A man surnamed Frugi, who
  composed annals, B.C. 130.

=Calpurnia=, or =Calphurnia=, a noble family in Rome, derived from
  Calpus son of Numa. It branched into the families of the Pisones,
  Bibuli, Flammæ, Cæsennini, Asprenates, &c. ♦_Plutarch_, _Numa_.

      ♦ ‘Pliny’ replaced with ‘Plutarch’

=Calpurnia= and =Calphurnia lex=, was enacted A.U.C. 604, severely
  to punish such as were guilty of using bribes, &c. _Cicero_, _De
  Officiis_, bk. 2.――――A daughter of Marius, sacrificed to the gods
  by her father, who was advised to do it, in a dream, if he wished
  to conquer the Cimbri. _Plutarch_, _Parallela minora_.――――A woman
  who killed herself when she heard that her husband was murdered in
  the civil wars of Marius. _Paterculus_, bk. 2, ch. 26.――――The wife
  of Julius Cæsar. _See:_ Calphurnia.――――A favourite of the emperor
  Claudius, &c. _Tacitus_, _Annals_.――――A woman ruined by Agrippina
  on account of her beauty, &c. _Tacitus._

=Calvia=, a female minister of Nero’s lusts. _Tacitus_, _Histories_,
  bk. 1, ch. 3.

=Calvīna=, a prostitute in Juvenal’s age. Bk. 3, li. 133.

=Calvisius=, a friend of Augustus. _Plutarch_, _Antonius_.――――An
  officer whose wife prostituted herself in his camp by night, &c.
  _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 1, ch. 48.

=Calumnia= and =Impudentia=, two deities worshipped at Athens. Calumnia
  was ingeniously represented in a painting by Apelles.

=Calusidius=, a soldier in the army of Germanicus. When this general
  wished to stab ♦himself with his own sword, Calusidius offered him
  his own, observing that it was sharper. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, bk. 1,
  ch. 35.

      ♦ ‘himslf’ replaced with ‘himself’

=Calusium=, a town of Etruria.

=Calvus Cornelius Licinius=, a famous orator, equally known for
  writing iambics. As he was both factious and satirical, he did not
  fail to excite attention by his animadversions upon Cæsar and Pompey,
  and, from his eloquence, to dispute the palm of eloquence with
  Cicero. _Cicero_, _Letters_.――_Horace_, bk. 1, satire 10, li. 19.

=Caly̆be=, a town of Thrace. _Strabo_, bk. 17.――――The mother of
  Bucolion by Laomedon. _Apollodorus_, bk. 3, ch. 12.――――An old woman,
  priestess in the temple which Juno had at Ardea. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 7, li. 419.

=Calycadnus=, a river of Cilicia.

=Caly̆ce=, a daughter of Æolus son of Helenus and Enaretta, daughter
  of Deimachus. She had Endymion king of Elis, by Æthlius the son of
  Jupiter. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 7.――_Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 1.
  ――――A Grecian girl, who fell in love with a youth called Evathlus.
  As she was unable to gain the object of her love, she threw herself
  from a precipice. This tragical story was made into a song by
  Stesichorus, and was still extant in the age of _Athenæus_, bk. 14.
  ――――A daughter of Hecaton mother of Cycnus. _Hyginus_, fable 157.

=Calydium=, a town on the Appian way.

=Calydna=, an island in the Myrtoan sea. Some suppose it to be near
  Rhodes, others near Tenedos. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, li. 205.

=Calydon=, a city of Ætolia, where Œneus the father of Meleager
  reigned. The Evenus flows through it, and it receives its name from
  Calydon the son of Ætolus. During the reign of Œneus, Diana sent
  a wild boar to ravage the country, on account of the neglect which
  had been shown to her divinity by the king. All the princes of the
  age assembled to hunt this boar, which is greatly celebrated by the
  poets, under the name of the chase of Calydon, or the Calydonian
  boar. Meleager killed the animal with his own hand, and gave the
  head to Atalanta, of whom he was enamoured. The skin of the boar was
  preserved, and was still seen in the age of Pausanias, in the temple
  of Minerva Alea. The tusks were also preserved by the Arcadians in
  Tegea, and Augustus carried them away to Rome, because the people
  of Tegea had followed the party of Antony. These tusks were shown
  for a long time at Rome. One of them was about half an ell long, and
  the other was broken. _See:_ Meleager and Atalanta. _Apollodorus_,
  bk. 1, ch. 8.――_Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 45.――_Strabo_, bk. 8.
  ――_Homer_, ♦_Iliad_, bk. 9, li. 577.――_Hyginus_, fable 174.――_Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 8, fable 4, &c.――――A son of Ætolus and Pronoe
  daughter of Phorbas. He gave his name to a town of Ætolia.

      ♦ Book reference omitted in text.

