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Title: A dictionary of place-names giving their derivations
Author: Blackie, Christina
Language: English
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                       DICTIONARY OF PLACE-NAMES

                       _GEOGRAPHICAL ETYMOLOGY_

                             A DICTIONARY



                       GIVING THEIR DERIVATIONS

                             BY C. BLACKIE

                         WITH AN INTRODUCTION

                        BY JOHN STUART BLACKIE


                       _THIRD EDITION, REVISED_

                     JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET


The Introduction, by which the present work is ushered into public
notice, renders any lengthened Preface on my part quite unnecessary.
Yet I wish to say a few words with regard to the design and plan of
this little volume.

The subject, though no doubt possessing a peculiar interest to the
general reader, and especially to tourists in these travelling
days, falls naturally under the head of historical and geographical
instruction in schools; and for such use the book is, in the first
place, specially intended.

When I was myself one of a class in this city where Geography and
History were taught, no information connected with etymology was
imparted to us. We learned, with more or less trouble and edification,
the names of countries, towns, etc., by rote; but our teacher did not
ask us who gave the names to these places, nor were we expected to
inquire or to know if there was any connection between their names
and their histories. Things are changed now; and I believe the first
stimulus to an awakening interest in Geographical Etymology was given
by the publication of the Rev. Isaac Taylor’s popular work, _Words
and Places_. About ten years ago, I found that the best teachers in
the English schools of Edinburgh did ask questions on this subject,
and I discovered, at the same time, that a book specially bearing
upon it was a desideratum in school literature. As no one better
qualified came forward, I was induced to make the attempt; and I hope
the following pages, the result of much research and in the face of no
small discouragement, may prove useful to teachers, as well as to their

The Index at the end of the volume, although it contains many names not
included in the body of the work, does by no means include all that I
have given there. This did not seem necessary, because, the root words
being alphabetically arranged, an intelligent teacher or pupil will
easily find the key to the explanation of any special name by referring
to the head under which it is naturally classed. I must, however,
premise that, with regard to names derived from the Celtic languages,
the root word is generally placed at the beginning of the name--that
is, if it contain more than one syllable. This is the case with such
vocables as _pen_, _ben_, _dun_, _lis_, _rath_, _strath_, etc.; _e.g._
Lismore, Benmore, Dungarvan, Strath-Allan. On the other hand, in names
derived from the Teutonic or Scandinavian languages, the root word
comes last, as will be found with regard to _ton_, _dale_, _burg_,
_berg_, _stadt_, _dorf_, _ford_, etc.

The index, therefore, may be expected to include principally such names
as, either through corruption or abbreviation, have materially changed
their form, such as are formed from the simple root, like Fürth, Ennis,
Delft, or such as contain more than one, as in Portrush, it being
uncertain under which head I may have placed such names. Along with the
root words, called by the Germans _Grundwörter_, I have given a number
of defining words (_Bestimmungswörter_)--such adjectives as express
variety in colour, form, size, etc.

It is to be regretted that many names have necessarily been omitted
from ignorance or uncertainty with regard to their derivation. This
is the case, unfortunately, with several well-known and important
towns--Glasgow, Berlin, Berne, Madrid, Paisley, etc. With regard to
these and many others, I shall be glad to receive reliable information.

And now it only remains for me to express my obligations to the
gentlemen who have kindly assisted me in this work, premising that,
in the departments which they have revised, the credit of success is
due mainly to them; while I reserve to myself any blame which may be
deservedly attached to failures or omissions. The Celtic portion of
my proof-sheets has been revised by Dr. Skene, the well-known Celtic
scholar of this city, and by Dr. Joyce, author of _Irish Names of
Places_. I have also to thank the Rev. Isaac Taylor, author of _Words
and Places_, for the help and encouragement which he has given me
from time to time; and Mr. Paterson, author of the _Magyars_, for
valuable information which I received from him regarding the topography
of Hungary. I appreciate the assistance given me by these gentlemen
the more, that it did not proceed from personal friendship, as I was
an entire stranger to all of them. It was the kindness and courtesy
of the stronger and more learned to one weaker and less gifted than
themselves; and I beg they may receive my grateful thanks, along with
the little volume which has been so much their debtor.

                                                              C. B.

   EDINBURGH, _July 1887_.


Among the branches of human speculation that, in recent times, have
walked out of the misty realm of conjecture into the firm land of
science, and from the silent chamber of the student into the breezy
fields of public life, there are few more interesting than Etymology.
For as words are the common counters, or coins rather, with which we
mark our points in all the business and all the sport of life, any man
whose curiosity has not been blunted by familiarity, will naturally
find a pleasure in understanding what the image and superscription on
these markers mean; and amongst words there are none that so powerfully
stimulate this curiosity as the names of persons and places. About
these the intelligent interest of young persons is often prominently
manifested; and it is a sad thing when parents or teachers, who should
be in a position to gratify this interest, are obliged to waive an
eager intelligence aside, and by repeated negations to repel the
curiosity which they ought to have encouraged. Geography indeed,
a subject full of interest to the young mind, has too often been
taught in such a way as neither to delight the imagination with vivid
pictures, nor to stimulate inquiry by a frequent reference to the
history of names; and this is an evil which, if found to a certain
extent in all countries, is particularly rank in Great Britain, where
the language of the country is composed of fragments of half a dozen
languages, which only the learned understand, and which, to the ear of
the many, have no more significance than if they were Hebrew or Coptic.
The composite structure of our English speech, in fact, tends to
conceal from us the natural organism of language; so that in our case,
it requires a special training to make us fully aware of the great
truth announced by Horne Tooke, that “in language there is nothing
arbitrary.” Nevertheless, the curiosity about the meaning of words,
though seldom cherished, is not easily extinguished; and, in this age
of locomotion, there are few scraps of information more grateful to
the intelligent tourist than those which relate to the significance of
topographical names. When, for instance, the London holiday-maker, in
his trip to the West Highlands, setting foot in one of Mr. Hutchinson’s
steamboats at Oban, on his way to the historic horrors of Glencoe,
finds on his larboard side a long, low island, green and treeless,
called _Lismore_, he will be pleased, no doubt, at first by simply
hearing so euphonious a word in a language that he had been taught
to believe was harsh and barbarous, but will be transported into an
altogether different region of intelligent delight when he is made to
understand that this island is wholly composed of a vein of limestone,
found only here in the midst of a wide granitic region skirted with
trap; that, by virtue of this limestone, the island, though treeless,
is more fertile than the surrounding districts; and that for this
reason it has received the Celtic designation of _Liosmor_, or the
_great garden_. Connected with this etymology, not only is the
topographical name made to speak reasonably to a reasonable being, but
it contains in its bosom a geological fact, and an œconomical issue,
bound together by a bond of association the most natural and the most
permanent. The pleasant nature of the intelligence thus awakened leads
us naturally to lament that, except to those who are born in Celtic
districts and speak the Celtic language, the significance of so many of
our most common topographical names in the most interesting districts
is practically lost; and it deserves consideration whether, in our
English and classical schools, so much at least of the original speech
of the country should not be taught as would enable the intelligent
student to know the meaning of the local names, to whose parrot-like
repetition he must otherwise be condemned.

Some of the Celtic words habitually used in the designation of
places--such as _Ben_, _Glen_, _Strath_, and _Loch_--have been
incorporated into the common English tongue; and the addition to this
stock is not very large, which would enable an intelligent traveller
to hang the points of his picturesque tour on a philological peg
that would most materially insure both their distinctness and their
permanence. Nay, more; the germ of appreciation thus begotten might
lead a sympathetic nature easily into some more serious occupation with
the old language of our country; and this might lead to a discovery
full of pleasant surprise, that in the domain of words, as of physical
growth, the brown moors, when examined, often produce flowers of the
most choice beauty with which the flush of the most cultivated gardens
cannot compete, and that a venerable branch of the old Indo-European
family of languages, generally ignored as rude and unlettered, is rich
in a popular poetry, as fervid in passion, and as healthy in hue, as
anything that Homer or Hesiod ever sang.

In the realm of etymology, as everybody now knows, before Bopp
and Grimm, and other great scholars, laid the sure foundation of
comparative philology on the principles of a philosophy, as all
true philosophy is, at once inductive and deductive, the license of
conjecture played a mad part--a part, it is only too evident, not yet
fully played out--and specially raised such a glamour of illusion
about topographical etymology, that the theme became disgusting to all
sober-minded thinkers, or ludicrous, as the humour might be. We must,
therefore, approach this subject with a more than common degree of
caution, anxious rather to be instructed in what is solid, than to be
amazed with what is ingenious. It shall be our endeavour to proceed
step by step in this matter--patiently, as with the knowledge that our
foot is on the brink of boggy ground, starting from obvious principles
given by the constitution of the human mind, and confirmed by a large
induction of unquestioned facts.

The most natural and obvious reason for naming a place so-and-so
would be to express the nature of the situation by its most striking
features, with the double view of impressing its character on the
memory, and conveying to persons who had not seen it an idea of its
peculiarity; _i.e._ the most obvious and natural topographical names
are such as contain condensed descriptions or rude verbal pictures of
the object. Thus the notion of the highest mountain in a district may
be broadly conveyed by simply calling it the _big mount_, or, according
to the order of words current in the Celtic languages, _mount big_;
which is exactly what we find in BENMORE, from _mor_, big, the name
of several of the highest mountains in the Highlands of Scotland,
specially of one in the south of Perthshire, near Killin, of another
in Mull, the highest trap mountain in Scotland, and a third in Assynt.
Again, to mark the very prominent feature of mountains elevated
considerably above the normal height, that they are covered with snow
all the year round, we find LEBANON, in the north of Palestine, named
from the Hebrew _leban_, white; MONT BLANC, in Switzerland, in the same
way from an old Teutonic word signifying the same thing, which found
its way into Italian and the other Romanesque languages, fairly ousting
the Latin _albus_; OLYMPUS, from the Greek λάμπομαι, to shine; the
SCHNEEKOPPE, in Silesia, from _schnee_, snow, and _koppe_, what we call
_kip_ in the Lowland topography of Scotland, _i.e._ a pointed hill, the
same radically as the Latin _caput_, the head. In the same fashion one
of the modern names of the ancient Mount Hermon is _Jebel-eth-Thelj_,
the snowy mountain, just as the Himalayas receive their names from the
Sanscrit _haima_ = Greek χεîμα, winter.

The most obvious characteristic of any place, whether mountain or plain
or valley, would be its shape and size, its relative situation high or
low, behind or in the front, its colour, the kind of rock or soil of
which it is composed, the climate which it enjoys, the vegetation in
which it abounds, and the animals by which it is frequented. Let us
take a few familiar examples of each of these cases; and, if we deal
more largely in illustrations from the Scottish Highlands than from
other parts of the world, it is for three sufficient reasons--because
these regions are annually visited by the greatest number of tourists;
because, from the general neglect of the Celtic languages, they stand
most in need of interpretation; and because they are most familiar--not
from book-knowledge only, but by actual inspection--to the present
writer. In the matter of size, the tourist will find at GLENELG (from
_sealg_, to hunt), in Inverness-shire, opposite Skye, where there are
two well-preserved circular forts, the twin designations of GLENMORE
and GLENBEG; that is, Glenbig and Glenlittle--a contrast constantly
occurring in the Highlands; the word _beag_, pronounced vulgarly in
Argyleshire _peek_, signifying little, evidently the same as μικ in
the Greek μικρός. As to relative situation, the root _ard_, in Latin
_arduus_, frequently occurs; not, however, to express any very high
mountain, but either a bluff fronting the sea, as in ARDNAMORCHUAN
(the rise of the great ocean, _cuan_, perhaps from ὼκεανός), or more
frequently a slight elevation on the shore of a lake, what they call
in England a _rise_, as in ARDLUI, near the head of Loch Lomond,
ARDVOIRLICH, and many others. The word _lui_, Gaelic _laogh_--the _gh_
being silent, as in the English _sigh_--signifies a calf or a fawn, and
gives name to the lofty mountain which the tourist sees on his right
hand as he winds up where the railway is now being constructed from
Dalmally to Tyndrum. Another frequent root to mark relative situation
is CUL, _behind_, Latin _culus_, French _cul_, a word which gives
name to a whole parish in Aberdeenshire, to the famous historical
site of Culross, the reputed birthplace of St. Kentigern, and many
others. This word means simply _behind the headland_, as does also
CULCHENZIE (from _ceann_, the head), at the entrance to Loch Leven and
Glencoe, which the tourist looks on with interest, as for two years
the summer residence of the noble-minded Celtic evangelist Dr. Norman
Macleod. But the most common root, marking relative situation, which
the wanderer through Celtic countries encounters is _inver_, meaning
below, or the bottom of a stream, of which _aber_ is only a syncopated
form, a variation which, small as it appears, has given rise to large
controversy and no small shedding of ink among bellicose antiquarians.
For it required only a superficial glance to observe that while _Abers_
are scattered freely over Wales, they appear scantly in Scotland, and
there with special prevalence only in the east and south-east of the
Grampians--as in ABERDEEN, ABERDOUR, ABERLEMNO in Fife, and others. On
this the eager genius of archæological discovery, ever ready to poise
a pyramid on its apex, forthwith raised the theory, that the district
of Scotland where the _Abers_ prevailed had been originally peopled by
Celts of the Cymric or Welsh type, while the region of _Invers_ marked
out the ancient seats of the pure Caledonian Celts. But this theory,
which gave great offence to some fervid Highlanders, so far as it stood
on this argument, fell to the ground the moment that some more cool
observer put his finger on half a dozen or a whole dozen of Invers, in
perfect agreement hobnobbing with the Abers, not far south of Aberdeen;
while, on the other hand, a zealous Highland colonel, now departed to a
more peaceful sphere, pointed out several Abers straggling far west and
north-west into the region of the Caledonian Canal and beyond it. But
these slippery points are wisely avoided; and there can be no doubt, on
the general principle, that relative situation has everywhere played
a prominent part in the terminology of districts. Northumberland and
Sutherland, and Cape DEAS or Cape South, in Cantire, are familiar
illustrations of this principle of nomenclature. In such cases the
name, of course, always indicates by what parties it was imposed;
Sutherland, or Southern-land, having received this appellation from the
Orkney men, who lived to the north of the Pentland Firth.

The next element that claims mention is Colour. In this domain the most
striking contrasts are black and white. In ancient Greece, a common
name for rivers was MELAS, or Black-water; one of which, that which
flows into the Malaic Gulf, has translated itself into modern Greek
as MAURO-NERO, μαûρο in the popular dialect having supplanted the
classical μἐλας; and νἐρο, as old, no doubt, as Nereus and the Nereids,
having come into its pre-Homeric rights and driven out the usurping
ὕδωρ. In the Scottish Highlands, _dubh_, _black_ or _dark_, plays, as
might be expected, a great figure in topographical nomenclature; of
this let BENMUIC DUBH, or the _mount of the black sow_, familiar to
many a Braemar deer-stalker, serve as an example; while CAIRNGORM,
the cradle of many a golden-gleaming gem, stands with its dark blue
(_gorm_) cap immediately opposite, and recalls to the classical fancy
its etymological congeners in the CYANEAN rocks, so famous in early
Greek fable. Of the contrasted epithet _white_, LEUCADIA (λευκός),
where the poetess Sappho is famed to have made her erotic leap, is a
familiar example. In the Highlands, _ban_ (fair), or _geal_ (white), is
much less familiar in topographical nomenclature than _dubh_; BUIDHE,
on the other hand (yellow), corresponding to the ξανθός of the Greeks,
is extremely common, as in LOCHBUIE at the south-east corner of Mull,
one of the few remaining scattered links of the possessions of the
Macleans, once so mighty and latterly so foolish, in those parts. Among
other colours, _glas_ (gray) is very common; so is _dearg_ (red), from
the colour of the rock, as in one of those splendid peaks that shoot
up behind the slate quarries at the west end of Glencoe. _Breac_, also
(spotted or brindled), is by no means uncommon, as in BEN VRACKIE,
prominent behind Pitlochrie, in Perthshire, in which word the initial
_b_ has been softened into a _v_ by the law of aspiration peculiar to
the Celtic languages.

There remain the two points of climate and vegetation, of which a
few examples will suffice. In Sicily, the town of SELINUS, whose
magnificence remains preserved in indelible traces upon the soil,
took its name from the wild parsley, σἐλινον, which grew plentifully
on the ground, and which appears on the coins of the city. In the
Scottish Highlands, no local name is more common than that which is
familiarly known as the designation of one of the most genuine of the
old Celtic chiefs, the head of the clan Macpherson--we mean the word
CLUNY (Gaelic _cluain_; possibly only a variety of _grün_, green),
which signifies simply a green meadow, a vision often very delightful
to a pedestrian after a long day’s tramp across brown brae and gray
fell in those parts. The abundance of oak in ancient Celtic regions,
where it is not so common now, is indicated by the frequency of the
termination _darach_ (from which DERRY, in Ireland, is corrupted;
Greek δρûς and δόρυ, as in the designation of one of the Campbells in
Argyle, AUCHIN-DARROCH, _i.e._ oak-field. The pine, _giubhas_, appears
in KINGUSSIE, pine-end, in the midst of that breezy open space which
spreads out to the north-west of the Braemar Grampians. In BEITH and
AULTBEA (birch-brook) we have _beath_, Latin _betula_, a birch-tree;
elm and ash are rare; heather, _fraoch_, especially in the designation
of islands, as EILEANFRAOCH, in Loch Awe, and another in the Sound
of Kerrera, close by Oban. Of climate we find traces in AUCHNASHEEN
(_sian_), on the open blasty road between Dingwall and Janetown,
signifying the field of wind and rain; in MEALFOURVONIE, the broad
hill of the frosty moor, composed of the three roots _maol_ (broad and
bald), _fuar_ (cold), and _mhonaid_ (upland); in BALFOUR (cold town),
and in the remarkable mountain in Assynt called CANISP, which appears
to be a corruption of _Ceann-uisge_, or Rainy-head.

Lastly, of animals: _madadh_, a fox, appears in LOCHMADDY and ARDMADDY;
_coin_, of a dog, in ACHNACHOIN, or Dog’s-field, one of the three
bloody spots that mark the butchery of the false Campbell in Glencoe;
and, throwing our glance back two thousand years, in CYNOSCEPHALÆ, or
the Dog’s-head, in Thessaly, where the sturdy Macedonian power at last
bowed in submission before the proud swoop of the Roman eagles; the
familiar cow (_baa_, Lat. _bos_) gives its name to that fair loch,
which sleeps so quietly in the bosom of beautiful Mull; while the goat,
famous also in the sad history of Athenian decline at AIGOSPOTAMI,
or the Goat’s-river, gives its name to the steepy heights of ARDGOUR
(from _gobhar_, Lat. _caper_), a fragment of the old inheritance of
the Macleans, which rise up before the traveller so majestically as he
steams northward from Ballachulish to Fort William and Banavie.

In a country composed almost entirely of mountain ridges, with
intervening hollows of various kinds, it is only natural that the
variety in the scenery, produced by the various slopes and aspects of
the elevated ground, should give rise to a descriptive nomenclature of
corresponding variety. This is especially remarkable in Gaelic; and the
tourist in the Scottish Highlands will not travel far without meeting,
in addition to the _Ben_ and _Ard_ already mentioned, the
following specific designations:--

    _Drum_--a ridge.
    _Scour_--a jagged ridge or peak.
    _Cruach_--a conical mountain.
    _Mam_--a slowly rising hill.
    _Maol_--a broad, flat, bald mountain.
    _Monagh_--an upland moor.
    _Tulloch_ or _Tilly_--a little hill, a knoll.
    _Tom_--a hillock, a mound.
    _Tor_--a hillock, a mound.
    _Bruach_--a steep slope (Scotch brae).
    _Craig_--crag, cliff.
    _Cairn_--a heap of stones.
    _Lairg_--a broad, low slope.
    _Letter_--the side of a hill near the water.
    _Croit_--a hump.
    _Clach_--a stone.
    _Lech_--a flagstone.

In the Lowlands, _pen_, _law_, _fell_, _bræ_, _hope_, _rise_, _edge_,
indicate similar varieties. Among these _pen_, as distinguished from
the northern _ben_, evidently points to a Welsh original. _Hope_ is a
curious word, which a south-country gentleman once defined to me as
“the point of the low land mounting the hill whence the top can be
seen.” Of course, if this be true, it means an elevation not very far
removed from the level ground, because, as every hill-climber knows,
the top of a huge eminence ceases to be visible the moment you get
beyond what the Greeks call the “fore-feet” of the mountain.

In the designation of the intervening hollows, or low land, the variety
of expression is naturally less striking. _Glen_ serves for almost all
varieties of a narrow Highland valley. A very narrow rent or fissured
gorge is called a _glachd_. The English word _dale_, in Gaelic _dail_,
means in that language simply a field, or flat stretch of land at the
bottom of the hills. It is to be noted, however, that this word is both
Celtic and Teutonic; but, in topographical etymology, with a difference
distinctly indicative of a twofold origin. In an inland locality where
the Scandinavians never penetrated, _Dal_ is always prefixed to the
other element of the designation, as in DALWHINNIE, DALNACARDOCH, and
DALNASPIDAL, the field of meeting, the field of the smithy, and the
field of the hospital, all in succession within a short distance on
the road between the Spey uplands and Blair Athol. On the other hand,
a postfixed _dale_, as in BORROWDALE, EASDALE, and not a few others,
indicates a Saxon or Norse origin. The word _den_ or _dean_, as in the
DEAN BRIDGE, Edinburgh, and the DEN BURN, Aberdeen, is Anglo-Saxon
_denn_, and appears in the English TENTERDEN, and some others. Another
Celtic name for field is _ach_, the Latin _ag-er_, which appears in
a number of Highland places, as in ACH-NA-CLOICHE (stone field),
in Argyleshire. A hollow surrounded by mountains is called by the
well-known name of LAGGAN, which is properly a diminutive from _lag_,
in Greek λάκκος, in Latin _lacus_, a hollow filled with water, and
in German a mere _loch_, or hole, into which a mouse might creep. A
special kind of hollow, lying between the outstretched arms of a big
Ben, and opening at one end into the vale below, is called in Gaelic
_coire_, literally a cauldron--a word which the genius of Walter Scott
has made a permanent possession of the English language. In England
such mountain hollows are often denominated _combs_, as in ADDISCOMBE,
ASHCOMB, a venerable old British word of uncorrupted Cornish descent,
and which, so far as I know, does not appear in Scottish topography,
unless it be in CUMMERTREES (on the shore, _traigh_), near Annan, and
CUMBERNAULD; but this I am not able to verify by local knowledge. The
word _cumar_ appears in O’Reilly’s Irish dictionary as “the bed of
a large river or a narrow sea, a hollow generally,” but seems quite
obsolete in the spoken Gaelic of to-day. The termination _holm_ is
well-known both in English and Scotch names, and proclaims itself as
characteristically Scandinavian, in the beautiful metropolis of the
Swedes. In Gaelic districts a holm, that is, a low watery meadow, is
generally called a _lon_, a word which has retained its place in Scotch
as _loan_--LOANING, LOANHEAD, LOANEND, and is fundamentally identical
with the English _lane_ and _lawn_. The varieties of sea-coast are
expressed by the words _traigh_, _cladach_, _camus_, _corran_, _wick_,
_loch_, _rutha_, _ross_, _caolas_, _stron_, _salen_, among which, in
passing, we may specially note _camus_, from the root _cam_, Greek
κάμπτω, to bend: hence MORECAMBE BAY, near Lancaster, signifies the
great bend; _corran_, a scythe, evidently allied to the Latin _curvus_,
and used in the Highlands to denote any crescent-shaped shore, as at
Corranferry, Ardgour, in Lochfinne; _wick_, a familiar Scandinavian
word signifying a bay, and which, with the Gaelic article prefixed,
seems to have blundered itself into NIGG at Aberdeen, and near Fearn
in Ross-shire; _caolas_, a strait, combining etymologically the very
distant and very different localities of CALAIS and BALLACHULISH;
_stron_ or _sron_, a nose, which lends its name to a parish near the
end of Loch Sunart, in Morvern, and thence to a famous mineral found in
its vicinity; lastly, _salen_ is nothing but salt, and appears in the
south of Ireland and the north-west of Scotland, under the slightly
varied forms of KINSALE and KINTAIL, both of which words signify the
head of the salt water; for Irish and Gaelic are only one language
with a slightly different spelling here and there, and a sprinkling of
peculiar words now and then.