=Caly̆dōnis=, a name of Deianira, as living in Calydon. _Ovid_,
  _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9, fable 4.

=Caly̆dōnius=, a surname of Bacchus.

=Calymne=, an island near Lebynthos. _Ovid_, _Ars Amatoria_, bk. 2,
  li. 81.

=Calynda=, a town of Caria. _Ptolemy_, bk. 5, ch. 3.

=Calȳpso=, one of the Oceanides, or one of the daughters of Atlas,
  according to some, was goddess of silence, and reigned in the island
  of Ogygia, whose situation and even existence is doubted. When
  Ulysses was shipwrecked on her coasts, she received him with great
  hospitality, and offered him immortality if he would remain with
  her as a husband. The hero refused, and after seven years’ delay,
  he was permitted to depart from the island by order of Mercury
  the messenger of Jupiter. During his stay, Ulysses had two sons by
  Calypso, Nausithous, and Nausinous. Calypso was inconsolable at the
  departure of Ulysses. _Homer_, _Odyssey_, bks. 7 & 5.――_Hesiod_,
  _Theogony_, li. 360.――_Ovid_, _ex Ponto_, bk. 4, ltr. 18; _Amores_,
  bk. 2, poem 17.――_Propertius_, bk. 1, poem 15.

=Camalodūnum=, a Roman colony in Britain, supposed Malden, or

=Camantium=, a town of Asia Minor.

=Camarīna=, a town of Italy.――――A lake of Sicily, with a town of the
  same name, built B.C. 552. It was destroyed by the Syracusans, and
  rebuilt by a certain Hipponous. The lake was drained, contrary to
  the advice of Apollo, as the ancients supposed, and a pestilence
  was the consequence; but the lowness of the lake below the level of
  the sea prevents it being drained. The words _Camarinam movere_ are
  become proverbial to express an unsuccessful and dangerous attempt.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 3, li. 701.――_Strabo_, bk. 6.――_Herodotus_,
  bk. 7, ch. 134.

=Cambaules=, a general of some Gauls who invaded Greece. _Pausanias_,
  bk. 10, ch. 19.

=Cambes=, a prince of Lydia, of such voracious appetite that he ate
  his own wife, &c. _Ælian_, bk. 1, _Varia Historia_, ch. 27.

=Cambre=, a place near Puteoli. _Juvenal_, satire 7, li. 154.

=Cambunii=, mountains of Macedonia. _Livy_, bk. 4, ch. 53.

=Camby̆ses=, a king of Persia, was son of Cyrus the Great. He conquered
  Egypt, and was so offended at the superstition of the Egyptians,
  that he killed their god Apis, and plundered their temples. When
  he wished to take Pelusium, he placed at the head of his army a
  number of cats and dogs; and the Egyptians refusing, in the attempt
  to defend themselves, to kill animals which they reverenced as
  divinities, became an easy prey to the enemy. Cambyses afterwards
  sent an army of 50,000 men to destroy Jupiter Ammon’s temple, and
  resolved to attack the Carthaginians and Æthiopians. He killed his
  brother Smerdis from mere suspicion, and flayed alive a partial
  judge, whose skin he nailed on the judgment seat, and appointed his
  son to succeed him, telling him to remember where he sat. He died
  of a small wound he had given himself with his sword as he mounted
  on horseback; and the Egyptians observed that it was the same
  place on which he had wounded their god Apis, and that therefore he
  was visited by the hand of the gods. His death happened 521 years
  before the birth of Christ. He left no issue to succeed him, and his
  throne was usurped by the magi, and ascended by Darius soon after.
  _Herodotus_, bks. 2, 3, &c.――_Justin_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――_Valerius
  Maximus_, bk. 6, ch. 3.――――A person of obscure origin, to whom king
  Astyages gave his daughter Mandane in marriage. The king, who had
  been terrified by dreams which threatened the loss of his crown by
  the hand of his daughter’s son, had taken this step in hopes that
  the children of so ignoble a bed would ever remain in obscurity.
  He was disappointed. Cyrus, Mandane’s son, dethroned him when grown
  to manhood. _Herodotus_, bk. 1, chs. 46, 107, &c.――_Justin_, bk. 1,
  ch. 4.――――A river of Asia, which flows from mount Caucasus into the
  Cyrus. _Mela_, bk. 3, ch. 5.

=Camelāni=, a people of Italy.

=Camelītæ=, a people of Mesopotamia.

=Camera=, a field of Calabria. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 3, li. 582.

♦=Camerīnum= and =Camertium=, a town of Umbria, very faithful to Rome.
  The inhabitants were called Camertes. _Livy_, bk. 9, ch. 36.