The only other features of natural scenery that play a noticeable
part in topographical etymology are the rivers, lakes, wells, and
waterfalls; and they need not detain us long. The Gaelic _uisge_,
water, of which the Latin _aqua_ is an abraded form, appears in the
names of Scottish rivers as _Esk_, and of Welsh rivers as _Usc_. The
familiar English Avon is the Gaelic _amhainn_, evidently softened down
by aspiration from the Latin _amnis_. This _avon_ often appears at the
end of river names curtailed, as in GARONNE, the rough river, from the
Gaelic root _garbh_, rough. The DON, so common as a river name from the
Black Sea to Aberdeen, means either the deep river or the brown river.
A small river, _brook_ in English, gives name to not a few places and
persons. In the Scottish Highlands, and in those parts of the Lowlands
originally inhabited by the Celtic race, the word _alt_ performs the
same functions. _Loch_, in Gaelic, answering to the English _mere_
(Latin _mare_), appears most commonly in the Highlands, as KINLOCH,
_i.e._ the town or house at the head of the lake; and _tobar_, a
well, frequently, as in HOLYWELL, connected with a certain religious
sanctity, appears in TOBERMORY, _i.e._ the well of the Virgin Mary, one
of the most beautiful quiet bits of bay scenery in Great Britain. Of
places named from waterfalls (_eas_, from _esk_), a significant element
in Highland scenery, INVERNESS, and MONESS near Aberfeldy, are the most
notable, the one signifying “the town at the bottom of the river, which
flows from the lake where there is the great waterfall,” _i.e._ FOYERS;
and the other, “the waterfall of the moorish uplands,” which every one
understands who walks up to it.

So much for the features of unappropriated nature, stereotyped, as it
were, at once and for ever, in the old names of local scenery. But as
into a landscape an artist will inoculate his sentiment and symbolise
his fancy, so on the face of the earth men are fond to stamp the
trace of their habitation and their history. Under this influence the
nomenclature of topography becomes at once changed from a picture of
natural scenery to a record of human fortunes. And in this department
it is plain that the less varied and striking the features of nature,
the greater the necessity of marking places by the artificial
differentiation produced by the presence of human dwellings. Hence, in
the flat, monotonous plains of North Germany, the abundance of places
ending in _hausen_ and _heim_, which are only the Saxon forms of our
English _house_ and _home_. Of the termination _hausen_, SACHSENHAUSEN,
the home of the Saxons, and FRANKENHAUSEN, the home of the Franks, are
amongst the most notable examples. _Heim_ is pleasantly associated with
refreshing draughts in HOCHHEIM, _i.e._ high home, on the north bank
of the Rhine a little below Mainz, whence a sharp, clear wine being
imported, with the loss of the second syllable, and the transformation
of _ch_ into _k_, produced the familiar hock. This _heim_ in a thousand
places of England becomes _ham_, but in Scotland, where the Celtic
element prevails, appears only rarely in the south-east and near the
English border, as in COLDINGHAM and EDNAM--the birthplace of the poet
Thomson--contracted from Edenham. Another root very widely expressive
of human habitation, under the varying forms of _beth_, _bo_, and _by_,
is scattered freely from the banks of Jordan to the islands of the
Hebrides in the north-west of Scotland. First under this head we have
the great army of Hebrew _beths_, not a few of which are familiar to
our ear from the cherished teachings of early childhood, as--BETHABARA,
the house of the ferry; BETHANY, the house of dates; BETHAVEN, the
house of naughtiness; BETHCAR, the house of lambs; BETHDAGON, the house
of the fish-god Dagon; BETHEL, the house of God; BETHSHEMESH, the house
of the sun (like the Greek Heliopolis); and a score of others. _Bo_ is
the strictly Danish form of the root, at least in the dictionary, where
the verb _boe_, to dwell, also appears. Examples of this are found
in SKIBO, in Ross-shire, and BUNESS, at the extreme end of Unst, the
seat of the Edmonstones, a family well known in the annals of Shetland
literature; but more generally, in practice, it takes the softened form
of _by_, as in hundreds of local designations in England, specially
in Lincolnshire, where the Danes were for a long time at home. Near
the English border, as in LOCKERBY, this same termination appears;
otherwise in Scotland it is rare. In the Sclavonic towns of Mecklenburg
and Prussia, it takes the form of _bus_, as in PYBUS, while in Cornish
it is _bos_, which is a later form of _bod_ (German _bude_, English
_booth_, Scotch _bothy_), which stands out prominently in Bodmin and
other towns, not only in Cornwall, but in Wales. The termination _bus_
appears likewise in not a few local designations in the island of
Islay, where the Danes had many settlements. In Skye it appears as
_bost_, as in SKEABOST, one of the oldest seats of the Macdonalds.
The other Saxon or Scandinavian terms frequently met with throughout
England and in the north-east of Scotland are--_ton_, _setter_ or
_ster_, _stead_, _stow_, _stoke_, _hay_, _park_, _worth_, _bury_,
_thorp_, _toft_, _thwaite_. In Germany, besides _heim_ and _hausen_, as
already mentioned, we have the English _hay_, under the form _hagen_,
a fence; and _thorp_ under the form _dorf_, a village; and _worth_
under the forms _worth_ and _werth_, which are merely variations of
the Greek χόρτος, English yard, and the Sclavonic _gard_ and _gorod_,
and the Celtic _garad_, the familiar word in the Highlands for a stone
wall or dyke. In Germany, also, _weiler_, from _weilen_, to dwell, and
_leben_, to live, are thickly sprinkled; _hof_, also, is extremely
common, signifying a court or yard--a suffix which the French, in that
part of Germany which they stole from the Empire, turned into _court_
or _ville_, as in _Thionville_ from _Diedenhofen_.

So much for the Teutonic part of this branch of topographical
designation. In the Highlands _tigh_ and _bail_ are the commonest
words to denote a human dwelling, the one manifestly an aspirated form
of the Latin _tignum_ (Greek στἐγος, German _dach_), and the other
as plainly identical with the πόλις which appears in Sebastopol, and
not a few cities, both ancient and modern, where Greek influence or
Greek affectation prevailed. With regard to _bal_, it is noticeable
that in Ireland it generally takes the form of _bally_, which is the
full form of the word in Gaelic also, _baile_, there being no final
mute vowels in that language; but in composition for topographical use
final _e_ is dropped, as in BALMORAL, the majestic town or house, from
_morail_, magnificent, a very apt designation for a royal residence,
by whatever prophetic charm it came to be so named before her present
Majesty learned the healthy habit of breathing pure Highland air amid
the fragrant birches and clear waters of Deeside. _Tigh_, though less
common than _bal_, is not at all unfrequent in the mountains; and
tourists in the West Highlands are sure to encounter two of the most
notable between Loch Lomond and Oban. The first, TYNDRUM, the house
on the ridge, at the point where the ascent ceases as you cross from
Killin to Dalmally; and the other TAYNUILT, or the house of the brook,
in Scotch burnhouse, beyond Ben Cruachan, where the road begins to wend
through the rich old copsewood towards Oban. I remember also a curious
instance of the word _tigh_ in a local designation, half-way between
Inveraray and Loch Awe. In that district a little farmhouse on the
right of the road is called TIGHNAFEAD, _i.e._ whistle-house (_fead_,
a whistle, Latin _fides_), which set my philological fancy immediately
on the imagination that this exposed place was so called from some
peculiar whistling of the blast down from the hills immediately behind;
but such imaginations are very unsafe; for the fact turned out to be,
if somewhat less poetical, certainly much more comfortable, that this
house of call, in times within memory, stood at a greater distance
from the road than it now does, which caused the traveller, when he
came down the descent on a cold night, sharp-set for a glass of strong
whisky, to make his presence and his wish known by a shrill whistle
across the hollow.

So much for _tigh_. The only other remark that I would make here
is, that the word _clachan_, so well known from Scott’s Clachan of
Aberfoyle, does not properly mean a village, as Lowlanders are apt
to imagine, but only a churchyard, or, by metonymy, a church--as the
common phrase used by the natives, _Di domhnaich dol do’n chlachan_,
“going to church on Sunday,” sufficiently proves--the word properly
meaning only the stones in the churchyard, which mark the resting-place
of the dead; and if the word is ever used for a village, it is only by
transference to signify the village in which the parish church is, and
the parish churchyard.

But it is not only the dwellings of men, but their actions, that make
places interesting; and as the march of events in great historical
movements generally follows the march of armies, it follows that camps
and battle-fields and military settlements will naturally have left
strong traces in the topography of every country where human beings
dwell. And accordingly we find that the _chester_ and the _caster_,
added as a generic term to so many English towns, are simply the sites
of ancient Roman _castra_ or camps; while Cologne, on the Rhine, marks
one of the most prosperous of their settlements in Germany. Curiously
analogous to this is the _Cöln_, a well-known quarter of Berlin, on the
Spree, where the German emperors first planted a Teutonic colony in
the midst of a Sclavonic population. In the solemn march of Ossianic
poetry, the word _blar_ generally signifies a field of battle; but, as
this word properly signifies only a large field or open space, we have
no right to say that such names as BLAIR ATHOL and BLAIRGOWRIE have
anything to do with the memory of sanguinary collisions. ALEXANDRIA,
in Egypt, is one of the few remaining places of note that took their
name from the brilliant Macedonian Helleniser of the East. ALEXANDRIA,
in the vale of Leven, in Dumbartonshire, tells of the family of
Smollett, well known in the annals of Scottish literary genius, and
still, by their residence, adding a grace to one of the most beautiful
districts of lake scenery in the world. ADRIANOPLE stereotypes the
memory of one of the most notable of the Roman emperors, who deemed it
his privilege and pleasure to visit the extremest limits of his vast
dominions, and leave some beneficial traces of his kingship there. The
name PETERSBURG, whose Teutonic character it is impossible to ignore,
indicates the civilisation of a Sclavonic country by an emperor whose
early training was received from a people of German blood and breed;
while CONSTANTINOPLE recalls the momentous change which took place in
the centre of gravity of the European world, when the declining empire
of the Roman Cæsars was about to become Greek in its principal site,
as it had long been in its dominant culture. The streets of great
cities, as one may see prominently in Paris, in their designations
often contain a register of the most striking events of their national
history. Genuine names of streets in old cities are a historical growth
and an anecdotal record, which only require the pen of a cunning writer
to make them as attractive as a good novel. London, in this view, is
particularly interesting; and Emerson, I recollect, in his book, _How
the Great City grew_ (London, 1862), tells an amusing story about the
great fire in London, which certain pious persons observed to have
commenced at a street called PUDDING LANE, and ended at a place called
PYE CORNER, in memory of which they caused the figure of a fat boy to
be put up at Smithfield, with the inscription on his stomach, “This
boy is in memory put up for the late fire of London, occasioned by the
sin of gluttony, 1666.” Many a dark and odorous close in Old Edinburgh
also, to men who, like the late Robert Chambers, could read stones
with knowing eyes, is eloquent with those tales of Celtic adventure
and Saxon determination which make the history of Scotland so full
of dramatic interest; while, on the other hand, the flunkeyism of
the persons who, to tickle the lowest type of aristocratic snobbery,
baptized certain streets of New Edinburgh with BUCKINGHAM Terrace,
BELGRAVE Crescent, GROSVENOR Street, and such like apish mimicry of
metropolitan West Endism, stinks in the nostrils and requires no
comment. But not only to grimy streets of reeking towns, but to the
broad track of the march of the great lines of the earth’s surface,
there is attached a nomenclature which tells the history of the
adventurous captain, or the courageous commander, who first redeemed
these regions from the dim limbo of the unknown, and brought them into
the distinct arena of cognisable and manageable facts. In the frosty
bounds of the far North-West, the names of MACKENZIE, MACLINTOCK, and
MACLURE proclaim the heroic daring that belongs so characteristically
to the Celtic blood in Scotland. But it is in the moral triumphs of
religion, which works by faith in what is noble, love of what is good,
and reverence for what is great, that the influence of history over
topographical nomenclature is most largely traced. In ancient Greece,
the genial piety which worshipped its fairest Avatar in the favourite
sun-god Apollo, stamped its devotion on the name of APOLLONIA, on
the Ionian Sea, and other towns whose name was legion. In CORNWALL,
almost every parish is named after some saintly apostle, who, in days
of savage wildness and wastefulness, had brought light and peace and
humanity into these remote regions. In the Highlands of Scotland, the
KILBRIDES (_kill_ from _cella_, a shrine), KILMARTINS, KILMARNOCKS, and
KILMALLIES everywhere attest the grateful piety of the forefathers of
the Celtic race in days which, if more dark, were certainly not more
cold than the times in which we now live. In the Orkneys the civilising
influence of the clergy, or, in some cases, no doubt, their love for
pious seclusion, is frequently marked by the PAPAS or priests’ islands.
In Germany, MUNICH or MONACUM, which shows a monk in its coat-of-arms,
has retained to the present day the zeal for sacerdotal sanctitude
from which it took its name; and the same must be said of MUENSTER,
in Westphalia (from μοναστῆρι, in modern Greek a cathedral, English
minster), the metropolis of Ultramontane polity and priestly pretension
in Northern Germany.

But it is not only in commemorating, like coins, special historical
events, that local names act as an important adjunct to written
records; they give likewise the clue to great ethnological facts and
movements of which written history preserves no trace. In this respect
topographical etymology presents a striking analogy to geology; for,
as the science of the constitution of the earth’s crust reveals a
fossilised history of life in significant succession, long antecedent
to the earliest action of the human mind on the objects of terrestrial
nature, so the science of language to the practised eye discloses a
succession of races in regions where no other sign of their existence
remains. If it were doubted, for instance, whether at any period the
Lowlands of Scotland had been possessed by a Celtic race, and asserted
roundly that from the earliest times the plains had been inhabited
by a people of Teutonic blood, and only the mountain district to the
west and north-west was the stronghold of the Celt, the obvious names
of not a few localities in the east and south-east of Scotland would
present an impassable bar to the acceptance of any such dogma. One
striking instance of this occurs in Haddingtonshire, where a parish
is now called GARAVALT--by the very same appellation as a well-known
waterfall near Braemar, in the hunting forest of the late Prince
Consort; and with the same propriety in both cases, for the word
in Gaelic signifies a _rough brook_, and such a brook is the most
striking characteristic of both districts. Cases of this kind clearly
indicate the vanishing of an original Celtic people from districts
now essentially Teutonic both in speech and character. The presence
of a great Sclavonic people in Northern Germany, and of an extensive
Sclavonic immigration into Greece in mediæval times, is attested with
the amplest certitude in the same way. A regular fringe of Scandinavian
names along the north and north-west coast of Scotland would, to the
present hour, attest most indubitably the fact of a Norse dominion in
those quarters operating for centuries, even had Haco and the battle
of Largs been swept altogether from the record of history and from the
living tradition of the people. To every man who has been in Norway,
LAXFIORD, in West Ross-shire, a stream well known to salmon-fishers,
carries this Scandinavian story on its face; and no man who has walked
the streets of Copenhagen will have any difficulty, when he sails
into the beautiful bay of Portree, in knowing the meaning of the
great cliff called the STORR, which he sees along the coast a little
towards the north; for this means simply the great cliff, _storr_ being
the familiar Danish for great, as _mor_ is the Gaelic. Ethnological
maps may in this way be constructed exactly in the same fashion as
geological; and the sketch of one such for Great Britain the reader
will find in Mr. Taylor’s well-known work on _Names and Places_.

With regard to the law of succession in these ethnological strata,
as indicated by topographical nomenclature, the following three
propositions may be safely laid down:--1. The names of great objects
of natural scenery, particularly of mountains and rivers, will
generally be significant in the language of the people who were
the original inhabitants of the country. 2. Names of places in the
most open and accessible districts of a country will be older than
similar names in parts which are more difficult of access; but--3,
these very places being most exposed to foreign invasion, are apt
to invite an adventurous enemy, whose settlement in the conquered
country is generally accompanied with a partial, sometimes with a very
considerable, change of local nomenclature.

In reference to this change of population, Mr. Taylor in one place uses
the significant phrase, “The hills contain the ethnological sweepings
of the plains.” Very true; but the effect of this on the ethnological
character of the population of the places is various, and in the
application requires much caution. It is right, for instance, to say
generally that the Celtic language has everywhere in Europe retreated
from the plains into the mountainous districts; but the people often
still remain where the language has retreated, as the examination of
any directory in many a district of Scotland, where only English is now
spoken, will largely show. In Greece, in the same way, many districts
present only Greek and Sclavonic names of places, where the population,
within recent memory, is certainly Albanian. Inquiries of this nature
always require no less caution than learning; otherwise, as Mr. Skene
observes, what might have been, properly conducted, an all-important
element in fixing the ethnology of any country, becomes, in rash hands
and with hot heads, a delusion and a snare.[1]

But the science of language, when wisely conducted, not only presents
an interesting analogy to geological stratification; it sometimes goes
further, and bears direct witness to important geological changes as
conclusive as any evidence derived from the existing conformation of
the earth’s crust. How this comes to pass may easily be shown by a
few familiar examples. The words _wold_ and _weald_ originally meant
_wood_ and _forest_, as the Anglo-Saxon Dictionary and the living use
of the German language--_wald_--alike declare; but the wolds at present
known in Yorkshire, Gloucestershire, and other parts of England,
are generally bare and treeless, and in bad weather very cheerless
places indeed. If, then, “there is nothing arbitrary in language,”
and all local names tell an historical tale, it is certain that, at
the time when those names were imposed, these same sites were part of
an immense forest. The geologist, when, in the far-stretching bogs
east of Glencoe, and near Kinloch Ewe, and in many other places of
Scotland, he calls attention to the fact of layers of gigantic trees
lying now deeply embedded under the peat, adduces an argument with
regard to the primitive vegetation of our part of the world not a
whit more convincing. The same fact of a lost vegetation is revealed
in not a few places of England which end in the old word _hurst_,
signifying a forest. Again, there is a large family of places in and
about the Harz Mountains, in Germany, ending in _ode_, as OSTERODE,
HASSELRODE, WERNINGERODE, and so forth. Now most of these places, as
specially HASSELRODE, are now remarkably free from those leagues of
leafy luxuriance that give such a marked character to the scenery of
that mountain district. It is certain, however, that they were at one
time in the centre of an immense forest; for the word _rode_, radically
the same as our _rid_, and perhaps the Welsh _rhydd_, Gaelic _reidh_,
simply means “to make clear” or “clean,” and teaches that the forest in
that part had been cleared for human habitation.

Once more: it is a well-known fact in geology that the border limit
between sea and land is constantly changing, the briny element in some
cliffy places, as to the north of Hull, systematically undermining the
land, and stealing away the farmer’s acreage inch by inch and foot by
foot; while in other places, from the conjoint action of river deposits
and tidal currents, large tracts of what was once a sea-bottom are
added to the land. The geological proof of this is open often to the
most superficial observer; but the philological proof, when you once
hold the key of it, is no less patent. In the Danish language--which
is a sort of half-way house between high German and English--the word
_oe_ signifies an island. This _oe_, in the shape of _ay_, _ea_, _ey_,
or _y_, appears everywhere on the British coast, particularly in the
West Highlands, as in COLONSAY, TOROSAY, ORANSAY, and in ORKNEY; and if
there be any locality near the sea wearing this termination, not now
surrounded by water, the conclusion is quite certain, on philological
grounds, that it once was so. Here the London man will at once think on
BERMONDSEY and CHELSEA, and he will think rightly; but he must not be
hasty to draw STEPNEY under the conditions of the same category, for
the EY in that word, if I am rightly informed, is a corruption from
_hithe_, a well-known Anglo-Saxon and good old English term signifying
a _haven_; and generally, in all questions of topographical etymology,
there is a risk of error where the old spelling of the word is not
confronted with the form which, by the attritions and abrasions of
time, it may have assumed.

These observations, which at the request of the author of the following
pages I have hastily set down, will be sufficient to indicate the
spirit in which the study of topographical etymology ought to be
pursued. Of course, I have no share in the praise which belongs to the
successful execution of so laborious an investigation; neither, on
the other hand, can blame be attached to me for such occasional slips
as the most careful writer may make in a matter where to err is easy,
and where conjecture has so long been in the habit of usurping the
place of science. But I can bear the most honest witness to the large
research, sound judgment, and conscientious accuracy of the author;
and feel happy to have my name, in a subsidiary way, connected with a
work which, I am convinced, will prove an important addition to the
furniture of our popular schools.

       _February 1875_.

                         LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

    Anc. (ancient).
    Ar. (Arabic).
    A. S. (Anglo-Saxon).
    Bret. or Brez. (Brezric).
    Cel. (Celtic).
    Conf. (confluence).
    Cym.-Cel. (Cymro-Celtic, including Welsh).
    Dan. (Danish).
    Dut. (Dutch).
    Fr. (French).
    Gadhelic (including Gaelic, Irish, and Manx).
    Gael. (Gaelic).
    Ger. (German).
    Grk. (Greek).
    Heb. (Hebrew).
    Hung. (Hungarian).
    Ind. (Indian).
    It. (Italian).
    Lat. (Latin).
    Mt. (mountain).
    Par. (parish).
    Pers. (Persian).
    Phœn. (Phœnician).
    P. N. (personal name).
    Port. (Portuguese).
    R. (river).
    Sansc. (Sanscrit).
    Scand. (Scandinavian).
    Sclav. (Sclavonic).
    Span. (Spanish).
    Teut. (Teutonic).
    Turc. (Turkish).

                      A DICTIONARY OF PLACE-NAMES


[Sidenote: A (Old Norse),]

a possession;[2] _e.g._ Craika, Torfa, Ulpha; A (Scand.) also means an
island--_v._ EA, p. 71.

[Sidenote: AA, A (Scand.),]

a stream; from Old Norse _â_, Goth. _aha_, Old Ger. _aha_ (water). The
word, in various forms, occurs frequently in river names throughout
Western Europe, especially in Germany and the Netherlands, and often
takes the form of _au_ or _ach_; _e.g._ the rivers Aa, Ach, Aach;
Saltach (salt river); Wertach (a river with many islands)--_v._ WARID,
etc.; Trupach (troubled stream); Weser, _i.e._ _Wesar-aha_ (western
stream); Lauter, _i.e._ _Hlauter-aha_ (clear stream); Danube or Donau,
_i.e._ _Tuon-aha_ (thundering stream); Main, _i.e._ _Magin-aha_ (great
stream); Fisch-aha (fish stream); Schwarza (black stream); Zwiesel-au
(the stream of the whirlpool); Erlach (alder-tree stream); Gron-aha
(green stream); Dachau (the clayey stream); Fulda, _i.e._ _Fold-aha_
(land stream); Rod-aha (reedy stream); Saale and Saala from _salz_
(salt stream). The simple _a_ or _o_, with a prefix expressive of
the character of the stream, is the most frequent form of the word
in Iceland and Scandinavia, and in the districts of Great Britain
colonised by Norsemen or Danes; _e.g._ Laxa (salmon river); Hvita
(white river); Brora (bridge river); Rotha (red river); Greta (weeping
river); Storaa (great river); Thurso (Thor’s river), which gives its
name to the town; Lossie, anc. _Laxi-a_ (salmon river).