      ♦ ‘Camernīum’ replaced with ‘Camerīnum’

=Camerīnus=, a Latin poet who wrote a poem on the taking of Troy by
  Hercules. _Ovid_, bk. 4, _ex Ponto_, poem 16, li. 19.――――Some of the
  family of the Camerini were distinguished for their zeal as citizens,
  as well as for their abilities as scholars, among whom was Sulpicius,
  commissioned by the Roman senate to go to Athens, to collect the
  best of Solon’s laws. _Juvenal_, satire 7, li. 90.

=Camerium=, an ancient town of Italy near Rome, taken by Romulus.
  _Plutarch_, _Romulus_.

=Camertes=, a friend of Turnus killed by Æneas. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 10, li. 562. _See:_ Camerinum.

=Camilia=, queen of the Volsci, was daughter of Metabus and Casmilla.
  She was educated in the woods, inured to the labours of hunting, and
  fed upon the milk of mares. Her father devoted her, when young, to
  the service of Diana. When she was declared queen, she marched at
  the head of an army, and accompanied by three youthful females of
  equal courage as herself, to assist Turnus against Æneas, where she
  signalized herself by the numbers that perished by her hand. She
  was so swift that she could run, or rather fly, over a field of corn
  without bending the blades, and make her way over the sea without
  wetting her feet. She died by a wound which she had received from
  Aruns. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 803; bk. 11, li. 435.

=Camilli= and =Camillæ=, the priests instituted by Romulus for the
  service of the gods.

=Camillus Lucius Furius=, a celebrated Roman, called a second Romulus,
  from his services to his country. He was banished by the people,
  for distributing, contrary to his vow, the spoils he had obtained at
  Veii. During his exile, Rome was besieged by the Gauls under Brennus.
  In the midst of their misfortunes, the besieged Romans elected him
  dictator, and he forgot their ingratitude, and marched to the relief
  of his country, which he delivered, after it had been for some time
  in the possession of the enemy. He died in the 80th year of his
  age, B.C. 365, after he had been five times dictator, once censor,
  three times interrex, twice a military tribune, and obtained four
  triumphs. He conquered the Hernici, Volsci, Latini, and Etrurians,
  and dissuaded his countrymen from their intentions of leaving Rome
  to reside at Veii. When he besieged Falisci, he rejected, with
  proper indignation, the offers of a schoolmaster, who had betrayed
  into his hands the sons of the most worthy citizens. _Plutarch_,
  _Lives of the Roman Emperors_.――_Livy_, bk. 5.――_Florus_, bk. 1, ch.
  13.――_Diodorus_, bk. 14.――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 825.――――A
  name of Mercury.――――An intimate friend of Cicero.

=Camīro= and =Clytia=, two daughters of Pandarus of Crete. When their
  parents were dead, they were left to the care of Venus; who, with
  the other goddesses, brought them up with tenderness, and asked
  Jupiter to grant them kind husbands. Jupiter, to punish upon them
  the crime of their father, who was accessary to the impiety of
  Tantalus, ordered the harpies to carry them away and deliver them to
  the furies. _Pausanias_, bk. 10, ch. 30.――_Homer_, _Odyssey_, bk. 20,
  li. 66.

=Camīrus= and =Camīra=, a town of Rhodes, which received its name
  from Camirus, a son of Hercules and Iole. _Homer_, _Iliad_, bk. 2,
  li. 163.

=Camissares=, a governor of part of Cilicia, father to Datames.
  _Cornelius Nepos_, _Datames_.

=Camma=, a woman of Calatia, who avenged the death of her husband
  Sinetus upon his murderer Sinorix, by making him drink in a cup, of
  which the liquor was poisoned, on pretence of marrying him, according
  to the custom of their country, which required that the bridegroom
  and his bride should drink out of the same vessel. She escaped by
  refusing to drink on pretence of illness. _Polyænus_, bk. 8.

=Camœnæ=, a name given to the muses from the sweetness and melody of
  their songs, _à cantu amæno_, or, according to Varro, from _carmen_.
  _Varro_, _de Lingua Latina_, bk. 5, ch. 7.

=Campāna lex=, or Julian agrarian law, was enacted by Julius Cæsar,
  A.U.C. 691, to divide some lands among the people.

=Campānia=, a country of Italy, of which Capua was the capital, bounded
  by Latium, Samnium, Picenum, and part of the Mediterranean sea. It
  is celebrated for its delightful views, and for its fertility. Capua
  is often called _Campana urbs_. _Strabo_, bk. 5.――_Cicero_, _On
  the Agrarian Law_, ch. 35.――_Justin_, bk. 20, ch. 1; bk. 22, ch. 1.
  ――_Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 5.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――_Florus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 16.

=Campe=, kept the 100 handed monsters confined in Tartarus. Jupiter
  killed her, because she refused to give them their liberty to come
  to his assistance against the Titans. _Hesiod_, _Theogony_, li. 500.
  ――_Apollodorus_, bk. 1, ch. 2.

=Campaspe=, or =Pancaste=, a beautiful concubine of Alexander, whom
  the king gave to Apelles, who had fallen in love with her, as
  he drew her picture in her naked charms. It is said that from
  this beauty the painter copied the thousand charms of his Venus
  Anadyomene. _Pliny_, bk. 35, ch. 10.

=Campi Diomēdis=, a plain situate in Apulia. _Martial_, bk. 13, ltr. 93.

=Campsa=, a town near Pallene. _Herodotus_, bk. 7, ch. 123.

=Campus Martius=, a large plain at Rome, without the walls of the
  city, where the Roman youths performed their exercises, and learnt to
  wrestle and box, to throw the discus, hurl the javelin, ride a horse,
  drive a chariot, &c. The public assemblies were held there, and the
  officers of state chosen, and audience given to foreign ambassadors.
  It was adorned with statues, columns, arches, and porticoes, and its
  pleasant situation made it very frequented. It was called Martius
  because dedicated to Mars. It was sometimes called Tiberinus, from
  its closeness to the Tiber. It was given to the Roman people by a
  vestal virgin; but they were deprived of it by Tarquin the Proud,
  who made it a private field, and sowed corn in it. When Tarquin
  was driven from Rome the people recovered it, and threw away into
  the Tiber the corn which had grown there, deeming it unlawful
  for any man to eat of the produce of that land. The sheaves which
  were thrown into the river stopped in a shallow ford, and by the
  accumulated collection of mud became firm ground, and formed an
  island, which was called the Holy Island, or the island of Æsculapius.
  Dead carcases were generally burnt in the Campus Martius. _Strabo_,
  bk. 5.――_Livy_, bk. 2, ch. 5; bk. 6, ch. 20.

=Camulogīnus=, a Gaul raised to great honours by Cæsar, for his
  military abilities. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 7, ch. 57.

=Camŭlus=, a surname of Mars among the Sabines and Etrurians.

=Cana=, a city and promontory of Æolia. _Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 18.

=Canăce=, a daughter of Æolus and Enaretta, who became enamoured of
  her brother Macareus, by whom she had a child, whom she exposed. The
  cries of the child discovered the mother’s incest; and Æolus sent
  his daughter a sword, and obliged her to kill herself. Macareus fled,
  and became a priest of Apollo at Delphi. Some say that Canace was
  ravished by Neptune, by whom she had many children, among whom were
  Epopeus, Triops, and Alous. _Apollodorus_, bk. 1.――_Hyginus_, fables
  238 & 242.――_Ovid_, _Heroides_, poem 11; _Tristia_, bk. 2, li. 384.

=Canăche=, one of Actæon’s dogs.

=Canăchus=, a statuary of Sicyon. _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 9.

=Canæ=, a city of Locris,――――of Æolia.

=Canārii=, a people near mount Atlas in Africa, who received this name
  because they fed in common with their dogs. The islands which they
  inhabited were called _Fortunate_ by the ancients, and are now known
  by the name of the _Canaries_. _Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 1.

=Canăthus=, a fountain of Nauplia, where Juno yearly washed herself to
  recover her infant purity. _Pausanias_, bk. 2, ch. 38.

=Candăce=, a queen of Æthiopia, in the age of Augustus, so prudent and
  meritorious that her successors always bore her name. She was blind
  of one eye. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 22.――_Dio Cassius_, bk. 54.――_Strabo_,
  bk. 17.

=Candāvia=, a mountain of Epirus, which separates Illyria from
  Macedonia. _Lucan_, bk. 6, li. 331.

=Candaules=, or =Myrsilus=, son of Myrsus, was the last of the
  Heraclidæ who sat on the throne of Lydia. He showed his wife naked
  to Gyges, one of his ministers; and the queen was so incensed,
  that she ordered Gyges to murder her husband, 718 years before
  the christian era. After this murder, Gyges married the queen and
  ascended the throne. _Justin_, bk. 1, ch. 7.――_Herodotus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 7, &c.――_Plutarch_, _Convivium Septem Sapientium_.

=Candēi=, a people of Arabia who fed on serpents.

=Candiŏpe=, a daughter of Œnopion, ravished by her brother.

=Candy̆ba=, a town of Lycia.

=Canens=, a nymph called also Venilia, daughter of Janus and wife
  to Picus king of the Laurentes. When Circe had changed her husband
  into a bird, she lamented him so much, that she pined away, and was
  changed into a voice. She was reckoned as a deity by the inhabitants.
  _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 14, fable 9.