[Sidenote: AB (Sansc.),
AW (Pers.),]

water; _e.g._ Doab (the district of two waters); Menab (the mouth of
the water), on the Persian Gulf; Busheab or _Khoshaub_ (good water), a
river in Hindostan, also an island in the Persian Gulf; Neelab (blue
water); Punjaub (the district of the five streams); Chinab or Chenaub
R., said to be a corrupt. of its former name _Chaudra Bhagee_ (the
garden of the moon), so called from a small lake of that name from
which it proceeds. Cognate with this root is the Gadhelic _abh_, in its
forms of _aw_ or _ow_. Thus in Scotland we have the River Awe and Loch
Awe; in Ireland, Ow and Owbeg (little stream); Ow-nageerah (the stream
of the sheep); Finnow (clear stream). Cognate with these root-words is
the Lat. _aqua_ and its derivations in the Romance languages, as well
as _ae_ or _ea_ (A.S. water). Forsteman finds river names, allied to
the foregoing, throughout Germany and France, in such forms as _ap_,
_op_, _ep_, etc., as in the Oppa, Lennep, Barop, Biberaffa.

[Sidenote: ABAD (Pers. and Sansc.),]

a dwelling or town, generally connected with the name of its founder;
_e.g._ Hyderabad (the town of Hyder Ali, or of the Lion); Ahmedabad
(of the Sultan Ahmed); Furrackabad (founded by Furrack the Fortunate);
Agra or Akberabad (founded by Akber); Nujiabad (of Nujibah-Dowlah);
Auringabad (founded by Aurungzebe); Jafferabad (the city of Jaffier);
Jehanabad (of Shah Jehan); Jellabad (of Jellal, a chief); Moorshedabad
(the town of Moorshed Khoolly-Khan); Moorabad (named after Morad, the
son of Shah Jehan); Shahabad (of the Shah); Abbas-abad (founded by
Abbas the Great); Dowladabad (the town of wealth); Hajiabad (of the
pilgrim); Meschdabad (of the mosque); Islamabad (of the true faith);
Allah-abad (of God); Secunderabad (named after Alexander the Great);
Resoulabad (of the prophet); Asterabad (on the River Aster); Futteabad
(the town of victory); Sadabad or Suffi-abad (the town of the _sadi_ or
_suffi_, _i.e._ the sage).

[Sidenote: ABER (Cym.-Cel.),
ABHIR and OBAIR (Gael.),]

a confluence of waters; applied, in topography, to places at the conf.
of streams, or at the embouchure of a river. The derivation of the
term has been traced by some etymologists to the conjunction of _ath_
(Gael.), a ford, and _bior_, water; by others to Cym.-Cel. _at_ (at)
and _bior_ (water). This prefix is general in many of the counties
of Scotland, throughout Wales, and, in a few instances, in Ireland,
although in the latter country the synonyms _inver_ and _cumar_ are
more frequent. Both words are found in the topography of the Picts,
but the Scots of Argyleshire used only _inver_ before they came from
Ireland to settle in that district. The word _aber_ seems to have
become obsolete among them; and as there are no _abers_ in Ayrshire,
Renfrew, and Lanarkshire, the word had probably become obsolete before
the kingdom of Strathclyde was formed. Dr. Joyce, in his _Irish Names
of Places_, traces its use as prefix or affix to the Irish root _abar_
(a mire), as in the little stream Abberachrinn (_i.e._ the river of
the miry place of the tree). In Wales we find Aberconway, Aberfraw,
Aberistwyth, Aberavon, Aberayron, Aberdare, Aberdaron, Abergavenny, at
the embouchure of the _Conway_, _Fraw_, _Istwyth_, _Avon_, _Aeron_,
_Dar_, _Daron_, _Gavenny_. Barmouth, corrupt. from Aber-Mowddy, a
seaport in Merioneth, at the mouth of the R. Mowddy. Berriew, corrupt.
from Aber-Rhiw (at the junction of the R. Rhiw with the Severn);
Aberdaugledden, the Welsh name for Haverford-west, at the mouth of twin
rivers resembling two swords (_gledden_), which unite at Milford Haven.
It is called by the Welsh now Hwlford (the sailing road) because the
tide comes up to the town. Aberhonddu, at the mouth of the R. Honddi or
Honddu (the county town of Brecknock), and Aberdovey, at the embouchure
of the R. Dovey in Wales. In Scotland, Aberbrothwick or Arbroath,
Abercorn, anc. _Aeber-curnig_, Aberdour, Abergeldie, Abernethy, at the
embouchure of the _Brothock_, _Cornie_, _Dour_, _Geldie_, and _Nethy_.
Aberchirder is _Abhir-chiar-dur_ (the conf. of the dark water);
Abercrombie (the curved conf.); Aberfeldy, _i.e._ _Abhir-feathaile_
(the smooth conf.); Aberfoyle (the conf. of the pool, _phuill_);
Aberlemno (the conf. of the leaping water, _leumnach_); Arbirlot,
anc. _Aber-Elliot_ (at the mouth of the Elliot); Applecross for
_Abhir-croisan_ (the conf. of trouble); Old Aberdeen and New Aberdeen,
at the mouths of the Don and Dee, Lat. _Devana-castra_; Fochabers (the
_plain_, at the river mouth), Gael. _faigh_, a plain; Lochaber (at the
mouth of the loch); Barmouth, in Wales, corrupt, of _Aber-Mawdoch_ or

[Sidenote: ABI (Turc.),]

a river; _e.g._ Abi-shiran (sweet river); Abi-shur (salt river);
Abi-gurm (warm river); Abi-gard (yellow river); Abi-kuren (the river of
Cyrus); Ab-Allah (God’s river).

[Sidenote: ABT (Teut.), an abbot, Lat. _abbatis_.
ABIE, an abbey.]

These and similar words, in the Romance languages, derived from the
Heb. _abba_ (father), were introduced into the languages of Europe in
connection with the monastic system, and are attached to the names of
places founded for monks, or belonging to church lands. Thus--Absberg
(abbot’s hill); Apersdorf, for _Abbatesdorf_ (abbot’s village); Absholz
(abbot’s wood); Abtsroda (abbot’s clearing), in Germany; Appenzell,
anc. _Abbatiscella_ (abbot’s church), founded by the Abbot of St.
Gall, A.D. 647; Abbeville (abbot’s dwelling), in France; Abbotsbury
(the abbot’s fortified place), Dorset; Abbeydare (the abbey on the
R. Dare in Hereford); Abbotshall, in Fife, so called from having
been the occasional residence of the abbots of Dunfermline; Abdie
(belonging to the abbey of Lindores); Abingdon, in Berks (abbot’s
hill), Abington (with the same meaning), the name of two parishes
in Cambridge and a village in Lanarkshire, and of two parishes in
Ireland; Abbotsford (the ford of the Tweed in the abbey lands of
Melrose); Abbotsrule (the abbey on the R. Rule in Roxburghshire);
Abbeyfeale (on the R. Feale); Abbeyleix (the abbey of Lewy), an Irish
chief Abbeygormacan (Irish _mainister_); _Ua-g Cormacain_ (the abbey
of the O’Cormacans); Abbeylara, _i.e._ Irish abbey, _leath-rath_ (the
abbey of the half-rath); Abbeyshrule, anc. _Sruthair_ (the stream),
named for a monastery founded by one of the O’Farells; Abbeystrowry
(with the same meaning), in Ireland; Abbensee (the lake of the abbey),
in Upper Austria; Newabbey, a _Par_ in Kirkcudbright (named from an
abbey founded in 1275 by Devorgilla, the mother of John Baliol);
Badia-San-Salvatore (the abbey of the Holy Saviour); Badia-Torrita (the
abbey with the little tower), in Italy; Appin, in Argyleshire, anc.
_Abbphon_ (abbot’s land), and Appin, in Dull, indicating probably the
territory of a Celtic monastery.

[Sidenote: ACH, or ICH,]

a form of the Teut. _aha_ (water), p. 1, as in Salzach (salt stream),
but it is also a common affix to words in the Teut. and Cel. languages,
by which a noun is formed into an adjective, signifying full of, or
abounding in, equivalent to the Lat. terminations _etum_ and _iacum_.
Thus, in German topography, we find Lindach, Aichach, Aschach,
Buchach, Tannich, Fichtig, _i.e._ abounding in _lime_, _oak_, _ash_,
_beech_, _fir_, and _pine_ wood; Affaltrach (in apple-trees); Erlicht
(in alders); Heselicht (in hazels); Laubach (in leaves). In Ireland:
Darach, Farnach (abounding in oaks and alders); Ounagh, in Sligo, and
Onagh, in Wicklow (watery place), from the adjective Abhnach (abounding
in streams). In the Sclav. languages, again, the affix _zig_ has the
same meaning, as in Leipzig (abounding in lime-trees).

[Sidenote: ACHADH (Gadhelic),

a field, plain, or meadow; _e.g._ Aghinver (the field of the
confluence); Aghindarragh (of the oak wood); Achonry, anc.
_Achadh-Chonaire_ (Conary’s field); Ardagh (high field); Aghabeg
(little field); Aghaboy (yellow field); Aghamore (great field);
Aghaboe (the cow’s field); Aghadown (of the fort); Aghadoe, _i.e._
_Achadh-da-eo_ (of the two yew-trees). In Scotland: Auchclach,
Auchinleck, Auchnacloich (the stony field); Achray (smooth field);
Auchinleith (the physician’s field); Auchindoire (the field of the
oak grove); Auchinfad (of the peats); Auchinrath (of the fort);
Auchincruive (of the tree, _craoibhe_); Auchline (of the pool);
Auchnacraig (of the rock); Auchindinny and Auchteany (the field of the
fire)--_teine_, _i.e._ probably places where the Beltane fires were

[Sidenote: AESC (A.S.),
ASK (Scand.),
ESCHE (Ger.),]

the ash-tree; _e.g._ Ashton, Ashby, Askham (ash-tree dwelling); Ashrigg
(the ash-tree ridge), in England. In Germany: Eschdorf, Eschweil,
Eschweiller (ash-tree dwelling); Eschenbach (ash-tree brook); Eschwege
(ash-tree road).

[Sidenote: AESP (A.S.),
ASP (Scand.),]

the aspen or poplar; _e.g._ Aspley, Aspden (poplar field or valley).

[Sidenote: AIN (Semitic),

a fountain; _e.g._ Aenon (the fountains); Enshemish (the fountain
of the sun); Engedi (of the goat); Enrogel (of the fuller’s field);
Dothan (the two fountains); Aayn-el-kebira (the great fountain);
Ain-halu (the sweet fountain); Aayn-taiba (the good fountain); Engannim
(the fountain of the gardens); Enrimmon (of the pomegranates).

[Sidenote: AITE, or AIT (Gadhelic),
AEHT, or EIGEN (Teut.),]

a place, a possession; _e.g._ Daviot, anc. _Damh-aite_ (the place
of the ox), in Aberdeenshire, and also in Inverness; Tynet, _i.e._
_ait-an-taimhu_ (the place of the river), in Banffshire. In Ireland the
word is used in combination with _tigh_ (a house); _e.g._ Atty (the
dwelling-place); Atty-Dermot (the dwelling of Dermot); Atti-duff (the
dark dwelling); Oedt (the possession), a town in Prussia, on the Niers;
Iberstolfs-eigen (the possession of Iberstolf); Iberstolfs-eigen,
Smurses-eigen (_i.e._ the possession of Iberstolf and Smurse);
Souder-eygen (south possession).

[Sidenote: AITH, or AED, or EID (Scand.),]

a headland; _e.g._ Aithsvoe (the bay of the headland); Aithsthing
(the place of meeting on the headland); Eidfoss (the waterfall on the

[Sidenote: AK, or AEK (A.S.),
EK, or EG (Scand.),
EYKE (Dutch),
EICHE (Ger.),]

an oak; _e.g._ Acton, Acworth (oak town and manor); Oakley (oak
meadow); Oakham (oak dwelling); Auckland (oakland); Acrise (oak
ascent); Wokingham or Oakingham (the dwelling among oaks); Sevenoaks,
anc. _Seovanacca_, named from some oak-trees which once occupied
the eminence on which it stands, but Okehampton, in Devon, is on the R.
Oke. In Germany and in Holland are Eichstadt, Eichdorf, Eikheim (oak
dwelling); Ekholta (oak wood); Eichhalden (oak height); Eichstegen (oak
path); Echehout, in Hainault (oak wood); Eykebusch (oak thicket).

[Sidenote: AK (Turc.),]

white; _e.g._ Ak-tag, Ak-dagh (the white mountains); Ak-su (white
river); Ak-hissar (white castle); Ak-serai (white palace); Ak-shehr
(white dwelling); Ak-meschid (white mosque); Ak-kalat (white fortress).

[Sidenote: AL (the Arabic definite article);]

_e.g._ Alkalat (the fortress); Almaden (the mine); Alcantara (the
bridge); Alkasar (the palace); Almeida (the table); Almeria (the
conspicuous); Almazen (the storehouse); Alcarria (the farm); Alcana
(the exchange); Algezira (the island), anc. _Mesopotamia_ (_i.e._
between the rivers); Algeciras (the islands), in Spain; Algarve (the
west); Almansa (the plain); Almazara (the mill); Alhambra (the red);
Alhucen (the beautiful); Alpuxarras (the grassy mountains).

[Sidenote: ALD, EALD (A.S.),
ALT (Ger.),
OUDE, OLDEN (Dutch),]

old; _e.g._ Alton, Oldham, Althorpe, Alcaster, Aldwark (old
dwelling, farm, camp, fortress); Audlem (old lyme or border); Audley
(old field), in England. In Germany: Altenburg, Altendorf, Oldenburg
(old dwelling); Altenmarkt (old market); Altmark (old boundary);
Altstadt (old place); Altsattel (old seat); Altofen (old oven), so
called from its warm baths; Oudenarde (old earth or land); Oudenbosch
(old thicket); Oude-capel (old chapel).

[Sidenote: ALDEA (Span. and Port., from the Arabic),]

a village; _e.g._ Aldea-del-Cano (the dog’s village); Aldea-vieya (old
village); Aldea-el-Muro (the walled village); Aldea-del-Rio (of the
river); Aldea Galliga (of the Gauls).

[Sidenote: ALIT (Cym.-Cel.),
ALT (Irish),]

a height or cliff; _e.g._ Alltmaur (the great height); Builth, in
Wales, _i.e._ _Bu-allt_ (the steep place of the wild oxen). The Alts
(heights or glen-sides), Monaghan; Altachullion (the cliff of the
holly); Altavilla, _i.e._ _Alt-a-bhile_ (the glen-side of the old
tree); Altinure (the cliff of the yew-tree); Altanagh (abounding in
cliffs); Altan (the little cliff).

[Sidenote: ALP, AILPE (Celtic),

a rock or cliff; _e.g._ the Alps; Albainn (the hilly or high land),
the anc. name of Scotland; Albania, with the same meaning; Alpenach
(the mountain stream), at the foot of Mount Pilate; Alva and Alvah
(the rocky), parishes in Scotland; Cantal (the _head_ of the rock), in
France. In Ireland the word _ail_ takes the form of _oil_, aspirated
_foyle_ or _faill_; _e.g._ Foilycleara (O’Clery’s cliff); Foilnaman
(the cliff of the women): but while the aspirated form of _ail_ is
confined to the south, _aill_ is found all over Ireland; Ayleacotty,
_i.e._ _Aill-a-choite_ (the cliff of the little boat); Ailla-gower (the
goat’s cliff); Alleen (the diminutive) is found in Alleen-Hogan and
Alleen-Ryan (Hogan’s and Ryan’s little cliff). When, however, _foyle_
comes in as a termination, it is commonly derived from _poll_ (a hole),
as in Ballyfoyle and Ballyfoile (the town of the hole). The anc. name
of Britain, _Albion_, has sometimes been traced to this root, but more
generally to the _white_ cliffs (Lat. _albus_) on the coast of Kent, as
seen first by the Romans.

[Sidenote: ALR (A.S.),
ALNUS (Lat.),
AUNE (Fr.),]

the alder-tree; _e.g._ Alr-holt, Aldershot (alder-tree wood);
Alresford (Alderford); Alrewas (alder-tree pasture); Alderley
(alder-tree meadow), in England; Aulney, Aulnoy, Aulnois, Aunay, Auneau
(alder grove), in France.

[Sidenote: ALT (Gadhelic),]

a stream; _e.g._ the Alt, Aldan, Alta (river names); Alt-dowran (otter
stream); Aultsigh (gliding stream); Alt-na-guish (the stream of the
fir-trees); Aldivalloch, _i.e._ _Allt-a-bhealaich_ (the stream of
the pass); Alness, _i.e._ _Allt-an-casa_ (of the cascade); Alltmore
(great stream); Auldearn, _i.e._ _Allt-fearn_ (alder-tree stream);
Cumbernauld, corrupt. from _Cumar-nan-alta_ (the confluence of the
streams); Garavault in Aberdeenshire, Garvault in East Lothian, and
Garvald in Dumfriesshire (rough stream); Altderg (red stream).

[Sidenote: ALTUN, or ALTAN (Tartar),]

golden; _e.g._ the Altai, or golden mountains; Altanor (golden lake);
Altan-su (golden river); Alta-Yeen (the golden mountains); Altun-tash
(golden rock); Altun-kupri (golden bridge).

[Sidenote: AM, or AN,]

contrac. from Ger. _an den_ (on the, or at the); _e.g._ Amberg (at the
hill); Amdorf or Ambach, Amsteg, Amwalde (at the village, brook, path,

[Sidenote: AMAR (Old Ger.),]

a kind of grain; _e.g._ Amarbach, Amarthal, Amarwang, Amarveld (the
brook, valley, strip of land, field where this grain grew).

[Sidenote: AMBACHT, or AMT (Ger.),]

a district under the government of an Amtman or bailiff; _e.g._
Amt-sluis (the sluice of the Ambacht); Amthof (the court of the
Amtman); Graven-Ambacht (the duke’s district); Ambachtsbrug (the bridge
of the Ambacht).

[Sidenote: AMBR,]

an Indo-Germanic word, signifying a river, allied to the Sansc. _ambu_
(water). According to Forsteman (_v._ _Deutsche Ortsnamen_) the suffix
_r_ was added by most European nations before their separation from the
Asiatic tribes, as appears in the Greek _ombros_ and the Lat. _imber_
(a shower). The word appears in the names of tribes and persons, as
well as of places, on the European continent; _e.g._ the Ambrones (or
dwellers by the water), and perhaps in Umbria; Amberloo and Amersfoort
(the meadow and ford by the water), in Holland; and in such river names
as the Ammer, Emmer, Emmerich, Ambra, etc.

[Sidenote: ANGER (Ger.),]

a meadow or field; _e.g._ Rabenanger (the raven’s field); Kreutzanger
(the field of the cross); Moosanger (mossy field); Wolfsanger (the
wolf’s field, or of Wolf, a man’s name); Vogelsanger (the birds’
field); Angerhusen (the field houses); Angerbach (the field brook);
Anger (the field), a town in Austria; Angerburg (the fortress in the

[Sidenote: ANGRA (Port.),]

a creek or bay; _e.g._ Angra (a sea-port in the Azores);
Angra-de-los-reyes (the king’s bay).

[Sidenote: AQUA (Lat.),
AGUA (Span. and Port.),
ACQUA (It.),
EAU (Fr.; Old Fr. AX),]

water; _e.g._ Aix, anc. _Aquæ-Sextiæ_ (the warm springs, said to
have been discovered and named by Sextus Calvenus, B.C. 123), in
Provence; Aix, in Dauphiny, anc. _Aquæ-Vocontiorum_ (the waters of
the Vocontii); Aix-les-bains (the bath waters), in Savoy; Aachen or
Aix-la-Chapelle, celebrated for its mineral springs, and for the chapel
erected over the tomb of Charlemagne; Plombières, anc. _Aquæ-plombariæ_
(waters impregnated with lead); Veraqua, in New Granada, corrupt.
from _Verdes-aguas_ (green waters); Aigue-perse (the bubbling water),
in Auvergne; Aigue-vive (the spring of living water); Aigue-belle
(beautiful water); Aigue-noire (black water, etc.), in France; Dax,
celebrated for its saline springs, corrupt. from _Civitas aquensis_
(the city of waters); Aigues-mortes (stagnant waters); Aguas-bellas
(beautiful waters), Portugal; Aguas-calientes (warm waters), Mexico;
Evaux, Evreux (on the waters), France; Evian, anc. _Aquarum_ (the
waters), Savoy; Entreves and Entraigues (between the waters), anc.
_Interaquæ_; Yvoire, anc. _Aquaria_ (the watery district), on Lake
Geneva; Aas or Les Eaux (the waters), Basses Pyrénées; Nerac, anc.
_Aquæ Neriedum_ (the waters of the Nerii); Amboise and Amboyna
(surrounded by waters); Bordeaux (the dwelling on the water), _borda_,
Low Lat. (a dwelling); Vichy, anc. _Aquæ calidæ_ (warm waters), on the
Allier; Bex (upon the two waters), at the juncture of the Rhone and
Avençon; Outre L’Eau (beyond the water); Acapulca, in Mexico, corrupt.
from _Portus aquæ pulchræ_ (the port of beautiful waters); Agoa-fria
(cold water), Brazil; Aqui, in North Italy, celebrated for its baths;
Acireale, anc. _aguas calientes_ (the warm waters); Agoa-quente (hot
spring), Brazil.

[Sidenote: ARA,]

a frequent element in river names, with various and even opposite
meanings. Some of the river names may have come from the Sansc. _ara_
(swift, or the flowing), and in Tamil _aar_ means simply a river. There
is another Sanscrit word _arb_ (to ravage or destroy), with which
the Gadhelic words _garw_, _garbh_ (rough) may be connected; and, on
the other hand, there is the Welsh _araf_ (gentle). According to the
locality and the characteristics of the stream, one must judge to
which of these roots its name may belong. There are, in England, the
Aire, Arre, Arro, Arrow; in France, the Arve, Erve, Arveiron, etc.; in
Switzerland and Germany, the Aar, Are; in Spain and Italy, the Arva,
Arno; and in Scotland, the Ayr, Aray, Irvine, etc. Many of these names
may signify simply flowing water (the river), while others beginning
with the syllable _ar_ may be referred to the adjectival forms, _araf_,
_arb_, _ara_, or _garbh_, followed by another root-word for _water_, as
in Arrow (the swift stream); Yarrow (the rough stream); _ow_ (water);
Arveiron (the furious stream); _avon_ (water); Arar (the gentle
stream), now the Saone.

[Sidenote: ARD, AIRD (Gadhelic),]

a height, or, as an adjective, high; _e.g._ the Aird (the height) on
the south coast of the island of Lewis, also in Inverness-shire; Aird
Point in the island of Skye; Aird-dhu (the black height), a hill in
Inverness-shire; the Airds (high lands in Argyleshire); Airdrie, Gael.
_Aird_-righ (the king’s height), or, perhaps, _Aird-reidh_ (the smooth
height); Aird’s Moss (a muirland tract in Ayrshire); Ardbane (white
height); Ardoch (high field); Ardclach (high stony ground); Ardach and
Ardaghy (high field); Ardmore (great height); Ardeen and Arden (the
little height); Ardglass (green height); Ardfert (the height of the
grave or ditch, Irish _fert_); Ardrishaig (the height full of briers,
_driseach_); Ardnamurchan (the height of the great headland, _ceann_,
or of the great ocean, _cuan_); Ardgower (goat’s height); Ardtornish
(the height of the cascade, _cas_ and _torr_); Ardross (high point);
Ardrossan (little high point); Ardchattan (St. Cathan’s height);
Ardersier, Gael. _Ard-ros-siar_ (the high western height); Ardlui (the
height of the fawn, _laoidh_); Ardentinny (of the fire, _teine_);
Ardboe (of the cow); Ardbraccan (of St. Brachan); Ardfinan (St. Finan’s
height); Armagh, in Ireland, anc. _Ardmacha_ (the height of Macha, the
wife of one of the early Irish colonists); Arroquhar, in Dumbarton,
_i.e._ Ardthir (the high land); Ardmeanach (the mossy height or the
black isle); Ardgask (the hero’s height, Gael. _gaisgeach_, a hero);
Ardnacrushy (of the cross); Ardtrea (St. Trea’s height); Ardnarea,
_i.e._ _Ard-na-riaghadh_ (the height of the executions, with reference
to a dark tale of treachery and murder); Ardgay (windy height);
Ardblair (high field); Ardwick (high town, a suburb of Manchester). The
Lat. root _arduus_ (high) is found in Ardea, in Italy; the Ardes (or
heights), in Auvergne; Auvergne itself has been traced to _Ar-fearann_
(high lands), but Cocheris, _Au Noms de Lieu_, gives its ancient name
as _Alverniacus_ (_i.e._ the domain of the _Auvergni_). Ardennes,
Forest of (high-wooded valleys); Ardwick-le-street (the high town on
the great Roman road), _stratum_. _Ard_, _art_, and _artha_ are also
Persian prefixes attached to the names of places and persons; _e.g._
Ardboodha (the high place of Buddha); Aravalli (the hill of strength);
and such personal names as Artaxerxes, Artabanes, Artamenes. In some
cases it may refer to the agricultural habits of the Indo-Germanic
races (Lat. _aro_, Grk. αροω, Goth. _arjan_, Old High Ger. _aran_, Cel.
_ar_ (to plough), hence the Aryan tribes are those belonging to the
dominant race--the aristocracy of landowners, as distinguished from the
subject races--_v._ Taylor’s _Names of Places_.

[Sidenote: ARN, ERN (Teut.),
ARA (Lat.), a home,
AREA, _bas_ (Lat.),
AIRE (Fr.),
AROS (Cel.),]

a place, farm, dwelling; _e.g._ Heddern (hiding-place); Beddern
(sleeping-place); Suthern (south place); Arne, a town in Yorkshire;
Chiltern (chalk place); Whithorn, in Wigton, A.S. _Whitern_, Lat.
_Candida-casa_ (white house); Asperne (the place of poplar-trees);
Femern (of cattle); Domern (of judgment); Thalern (valley dwelling);
Mauthern (toll place); Bevern and Bevergern (the dwelling on the R.
Bever); Aire, Lat. _Area-Atrebatum_ (the dwelling of the Atrebates),
on the Adour, in France; also Aire, on the Lys; Les Aires (the farms);
Airon, etc., in France, Bavaria, Ger. _Baiern_ (the dwelling of the
Boii); Aros, Gael. (the dwelling), in Mull; Arosaig (corner dwelling),

[Sidenote: ARN (Old Ger.),
ARI (Norse),
ERYR (Welsh),]

an eagle. This word is used in topography either with reference to the
bird itself, or to a personal name derived from it; _e.g._ Arnfels
(eagle’s rock); Arnberg, Arnstein, Arlberg (eagle mountain or rock);
Arisdale (eagle valley, or the valley of a person called Arix); Arnau
(eagle meadow); Arnecke (eagle corner); Arendal (eagle valley); Arenoe
(eagle island); Eryri (the eagle mountain), the Welsh name for Snowdon.

[Sidenote: ARX (Lat.),]

a fortress; _e.g._ Arcé, anc. _Arx_, a town in Italy with a hill
fortress called _Rocca d’Arcé_ (the rock of the fortress); Arcis sur
Aube (the fortress on the R. Aube), in France; Arcole and Arcola,
in Lombardy and Sardinia; Saar-Louis, anc. _Arx-Ludovici-Sarum_
(the fortress of Louis on the Saar), founded by Louis XIV., 1680;
Arx-fontana or Fuentes (the fortress of the fountain), in Spain;
Monaco, anc. _Arx-Monæci_ (the fortress of the Monæci), on the Gulf of
Genoa; Thours, anc. _Tuedæ-Arx_ (the fortress on the R. Thouet), in

[Sidenote: AS, or AAS (Scand.),]

a hill ridge; _e.g._ Astadr (ridge dwelling); As and Aas, the names
of several towns in Sweden and Norway; Aswick, Aastrap, Aasthorp (the
village or farm on the ridge) in Shetland.

[Sidenote: ASTA (Basque),]

a rock; _e.g._ Astorga, in Spain, Lat. _Asturica-Augusta_ (the great
city on the rocky water, _ura_); Astiapa and Estepa (the dwelling at
the foot of the rock), in Spain; Astulez and Astobeza, also in Spain;
Asti, a district in Sardinia which was peopled by Iberians or Basques;
Astura (the rocky river); Asturias (the country of the dwellers by
that river); Ecija, in Spain, anc. _Astigi_ (on the rock); Estepa and
Estepona (rocky ground).

[Sidenote: ATH, AGH (Gadhelic),

a ford. This root-word is more common in Ireland than in Scotland,
and is cognate with the Lat. _vadum_, and the A.S. _wath_ or _wade_;
_e.g._ Athy, _i.e._ _Ath-Ae_ (the ford of Ae, a Munster chief who was
slain at the spot); Athmore (great ford); Athdare (the ford of oaks);
Athenry (the king’s ford); Athlone, _i.e._ _Ath Luaen_ (the ford of St.
Luan); Athleague (stony ford); Athane (little ford); Aghanloo (Lewy’s
little ford); the town of Trim is in Irish _Athtruim_ (the ford of the
elder trees); Agolagh, _i.e._ _Athgoblach_ (the forked ford); Aboyne
(the ford of the river), on the Dee in Aberdeenshire; Athgoe, _i.e._
_Ath-goibhne_ (the ford of the smiths), in Dublin.

[Sidenote: ATHEL (A.S.),
ADEL (Ger.),
ADELIG (Gothic),]

noble, or the nobles; _e.g._ Adelsdorf, Adelsheim, Adelshofen,
Attelbury (the nobles’ dwelling); Athelney (the island of the nobles),
in Somersetshire, formerly insulated by the rivers Tone and Parret;
Addelsfors (the nobles’ waterfall); Adelsberg (the nobles’ hill);
Adelsclag (the nobles’ wood-clearing); Adelsoe (the nobles’ island);
Adelmanns-felden (the nobleman’s field).

[Sidenote: AU, AUE (Ger.),
AUGIA (Lat.),]

a meadow, formed from _aha_ (water), and frequently annexed to the name
of a river; _e.g._ Aarau, Ilmenau, Rheinau, Wetterau, Oppenau, Muhrau
(the meadow of the _Aar_, _Ilmen_, _Rhine_, _Wetter_, _Oppa_, _Muhr_);
Frankenau (the Franks’ meadow); Lichtenau (the meadow of light);
Reichenau (rich meadow); Schoenau (beautiful meadow); Greenau (green);
Langenau (long); Weidenau (pasture-meadow); Rosenau (the meadow of
roses); Lindau (of lime-trees); Herisau, Lat. _Augia-dominus_ (the
Lord’s meadow); Eu, anc. _Augia_ (the meadow), in Normandy; Hanau (the
enclosed meadow); Nassau (the moist meadow); Iglau (the meadow of the
R. Igla, in Moravia); Troppau, in Silesia (the meadow of the R. Oppa).

[Sidenote: AUCHTER or OCHTER (Gadhelic),
UCHDER (Welsh),]

the summit, or, as an adjective, upper; _e.g._ Auchtertyre, anc.
_Auchterardower_ (the summit on the water); Auchterarder (the upper
high land); Auchterblair (upper field); Auchtercairn (upper rock);
Auchtermuchty (the upper dwelling, _tigh_, of the wild boar, _muc_);
Auchterau (the upper water); Auchtertool (the upper land on the R.
Tiel), in Fife; Auchterless (the upper side, _slios_). In Ireland this
word takes the form of _Oughter_; _e.g._ Oughterard (upper height);
Oughter-lough (upper lake, in reference to Loch Erne); Balloughter
(upper town); Lissoughter (upper fort); Killoughter (upper church). The
Irish adjective _uachdar_ is not unfrequently Anglicised _water_, as
in Clowater in Carlow, _i.e._ _Cloch-uachdar_ (upper stone or castle);
Watree, in Kilkenny, _i.e._ _Uachdaraighe_ (upper lands)--_v._ Joyce’s
_Irish Names of Places_.

[Sidenote: AVON, AFON (Cym.-Cel.),
AMNIS (Lat. Sansc. _ap._),]

water, a river; _e.g._ the Avon, Aven, Aune, Auney, Inney, Ewenny,
Aney, Eveny, river names in England, Wales, and Ireland; Avengorm
(red river); Aven-banna (white river); Avenbui (yellow river);
Avonmore (great river), in Ireland; the Seine, anc. _Seimh-au_ (smooth
river); the Mayenne or Meduana (probably the middle river, from Cel.
_meadhou_). In France there are from this root--the Ain, Avenne,
Vilaine, Vienne; the Abona, in Spain. In Scotland: the Almond or
_Awmon_; Devon (deep river); Doon (dark river); Kelvin (woody river);
Annan (quiet river); the Leith, Leithen, Lethen (the broad or the
gray river); the Don, in Scotland and England (dark or brown river);
Irvine and Earn (the west-flowing river); Anwoth, in Kirkcudbright,
_i.e._ Avonwath (the course of the river); the Spey, _speach-abhain_
(swift river); the Allan (beauteous river, _aluinn_); the Boyne, anc.
_Bouoninda_ (perhaps yellow river, _buidhe_). Many towns derive their
names from their rivers, or from their vicinity to water: thus, Avignon
and Verona (on the water); Amiens, the cap. of the _Ambiani_ (dwellers
on the water, _i.e._ of the Samara or Somme). Teramo, anc. _Interamnia_
(between the rivers), and Terni, with the same meaning; Avenay, anc.
_Avenacum_ (on the river); Avesnes, celebrated for its mineral springs.
But such names as Avenay, Avennes, etc., may have been derived in many
cases from Lat. _avena_, Fr. _avoine_ (oats)--_v._ Cocheris’s _Noms de


[Sidenote: BAAL,]

a prefix in Phœnician names, derived from the worship of the sun-god
among that people; _e.g._ Baalath and Kirjath-Baal (the city of
Baal); Baal-hazor (Baal’s village); BaalHermon (near Mount Hermon);
Baal-Judah, etc., in Palestine. Sometimes, however, the word is used
as synonymous with _beth_ (a dwelling), as Baal-tamar and Baal-Meon
(for Bethtamar and Beth Meon). But Baal-Perazim, we are told, means the
_place of breaches_, and has no reference to the sun-god, Baalbec (the
city of the sun), in Syria.

[Sidenote: BAB (Ar.),]

a gate or court; Babel and Babylon, according to the Arabic (the
gate of God), or from a word signifying confusion, Gen. xi. 9; Baab
(the gate), a town in Syria; El-Baab (the gate), in the Sahara;
Bab-el-Mandeb, Strait of (the gate of tears), so called by the Arabs
from its dangerous navigation; Bab-el-estrecho (the gate of the narrow
passage), the Arabic name for the Strait of Gibraltar.

[Sidenote: BACH, BATCH (Teut.),
BEC, BOEK (Scand.),
but _bach_, by mutation _fach_ or _vach_, in Welsh names means small, little,]

a brook; _e.g._ Snail-batch and Caldbeck (cold brook or swift brook);
_snell_ in A.S. and Old English means active, sharp, quick; and in
Scotland, as applied to the weather, it means sharp or severely cold;
Crumbeck (crooked brook); Lauterbach (clear brook); Skurbeck (dividing
brook); Griesbach and Sandbach (sandy brook); Gronenbach (green brook);
Over-beck (upper); Reichenbach (rich); Marbeck (boundary); Schoenbach
(beautiful brook); Beckford (the brook ford); Bacheim and Beckum (the
dwelling at the brook); Beckermet (the meeting of brooks); Bickerstith
(the station at the brook); Laubach and Laybach (the warm brook); but
Laubach may also mean rich in leaves--_v._ ACH. Bec in Normandy is
named from a brook that flows into the Risle: Birkbeck in Westmoreland
(the birch-tree brook); Ansbach or Anspach (at the stream in Bavaria);
Schwalbach (the swallow’s brook), in Nassau; Houlbec, in Normandy,
Holbeck, in Lincoln and in Denmark (the brook in the hollow); Fulbeck
(Lincoln) and Foulbec, in Normandy (muddy brook).

[Sidenote: BAD (Teut.),
BADD (Cym.-Cel.),]

a bath or mineral spring; _e.g._ Baden, anc. _Thermæ-Austricæ_ (the
Austrian warm springs); Baden-Baden, anc. _Civitas Aquenses Aurelia_
(the watering-place of Aurelius); Baden-bei-Wien (the baths near
Vienna); Baden-ober (the upper baths); Franzens-bad (the bath of the
Franks); Carlsbad or Kaiser-bad (the bath-town of the Emperor Charles
IV. of Bohemia); Marien-bad, Lat. _Balneum Mariæ_ (the bath-town of the
Virgin Mary); Wiesbaden, anc. _Fontes-Mattiaci_ (the baths or springs
of the _Mattiaci_, dwellers on the meadow)--_v._ WIESE; Badborn (bath
well); Wildbad (wild bath, _i.e._ not prepared by art), in the Black
Forest; Slangenbad (the bath of snakes), so called from the number
of snakes found in the mineral springs; Badsdorf (bath village),
Bohemia. The Celtic name of the English city _Bath_ was _Caer-badon_,
or _Bathan-ceaster_ (bath city or fortress); the Anglo-Saxons made it
_Akeman-ceaster_ (the sick man’s camp), or _Aquæ Sulis_ (dedicated to a
British divinity, Sulis, identified with Minerva).

[Sidenote: BAGH (Ar. and Turc.),]

a garden; _e.g._ Bag, or Baug, in Hindostan. Bagdad superseded
Seleucia, which, it is related, was reduced to such a state of ruin as
to have nothing remaining on the spot where it stood formerly but the
cell of the monk Dad; hence the name of the new city founded by the
Caliph Almazar, A.D. 762. Baghdad, _i.e._ the garden of Dad, a monk who
had his cell near the site of the city; Bala-Bagh (high garden), in
Affghanistan; Karabagh (black garden), a district in Armenia, so called
from its thick forests; Alum-bagh (the garden of the Lady Alum), in
Hindostan; Baktschisarai (the palace of the garden), in Crimea.

[Sidenote: BAGNA (It.),
BANO (Span.),
BANHO (Port.),
BAIN (Fr.),]

from the Lat. _balneum_ (a bath); _e.g._ Bagnacavallo (the horses’
bath); Bagna-di-aqua (water bath); Bagnazo, Bagnara, Bagnari,
towns in Italy, celebrated for their baths. In France there are
Bagnères-de-Bigorre (the baths of Bigorones, _i.e._ the dwellers
between two heights); Bagnères-de-Luchon (the baths on the R. Luchon);
Bains-les-du-mont-doré (the baths of the golden mount); with numerous
names with similar meanings, such as Bagneux, Bagneaux, Bagnol,
Bagnoles, Bagnolet, Bagnot, etc. In Italy: Bagnolina (the little bath);
Bagni-di-Lucca, Bagni-di-Pisa (the baths of Lucca and Pisa).

[Sidenote: BAHIA (Port.),]

a bay; _e.g._ Bahia or St. Salvador (the town of the Holy Saviour),
on the bay, in Brazil; Bahia-blanca (white bay); Bahia-hermosa
(beautiful); Bahia-honda (deep); Bahia-negra (black); Bahia-neuva (new
bay); Bahia-de-Neustra-Senora (the bay of Our Lady); Bahia-Escosesa
(Scottish bay), in Hayti; Bayonna, in Spain, and Bayonne, in France
(the good bay), from a Basque word, signifying _good_; Baia (the town
on the bay), in Naples; Bahia-de-todos los Santos (All Saints’ Bay), in

[Sidenote: BAHN (Ger.),]

a way or path; _e.g._ Winter-bahn (winter path); Langen-bahn (long
path); Wild-bahn (wild or uncultivated path).

[Sidenote: BAHR, or BAHAR (Ar.),]

a sea, a lake, and sometimes a river; _e.g._ Bahar-el-Abiad (the
white); Bahar-el-azrak (the blue river), forming together the Nile;
Bahar-belame (waterless river), in Egypt; Baraach (the sea of wealth),
in Hindostan; Bahari (the maritime district), Lower Egypt; Bahr-assal
(salt lake), Africa; Bahrein (the two seas), a district in Arabia,
between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea; also a group of islands on
the same coast.

[Sidenote: BAILE, BALLY (Gadhelic),]

originally merely a place, a home, then a fort, a town, allied to
the Grk. _polis._ The word joined with the article _an_ is found as
_ballin_ for _baile-an_; _e.g._ Ballinrobe (the town of the R. Robe);
Balbriggan (Brecon’s town); Ballintra and Ballintrae, in Ireland, and
Ballantrae, in Scotland (the dwelling on the strand); Ballinure (the
town of the yew); Ballintubbert (the town of the well); Ballinakill
(of the church or wood); Ballinahinch (of the island); Ballinamona (of
the bog), in Ireland; Ballycastle (castle town); Ballymena (middle
town); Ballymony (of the shrubbery); Balmagowan and Ballingown (of the
smiths); Ballymore and Ballmore (great town); Nohoval, corrupt. from
_Nuachongbhail_ (new dwelling), localities in Ireland. In Scotland:
Balvanie, anc. _Bal-Beni-mor_ (the dwelling of Beyne, the great
first Bishop of Mortlach), in Aberdeenshire; Balmoral (the majestic
dwelling, _morail_); Ballater (the dwelling on the hill-slope,
_leitir_); Balmerino (on the sea-shore, _muir_); Balachulish, Gael.
_Baile-na-caolish_ (the dwelling on the narrow strait); Baldernock,
Gael. _Baile-dair-cnoc_ (the dwelling at the oak hill); Balnacraig
(dwelling of the rock); Balfour (cold dwelling); Balgay (windy
dwelling, _gaoth_, wind); Balfron (of mourning, _bhroin_), so called,
according to tradition, because a number of children had been devoured
by wolves at the place; Balgreen (the sunny place, _grianach_);
Balgarvie (of the rough stream); Ballagan and Ballogie (the dwelling
in the hollow); Balgownie and Balgonie (of the smiths); Balbardie
(of the bard); Balmac Lellan (the dwelling of the Bal-MacLellan), in
Kirkcudbright; Balmaghie (of the Maghies); Balquhidder (the town at the
back of the country); Balblair (of the field or plain).

[Sidenote: BALA (Turc.),]

high; _e.g._ Bala-hissar (high castle); Bala-dagh (high mountain);
Bala-Ghauts (the high Ghauts); Balasore (high dwelling); Balkan (high
ridge), also called Mount Haemus (the snowy mount), _hima_ (Sansc.),
snow; Balkh (high town), anc. Bactra.

[Sidenote: BALKEN (Ger.),]

a ridge; _e.g._ Griesen-balken (sandy ridge); Moes-balken (mossy
ridge); Schieren-balken (clear ridge)--the word is applied to chains of
mountains in general.

[Sidenote: BALTA (Scand.),
BALTEUS (Lat.),]

a strait or belt; _e.g._ Balta (the island of the strait); Baltia (the
country of belts or straits), the ancient name of Scandinavia. The
Great and Little Belts, or straits.

[Sidenote: BAN (Gadhelic),]

white, fair; _e.g._ Rivers Bann, Bane, Bain, Bana, Banon, Bandon,
Banney, etc.; Banchory (the fair valley).

[Sidenote: BAN (Cym.-Cel.),]

a hill or height; _e.g._ Cefn-y-fan (the hill-ridge); Tal-y-fan (the
face of the hill), in Wales. _B_ by mutation becomes _f_.

[Sidenote: BANT, BANZ (Ger.),
POINT and PAINT, _Ahd_,]

a district or enclosure, from Old Ger. _pyndan_ (to confine), cognate
with Cym.-Cel. _pant_; _e.g._ Brabant, _i.e._ _Brach-bant_ (the
ploughed district); Altenbanz (the old); Ostrevant (the eastern);
Grunnenbant (the green district); Hasel-point (hazel field);
Pound-stock (the enclosed place), in Germany; Drenthe, corrupt. from
_Thri-banta_ (the three districts), in Holland; Bantz, in Bavaria.
From _pant_ we have in Monmouth, Panteg (beautiful valley, _têg_);
Pant-y-goitre (the valley of the town in the wood).

[Sidenote: BANYA (Hung.),]

a mine; _e.g._ Uj-banya (new mine); Nagy-banya (great mine), a town of
Hungary with gold and silver mines, named by the Germans _Neustadt_;
Abrud-banya (the mine on the R. Abrud, a district abounding in metals).

[Sidenote: BARR (Gadhelic),
BAR (Cym.-Cel.),
BARD (Scand.),]

a summit; _e.g._ Barmona (the summit or top of the bog); Barra-vore
(great height, _mor_); Barmeen (smooth summit), in Ireland. In several
counties in Scotland we have Barr (the uplands), but Barr in Ayrshire
took its name from St. Barr; Barbreac (spotted point); Barrie and Barra
(the head of the water, _abh_); Barcaldine (hazel point, _calltunn_);
Barbeth (birch point); Barrglass (gray point); Bar-darroch (the
summit of the oak grove); Bardearg (red point); Barcaple (the horses’
point); the Bard of Mousa and of Bressay, in the Shetlands, is the
projection on these islands; the ancient name of the town of Perth
was _Barr-Tatha_ (the height of the R. Tay); Barwyn for Bar-gwn (a
white-topped mountain, or tipped with snow), in Wales. In France the
prefix _bar_ is applied to strongholds, as in Bar-le-Duc (the duke’s
citadel); Bar-sur Saone, Bar-sur Aube (the stronghold on the rivers
Saone and Aube).

[Sidenote: BARROW (Scand.),
BEORH (A.S.),]

a mound of earth, especially over a grave; _e.g._ Barrow-by (the
dwelling at the mound); Ingle-barrow (the mound at the grave of
Ingold). But, in some cases, barrow may be a form of A.S. _boerw_ (a
grove), as in Barrow-den (the grove hollow), in Rutland.

[Sidenote: BAU (Ger.),
BAÜEN, to build,]

a building; _e.g._ Brun-bau (the well-house); Neu-bau and Alten-bau
(the old and new building); Buittle (the building), a parish on the
Solway Firth; Tichel-boo (brick building); Forst-gebaude (the building
in the forest). It takes the form of bottle and buttel in Germany, and
battle in Britain--_v._ p. 27; Newbattle (new building in Mid Lothian);
Wulfen-buttel (the dwelling of Ulpha); Bolton, in Lancashire, anc.

[Sidenote: BAUM (Ger.)
BEAM (A.S.),
BOOM (Dut.),]

a tree, a post; _e.g._ Baumburg (tree town); Baumgarten (the orchard);
Baumgartenthal (orchard valley); Baum-krüg (the tree inn); Schöenbaum
(beautiful tree); Heesbaum (the hazel-tree), in Germany; Bampton and
Bempton (tree town), in Oxford and Yorkshire; but Bampton in Devon
takes its name from the R. Bathom--its ancient name was _Bathom-ton_.

[Sidenote: BEDD (Welsh),]

a grave; _e.g._ Bedd-gelert (the grave of a favourite hound of
Llewelyn, or, as others affirm, the grave of a saint named Kelert).

[Sidenote: BEDW (Cym.-Cel.),
BEITH (Gadhelic),
BEDWEN (Welsh),]

the birch-tree, cognate with the Lat. _betula_; _e.g._ Beddoe (the
birches), Salop; Bedwelty, _i.e._ _Bedw-gwal-ty_ (the wild beast’s
dwelling among the birches), in Monmouth; Penbedw (birch hill),
Monmouth. In Ireland: Beagh, Beaghy, Behagh, Behy, _i.e._ (birch
land); Kilbehey, _i.e._ _coill-beithne_ (birch wood); Behanagh
(birch-producing river); Ballybay, _i.e._ _Bel-atha-beithe_ (the ford
mouth of the birch); Aghaveagh (birch field). In Scotland: Beith and
Beath, in Fife and Ayrshire; Dalbeath, Dalbeth, Dalbeathie (the birch
field or valley); Barbeth (the summit of birches).