=Canephŏria=, festivals at Athens in honour of Bacchus, or, according
  to others, of Diana, in which all marriageable women offered small
  baskets to the deity, and received the name of _Canephoræ_, whence
  statues representing women in that attitude were called by the same
  appellation. _Cicero_, _Against Verres_, bk. 4.

=Canethum=, a place of Eubœa.――――A mountain in Bœotia.

=Căniculāres dies=, certain days in the summer, in which the star
  Canis is said to influence the season, and to make the days more
  warm during its appearance. _Marcus Manilius._

=Cānĭdia=, a certain woman of Neapolis, against whom Horace inveighed
  as a sorceress. _Horace_, _Epodes_.

=Canĭdius=, a tribune, who proposed a law to empower Pompey to go
  only with two lictors, to reconcile Ptolemy and the Alexandrians.
  _Plutarch_, _Pompey_.

=Caninefātes=, a people near Batavia, where modern Holland now is
  situate. _Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 4, ch. 15.

=Caius Caninius Rebilus=, a consul with Julius Cæsar, after the
  death of Trebonius. He was consul only for seven hours, because his
  predecessor died the last day of the year, and he was chosen only
  for the remaining part of the day; whence Cicero observed, that
  Rome was greatly indebted to him for his vigilance, as he had not
  slept during the whole time of his consulship. _Cicero_, bk. 7,
  _Letters to his Friends_, ltr. 33.――_Plutarch_, _Cæsar_.――――Lucius,
  a lieutenant of Cæsar’s army in Gaul. _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_, bk. 7,
  ch. 83.――――Rufus, a friend of Pliny the younger. _Pliny_, bk. 1,
  ltr. 3.――――Gallus, an intimate friend of Cicero.

=Canistius=, a Lacedæmonian courier, who ran 1200 stadia in one day.
  _Pliny_, bk. 7, ch. 20.

=Canius=, a poet of Gades, contemporary with Martial. He was so
  naturally merry that he always laughed. _Martial_, bk. 1, ltr. 62.
  ――――A Roman knight who went to Sicily for his amusement, where he
  bought gardens well stocked with fish, which disappeared on the
  morrow. _Cicero_, bk. 3, _de Officiis_, ch. 14.

=Cannæ=, a small village of Apulia near the Aufidus, where Hannibal
  conquered the Roman consuls, Probus Æmylius and Terentius Varro, and
  slaughtered 40,000 Romans, on the 21st of May, B.C. 216. The spot
  where this famous battle was fought is now shown by the natives, and
  denominated the field of blood. _Livy_, bk. 22, ch. 44.――_Florus_,
  bk. 2, ch. 6.――_Plutarch_, _Life of Hannibal_.

=Canōpicum ostium=, one of the mouths of the Nile, 12 miles from
  Alexandria. _Pausanias_, bk. 5, ch. 21.

=Cănōpus=, a city of Egypt, 12 miles from Alexandria, celebrated for
  the temple of Serapis. It was founded by the Spartans, and therefore
  called Amyclæa, and it received its name from Canopus the pilot of
  the vessel of Menelaus, who was buried in this place. The inhabitants
  were dissolute in their manners. Virgil bestows upon it the epithet
  of _Pellæus_, because Alexander, who was born at Pella, built
  Alexandria in the neighbourhood. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 11, li. 433.
  ――_Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 9.――_Strabo_, bk. 17.――_Pliny_, bk. 5, ch. 31.
  ――_Virgil_, _Georgics_ bk. 4, li. 287.――――The pilot of the ship of
  Menelaus, who died in his youth on the coast of Egypt, by the bite
  of a serpent. _Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 7.

=Cantăbra=, a river falling into the Indus. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 20.

=Cantăbri=, a ferocious and warlike people of Spain, who rebelled
  against Augustus, by whom they were conquered. Their country is now
  called Biscay. _Silius Italicus_, bk. 3, li. 326.――_Horace_, bk. 2,
  odes 6 & 11.

=Cantăbriæ lacus=, a lake in Spain, where a thunderbolt fell, and in
  which 12 axes were found. _Suetonius_, _Galba_, ch. 8.

=Canthărus=, a famous sculptor of Sicyon. _Pausanias_, bk. 6, ch. 17.
  ――――A comic poet of Athens.

=Canthus=, a son of Abas, one of the Argonauts.

=Cantium=, a country in the eastern parts of Britain, now called Kent.
  _Cæsar_, _Gallic War_ bk. 5.

=Canuleia=, one of the first vestals chosen by Numa. _Plutarch._――――A
  law. _See:_ Canuleius.

=Caius Canuleius=, a tribune of the people of Rome, A.U.C. 310,
  who made a law to render it constitutional for the patricians and
  plebeians to intermarry. It ordained also, that one of the consuls
  should be yearly chosen from the plebeians. _Livy_, bk. 4, ch. 3,
  &c.――_Florus_, bk. 1, ch. 17.