[Sidenote: BEEMD (Dutch),]

a meadow; _e.g._ Beemd and Beemte (on the meadow); Haagschbeemden
(enclosed meadow); Beemster-polder (the meadow embankment).

[Sidenote: BEER, BIR (Heb. and Ar.),]

a well; _e.g._ Beer-sheba (the well of the oath); Beer-Elim (the well
of heroes); Beer-lahai-roi (the well of the living sight); Beirout (the
city of wells), in Palestine; Bir, a town of Asiatic Turkey.

[Sidenote: BEER, or BEAR (Teut.),
BUR (A.S.),
BYR (Old Ger.),]

a farm, cottage, or dwelling; _e.g._ Beer-Regis (the king’s farm);
Beer-Alston (the dwelling of Alston); Beardon and Berewood (the
dwelling on a hill and in a wood); Aylesbear (the dwelling of Aegle);
Bühren, in Hanover and Switzerland; Beuren, in Swabia; Grasbeuren
(grassy dwelling); Sandbuur (sandy dwelling); Erlesbura (dwelling among
elms); Beerendrecht (the dwelling on the pasture); Nassenbeuren (damp
dwelling); Blaubeuren (the blue dwelling); Benediktbeuren (the dwelling
of the Benedictines).

[Sidenote: BEG, BEAG (Gadhelic),
BACH, or BYCHAN, by mutation _fach_ or _fychan_ (Cym.-Cel.),]

little; _e.g._ Morbihan (the little sea), in Brittany; Taafe-fechan
(the little River Taafe), in Wales. In Ireland: Castlebeg (little
castle); Downkillybegs (the fortress of the little church); Bunbeg
(small river mouth); Rathbeg (little fort).

[Sidenote: BEIM,]

a contraction of the Ger. _bei-dem_ (by the); _e.g._ Beimbach,
Beimberg, Beimhofen (by the brook, the hill, the court).

[Sidenote: BEINN (Gadhelic),

a mountain, cognate with the Cym.-Cel. _pen_; _e.g._ Beanach (a hilly
place); Ben-more (great mountain); Ben-a-buird (table mountain);
Ben-a-bhaird (the bard’s mountain); Benan, _i.e._ _Binnean_ (the peaked
hill or pinnacle); Bencleuch (stony mountain); Ben-cruachan (the
stack-shaped mountain, _cruach_); Bendearg (red mountain); Bendronach
(the mountain with the hunch, _dronnag_); Bengloe (the mountain with
the covering or veil, _gloth_); Benamore and Bannmore (the great peaks,
_beanna_, peaks); Bennachie (the hill of the pap, at its summit,
_ache_); Benavoir (the mountain of gold, _or_), in Jura; Benclibrig
(the hill of the playing trout); Benloyal, _i.e_, _Ben-laoghal_ (the
hill of the calves); Ben-na-cailleach (nun’s hill); Ben Lomond, named
from Loch Lomond, _quod vide_; Benmacdhui, _i.e._ _Beinn-na-muc-dubh_
(the mountain of the black sow); Ben Nevis (the cloud-capped or snowy
mountain); Benvenue (the little mountain), as compared with Benledi;
Benwyvis (stupendous mountain, _uabhasach_); Benvrachie (spotted
mountain); Benvoirlich (the mountain of the great loch). In Ireland:
Benbo, _i.e._ Beannabo (the peaks of the cows); Dunmanway, in Cork,
corrupt. from Dun-na-mbeann (the fortress of the pinnacles). In Ireland
_ben_ is more generally applied to small steep hills than to mountains;
_e.g._ Bengore (the peak of the goats, _gabhar_); Benburb, Lat. _pinna
superba_ (proud peak), in Tyrone; the Twelve Pins, _i.e._ _bens_
or peaks, in Connemara; Banagh and Benagh (a place full of peaks);
Bannaghbane and Bannaghroe (white and red hilly ground); Banaghar,
King’s Co., and Bangor, Co. Down, anc. _Beannchar_ (the pointed hills
or rocks); but Bangor, in Wales, signifies the high choir; Drumbanagh
(the ridge of the peaks).

[Sidenote: BEL, BELLE, BEAU (Fr.),
BELLO, BELLA (Port., Span., It.),]

beautiful, fine, from the Lat. _bellus_; _e.g._ Belchamp, Belcastro
(beautiful field and camp); Belle-isle and Belile (beautiful island);
Beaufort, Beaulieu, Beaumont, Beaumanoir (fine fort, place, mount,
manor); Beaumaris (the fair marsh), so named in the reign of Edward
I. Some think it may have been formerly _Bimaris_ (between two seas),
a name applied by Horace to Corinth; Belvoir (beautiful to see), in
Rutland; Bewley and Bewdley, corrupt. from Beaulieu; Beauley, a river
and village in Inverness-shire, named from _Prioratus-de-bello-loco_
(the priory of the beautiful place), founded in 1230; Beachy Head,
according to Camden, is the head of the beach, but Holland, who
published _Camden’s Britannia_, says it was called Beaucliff, or,
more probably, Beauchef (beautiful headland); Beaudesert (beautiful
retreat); Belper, _i.e._ _Beau-repaire_ (with the same meaning), in
Warwick and Derbyshire; Leighton-Buzzard, corrupt. of its ancient name
_Legionbuhr_ (the fortress of the legion); Balaclava, corrupt. from its
ancient name _Bella-chiava_ (the beautiful frontier town, _chiave_),
founded by the Genoese.

[Sidenote: BEL, BIALA (Sclav.),]

white; _e.g._ Biela (white stream); Bela, Belaia (white place); Belowes
and Belowiz (white village); _was_ or _wies_ (a town or village);
Belgrade, Ger. _Weissenburg_ (white fortress); Bialgorod, Turc.
_Akkermann_ (white castle); Belki or Bielki (a name applied in Russia
to snow-capped mountains); Berat, in Albania, corrupt. from Belgrade
(white fort).

[Sidenote: BEL, BEAL (Gadhelic),]

a mouth, in its literal sense, but in a secondary sense, signifying
an entrance into any place. In Ireland it is often united with _ath_
(a ford), forming _belatha_ (ford entrance). The word _bel_ itself is
often used to denote a ford; _e.g._ Belclair, _i.e._ _Bel-an-chlair_
(the ford or entrance to the plain); _Belatha_ (Anglicised _Bella_)
is found in many names, as in Bellanagare, _i.e._ _Bel-atha-na-gcarr_
(the ford mouth of the cars); Lisbellaw (the fort at the ford mouth);
Bel-atha is often changed in modern names to _balli_ or _bally_, as
if the original root were _baile_ (a town), as in Ballinamore (the
mouth of the great ford); Ballinafad (the mouth of the long ford);
Ballyshannon is corrupt. from _Bel-atha-Seanach_ (Shannagh’s ford);
Belfast, anc. _Bel-feirsde_ (the ford of the _farset_ or sandbank);
Ballinaboy, _i.e._ _Bel-an-atha-buide_ (the mouth of the yellow
ford); Ballinasloe, _Bel-atha-na-sluaigheadh_ (the ford mouth of the
armies); _Bel_ (a ford) is not found in Scotland, but a word with a
kindred meaning as applied to land, _bealach_ (a pass or opening
between hills), is frequent there, as well as in Ireland, and takes
the form of _ballagh_ or _balloch_; _e.g._ Ballaghboy in Ireland, and
Ballochbuie in Scotland (the yellow pass); Ballaghmore (great pass);
Ballaghkeen (the beautiful pass, _cæin_); Ballaghadereen (the pass of
the little oak grove); Balloch alone occurs in several counties of
Scotland, the best known being Balloch, at the entrance to Loch Lomond;
Ballochray (smooth pass, _reidh_); Ballochmyle (the bald or bare
pass); Ballochgair (short pass); Ballochcraggan (of the little rock);
Balloch-nam-bo (the pass of the cattle), etc.

[Sidenote: BELED, or BELAD (Ar.),]

a district; _e.g._ Beled-es-Shurifa (the district of the nobles);
Belad-es-Sûdân (the district of the Blacks); Belad-es-Sukkar (sugar
district); _Belad-t-moghrib_ (the district of the West), the Arabian
name for Morocco, also called _Beled-el-Djered_ (the land of dates);
Beled-el-Sham (the district of the north or on the left), the Arabic
name for Syria, to distinguish it from Yemen (to the south or right).
Syria was also called by the Turks Soristan, and by the Greeks Suria,
_i.e._ the country of Tyre (_Tzur_, the rock). The word in its
secondary sense means prosperous or happy--hence the Greeks called
it Αραβια ἡ εὐδαίμων, to distinguish it from Arabia deserta (Ar.),
_El-Badiah_ (the desert), hence the Bedawees or Bedouins.

[Sidenote: BENDER (Ar.),]

a market or harbour. Bender is the name of several towns on the Persian
Gulf, and also of a town on the Dniester; Bender-Erekli (the harbour of
the ancient Heraclea), on the Black Sea.

[Sidenote: BENI (Ar.),]

sons of; _e.g._ Beni-Hassan (a town named from the descendants of
Hassan); Beni-Araba (belonging to the sons of the desert); Beni-Calaf
(to the sons of the Caliph); Beni-Sham (the sons of Shem), _i.e._
Syria; Beni-Misr (the land of Mizraim or Egypt).

[Sidenote: BERG (Ger.),
BIERG (Scand.),
BRIG, BRAIGH (Celtic),]

a hill, a summit; _e.g._ Ailberg (eagle hill); Bleyberg (lead hill);
Schneeberg (snowy hill); Walkenberg (the hill of clouds); Donnersberg
(of thunder); Habsberg, Falkenberg, Valkenberg (of hawks); Finsterberg
(dark hill); Groenberg (green hill); Teufelsberg (the devil’s hill);
Greiffenberg (the griffin’s hill); Geyersberg (of the vulture);
Jarlsberg (of the earl); Dreisellberg (the hill of three seats);
Kupperberg (copper hill); Heilberg (holy hill); Silberberg (silver
hill, near a silver mine); Schoenberg (beautiful hill). The word
_berg_, however, is often applied to the names of towns and fortresses
instead of _burg_; and, when this is the case, it indicates that the
town was built on or near a hill, or in connection with a fortress;
_e.g._ Kaiserberg (the hill fort of the Emperor Frederick II.);
Würtemberg, anc. Wirtenberg (named from the seignorial chateau,
situated upon a hill). The name has been translated (the lord of the
hill) from an Old Ger. word _wirt_ (a lord). Heidelberg is a corrupt.
of Heydenberg (the hell of the pagans), or from heydel myrtle, which
grows in great abundance in the neighbourhood; Lemberg, Lowenburg,
or Leopolis (the fortress of Leo Danielowes), in Galicia; Nurnberg,
anc. _Norimberga_ or _Castrum Noricum_ (the fortress of the Noricii);
Lahnberg (on the R. Lahn); Spermberg (on the Spree); Wittenberg
(white fortress); Köningsberg (the king’s fortress), in E. Prussia
and in Norway; Bamberg (named after Babe, daughter of the Emperor
Otho II.), in Bavaria; Havelberg (on the R. Havel). There are several
towns in Germany and Scandinavia called simply Berg or Bergen; _e.g._
Bergen-op-Zoom (the hill fort on the R. Zoom), in Holland; Bergamo (on
a hill), in Italy. Berg (a hill) sometimes takes the form of _berry_,
as in Queensberry, in Dumfries; also of _borough_, as in Flamborough
Head and Ingleborough (the hill of the beacon light). _Gebirge_
signifies a mountain range; _e.g._ Schneegebirge (the snow-clad range);
Siebengebirge (the range of seven hills); Fichtelgebirge (of the
pines); Erzegebirge (the ore mountain range); Glasischgebirge (of the
glaciers); Eulergebirge (of the owls).

[Sidenote: BETH (Heb.),
BEIT (Ar.),]

a house; _e.g._ Bethany (the house of dates); Bethphage (of figs);
Bethsaida (of fish); Bethoron (of caves); Bethabara (of the ford);
Bethlehem (the house of bread), but its present name, _Beit-lahm_,
means the house of flesh; Bethesda (of mercy); Betharaba (desert
dwelling); Bethjesimoth (of wastes); Bethshemish Grk. _Heliopolis_ (the
house or city of the sun); its Egyptian name was _Aun-i-Aun_ (light of
light), contracted to _On_; Beit-Allah (the house of God), at Mecca;
Beit-el-Fakih (the house of the saint), on the Red Sea.

[Sidenote: BETTWS (Cym.-Cel.),]

a portion of land lying between a river and a hill, hence a dwelling
so situated; _e.g._ Bettws-yn-y-coed (the dwelling in the wood);
Bettws-disserth (the retreat dwelling); Bettws-Garmon (of St. Germanus,
where he led the Britons to the famous Alleluia victory over the
Saxons); Bettws-Newydd (new dwelling).

[Sidenote: BETULA (Lat.),

the birch-tree; _e.g._ Le Boulay, La Boulay, Les Boulages, Les
Boulus, Belloy (places planted with birch-trees).

[Sidenote: BIBER, BEVER (Teut.),
BOBR (Sclav.),]

the beaver; _e.g._ the Biber, Beber, Biberich, Beber-bach (rivers in
Germany); Bober, Boberau, Bobronia (beaver river), in Silesia and
Russia; Bobersburg (on the R. Bober); Biberschlag (beaver’s wood
clearing); Biberstein (beaver rock); Beverley, in Yorkshire, anc.
_Biberlac_ (beaver lake), formerly surrounded by marshy ground, the
resort of beavers; Beverstone, in Gloucester; Beverloo (beaver marsh),
in Belgium.

[Sidenote: BILL,]

an old German word, signifying plain or level; _e.g._ Bilderlah (the
field of the plain); Billig-ham (level dwelling); Wald-billig (woody
plain); Wasser-billig (the watery plain); Bilstein (level rock);
Bielefeld (level field); Bieler-see (the lake on the plain).

[Sidenote: BIOR (Gadhelic),]

water, an element in many river names; _e.g._ the Bere, in Dorset;
Ver, Hereford; Bervie, in Mearns. The town of Lifford, in Donegal, was
originally _Leith-bhearr_ (the gray water); Berra, a lake in France;
the Ebura or Eure, in Normandy; and in Yorkshire, the Ebro, anc.
_Iberus_; Ivry, in Normandy, anc. _Ebarovicus_ (the town on the Ebura).

[Sidenote: BIRCE, BIRKE (Teut.),
BERK, (Lat.)

the birch-tree; _e.g._ Birkenhead (the head of the birches); Birchholt
(birch wood); Berkeley (birch field); Birchington, Birkhoff (the
birch-tree dwelling and court); Birkhampstead (the home place among
the birches); Oberbirchen (the upper birches); but Berkshire is not
from this root; it was called by the Anglo-Saxons _Berroc-shyre_,
supposed to be named from the abundance of _berroc_ (boxwood), or the
_bare-oak-shire_, from a certain polled oak in Windsor Forest, where
the Britons were wont to hold their provincial meetings.

[Sidenote: BLAEN (Cym.-Cel.),]

the source of a stream; _e.g._ Blaene-Avon, Blaen-Ayron,
Blaen-Hounddu (river sources in Wales); Blaen-porth (the head of the
harbour); Blaen-nant (of the brook); Blaen-Bylan, abbreviated from
Blaen-pwll-glan (the top of pool bank); Blaen-Sillt, at the top of a
small stream, the Sillt, in Wales; Blaen-afon (of the river).

[Sidenote: BLAIR, BLAR (Gadhelic),]

a plain, originally a battle-field; _e.g._ Blair-Athole, Blair-Logie,
Blair-Gowrie (the battle-field in these districts); Blairmore (the
great); Blaircreen (the little plain); Blairdaff (the plain of the
oxen, _daimh_); Blair-burn (of the stream); Blair-craig (of the rock);
Blair-linne (of the pool); Blair-beth (of birches); Blair-ingone (the
field of spears), in Perthshire; Blair-glass (gray plain); Blarney
(little field), in Ireland; Blair-Drummond, Blair-Adam, modern places
named after persons.

[Sidenote: BLANC (Fr.),
BLANCO (Span.),
BRANCO (Port.),
BLANK (Ger.),]

white; _e.g._ Mont-Blanc, Cape-blanco, Sierra-blanca (white
mountain-ridge); Castella-bianca (white castle); Villa-bianca (white
town); Blankenburg (white town); Blankenham (white dwelling);
Blankenhavn, Blankenloch, Blankenrath, Blankenese (white haven, place,
wood-clearing, cape), in Germany; Bianchi-mandri (white sheep-folds),
in Sicily; Branco (the white stream), in Brazil; Los-Brancos (the
white mountains); Cata-branca (the white cove); Casa-branca (the white
house), in Brazil.

[Sidenote: BLISKO (Sclav.),]

near; _e.g._ Bliesdorf, Bliesendorf, Blieskendorf (near village);
Bliskau (near meadow).

[Sidenote: BLOTO, BLATT (Sclav.),]

a marsh; _e.g._ Blotto, Blottnitz (marshy land); Wirchen-blatt (high
marsh); Sa-blatt, Sablater, Zablatt (behind the marsh); Na-blatt (near
the marsh). In some cases the _b_ in this word is changed into _p_, as
in Plotsk and Plattkow (the marshy place); Plattensee or Balaton (the
lake in the marshy land).

[Sidenote: BOCA (Span., Port., and It.),]

a mouth--in topography, the narrow entrance of a river or bay; _e.g._
Boca-grande, Boca-chica (great and little channel), in South America;
La Bochetta (the little opening), a mountain pass in the Apennines;
Desemboque (the river mouth), in Brazil.

[Sidenote: BOD (Cym.-Cel.),]

a dwelling; _e.g._ Bodmin, in Cornwall, corrupt. from _Bodminian_
(the dwelling of monks); Bodffaris (the site of Varis), the old Roman
station on the road to Chester; Hafod, the name of several places in
Wales, corrupt. from Hafbod (a summer residence); Bosher or Bosherston,
corrupt. from _Bod_ and _hir_, long (the long ridge abode), in Wales.

[Sidenote: BODDEN (Teut.),
BOD (Scand.),]

a bay, the ocean swell; _e.g._ Bodden (an arm of the sea which divides
the island of Rugen from Pomerania); Bodden-ness (the headland of the
bay), on the east coast of Scotland.

[Sidenote: BODEN (Ger.),]

the ground, soil--in topography, a meadow; _e.g._ Gras-boden (grassy
meadow); Dunkel-boden (dark meadow). It may sometimes, however, be
used instead of _bant_ or _paint_--_v._ p. 18; and in Bodenburg, in
Brunswick, it is a corrupt. of _Ponteburg_ (bridge town); and Bodenheim
is from a personal name, like Bodensee--_v._ SEE.

[Sidenote: BOGEN (Ger.),]

a bend or bow--in topography, applied to the bend of a river; _e.g._
Bogen, anc. _Bogana_ (the bending river); Bogen, a town of Bavaria, on
a bend of the Danube; Ellbogen or Ellenbogen, Lat. _Cubitus_ (the town
on the elbow or river bend), in Bohemia; Bogenhausen (the houses on the
river bend); Langen-bogen (the long bend); Entli-buch (the bend on the
R. Entle), in Switzerland.

[Sidenote: BOLD, BATTLE, or BOTTLE, BÜTTEL, BLOD (Teut.),
BOL, or BO (Scand.),]

a dwelling; _e.g._ Newbattle, Newbottle, Newbold (new dwelling), as
distinguished from Elbottle (old dwelling); Morebattle (the dwelling
on the marshy plain); Bolton, in Lancashire, A.S. _Botl_; Buittle, in
Kirkcudbright; Newbald, Yorkshire; Harbottle (the dwelling of the army,
_here_), a place in Northumberland where, in former times, soldiers
were quartered; Erribold (the dwelling on the tongue of land, _eir_);
Maybole, in Ayrshire, anc. _Minnibole_ (the dwelling on the mossy
place, Cym.-Cel., _myswn_); Exnabul, in Shetland (a place for keeping
cattle); _yxn_, Scand. (a bull or cow); Walfenbuttel (the dwelling of
Ulpha); Brunsbottle (of Bruno); Ritzbüttel (of Richard); Griesenbottel
(sandy dwelling); Rescbüttel (the dwelling among rushes).

[Sidenote: BONUS (Lat.),
BUEN (Span.),
BOA, BOM (Port.),]

good; _e.g._ Bonavista, Boavista (good view); Buenos-Ayres (good
breezes), in South America; Buenaventura (good luck), in California.

[Sidenote: BOOM (Sansc.),]

_Bhuma_ (land, country); _e.g._ Birboom (the land of heroes);
Arya-Bhuma (the noble land), the Sanscrit name for Hindostan.

[Sidenote: BOR (Sclav.),]

wood; _e.g._ Bohra, Bohrau, Borowa, Borow (woody place); Borovsk (the
town in the wood); Sabor and Zaborowa (behind the wood); Borzna (the
woody district); the Borysthenes, now the R. Dnieper (the woody wall),
from _stena_ (a wall or rampart), the banks of the river having been
covered with wood; Ratibor (the wood of the Sclavonic god Razi).

[Sidenote: BRACHE (Teut.),
BRAK (Scand.),]

land broken up for tillage, Old Ger. _pracha_ (to plough); _e.g._
Brabant, anc. _Bracbant_ (the ploughed district); Brachstadt,
Brachfeld, Brachrade (the ploughed place, field, clearing); Brakel (the
ploughed land), in Holland; Hohenbrack (high ploughed land).

[Sidenote: BRAND (Ger.),]

a place cleared of wood by burning; _e.g._ Eber-brand and Ober-brand
(the upper clearing); Newen-brand and Alten-brand (the old and new
clearing); Brandenburg (the burned city), so called, according to
Buttman, by the Germans; by the Wends corrupted into _Brennabor_,
and in their own language named _Schorelitz_ (the destroyed city),
because, in their mutual wars, it had been destroyed by fire. _Bran_
and _Brant_, in English names, are probably memorials of the original
proprietors of the places, as in Brandon, Cumbran, Brandeston;
Brantingham (the home of the children of Brand)--_v_. ING, INGEN.

[Sidenote: BRASA (Sclav.),

the birch-tree; _e.g._ Briesnitz, Beresoff, Beresek, Beresenskoi,
Beresovoi (places where birches abound); Gross-Briesen (great
birch-tree town); Bresinchen (little Briesen), a colony from it; Birsa
and Beresina (the birch-tree river); Birsk, a town on the R. Birsa;
Brzesce-Litewski (the house of mercy at the birches); the letter _b_ in
this word is often changed into _p_ by the Germans, as in Presinitz
for _Brezenice_ (birch-tree village), in Bohemia; also Priebus, with
the same meaning, in Silesia; Priegnitz, _i.e._ the town of the
Brizanen (dwellers among birches); Briezen (the place of birches),
in Moravia, is Germanised into Friedeck (woody corner); Bryezany
(abounding in birches), in Galicia.

[Sidenote: BRAY (Cel.),]

damp ground, a marshy place; _e.g._ Bray, in Normandy; Bray sur Somme
and Bray sur Seine, situated on these rivers; Bray-Maresch, near
Cambray; Bré Côtes-de-Nord; Bray-la-Campagne (calvados, etc.)

[Sidenote: BREIT (Ger.),
BRAD (A.S.),
BRED (Scand.),]

broad; _brede_, Dutch (a plain); _e.g._ Breitenbach and Bredenbeke
(broad brook); Breda (the flat meadowland), in Holland; Breitenbrunn
(broad well); Breitenstein, Breitenburg (broad fortress); Bradford,
in Yorkshire, and Bredevoort, in Holland (broad ford); Bredy (the
broad water), in Dorset; Brading, in Isle of Wight, and Bradley (broad
meadow); Bradshaw (broad thicket); Broadstairs, corrupt. from its
ancient name _Bradstow_ (broad place).

[Sidenote: BRIA (Thracian),]

a town; _e.g._ Selymbria, Mesymbria.

[Sidenote: BRIGA (Cel.),

a general name among the Celts for a town--so called, apparently,
from the Celtic words _braigh_, _brugh_, _brig_ (a heap, pile, or
elevation), because the nucleus of towns, among uncivilised tribes in
early times, were merely fortified places erected on heights; cognate
with the Teut. and Scand. _burg_, _byrig_, the Sclav. _brieg_ (an
embankment or ridge), and the Scottish _brae_ (a rising ground). Hence
the name of the _Brigantes_ (dwellers on hills); the word _Brigand_
(literally, a mountaineer); Briançon, anc. _Brigantium_ (the town on
the height); Brieg, a town in Silesia; Braga and Bragança, fortified
cities in Portugal; Talavera, in Spain, anc. _Tala-briga_, the town
on the _tala_, Span. (a wood clearing); Bregenz, anc. _Brigantium_,
in the Tyrol; Breisach Alt and Neuf (the old and new town on the
declivity), in the duchy of Baden--the old fortress was situated on
an isolated basalt hill; Brixen (the town among the hills), in the
Tyrol. In Scotland there are Braemar (the hilly district of Mar);
Braidalbane (the hill country of _Albainn_, _i.e._ Scotland); Braeriach
(the gray mountain, _riabhach_); the Brerachin, a river and district
in Perthshire; Brugh and Bruighean, in Ireland, signifying originally
a hill, was subsequently applied to a palace or a distinguished
residence. The term, as applied to the old residences, presupposed the
existence of a fortified brugh or rath, several of which still remain.
The word has suffered many corruptions: thus Bruree, in Limerick, is
from _Brugh-righ_ (the king’s fort); and _Bruighean_ (little fort)
has been transformed into Bruff, Bruis, Bruce, or Bryan. The word
_briva_, on the other hand, was generally applied to towns situated
on rivers--as in Amiens, anc. _Samarabrina_, on the R. Somme--and was
gradually used as synonymous with _pons_ (bridge), as in Pontoise, anc.
_Briva-Isara_ (the bridge on the Ouse); Briare, anc. _Brivodurum_ (the
bridge over the water); Brionde, anc. _Brives_.

[Sidenote: BRINK (Ger.),]

a grassy ridge; _e.g._ Osterbrink (east ridge); Mittelbrink (middle
ridge); Zandbrink (sand ridge); Brinkhorst (the ridge of the thicket).

[Sidenote: BRO (Cym.-Cel.),]

a district; _e.g._ Broburg (the fort of the district), in Warwickshire;
Pembroke (the head, _pen_, of the district, it being the land’s end of

[Sidenote: BROC (A.S.),]

a rushing stream; _e.g._ Cranbrook (the stream of the cranes);
Wallbrook (probably the stream at the wall); Wambrook (Woden’s stream).

[Sidenote: BROC (A.S.),

the badger; _e.g._ Brox-bourne and Broxburn, Brogden, Brokenhurst,
Brockley, Broxholme (the stream, hollow, thicket, meadow, and hill of
the badger).

[Sidenote: BROD (Sclav.),]

a ford; _e.g._ Brod and Brody (at the ford), the name of several towns
in Moravia, Bohemia, Hungary, and Turkey; Brod-sack (ford dwelling);
Brod-Ungarisch (the Hungarian ford), on the Olsawa; Brod-Deutsch (the
German ford), on the Sasawa; Brod-Bohmisch (the Bohemian ford), on the
Zembera; Krasnabrod (beautiful ford); Eisenbrod (the ford of the Iser);
Brodkowitz (ford station).

[Sidenote: BROEK, BRUOCH (Teut.),]

a marsh; _e.g._ Broek, a town in Holland; Bogen-brok (the bending
marsh); Breiden-bruch (the broad marsh); Aalten-broek (the old
marsh); Eichen-bruch (the oak marsh); Broekem and Broickhausen (marsh
dwelling); Bruchmühle (the mill on the marsh); Brussels or Bruxelles,
anc. _Bruoch-sella_ (the seat or site on the marsh); Oberbruch and
Niederbruch (upper and lower marsh).

[Sidenote: BROG (Sclav.),

a dam; _e.g._ Biesenbrow and Priebrow, from _Pschibrog_ (elder-tree
dam), by the Germans called _Furstenberg_, on the Oder; Colberg, Sclav.
_Kola-brog_ (around the dam).

[Sidenote: BRON (Welsh),]

the slope or side of a hill; _e.g._ Brongest (the slope of the _cest_
or deep glen); Bronwydd (the slope covered with trees); _Wydd_, in

[Sidenote: BRÜCKE (Ger.),
BRO, BRU (Scand.),]

a bridge; _e.g._ Brugg-Furstenfeld (the bridge at the prince’s field);
Brugg-an-der-Leitha (the bridge across the Leitha); Brugg-kloster (the
bridge at the monastery); Langenbrück, Langenbrücken (long bridge);
Bruges, in Belgium (a city with many bridges); Saarbrook (on the R.
Saar); Osnaburg, in Hanover, anc. _Osnabrücke_ or _Asenbrücke_ (the
bridge on the R. Ase); Voklabrück (on the R. Vökle); Bruchsal, in
Baden (the bridge on the Salzbach); Zweibrücken or Deux-ponts (the two
bridges); Zerbruggen (at the bridge). In England: Bridgenorth, anc.
_Brugge-Morfe_ (the bridge at the wood called Morfe, on the opposite
bank of the Severn); Brixham, Brixworth, and Brigham (bridge town);
Brixton, A.S. _Brixges-stan_ (the bridge stone); Cambridge, Cel.
_Caer-Grant_ (the fort and bridge on the R. Granta, now the Cam);
Tunbridge (over the R. Tun or Ton), a branch of the Medway; Colebrook,
in Bucks (the bridge over the R. Cole); Oxbridge (the bridge over
the water, _uisge_); Staley-bridge (at a bridge over the R. Tame),
named after the Staveleigh, a family who resided there; Bridgewater,
corrupt. from _Burgh-Walter_ (the town of Walter Douay, its founder);
Bridgend and Brigham, villages in different parts of Scotland; Brora
(bridge river), in Sutherlandshire, named when bridges were rarities;
Trowbridge, however, did not get its name from this root, but is a
corrupt. of its ancient name, _Trutha-burh_ (the loyal town).

[Sidenote: BRÜEL (Teut.),

a marshy place, overgrown with brushwood, cognate with the French
_breuil_ and _bruyère_ (a thicket), the Welsh _pryskle_, and the Breton
_brügek_; _e.g._ Bruel, Bruhl, and Priel, in Germany; Bruyères,
Broglie, and Brouilly (the thicket), in France; also Breuil, Bruel,
Breuillet, Le Brulet, etc., with the same meaning, or sometimes a park.
St. Denis du Behellan, in Eure, was formerly _Bruellant_, _i.e._ the
_breuil_ or park of Herland.

[Sidenote: BRUNN, BRUNNEN (Ger.),
BRONGA (Scand.),]

a well, especially a mineral well; _e.g._ Heilbroun (holy well);
Frau-brunnen, Lat. _Fons-beatæ-Virginis_ (the well of Our Lady);
Brunn-am-Gebirge (the well at the hill-ridge); Haupt-brun (well-head);
Lauter-brunnen (clear well); Salz-brunn, Warm-brunn, Schoen-brunn,
Kaltenbrunn (the salt, hot, beautiful, cold, mineral wells);
Baldersbrunnen, Baldersbrond (the well of the Teutonic god Balder);
Cobern, corrupt. from _Cobrunnen_ (the cow’s well); Paderborn (the well
or source of the R. Pader), in Germany. In the north of France, and in
the departments bordering on Germany, we find traces of this German
word; _e.g._ Mittel-broun (middle well); Walsch-broun (foreign well);
Belle-brune (beautiful well); Stein-brunn (stony well), etc.

[Sidenote: BRYN (Cym.-Cel.),]

a hill-ridge; _bron_ (a round hill); _e.g._ Brincroes, Brin-eglwys,
Bron-llys (the cross, church, palace, on the hill); Bryn-gwynn (fair
hill); Brynn-uchil (high hill); Bron-Fraidd (St. Bridget’s hill);
Brown-Willy, in Cornwall, corrupt. from _Bryn-huel_ (the tin mine
ridge); Brindon-hill, in Somerset (merely the hill), with synonymous
word _dun_ added to _Bryn_; and Brandon, in Suffolk, with the same
meaning; Bryn-mawr (the great hill), in Wales; Bron-gwyn (white
hill); Bryn-y-cloddian (the hill of fences, _clawd_), so called from
its strong fortifications; Bryn-Barlwm (the bare-topped mountain);
Bryn-Gwyddon (the hill of Gwyddon, a mythological philosopher);
Bryn-kinallt (a mountain without trees); Bryn-berian (the kite’s
hill, _beri_, a kite); Bryn-bo, with the same meaning, _boda_ in
Wales; Bryn-chwarew (the hill of sports); here the ancient inhabitants
of Wales used to meet to play different games in competition;
Brienne-la-château (the castle on the hill), in France; Brientz,
in Switzerland, on the Brienz See (a lake surrounded by hills);
Brendenkopf (hill-head), and the Brennen Alps, the culminating points
in the mountains of Tyrol.

[Sidenote: BUCHE (Ger.),
BOC (A.S.),
BOG (Scand.),
BUK (Sclav.),]

the beech-tree; _e.g._ Buch-au, Buch-berg, Buch-egg (the meadow,
hill, corner of the beeches); Buchholtz and Bochholt (beech-wood);
Bockum, Bucheim (beech-dwelling); Butchowitz (the place of beeches),
in Moravia; Bochnia and Buchowina (with the same meaning), in Poland;
Bickleigh (beech-meadow). But Bocking in Essex, and the county of
Buckingham, as well as Bouquinheim in Artois, and Bochingen in
Wurtemberg, were named from the Bocingas (a tribe), probably the
dwellers among beeches.

[Sidenote: BUDA, BUS (Sclav.),
BWTH, BOTH (Gadhelic),
BOD (Cym.-Cel.),
BUDE (Ger.),
BOTHY (Scotch),
BOT (Brez.),]

a hut or dwelling; _e.g._ Budin, Budzin, Bautzen, or Budissen (the
huts); Budweis (the district of hut villages), in Bohemia; Budzow,
Botzen (the place of huts); Briebus (birch-tree dwelling); Trebus and
Triebus (the three dwellings); Putbus (under the hut); Dobberbus (good
dwelling, _dobry_, good); but Buda, in Hungary, took its name from
Buda, the brother of Attila, as well as Bud-var and Bud-falva (Buda’s
fort and village). The island of Bute, in the Firth of Clyde, is said
to have derived its name from the _bwth_ or cell of St. Brandon, but
its earlier name was Rothsay, from a descendant of Simon Brek (_i.e._
Rother’s Isle), while its Gaelic name is _Baile-Mhoide_ (the dwelling
of the court of justice); Bothwell, anc. _Both-uill_ (the dwelling on
the angle of the R. Clyde). In Ireland we meet with Shanboe, Shanbogh
(the old hut, _sean_); Raphae, in Donegal, is _Rath-both_ (the fort
of the huts); Bodoney, in Tyrone, is _Both-domhnaigh_ (the tent of
the church); Knockboha (the hill of the hut); Bodmin, in Cornwall,
anc. _Bodmanna_, p. 27 (the abode of monks, the site of an ancient
priory); Merfod, corrupt. from _Meudwy-bod_ (the dwelling of a hermit);
Bodysgallen (the abode of the thistle, _ysgallen_); and Bod-Ederyryn
(Edryn’s dwelling). In Lancashire the word takes the form of _booth_,
as in Barrowford booth and Oakenhead booth, etc.

[Sidenote: BÜHIL, BÜCKEL (Ger.),]

a hill; _e.g._ Dombühil (the dwelling on the hill); Grünbühill (green
hill); Eichenbühil (oak hill); Birchenbühil (birch hill); Holzbühil
(wood hill); Dinkelsbühil (wheat hill); Kleinbühil (little hill).

[Sidenote: BÜHNE, BÖHEN (Ger.),]

a scaffold, sometimes in topography a hill; _e.g._ Hartböhen (wood
hill); Bündorf (hill village); Osterbeuna (east hill).

[Sidenote: BUN (Gadhelic),]

the foot, in topography applied to the mouth of a river; e.g. Bunduff
(at the mouth of the dark river, _dubh_); Bunderan and Bunratty, the
mouth of the R. Dowran and Ratty; Bunowen (at the mouth of the water).
The town of Banff is a corrupt. of _Bunaimh_ (the mouth of the river);
Bunawe (at the opening of Loch Awe); Buness (of the cascade, _cas_).

[Sidenote: BURG, BURGH (Teut.),
BOURG (Fr.),
BORGO (It. and Span.),]

a town or city, literally an enclosed and fortified dwelling, from
_bergen_, Teut. to cover or protect. As these fortified places were
often erected on heights for security, as well as to enable their
inmates to observe the approaches of an enemy, the word _berg_ (a
hill) was frequently used synonymously with _burg_, as in the name
of Königsberg and other towns--_v._ BERG. Burgh and borough are the
Anglican forms of the word in England and Scotland, while _bury_ is
distinctively the Saxon form; _e.g._ Sudbury (south town), as also
Sidbury in Salop, but Sidbury in Devon takes its name from the R.
Sid. Tewkesbury, from Theoc (a certain hermit); Glastonbury, anc.
_Glastonia_ (a district abounding in woad, _glastum_); Shaftsbury
(the town on the shaft-like hill); Shrewsbury, anc. _Shrobbesbyrig_
(the fortress among shrubs), being the Saxon rendering of the native
name _Pengwerne_ (the hill of the alder grove), which the Normans
corrupted into Sloppesbury, hence _Salop_; Tenbury, on the R. Teme;
Canterbury, _i.e._ _Cant-wara-byrig_ (the town of the dwellers on
the headland), _Cantium_ or Kent; Wansborough, in Herts; Wanborough,
in Surrey and Wilts; Woodensborough, in Kent; Wednesbury, Stafford;
Wembury, Devon (the town of the Saxon god Woden); Aldeborough, on the
R. Alde; Marlborough, anc. _Merlberga_, situated at the foot of a hill
of white stones, which our forefathers called _marl_, now _chalk_;
Richborough, anc. _Ru-tupium_ (rock town); Aylesbury, perhaps church
town, _ecclesia_, or from a person’s name; Badbury (the city of
pledges, _bad_), in Dorset; the Saxon kings, it is said, kept their
hostages at this place; Malmesbury, the town of Maidulf, a hermit;
Maryborough, named for Queen Mary. Burg or burgh, in the names of
towns, is often affixed to the name of the river on which it stands in
Britain, as well as on the Continent; _e.g._ Lauterburg, Lutterburg,
Schwartzburg, Salzburg, Saalburg, Gottenburg, Rotenburg, and Jedburgh
(on the rivers Lauter, Lutter, Schwarza, Salza, Saale, Gotha, Rothbach,
and Jed). Still more frequently, the prefix is the name of the founder
of the town, or of a saint to whom its church was dedicated; _e.g._
Edinburgh (Edwin’s town); Lauenburg, after Henry the Lion; Fraserburgh,
in Aberdeenshire, founded by Sir Alexander Fraser of Philorth in 1570;
Peterborough, from an abbey dedicated to St. Peter; Petersburgh, named
by its founder, Peter the Great; Tasborough, Norfolk, on the R. Thais;
Banbury, anc. _Berinburig_ (Bera’s town); Queenborough, in the Isle
of Sheppey, named by Edward III. in honour of his queen; Helensburgh,
in Dumbartonshire, after the lady of Sir James Colquhoun; Pittsburg,
U.S., after Mr. Pitt; Harrisburg, U.S., after the first settler in
1733; Sumburgh, in Shetland, and Svendborg, Sweden (Sweyn’s fortress);
Oranienburg, in Brandenburg (the fortress of the Orange family); Bury
St. Edmund’s (in memory of Edmund the Martyr); Rabensburg (the fort of
Hrafn, a Dane); Marienburg (the town of the Virgin), founded by the
Grand Master of the Teutonic order in 1274; Rothenburg, in Prussia,
Sclav. _Rostarzewo_ (the town of the Sclav. god Razi); Duisburg,
corrupt. from _Tuiscoburgum_ (the town of the Teut. god Tuesco);
Flensburg, in Sleswick, founded by the knight of Flenes; Cherbourg,
supposed to be Cæsar’s town; Augsburg (the town of the Emperor
Augustus); Salisbury, anc. _Searesbyrgg_ (the town of Sarum, a chief);
Bamborough (the town of Bebba, the Queen of Ida, of Northumberland);
Carrisbrook, corrupt. from _Gwïhtgarabyrig_ (the fortress of the men
of Wight); Amherstburg, in Canada, named in 1780 after Lord Amherst;
Loughborough, anc. _Leirburg_ (the town on the R. Leir, now the Soar);
Hapsburg or Habichtsburg (hawk’s fortress); Schässburg, Hung. _Segevar_
(treasure fort); Luneburg, in Hanover (the fort of the Linones, a
tribe); Aalburg (Eel-town) on the Lyme-fiord. There are several towns
in Germany named simply Burg (the fortress), also Burgos in Spain, and
Burgo in Italy. As a derivative from this Teut. root, there is the
Irish form of the word, introduced by the Anglo-Normans--_buirghes_,
Anglicised _borris_ and _burris_, as in Borris in Ossory, Burriscarra,
Burrishoole (_i.e._ the forts erected in the territories of Ossory,
Carra, and Umhal); Borrisokane (O’Keane’s fortress).

[Sidenote: BURNE (A.S.),
BURNE (Gadhelic),]

a small stream; _e.g._ Milburn (mill stream); Lambourne (muddy stream,
_lam_); Radbourne and Redbourne (reedy stream); Sherbourne (clear
stream, or the dividing stream); Cranbourne, Otterbourne (the stream
frequented by cranes and otters); Libourne, in France (the lip or edge
of the stream); Bourne, in Lancashire (on a stream); Burnham (the
dwelling on a stream), in Essex; Melburne, in Yorkshire, in Doomsday
_Middelburn_ (middle stream); Auburn, formerly a village in Yorkshire,
called Eleburn or Eelburn; Bannockburn (the stream of the white knoll);
Sittingbourne, in Kent (the settlement on the stream); Eastbourne,
contracted from its former name Easbourne (probably the stream of the
water or the cascade, _cas_); Ticheburne (the kid’s stream, _ticcen_,
A.S. a kid).

[Sidenote: BUSCH, BOSCH (Ger.),
BOSC (A.S.), Low Lat. _Boscus_,
BOSCO, BOSQUE (Span. and Port.),
BOD or BAD (Celtic),]

a bushy place or grove; _e.g._ Boscabel (the beautiful grove); Bushey
(a par. Co. Hertford); Buscot (the hut in the grove); Badenoch
(a place overgrown with bushes), in Inverness; Breitenbusch (the
broad grove); Hesel-boschen (hazel grove); Eichbusch (oak grove);
Ooden-bosch (old grove), in Holland; Auberbosc (Albert’s grove), in
France; Stellenbosch, in S. Africa, founded in 1670 by Van der Stelle,
the governor of the Dutch colony; Biesbosch (the reedy thicket), in
Holland; Aubusson (at the grove), France. Boissac, Boissay, Boissière,
Boissey, etc., in France, from the same root; Bois-le-Duc (the duke’s
wood); Briquebosq (birch-wood), in Normandy.

[Sidenote: BWLCH (Welsh),]

a pass or defile; _e.g._ Dwygyflch (_i.e._ the joint passes), in
Wales; Bwlch-newydd (the new pass); Bwlch-y-groes (of the cross).

[Sidenote: BYSTRI (Sclav.),]

swift; _e.g._ Bistritza, Bistrica, Weistritz (the swift stream);
Bistritz (the town on this river), called by the Germans Neusohl (new

[Sidenote: BY, BIE, BIGGEN-BO, BŒUF (Fr.),]

(Scand.), a dwelling, a town--from _biga_ (Norse), to build. This word
occurs frequently in town names in the N.E. of England and in some
parts of Scotland formerly possessed by the Danes or Normans; _e.g._
Derby, _i.e._ _Dearaby_ (deer town), formerly called _North Worthige_
(the northern enclosure); its Celtic name was _Durgwent_ (the white
water), from its river; Whitby (white town), A.S. _Streones-heal_
(treasure-hall, _streone_); Selby (holy town); Danby (Dane’s dwelling);
Rugby, anc. _Rochberie_ (the dwelling on the rock, in reference to
its castle); Appleby (the town of apple-trees); Sonderby (southern
town); Ormsby, Lockerby, Thursby, Grimsby, Lewersby (the dwellings of
Ormv, Loki, Ulf, Grimm, Leward); Risby (beech-tree dwelling); Canisby,
in Caithness, and Canoby or Cannonbie, Dumfries (the dwelling of the
canon), or perhaps Canisby is Canute’s dwelling; Haconby (of Haco);
Harrowby, in Doomsday, is _Herigerby_ (the town of the legion), A.S.
_herige_; Kirby, Moorby, Ashby (church town, moor town, ash-tree town);
Ashby-de-la-Zouch was simply _Ascebi_ or Esseby, perhaps the town of
the _Asci_, a tribe. It received the addition to its name from the
family of the Zouches, its proprietors. In France: Daubœuf, for Dalby
(vale dwelling); Elbœuf (old dwelling); Quittebœuf (white dwelling);
Quillebœuf (welltown); Lindebœuf (lime-tree town); Karlby-gamba and
Karlby-ny (old and new Charles’ town), in Finland; Criquebœuf (crooked


[Sidenote: CAE, KAE (Cym.-Cel.),]

an enclosure; _e.g._ Ca-wood (wood-enclosure); Cayton (wood town or
hill). This root is frequently used in Welsh names.

[Sidenote: CAELC, or CEALC (A.S.),]

chalk or lime--cognate with the Lat. _calx_, Cel. _cailc_, _sialc_;
_e.g._ Challock, Chaldon, Chalfield (chalk place, hill, and field);
Chalgrove (the chalk entrenchment, _grab_); the Chiltern Hills
(the hills in the chalky district, _ern_); Chockier, corrupt. from
_Calchariæ_ (the lime kilns), in Belgium; Kelso, anc. _Calchou_ (the
chalk _heugh_ or height), so called from a calcareous cliff at the
confluence of the Tweed and Teviot, now broken down.

[Sidenote: CAER, CADAER (Welsh),
CATHAIR, CAHER (Gadhelic),
KAER, KER (Breton),]

an enclosed fortification, a castle, a town, and in Ireland a circular
stone fort; _e.g._ Caer-leon, anc. _Isca-legionem_ (the fort of the
legion), on the R. Usk;[3] Caerwent, in Monmouth, anc. _Venta-silurum_
(the fortress in the province of Gwent); Caerwys (of the assizes,
_gwys_, a summons); Caermarthen, anc. _Maridunum_ (the fort on the
sea-shore); Caernarvon, Welsh _Caer-yn-ar-Fon_ (the fortress opposite
to Mona); Cardigan (the fortress of Caredig, a chieftain)--Cardigan is
called by the Welsh Aberteifi (the mouth of the R. Teify); Cardiff,
on the R. Taff; Carriden, anc. _Caer-aiden_ or _eden_ (the fort
on the wing), in Linlithgow; Caerphilly (the fort of the trench,
_vallum_), corrupt. into philly; Cader-Idris (the seat of Idris, an
astronomer); Caer-gyffin (the border fortress); Grongar, corrupt. from
_Caer-gron_ (the circular fortress); Caer-_hen_ or _hun_, corrupt. from
_Caer-Rhun_, named from a Welsh prince; Carlisle, anc. _Caergwawl_
(the fort at the trench); its Latin name was _Luguvallum_ (the trench
of the legion). It was destroyed by the Danes in 675, and rebuilt by
William II. In Mid-Lothian, Cramond, _i.e._ _Caer-Almond_, on the R.
Almond; Cathcart, on the R. Cart, Renfrew; Crail, anc. _Carraile_ (the
fort on the corner, _aile_), in the S.E. angle of Fife; Caerlaverock
(the fort of Lewarch Ogg), founded in the sixth century; Sanquhar,
_i.e._ _Sean-cathair_ (old fort); Carmunnock or _Carmannoc_ (the
fort of the monks); Kirkintilloch, corrupt. from _Caer-pen-tulach_
(the fort at the head of the hill); Cardross (the promontory fort);
Kier, in Scotland, for _Caer_ or _Cathair_; Carew (the fortresses), a
castle in Wales; Carhaix, in Brittany, _i.e._ _Ker-Aes_ (the fortress
on the R. Aes--now the Hières). In Ireland: Caher (the fortress);
Cahereen (little fortress); Cahergal (white fort); Cahersiveen, _i.e._
_Cathair-saidbhin_ (Sabina’s fort); Carlingford, Irish _Caer-linn_,
_fiord_ being added by the Danes; its full name is, therefore, the ford
of Caer-linn. It was also called _Suamh-ech_ (the swimming ford of the
horses); Derry-na-Caheragh (the oak grove of the fort); Caer-gwrle (the
fortress of the great legion), _i.e._ _Caer-gawr-lleon_, with reference
to the twentieth Roman legion stationed at Chester, or _Caer-gwr-le_
(the boundary-place in Flintshire).