=Canulia=, a Roman virgin, who became pregnant by her brother, and
  killed herself by order of her father. _Plutarch_, _Parallela

=Canŭsium=, now _Canosa_, a town of Apulia, whither the Romans
  fled after the battle of Cannæ. It was built by Diomedes, and its
  inhabitants have been called _bilingues_, because they retained
  the language of their founder and likewise adopted that of their
  neighbours. Horace complained of the grittiness of their bread. The
  wools and the cloths of the place were in high estimation. _Horace_,
  bk. 1, satire 10, li. 30.――_Mela_, bk. 2, ch. 4.――_Pliny_, bk. 8,
  ch. 11.

=Canŭsius=, a Greek historian under Ptolemy Auletes. _Plutarch._

=Canutius Tiberinus=, a tribune of the people, who, like Cicero,
  furiously attacked Antony, when declared an enemy to the state. His
  satire cost him his life. _Paterculus_, bk. 2, ch. 64.――――A Roman
  actor. _Plutarch_, _Brutus_.

=Căpăneus=, a noble Argive, son of Hipponous and Astinome, and husband
  to Evadne. He was so impious, that when he went to the Theban war,
  he declared that he would take Thebes even in spite of Jupiter. Such
  contempt provoked the god, who struck him dead with a thunderbolt.
  His body was burnt separately from the others, and his wife threw
  herself on the burning pile to mingle her ashes with his. It is said
  that Æsculapius restored him to life. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 9,
  li. 404.――_Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 3, &c.――_Hyginus_, fables 68 &
  70.――_Euripides_, _Phœnician Women_ & _Suppliants_.――_Aeschylus_,
  _Seven Against Thebes_.

=Capella=, an elegiac poet in the age of Julius Cæsar. _Ovid_,
  _ex Ponto_, bk. 4, poem 16, li. 36.――――Martianus, a Carthaginian,
  A.D. 490, who wrote a poem on the marriage of Mercury and philology,
  and in praise of the liberal arts. The best edition is that of
  Walthardus, 8vo, Bernæ, 1763.――――A gladiator. _Juvenal_, satire 4,
  li. 155.

=Capēna=, a gate of Rome. _Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 5, li. 192.

=Capēnas=, a small river of Italy. _Statius_, _Thebiad_, bk. 13,
  li. 85.

=Capēni=, a people of Etruria, in whose territory Feronia had a grove
  and a temple. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 7, li. 697.――_Livy_, bks. 5, 22,

=Caper=, a river of Asia Minor.

=Capētus=, a king of Alba, who reigned 26 years. _Dionysius of
  Halicarnassus._――――A suitor of Hippodamia. _Pausanias_, bk. 6,
  ch. 21.

=Caphāreus=, a lofty mountain and promontory of Eubœa, where Nauplius
  king of the country, to revenge the death of his son Palamedes,
  slain by Ulysses, set a burning torch in the darkness of night,
  which caused the Greeks to be shipwrecked on the coast. _Virgil_,
  _Æneid_, bk. 11, li. 260.――_Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 14, li. 481.
  ――_Propertius_, bk. 4, poem 1, li. 115.

=Caphyæ=, a town of Arcadia. _Pausanias_, bk. 8, ch. 23.

=Capio=, a Roman, famous for his friendship with Cato. _Plutarch_,
  ♦_de Pat. Am_.

      ♦ reference unknown

=Capĭto=, the uncle of Paterculus, who joined Agrippa against Crassus.
  _Paterculus_, bk. 2, ch. 69.――――Fonteius, a man sent by Antony
  to settle his disputes with Augustus. _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 5,
  li. 32.――――A man accused of extortion in Cilicia, and severely
  punished by the senate. _Juvenal_, satire 8, li. 93.――――An epic
  poet of Alexandria, who wrote on love.――――An historian of Lycia,
  who wrote an account of Isauria in eight books.――――A poet who wrote
  on illustrious men.

=Capĭtolīni ludi=, games yearly celebrated at Rome in honour of
  Jupiter, who preserved the capitol from the Gauls.

=Capĭtolīnus=, a surname of Jupiter, from his temple on mount
  Capitolinus.――――A surname of Marcus Manlius, who, for his ambition,
  was thrown down from the Tarpeian rock which he had so nobly
  defended.――――A mountain at Rome, called also Mons Tarpeius, and
  Mons Saturni. The Capitol was built upon it.――――A man of lascivious
  morals, consul with Marcellus. _Plutarch_, _Marcellus_.――――Julius,
  an author in Diocletian’s reign, who wrote an account of the life of
  Verus, Antoninus Pius, the Gordians, &c., most of which are now lost.