[Sidenote: CALA (Span.),]

a creek or bay--probably derived from _Scala_ (It.), a seaport, Cel.
_cala_ (a harbour), and cognate with the Teut. _kille_; _e.g._ Callao,
in S. America; _Cale_, the ancient name of Oporto, and probably
_Calais_; Scala (a seaport), in Italy; Scala-nova (new port), in
Turkey; Kiel, in Sleswick, so called from its fine bay.

[Sidenote: CALO (A.S.),
KAHL (Ger.),
KAEL (Dut.),]

bald or bare--synonymous with the Lat. _calvus_ and the Fr. _chauve_;
_e.g._ Caumont and Chaumont (bald hill), in France; Kahlenberg, anc.
_Mons Calvus_ (bald hill), belonging to a branch of the Alps called
Kahlen Gebirge.

[Sidenote: CAM (Gadhelic),
CAM (Cym.-Cel.),

a creek, crooked; _e.g._ Rivers Cam, Camon, Camil, Cambad, Camlin,
Cambeck (crooked stream); Kembach, a parish in Fife, so called from
the R. Kem or Kame; Cambusmore (the great creek in Sutherland);
Cambuscarrig, in Ross, near which a Danish prince (Careg) was buried;
Cambuskenneth (the creek of Kenneth, one of the kings of Scotland);
Camelon (on the bend of the water), near Falkirk; Cambuslang (the
church or enclosure, _lann_, on the bending water), in Lanark; Cambus,
in Clackmannan; Cambusnethan (on the bend of the R. Nethan); Campsie,
anc. _Kamsi_ (the curved water); but Camus, a town in Forfarshire, is
not from this root, but in memory of a Danish general who was slain in
battle near the place; Camlyn (the crooked pool), in Anglesea; Cambray
or Cambrai, in France, anc. _Camaracum_ (on a bend of the Scheldt);
Chambery, in Savoy, anc. _Camberiacum_, with the same meaning;
Morecambe Bay (the bend of the sea).

[Sidenote: CAMPUS (Lat.),
CAMPO (It., Span., and Port.),
CHAMP (Fr.),
KAMPF (Ger.),]

a field or plain; _e.g._ Campania, Campagna, Champagne (the plain or
level land); Féchamp, Lat. _Campus-fiscii_ (the field of tribute);
Chamouni, Lat. _Campus-munitus_ (the fortified field); Kempen (at
the field); Kempten, Lat. _Campodunum_ (the field of the fortress);
Campvere (the ferry leading to Campen), in Holland; Campo-bello,
Campo-chiaro, Campo-hermoso (beautiful or fair field); Campo-felici
(happy or fortunate field); Campo-frio (cold field); Campo-freddo (cold
field); Campo-largo (broad field); Campillo (little field); the Campos
(vast plains), in Brazil; Capua, supposed to be synonymous with Campus.

[Sidenote: CANNA (Lat. and Grk.),]

a reed; _e.g._ Cannæ, in Italy; Cannes, in the south of France; Canneto
and Canosa (the reedy place), in Italy.

[Sidenote: CAOL (Gadhelic),

a sound or strait; _e.g._ Caol-Isla, Caol-Muileach (the Straits of Isla
and Mull); the Kyles or _Straits_ of Bute; Eddarachylis (between the
straits), in Sutherlandshire. As an adjective, this word means narrow;
_e.g._ Glenkeel (narrow glen); Darykeel (narrow oak grove).

[Sidenote: CAPEL (Cel.),
KAPELLE (Ger.),]

a chapel, derived from the Low Lat. _capella_; _e.g._ How-capel (the
chapel in the hollow), in Hereford; Capel-Ddewi (St. David’s chapel);
Capel St. Mary and Maria-Kappel (St. Mary’s chapel); Capel-Garmon
(St. Germano’s chapel); Chapelle-au-bois (the chapel in the wood);
Capelle-op-den-Yssel (the chapel on the R. Yessel), in Holland;
Kreuzcappel (the chapel with the cross).

[Sidenote: CAPER (Lat.),
CAPRA, CABRA (Span., Port., and It.),
GABHAR, and GOBHAR (Gadhelic),
GAFR, or GAVAR (Cym.-Cel.),]

a goat; _e.g._ Capri, Caprera, Cabrera (goat island); Chèvreuse, anc.
_Capriosa_ (the place of goats); Chevry, Chevrière, Chevreville,
with the same meaning, in France; Gateshead, in Co. Durham, Lat.
_Capræ-caput_, perhaps the Latin rendering of the Saxon word (the
head of the _gat_ or passage)--the _Pons Ælius_ of the Romans; or,
according to another meaning, from the custom of erecting the head of
some animal on a post as a tribal emblem. In Ireland, Glengower (the
glen of the goats), and Glengower, in Scotland; Ballynagore (goat’s
town), in Ireland; Gowrie and Gower, in several counties of Scotland;
Ardgower (goat’s height); Carnan-gour (the goat’s crag).

[Sidenote: CAR (Cel.),]

crooked or bending; _e.g._ the Rivers Carron, in several parts of
Scotland; Charente and Charenton, in France; also the Cher, anc.
_Carus_ (the winding river).

[Sidenote: CARN, CAIRN (Gadhelic),
CARN (Welsh),
CARNEDD, a heap of stones, such as was erected by the ancient Britons
over the graves of their great men; _e.g._ Carn-Ingli (the cairn of the
English); Carn-Twrne (the cairn of the turnings). It was named from a
stupendous monument which stood on three pillars, within a circuit of
upright stones.]

a heap of stones thrown together in a conical form, also a rocky
mount; _e.g._ Carnac (abounding in cairns), in Brittany; Carnmore
(great cairn); Carnock (the hill of the cairn); Carntoul, Gael.
_Carn-t-sabhal_ (the cairn of the barn); Carntaggart (of the priest);
Carnrigh (of the king); Cairndow, Cairnglass, Cairngorm (the black, the
gray, the blue mountains); Cairnan and Cairnie (little cairn); Carnwath
(the cairn at the ford); Carnoustie (the cairn of heroes); Carnbee (the
birch cairn), in Scotland. In Ireland: Carntochar (the hill of the
causeway); Carn-Tierno (Tigernach’s cairn); Carnbane (white cairn);
Carnsore Point, in Irish being simply the _carn_ or monumental heap,
_ore_ (a promontory) having been added by the Danes; Carnteel, Irish
_Carn-t-Siadhal_ (Shiel’s monument). In Wales: Carn-Dafydd (David’s
cairn); Carn-Llewelyn (Llewelyn’s cairn); Carnfach (little cairn), in
Monmouth; Fettercairn, perhaps the deer’s cairn, Gael. _feidh_ (deers);
Chirnside (the side or site of the cairn), on one of the Lammermuir
Hills; Carnoch (abounding in cairns), a parish in Fife; Boharm, in
Banffshire, anc. _Bocharin_ (the bow about the cairn). The countries of
Carniola and Carinthia probably derived their names from this Celtic

[Sidenote: CARRAIG, CARRICK (Gadhelic),
CRAG, or CARREG (Welsh),
CARRAG (Cornish),]

a rock. The words are usually applied to large natural rocks, more
or less elevated. Carrick and Carrig are the names of numerous
districts in Ireland, as well as Carrick in Ayrshire; Carrigafoyle
(the rock of the hole, _phoill_), in the Shannon; Carrickaness (of
the waterfall); Ballynacarrick (the town of the rocks); Carrigallen,
Irish _Carraig-aluinn_ (the beautiful rock); Carrickanoran (the rock of
the spring, _uaran_); Carrickfergus (Fergus’s rock), where one Fergus
was drowned; Carrick-on-Suir (on the R. Suir); Carriga-howly, Irish
_Carraig-an-chobhlaigh_ (the rock of the fleet); Carrickduff (black
rock); Carrigeen and Cargan (little rock); Carragh (rocky ground); but
Carrick-on-Shannon is not derived from this root--its ancient name was
_Caradh-droma-ruise_ (the weir of the marsh ridge); Cerrig-y-Druidion
(the rock of the Druids), in Wales.

[Sidenote: CARSE,]

a term applied in Scotland to low grounds on the banks of rivers;
_e.g._ the Carse of Gowrie, Falkirk, Stirling, etc.

[Sidenote: CASA (It. and _bas_ Lat.),]

a house; _e.g._ Casa-Nova and Casa-Vecchia (new and old house), in
Corsica; Casal, Les Casals, Chaise, Les Chaises (the house and the
houses), in France; Chassepiare (corrupt. from _Casa-petrea_ (stone
house), in Belgium.


words in the Romance languages derived from the Lat. _castellum_ (a
castle). _Caiseal_, in the Irish language, either cognate with the
Lat. word or derived from it, has the same meaning, and is commonly
met with in that country under the form of _Cashel_; _e.g._ Cashel,
in Tipperary; Cashelfean and Cashelnavean (the fort of the Fenians);
_Caislean-n’h-Oghmaighe_, now Omagh (the castle of the beautiful
field). It is often changed into the English castle, as in Ballycastle,
in Mayo (the town of the fort); but Ballycastle, in Antrim, was named
from a modern castle, not from a _caiseal_ or fort; Castle-Dargan
(of Lough Dargan); Castlebar, Irish _Caislean-an-Bharraigh_ (the
fort of the Barrys); Castle-Dillon, Castle-Dermot, and Castle-Kieran
were renamed from castles erected near the hermitages of the monks
whose names they bear. Castel, Lat. _Castellum_ (the capital of the
Electorate of Hesse-Cassel); Castel Rodrigo (Roderick’s castle), in
Portugal; Castel-Lamare (by the sea-shore); Castel-bianco (white
castle); Castel del piano (of the plain); Castiglione (little
castle), in Italy. In France: Castelnau (new castle); Castelnaudary,
anc. _Castrum-novum-Arianiorum_ (the new castle of the Arians,
_i.e._ the Goths); Chateaubriant, _i.e._ _Chateau-du-Bryn_ (the
king’s castle); Chateau-Chinon (the castle decorated with dogs’
heads); Chateau-Gontier (Gontier’s castle); Chateaulin (the castle
on the pool); Chateau-vilain (ugly castle); Chateau-roux, anc.
_Castrum-Rodolphi_ (Rodolph’s castle); Chatelandrew (the castle of
Andrew of Brittany); Chateaumeillant, anc. _Castrum-Mediolanum_ (the
castle in the middle of the plain or land, _lann_); Neufchatel (new
castle); Newcastle-upon-Tyne, named from a castle built by Robert, Duke
of Normandy, on the site of Monkchester; Newcastle-under-Line, _i.e._
under the _lyme_ or boundary of the palatinate of Chester, having its
origin in a fortress erected by Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, instead of
the old fort of Chesterton; Castleton, in Man, is the translation of
_Ballycashel_ (castle dwelling), founded by one of the kings of the
island; Bewcastle (the castle of Buith, lord of Gilsland); Old and
New Castile, in Spain, so named from the numerous fortresses erected
by Alphonso I. as defences against the Moors. Cassel, in Prussia,
and various places with this prefix in England and Scotland, owe the
names to ancient castles around which the towns or villages arose, as
Castletown of Braemar, Castle-Douglas, Castle-Rising, etc.; Castlecary,
in Stirlingshire, supposed to be the _Coria Damnorum_ of Ptolemy, and
the _Caer-cere_ of Nennius; Barnard Castle, built by Barnard, the
grandfather of Baliol; Castell-Llechryd (the castle at the stone ford),
on the banks of the R. Wye, in Wales; Cestyll-Cynfar (castles in the


a fortress, city, town, from the Lat. _castrum_ (a fortified place),
and _castra_ (a camp); _e.g._ Caistor, Castor, Chester (the site of
a Roman fort or camp). The Welsh still called the city of Chester
_Caerleon_, which means the city called _Legio_, often used as a
proper name for a city where a Roman legion was stationed; Doncaster,
Lancaster, Brancaster, Illchester, Leicester, Colchester (_i.e._ the
camps on the Rivers Don, Lune, Bran, Ivel, Legre or Leir, Colne);
Alcester, on the Alne; Chichester (the fortress of Cissa, the Saxon
prince of the province); Cirencester, anc. _Corinium-ceaster_ (the
camp on the R. Churn); Exeter, Cel. _Caer-Isc_ (the fortress on the
river or water, _wysk_); Towcester, on the R. Towey; Gloucester,
Cel. _Caer-glow_ (the bright fortress); Godmanchester (the fort
of the priest), where Gothrun, the Dane, in the reign of Alfred,
embraced Christianity; Chesterfield and Chester-le-Street (the camp
in the field and the camp on the Roman road, _stratum_); Winchester,
Cel. _Caer-gwent_ (the camp on the fair plain), p. 38; Dorchester
(the camp of the _Durotriges_ (dwellers by the water); Worcester,
_Hwicwara-ceaster_ (the camp of the Huiccii); Silchester, Cel.
_Caer-Segont_ (the fort of the Segontii); Manchester, probably the
camp at _Mancenion_ (the place of tents), its ancient name; Rochester,
Cel. _Durobrivae_ (the ford of the water), A.S. _Hrofceaster_,
probably from a proper name; Bicester (the fort of Biren, a bishop);
Alphen, in Holland, anc. _Albanium-castra_ (the camp of Albanius);
Aubagne, in Provence, anc. _Castrum-de-Alpibus_ (the fortress of
the Alps); Champtoceaux, Lat. _Castrum-celsum_ (lofty fortress);
St. Chamond, Lat. _Castrum-Anemundi_ (the fortress of Ennemond);
Chalus, Lat. _Castrum-Lucius_ (the fortress by Lucius Capriolus, in
the reign of Augustus); Passau, in Bavaria, Lat. _Batavia-Castra_
(the Batavians’ camp), corrupted first to _Patavium_ and then to
Passau; La Chartre, Chartre, and Chartres (the place of the camps), in
France; Chartre-sur-Loire, Lat. _Carcer-Castellum_ (the castle prison
or stronghold); Castril, Castrillo (little fortress); Castro-Jeriz
(Cæsar’s camp); Ojacastro (the camp on the R. Oja), in Spain.

[Sidenote: CAVAN, CABHAN (Irish),
CAVA, LA (It.),
CUEVA (Span.), a cave,
COFA (A.S.), a cove,]

a hollow place, cognate with the Lat. _cavea_ or _cavus_; _e.g._
Cavan (the hollow), the cap. of Co. Cavan, and many other places from
this root in Ireland. _Cavan_, however, in some parts of Ireland,
signifies a round hill, as in Cavanacaw (the round hill of the chaff,
_catha_); Cavanagh (the hilly place); Cavanalick (the hill of the
flagstone); Covehithe, in Suffolk (the harbour of the recess); Runcorn,
in Cheshire, _i.e._ _Rum-cofan_ (the wide cove or inlet); Cowes (the
coves), in the Isle of Wight; La Cava, in Naples; Cuevas-de-Vera (the
caves of Vera); Cuevas-del-Valle (of the valley), in Spain.

[Sidenote: CEALD (A.S.),
KALT (Ger.),
KOUD (Dut.),]

cold; _e.g._ Caldicott, Calthorpe, Calthwaite (cold dwelling);
Koudhuizon, Koudaim, with the same meaning; Caldbeck, Kalbach,
Kallenbach (cold stream); Kaltenherberg (cold shelter); Calvorde (cold
ford); Kaltenkirchen (cold church); Colwell (cold well).

[Sidenote: CEANN (Gadhelic),]

a head, a point or promontory--in topography _kin_ or _ken_; _e.g._
Kinnaird’s Head (the point of the high headland); Kintyre or Cantire
(the head of the land, _tir_); Kenmore (the great point), at the
head of Loch Tay; Kinloch (the head of the lake); Kincraigie (of the
little rock); Kinkell (the head church, _cill_); Kendrochet (bridge
end); Kinaldie and Kinalty (the head of the dark stream, _allt-dubh_);
Kingussie (the head of the fir-wood, _guith-saith_); Kinnaird (the high
headland), the name of a parish in Fife and a village in Stirling.
Kinross may mean the point (_ros_) at the head of Loch Leven, with
reference to the _town_ or with reference to the _county_, which in
early times formed part of the large district called the _Kingdom of
Fife_, anciently called _Ross_; and in this sense it may mean either
the head of the promontory or of the wood, both of which are in Celtic
_ros_. The ancient name of Fife, _Ross_, was changed into Fife in
honour of Duff, Earl of Fife, to whom it was granted by Kenneth II.,
and in 1426 Kinross was separated from it, or, according to Nennius,
from _Feb_, the son of Cruidne, ancestor of the Picts. Kintore (the
head of the hill, _tor_); Kinneil, _i.e._ _Ceann-fhail_ (the head
of the wall), _i.e._ of Agricola; Kinell, Kinellar (the head of
the knoll); King-Edward, corrupt. from _Kinedur_ (the head of the
water, _dur_); Kinghorn, from _Ceann-cearn_ (corner headland)--Wester
Kinghorn is now Burntisland; Kingarth, in Bute, _i.e._ _Ceann-garbh_
(the rough or stormy headland); Kinnoul (the head of the rock,
_ail_); Kintail (the head of the flood, _tuil_), _i.e._ of the two
salt-water lakes in Ross-shire; Boleskine (the summit of the furious
cascade, _boil cas_), _i.e._ of Foyers, in Inverness-shire; Kinmundy,
in Aberdeenshire, corrupt. from _Kinmunny_ (the head of the moss,
_moine_); Kinglassie, in Fife, was named after St. Glass or Glasianus);
Kenoway, Gael. _ceann-nan-uamh_ (the head of the den); Kent, Lat.
_Cantium_ (the country of the _Cantii_, or dwellers at the headland).
In Ireland: Kenmare in Kerry, Kinvarra in Galway, and Kinsale in
Cork, mean the head of the sea, _i.e._ _ceann-mara_ and _ceann-saile_
(salt water), the highest point reached by the tide; Kincon (the
dog’s headland); Kinturk (of the boar); Slyne Head, in Ireland, is
in Irish _Ceann-leime_ (the head of the leap), and Loop Head is
_Leim-Chonchuillinn_ (Cuchullin’s leap); Cintra, in Portugal, may mean
the head of the strand, _traigh_.

[Sidenote: CEFN (Cym.-Cel.),]

a ridge, cognate with the Grk. κεφαλη, a head; _e.g._ the Cevennes, the
Cheviots; Cefn-Llys (palace ridge); Cefn-bryn (hill ridge); Cefn-coed
(wood ridge); Cefn-coch (red ridge); Cefn-y-Fan (the hill ridge);
Cefn-Rhestyn (the row of ridges); Cefn-cyn-warchan (the watch-tower
ridge); Cemmaes (the ridge of the plain), in Wales; Cefalu (on the
headland), in Sicily; Chevin Hill, near Derby; Chevin (a high cliff),
in Yorkshire; Cephalonia (the island of headlands), also called _Samos_
(lofty); Cynocephale (the dog’s headland), in Thessaly.

[Sidenote: CEOL (A.S.),
KIELLE (Teut.),]

a ship; _e.g._ Keal and Keelby, in Lincoln (ship station); Ceolescumb,
Ceolëswyrth, Ceolseig, and perhaps Kiel, in Denmark; Chelsea, _i.e._
Ceolesig, on the Thames.

[Sidenote: CEORL (A.S.),]

a husbandman; _e.g._ Charlton (the husbandman’s dwelling); Charlinch
(the husbandman’s island), formerly insulated.

[Sidenote: CEOSEL (A.S.),]

sand, gravel; _e.g._ Chesil (the sand-hill), in Dorset; Chiselhurst
(the thicket at the sand-bank); Chiseldon (sand-hill); Chiselborough
(the fort at the sand-bank); Winchelsea, corrupt. from _Gwent-ceoseley_
(the sand-bank on the fair plain, _gwent_), or, according to another
etymology, named after Wincheling, the son of Cissa, the first king of
the South Saxons; Chiswick (sandy bay), on the Thames.

[Sidenote: CERRIG (Welsh),]

a heap of stones; _e.g._ Cerrig-y-Druidion (the Druids’ stones);
Cerrig-y-Pryfaed (the crag of the teachers), probably the Druids, in

[Sidenote: CHEP, CHEAP, CHIPPING (Teut.),

a place of merchandise, from A.S. _ceapan_, Ger. _kaufen_ (to buy);
_e.g._ Chepstow, Chippenham, Cheapside (the market-place or town);
Chipping-Norton and Chipping-Sodbury (the north and south market-town);
Chippinghurst (the market at the wood or thicket); Copenhagen,
Dan. _Kioben-havn_ (the haven for merchandise); Lidkioping (the
market-place on the R. Lid); Linkioping, anc. _Longakopungar_ (long
market-town), in Sweden; Arroeskiœbing (the market-place in the island
of Arroe); Nykoping, in Funen, and Nykjobing, in Falster, Denmark (new
market-place). The Copeland Islands on the Irish coast (the islands of
merchandise), probably used as a storehouse by the Danish invaders;
Copmansthorpe (the village of traders), in Yorkshire; Nordköping (north
market), in Sweden; Kaufbeuren (market-place), in Bavaria; Sydenham, in
Kent, formerly Cypenham (market-place).

[Sidenote: CHLUM (Sclav.),]

a hill, cognate with the Lat. _culmen_, transposed by the Germans into
_kulm_ and sometimes into _golm_; _e.g._ Kulm, in W. Prussia (a town on
a hill); Kulm, on the R. Saale; Chlumek, Chlumetz, Golmitz, Golmüz (the
little hill).