=Capĭtōlium=, a celebrated temple and citadel at Rome on the Tarpeian
  rock, the plan of which was made by Tarquin Priscus. It was begun
  by Servius Tullius, finished by Tarquin Superbus, and consecrated by
  the consul Horatius after the expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome.
  It was built upon four acres of ground, the front was adorned with
  three rows of pillars, and the other sides with two. The ascent to
  it from the ground was by 100 steps. The magnificence and richness
  of this temple are almost incredible. All the consuls successively
  made donations to the capitol, and Augustus bestowed upon it at one
  time 2000 pounds weight of gold. Its thresholds were made of brass,
  and its roof was gold. It was adorned with vessels and shields
  of solid silver, with golden chariots, &c. It was burnt during
  the civil war of Marius, and Sylla rebuilt it, but died before
  the dedication, which was performed by Quintus Catulus. It was
  again destroyed in the troubles under Vitellius; and Vespasian,
  who endeavoured to repair it, saw it again in ruins at his death.
  Domitian raised it again, for the last time, and made it more grand
  and magnificent than any of his predecessors, and spent 12,000
  talents in gilding it. When they first dug for the foundations, they
  found a man’s head called Tolius, sound and entire in the ground,
  and from thence drew an omen of the future greatness of the Roman
  empire. The hill was from that circumstance called Capitolium, _a
  capite Toli_. The consuls and magistrates offered sacrifices there,
  when they first entered upon their offices, and the procession in
  triumphs was always conducted to the capitol. _Virgil_, _Æneid_,
  bk. 6, li. 136; bk. 8, li. 347.――_Tacitus_, _Histories_, bk. 3,
  ch. 72.――_Plutarch_, _Publicola_.――_Livy_, bks. 1, 10, &c.――_Pliny_,
  bk. 33, &c.――_Suetonius_, _Augustus_, ch. 40.

=Cappădŏcia=, a country of Asia Minor, between the Halys, the
  Euphrates, and the Euxine. It receives its name from the river
  Cappadox, which separates it from Galatia. The inhabitants were
  called Syrians and Leuco-Syrians by the Greeks. They were of a dull
  and submissive disposition, and addicted to every vice, according to
  the ancients, who wrote this virulent epigram against them:

             Vipera Cappadocem nocitura momordit; at illa
                  Gustato periit sanguine Cappadocis.

  When they were offered their freedom and independence by the
  Romans, they refused it, and begged of them a king, and they
  received Ariobarzanes. It was some time after governed by a Roman
  proconsul. Though the ancients have ridiculed this country for the
  unfruitfulness of its soil, and the manners of its inhabitants, yet
  it can boast of the birth of the geographer Strabo, St. Basil, and
  Gregory Nazianzen, among other illustrious characters. The horses of
  this country were in general esteem, and with these they paid their
  tributes to the king of Persia, while under his power, for want of
  money. The kings of Cappadocia mostly bore the name of Ariarathes.
  _Horace_, bk. 1, ltr. 6, li. 39.――_Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 3.――_Curtius_,
  bks. 3 & 4.――_Strabo_, bks. 11 & 16.――_Herodotus_, bk. 1, ch. 73;
  bk. 5, ch. 49.――_Mela_, bk. 1, ch. 2; bk. 3, ch. 8.

=Cappădox=, a river of Cappadocia. _Pliny_, bk. 6, ch. 3.

=Caprăria=, now _Cabrera_, a mountainous island on the coast of Spain,
  famous for its goats. _Pliny_, bk. 3, ch. 6.

=Căpreæ=, now _Capri_, an island on the coast of Campania, abounding
  in quails, and famous for the residence and debaucheries of the
  emperor Tiberius, during the seven last years of his life. The
  island, in which now several medals are dug up expressive of the
  licentious morals of the emperor, is about 40 miles in circumference,
  and surrounded by steep rocks. _Ovid_, _Metamorphoses_, bk. 15,
  li. 709.――_Suetonius_, _Tiberius_.――_Statius_, _Sylvæ_, bk. 3, li. 5.

=Capræa Palus=, a place near Rome where Romulus disappeared.
  _Plutarch_, _Romulus_.――_Ovid_, _Fasti_, bk. 2, li. 491.

=Capricornus=, a sign of the zodiac, in which appear 28 stars in the
  form of a goat, supposed by the ancients to be the goat Amalthæa,
  which fed Jupiter with her milk. Some maintain that it is Pan,
  who changed himself into a goat when frightened at the approach of
  Typhon. When the sun enters this sign it is the winter solstice,
  or the longest night in the year. _Marcus Manilius_, bks. 2 & 4.
  ――_Horace_, bk. 2, ode 17, li. 19.――_Hyginus_, fable 196; _Poetica
  Astronomica_, bk. 2, ch. 28.

=Caprificiālis=, a day sacred to Vulcan, on which the Athenians offered
  him money. _Pliny_, bk. 11, ch. 15.

=Caprīma=, a town of Caria.

=Caprĭpĕdes=, a surname of Pan, the Fauni and the Satyrs, from their
  having goats’ feet.

=Caprias=, a great informer in Horace’s age. _Horace_, bk. 1, satire 4,
  li. 66.

=Caprotīna=, a festival celebrated at Rome in July in honour of Juno,
  at which women only officiated. _See:_ Philotis. _Varro_, _de Lingua
  Latina_, bk. 5.

=Caprus=, a harbour near mount Athos.

=Capsa=, a town of Libya, surrounded by vast deserts full of snakes.
  _Florus_, bk. 3, ch. 1.――_Sallust_, _Jugurthine War_.

=Capsăge=, a town of Syria. _Curtius_, bk. 10.

=Căpua=, the chief city of Campania in Italy, supposed to have been
  founded by Capys, the father, or rather the companion, of Anchises.
  This city was very ancient, and so opulent that it even rivalled
  Rome, and was called _altera Roma_. The soldiers of Annibal, after
  the battle of Cannæ, were enervated by the pleasures and luxuries
  which powerfully prevailed in this voluptuous city and under a soft
  climate. _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 145.――_Livy_, bks. 4, 7, 8,
  &c.――_Paterculus_, bk. 1, ch. 7; bk. 2, ch. 44.――_Florus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 16.――_Cicero_, _Philippics_, bk. 12, ch. 3.――_Plutarch_, _Life
  of Hannibal_.

=Capys=, a Trojan, who came with Æneas into Italy, and founded Capua.
  He was one of those who, against the advice of Thymœtes, wished
  to destroy the wooden horse, which proved the destruction of Troy.
  _Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 10, li. 145.――――A son of Assaracus by a
  daughter of the Simois. He was father of Anchises by Themis. _Ovid_,
  _Fasti_, bk. 4, li. 33.

=Capys Sylvius=, a king of Alba, who reigned 28 years. _Dionysius of
  Halicarnassus._――_Virgil_, _Æneid_, bk. 6, li. 768.

=Car=, a son of Phoroneus king of Megara. _Pausanias_, bk. 1, chs. 39
  & 40.――――A son of Manes, who married Callirhoe daughter of the
  Mæander. Caria received its name from him. _Herodotus_, bk. 1,
  ch. 171.

=Carabactra=, a place in India.

=Carabis=, a town of Spain.

=Carăcalla.= _See:_ Antonius.

=Caracates=, a people of Germany.

=Caractăcus=, a king of the Britons, conquered by an officer of
  Claudius Cæsar, A.D. 47. _Tacitus_, _Annals_, ♦bk. 12, chs. 33 & 37.

      ♦ ‘c. 12, 33,’ replaced with ‘12, chs. 33,’

=Caræ=, certain places between Susa and the Tigris, where Alexander
  pitched his camp.

=Caræus=, a surname of Jupiter in Bœotia,――――in Caria.

=Carălis= (or es, ium), the chief city of Sardinia, _Pausanias_,
  bk. 10, ch. 17.

=Carambis=, now _Kerempi_, a promontory of Paphlagonia. _Mela_, bk. 1,
  ch. 19.

=Carānus=, one of the Heraclidæ, the first who laid the foundation
  of the Macedonian empire, B.C. 814. He took Edessa, and reigned
  28 years, which he spent in establishing and strengthening the
  government of his newly founded kingdom. He was succeeded by
  Perdiccas. _Justin_, bk. 7, ch. 1.――_Paterculus_, bk. 1, ch. 6.――――A
  general of Alexander. _Curtius_, bk. 7.――――A harbour of Phœnicia.

=Carausius=, a tyrant of Britain for seven years, A.D. 293.

=Carro=, a Roman orator, who killed himself because he could not
  curb the licentious manners of his countrymen. _Cicero_, _Brutus_.
  ――――Cneus, a son of the orator Carbo, who embraced the party of
  Marius, and after the death of Cinna succeeded to the government.
  He was killed in Spain in his third consulship, by order of Pompey.
  _Valerius Maximus_, bk. 9, ch. 13.――――An orator, son of Carbo the
  orator, killed by the army when desirous of re-establishing the
  ancient military discipline. _Cicero_, _Brutus_.

=Carchēdon=, the Greek name of Carthage.

=Carcīnus=, a tragic poet of Agrigentum, in the age of Philip of
  Macedon. He wrote on the rape of Proserpine. _Diodorus_, bk. 5.
  ――――Another of Athens.――――Another of Naupactum.――――A man of Rhegium,
  who exposed his son Agathocles on account of some uncommon dreams
  during his wife’s pregnancy. Agathocles was preserved. _Diodorus_,
  bk. 19.――――An Athenia