[Sidenote: CILL (Gadhelic),
CELL (Cym.-Cel.), from
CELLA (Lat.), and in the Provence languages,

a cell, a burying-ground, a church; in Celtic topography, _kil_ or
_kel_; _e.g._ Kilbride (the cell or church of St. Bridget), frequent
in Ireland and Scotland; Kildonan (of St. Donan); Kilkerran (of
St. Kieran); Kilpeter (of St. Peter); Kilcattan (of St. Chattan);
Kilmichael, Kilmarnock, Kilmarten, Kelpatrick, Kilbrandon (the churches
dedicated to St. Michael, St. Marnock, St. Martin, St. Patrick,
St. Brandon); Kilmaurs, Kilmorick, Kilmurry (St. Mary’s church); I
Columkil or Iona (the island of Columba’s church); Kilwinning (St.
Vimen’s church); Kilkenny (of St. Canice); Kilbeggan, in Ireland, and
Kilbucho, in Peeblesshire (the church of St. Bega); Kil-Fillan (of
St. Fillan); Killaloe, anc. _Cill-Dalua_ (the church of St. Dalua);
Killarney, Irish _Cill-airneadh_ (the church of the sloes)--the ancient
name of the lake was Lough Leane, from a famous artificer who lived
on its shores; Killin, _i.e._ _Cill-Fhinn_ (the burying-ground of
Finn, which is still pointed out); Kilmany (the church on the mossy
ground, _moine_); Kilmelfort, Cel. _Cill-na-maol-phort_ (the church
on the bald haven); Kilmore generally means the great church, but
Kilmore, Co. Cork, is from _Coillmhor_ (great wood), and in many
places in Ireland and Scotland it is difficult to determine whether
the root of the names is _cill_ or _coill_; Kildare, from _Cill-dara_
(the cell of the oak blessed by St. Bridget); Kilmun, in Argyleshire,
is named from St. Munna, one of St. Columba’s companions; Kilrush,
Co. Clare (the church of the promontory or of the wood); Kells (the
cells) is the name of several places in Ireland, and of a parish in
Dumfries; but Kells, in Meath and Kilkenny, is a contraction of the
ancient name _Ceann-lios_ (the head, _lis_, or fort); Closeburn, in
Dumfries, is a corrupt. of _Cella-Osburni_ (the cell of St. Osburn);
Bischofzell and Appenzell (the church of the bishop and of the abbot);
Maria-Zell (of St. Mary); Kupferzell, Jaxt-zell, Zella-am-Hallbach,
Zell-am-Harmarsbach (the churches on the rivers Kupfer, Jaxt, Hallbach,
and Harmarsbach); Zell-am-Moss (the church on the moor); Zell-am-See
(on the lake); Zella St. Blasii (of St. Blaise); Sabloncieux, in
France, anc. _Sabloncellis_ (the cells on the sandy place); but in
France _La Selle_ and _Les Selles_ are often used instead of _cella_
or _cellules_, as in Selle-St.-Cloud for _Cella-Sanct.-Clotoaldi_
(the church dedicated to this saint); Selle-sur-Nahon, anc. _Cellula_
(little church); Kilconquhar, in Fife (the church of St. Conchobar or
Connor); Kilbernie, in Ayrshire (the church of Berinus, a bishop);
Kilspindie (of St. Pensadius); Kilblane and Kilcolmkill, in Kintyre (of
St. Blane and St. Columba); Kilrenny (of St. Irenaeus); Kilchrenan, in
Argyleshire (the burying-place of St. Chrenan, the tutelary saint of
the parish).

[Sidenote: CITTÀ, CIVITA (It.),
CIUDAD, CIDADE (Sp. and Port.),
CIOTAT (Fr.),]

a city or borough, derived from the Lat. _civitas_; _e.g._ Cittadella
and Civitella (little city); Città di Castello (castellated city);
Città-Vecchia (old city), in Malta; Civita Vecchia (old city), in
Central Italy, formerly named _Centum-cellæ_ (the hundred apartments),
from a palace of the Emperor Trajan; Civita-de-Penné (the city of
the summit), in Naples; Cividad-della-Trinidad (the city of the Holy
Trinity); Ciudad-Rodrigo (Roderick’s city); Ciudad-Reäl (royal city);
Ciudad-de-Gracias (the city of grace), in Spain; Ciudadella (little
city), in Minorca.

[Sidenote: CLACH, CLOCH, CLOUGH (Gadhelic),]

a stone; _e.g._ Clach-breac (the speckled stone); Clach-an-Oban (the
stone of the little bay); Clach-na-darrach (the stone of the oak
grove); Clachach (a stony place). The word clachan, in Scotland,
was originally applied to a circle of stones where the Pagan rites
of worship were wont to be celebrated; and, after the introduction
of Christianity, houses and churches were erected near these spots,
and thus clachan came to mean a hamlet; and, at the present day,
the expression used in asking a person if he is going to church
is--“_Am bheil-thu’dol do’n clachan?_” (_i.e._ “Are you going to the
stones?”) There is the Clachan of Aberfoyle in Perthshire; and in
Blair-Athole there is a large stone called _Clach n’iobairt_ (the
stone of sacrifice). In Skye there is _Clach-na-h-Annat_ (the stone
of Annat, the goddess of victory); and those remarkable Druidical
remains, called rocking-stones, are termed in Gaelic _Clach-bhraeth_
(the stone of knowledge), having been apparently used for divination.
There are others called _Clach-na-greine_ (the stone of the sun), and
_Clach-an-t-sagairt_ (of the priest). The village of Clackmannan was
originally _Clachan-Mannan_, _i.e._ the stone circle or hamlet of the
district anciently called _Mannan_. In Ireland this root-word commonly
takes the form of _clogh_ or _clough_, as in Cloghbally, Cloghvally
(stony dwelling); Clogher (the stony land); Clomony (the stony
shrubbery); Clorusk (the stony marsh); Cloichin, Cloghan, Clogheen
(land full of little stones); but the word clochan is also applied
to stepping-stones across a river, as in _Clochan-na-bh Fomharaigh_
(the stepping-stones of the Fomarians, _i.e._ the Giant’s Causeway);
Cloghereen (the little stony place); Ballycloch and Ballenaclogh (the
town of the stones); Auchnacloy (the field of the stone); Clochfin (the
white stone); Clonakilty, corrupt. from _Clough-na-Kiltey_ (the stone
house of the O’Keelys).

[Sidenote: CLAR, CLARAGH (Irish),]

a board, a plain, a flat piece of land; Clare is the name of several
places in different counties of Ireland, sometimes softened to _Clara_.
County Clare is said to have derived its name from a plank placed
across the R. Fergus, at the village of Clare. Ballyclare, Ballinclare
(the town of the plain); Clarbane (white plain); Clarderry (level oak
grove); Clarchoill (level wood); Clareen (little plain).

[Sidenote: CLAWDD (Cym.-Cel.),]

a dyke or embankment; _e.g._ Clawdd-Offa (Offa’s Dyke).

[Sidenote: CLEFF (A.S.), _cleof_ and _clyf_,
KLIPPE (Ger. and Scand.),]

a steep bank or rock, cognate with the Lat. _clivus_ (a slope);
Clive, Cleave, Clee (the cliff); Clifton (the town on the cliff);
Clifdon (cliff hill); Clifford (the ford near the cliff); Hatcliffe
and Hockcliffe (high cliff); Cleveland (rocky land), in Yorkshire;
Cleves (the town on the slope), Rhenish Prussia; Radcliffe (red
cliff); Silberklippen (at the silver cliff); Horncliff (corner
cliff); Undercliff (between the cliff and the sea), in Isle of Wight;
Clitheroe (the cliff near the water), in Lancashire; Lillies-leaf, in
Roxburghshire, a corrupt. of _Lille’s-cliva_ (the cliff of Lilly or

[Sidenote: CLERE (Anglo-Norman),]

a royal or episcopal residence, sometimes a manor; _e.g._ King’s-clere,
Co. Hants, so called because the Saxon kings had a palace there;
Burg-clere (where the bishops of Winchester resided), High-clere.

[Sidenote: CLUAN, CLOON (Gadhelic),]

a fertile piece of land, surrounded by a bog on one side and water on
the other, hence a meadow; _e.g._ Clunie, Cluny, Clunes, Clones (the
meadow pastures). These fertile pastures, as well as small islands,
were the favourite spots chosen by the monks in Ireland and Scotland as
places of retirement, and became eventually the sites of monasteries
and abbeys, although at first the names of these meadows, in many
instances, had no connection with a religious institution--thus Clones,
Co. Monaghan, was _Cluain-Eois_ (the meadow of Eos, probably a Pagan
chief), before it became a Christian settlement; Clonard, in Meath,
where the celebrated St. Finian had his school, in the sixth century,
was _Cluain-Eraird_ (Erard’s meadow). In some instances Clonard may
mean the high meadow; Clonmel (the meadow of honey); Clonfert (of
the grave); Clontarf and Clontarbh (the bull’s pasture); Clonbeg and
Cloneen (little meadow); Clonkeen (beautiful meadow); Cluainte and
Cloonty (the meadows); Cloonta-killen (the meadows of the wood)--_v._
Joyce’s _Irish Names of Places_.

[Sidenote: CNOC (Gadhelic),
KNWC (Cym.-Cel.),]

a knoll, hill, or mound; _e.g._ Knock, a hill in Banff; Knockbrack (the
spotted knoll); Knockbane, Knockdoo, Knockglass (the white, black, and
gray hill); Carnock (cairn hill); Knockea, Irish _Cnoc-Aedha_ (Hugh’s
hill); Knocklayd, Co. Antrim, _i.e._ _Cnoc-leithid_ (broad hill);
Knockan, Knockeen (little hill); Knockmoyle (bald hill); Knocknagaul
(the hill of the strangers); Knockrath (of the fort); Knockshanbally
(of the old town); Knocktaggart (of the priest); Knockatober (of
the well); Knockalough (of the lake); Knockanure (of the yew);
Knockaderry (of the oak-wood); Knockane (little hill), Co. Kerry;
Knockandow (little black hill), Elgin; Knockreagh, Knockroe, Knockgorm
(the gray, red, blue hill); Knockacullion (the hill of the holly);
Knockranny (ferny hill); Knockagh (the hilly place); Knockfirinne (the
hill of truth), a noted fairy hill, Co. Limerick, which serves as a
weather-glass to the people of the neighbouring plains; Ballynock (the
town of the hill); Baldernock (the dwelling at the Druid’s hill), Co.
Stirling; Knwc-y Dinas (the hill of the fortress), in Cardigan.

[Sidenote: COCH (Cym.-Cel.),]


[Sidenote: COED (Cym.-Cel.),
COID, this word was variously written Coit, Coat, or Cuitgoed. In
Cornwall it is found in Penquite (the head of the wood); Pencoed, with
the same meaning, in Wales; Argoed (upon the wood), in Wales; Goedmore
(great wood), in Wales; Coed-llai (short wood); Glascoed (green wood),
in Wales; Caldecot, corrupt. from _Cil-y-coed_ (the woody retreat), in
Wales; Coedglasen, corrupt. from _Coed-gleision_ (green trees).]

a wood; _e.g._ Coed-Arthur (Arthur’s wood); Coedcymmer (the wood of
the confluence); Catmoss and Chatmoss (the wood moss); Coitmore (great
wood); Selwood, anc. _Coitmaur_ (great wood); Catlow (wood hill);
Cotswold (wood hill), the Saxon _wold_ having been added to the Cel.
_coed_. The forms of this word in Brittany are _Koat_ or _Koad_--hence
Coetbo, Coetmen, Coetmieux, etc.; Llwyd-goed (gray wood), in Wales.

[Sidenote: COGN (Cel.),]

the point of a hill between two valleys, or a tongue of land enclosed
between two watercourses; _e.g._ Cognat, Cougny, Cognac, Le Coigné,
Coigneur, Coigny, etc., in various parts of France--_v._ Cocheris’s
_Noms de Lieu_, Paris.

[Sidenote: COILL (Gadhelic),]

a wood--in topography it takes the forms of kel, kil, kelly, killy,
and kyle; _e.g._ Kellymore, and sometimes Kilmore (the great wood);
Kelburn, Kelvin, Kellyburn, and Keltie (the woody stream); Callander,
_Coille-an-dar_ (the oak-wood); Cuilty, Quilty, Kilty (the woods);
Kilton (the town in the wood), in Scotland. In Ireland: Kilbowie
(yellow wood); Kildarroch (the oak-wood); Kilcraig (the wood of the
rock); Kildinny (of the fire)--_v._ TEINE; Killiegowan (of the smith);
Kilgour (of the goats); Eden-keille (the face of the wood); Kylebrach
(the spotted wood); Kylenasagart (the priest’s wood); Kailzie (the
woody), a parish in Peebles; but Kyle, in Ayrshire, is not from this
root, but was named after a mythic Cymric king; Loughill, in Co.
Limerick, corrupt. from _Leamhchoill_ (the elm-wood); Barnacullia (the
top of the wood), near Dublin; Culleen and Coiltean (little wood);
Kildare, anc. _Coill-an-chlair_ (the wood of the plain).

[Sidenote: COIRE, or CUIRE (Gadhelic),]

a ravine, a hollow, a whirlpool; _e.g._ Corrie-dow (the dark ravine);
Corrie-garth (the field at the ravine); Corrimony (the hill, _monadh_,
at the ravine); Corrielea (the gray ravine); Corrie (the hollow), in
Dumfriesshire; Corriebeg (the little hollow); Corryvrechan whirlpool
(Brecan’s cauldron); Corgarf (the rough hollow, _garbh_); Corralin
(the whirlpool of the cataract)--_v._ LIN; Corriebuie (yellow ravine);
Corryuriskin (of the wild spirit); but _Cor_, in Ireland, generally
signifies a round hill, as in Corbeagh (birch hill); Corglass (green
hill); Corkeeran (rowan-tree hill); Corog and Correen (little hill);
while _Cora_, or _Coradh_, signifies a weir across a river, as in
Kincora (the head of the weir); Kirriemuir, in Forfar, corrupt. from
_Corriemor_ (the great hollow); Loch Venachoir, in Perthshire, is the
fair hollow or valley--_v._ FIN, p. 80.

[Sidenote: COL, COLN (Lat. _colonia_),]

a colony; _e.g._ Lincoln, anc. _Lindum-colonia_ (the colony at
Lindum, the hill fort on the pool, _linne_); Colne (the colony), in
Lancashire; Cologne, Lat. _Colonia-Agrippina_ (the colony), Ger.
_Köln_. The city was founded by the Ubii 37 B.C., and was at first
called _Ubiorum-oppidum_, but a colony being planted there in 50 A.D.
by Agrippina, the wife of the Emperor Claudius, it received her name.

[Sidenote: COMAR, CUMAR (Gadhelic),
CYMMER, KEMBER (Cym.-Cel.),]

a confluence, often found as Cumber or Comber; _e.g._ Comber, Co.
Down; Cefn-coed-y-cymmer (the wood ridge of the confluence), where
two branches of the R. Taff meet; Cumbernauld, in Dumbarton, Gael.
_Comar-n-uilt_ (the meeting of streams, _alt_). Cumnock, in Ayrshire,
may have the same meaning, from _Cumar_ and _oich_ (water), as
the streams Lugar and Glasnock meet near the village; Comrie, in
Perthshire, at the confluence of the streams Earn, Ruchill, and
Lednock; Kemper and Quimper (the confluence), and Quimper-lé, or
Kember-leach (the place at the confluence), in Brittany. The words
Condate and Condé, in French topography, seem to be cognate with this
Celtic root, as in Condé, in Normandy (at the meeting of two streams);
Condé, in Belgium (at the confluence of the Scheldt and Hawe);
_Condate-Rhedorum_ (the confluence of the Rhedones, a Celtic tribe),
now Rennes, in Brittany; Coucy, anc. _Condiceacum_ (at the confluence
of the Lette and Oise); Congleton, Co. Chester, was formerly _Condate_.

[Sidenote: COMBE (A.S.),
CWM, KOMB (Cym.-Cel.),
CUM (Gadhelic),]

a hollow valley between hills, a dingle; _e.g._ Colcombe (the valley
of the R. Coly); Cwmneath (of the Neath); Compton (the town in the
hollow); Gatcombe (the passage through the valley, _gat_); Combs,
the hollows in the Mendip hills; Wycombe (the valley of the Wye);
Winchcombe (the corner valley); Wivelscombe and Addiscombe, probably
connected with a personal name; Ilfracombe (Elfric’s dingle); Cwmrydol
and Cwmdyli, in Wales (the hollow of the Rivers Rydol and Dyli);
Cwm-eigian (the productive ridge); Cwmgilla (the hazel-wood valley);
Cwm-Toyddwr (the valley of two waters), near the conf. of the Rivers
Wye and Elain in Wales; Cwm-gloyn (the valley of the brook Gloyn);
Cwmdu (dark valley); Cwm-Barre (the valley of the R. Barre), in Wales;
Combe St. Nicholas, in Somerset and in Cumberland, named for the saint;
Comb-Basset and Comb-Raleigh, named from the proprietors; Cwm-du (black
dingle); Cwm-bychan (little dingle), in Wales; Corscombe (the dingle
in the bog). In Ireland: Coomnahorna (the valley of the barley);
Lackenacoombe (the hillside of the hollow); Lake Como, in Italy (in the

[Sidenote: CONFLUENTES (Lat.),]

a flowing together, hence the meeting of waters; _e.g._ Coblentz, for
_Confluentes_ (at the conf. of the Moselle and Rhine); Conflans (at the
conf. of the Seine and Oise); Confluent, a hamlet situated at the conf.
of the Creuse and Gartempe.

[Sidenote: COP (Welsh),]

a summit; _e.g._ Cop-yr-Leni (the illuminated hill), so called from the
bonfires formerly kindled on the top.

[Sidenote: CORCAGH, or CURRAGH (Irish),
CORS (Welsh),
CAR (Gael.),
KER (Scand.),]

a marsh; _e.g._ Corse (the marsh); Corston, Corsby, Corsenside (the
dwelling or settlement on the marsh); Corscombe (marsh dingle), in
England. In Ireland: Cork, anc. _Corcach-mor-Mumham_ (the great marsh
of Munster); Curkeen, Corcaghan (little marsh); Curragh-more (great
marsh); Currabaha (the marsh of birches). Perhaps Careby and Carton, in
Lincoln, part of the Danish district, may be marsh dwelling.

[Sidenote: CORNU (Lat.),
KERNE, CERYN (Cym.-Cel.),
CEARN (Gael.),]

a horn, a corner--in topography, applied to headlands; _e.g._ Corneto
(the place on the corner), in Italy; Corné, Cornay, Corneuil,
etc., in France, from this root, or perhaps from _Cornus_ (the
cornel cherry-tree); Cornwall, Cel. _Cernyu_, Lat. _Cornubiæ_, A.S.
_Cornwallia_ (the promontory or corner peopled by the _Weales_, Welsh,
or foreigners); Cornuailles, in Brittany, with the same meaning--its
Celtic name was _Pen-Kernaw_ (the head of the corner).

[Sidenote: COTE (A.S.),
COITE (Gael.),
CWT (Welsh),
KOTHE (Ger.),]

a hut; _e.g._ Cottenham, Cottingham, Coatham (the village of huts);
Chatham, A.S. _Coteham_, with the same meaning; Bramcote (the hut among
broom); Fencotes (the huts in the fen or marsh; Prescot (priest’s hut);
Sculcoates, in Yorkshire, probably from the personal Scandinavian name
_Skule_; Saltcoats, in Ayrshire (the huts occupied by the makers of
salt, a trade formerly carried on to a great extent at that place);
Kothendorf (the village of huts); Hinter-kothen (behind the huts), in

[Sidenote: COTE, COTTA (Sansc.),]

a fortress; _e.g._ Chicacotta (little fortress); Gazacotta (the
elephant’s fortress); Jagarcote (bamboo fort); Islamcot (the fort of
the true faith, _i.e._ of Mahomet); Noa-cote (new fort); Devicotta
(God’s fortress); Palamcotta (the camp fort).

[Sidenote: CÔTE (Fr.),
COSTA (Span. and Port.),]

a side or coast; _e.g._ Côte d’Or (the golden coast), a department
of France, so called from its fertility; Côtes-du-Nord (the Northern
coasts), a department of France; Costa-Rica (rich coast), a state of
Central America.

[Sidenote: COURT (Nor. Fr.),
CWRT (Cym.-Cel.),
CORTE (It., Span., and Port.),]

a place enclosed, the place occupied by a sovereign, a lordly mansion;
from the Lat. _cohors_, also _cors-cortis_ (an enclosed yard), cognate
with the Grk. _hortos_. The Romans called the castles built by Roman
settlers in the provinces _cortes_ or _cortem_, thence _court_ became
a common affix to the names of mansions in England and France--thus
Hampton Court and Hunton Court, in England; Leoncourt, Aubigne-court,
Honnecourt (the mansion of Leo, Albinius, and Honulf); Aubercourt (of
Albert); Mirecourt, Lat. _Mercurii-curtis_, where altars were wont
to be dedicated to Mercury. From the diminutives of this word arose
Cortiles, Cortina, Corticella, Courcelles, etc. The words _court_,
_cour_, and _corte_ were also used as equivalent to the Lat. _curia_
(the place of assembly for the provincial councils)--thus Corte, in
Corsica, where the courts of justice were held; but Corsica itself
derived its name from the Phœnician _chorsi_ (a woody place). The
Cortes, in Spain, evidently equivalent to the Lat. _curia_, gives
its name to several towns in that country; Coire, the capital of
the Grisons, in Switzerland, comes from the anc. _Curia Rhætiorum_
(the place where the provincial councils of the Rhætians were held);
Corbridge, in Northumberland, is supposed to take its name from a Roman
_curia_, and perhaps Currie, in East Lothian.

[Sidenote: CRAIG, CARRAIG, CARRICK (Gadhelic),
CRAIG (Cym.-Cel.),]

a rock; _e.g._ Craigie, Creich, Crathie, Gael. _Creagach_ (rocky),
parishes in Scotland; Carrick and Carrig, in Ireland (either the rocks
or rocky ground); Carrick-on-Suir (the rock of the R. Suir)--_v._
p. 42; Craigengower (the goat’s rock); Craigendarroch (the rock
of the oak-wood); Craigdou (black rock); Craigdearg (red rock);
Craigmore (great rock); Craig-Phadric (St. Patrick’s rock), in
Inverness-shire; Craignish (the rock of the island), the extremity
of which is Ardcraignish; Craignethan (the rock encircled by the R.
Nethan), supposed to be the archetype of Tullietudlem; Craigentinny
(the little rock of the fire)--_v._ TEINE; Criggan (the little rock).
In Wales, Crick-Howel and Crickadarn (the rock of Howel and Cadarn);
Criccaeth (the narrow hill); Crick, in Derbyshire; Creach, in Somerset;
Critch-hill, Dorset.

[Sidenote: CREEK (A.S.),
CRIQUE (Fr.),]

a small bay; _e.g._ Cricklade, anc. _Creccagelade_ (the bay of the
stream); Crayford (the ford of the creek); Crique-bœuf, Crique-by,
Crique-tot, Crique-villa (the dwelling on the creek); Criquiers (the
creeks), in France. In America this word signifies a small stream, as
Saltcreek, etc.

[Sidenote: CROES, CROG (Cym.-Cel.),
CROIS, CROCH (Gadhelic),
CROD (A.S.),
KRYS (Scand.),
KREUTZ (Ger.),
CROIX (Fr.),]

a cross, cognate with the Lat. _crux_; _e.g._ Crosby (the dwelling
near the cross); Crossmichael (the cross of St. Michael’s Church);
Groes-wen for Croes-wen (the blessed cross), in Glamorgan; Crossthwaite
(the forest-clearing at the cross); Croxton (cross town); Crewe and
Crewkerne (the place at the cross); Croes-bychan (little cross);
Kruzstrait (the road at the cross), in Belgium; Crosscanonby, Crosslee,
Crosshill, places in different parts of Scotland, probably named
from the vicinity of some cross; but Crossgates, Co. Fife, so called
from its situation at a spot where roads cross each other. It was
usual with the Celts in Ireland, as well as with the Spaniards and
Portuguese in America, to mark the place where any providential event
had occurred, or where they founded a church or city, by erecting a
cross--as in St. Croix, Santa-Cruz, and Vera Cruz (the true cross),
in South America. In Ireland: Crosserlough (the cross on the lake);
Crossmolina (O’Mulleeny’s cross); Aghacross (the fort at the cross);
Crossard (high cross); Crossreagh (gray cross); Crossmaglen, Irish
_Cros-mag-Fhloinn_ (the cross of Flann’s son); Crossau, Crossoge, and
Crusheen (little cross); Oswestry, in Shropshire, anc. _Croes-Oswalt_
(the cross on which Oswald, King of Northumberland, was executed by
Penda of Mercia). Its Welsh name was _Maeshir_ (long field), by the
Saxons rendered _Meserfield_; Marcross (the cross on the sea-shore), in
Glamorgan; Pen-y-groes, Maen-y-groes, Rhyd-y-croessau (the hill, the
stone of the cross, the ford of the crosses), in Wales; Glencorse, near
Edinburgh, for _Glencross_, so named from a remarkable cross which once
stood there; Corstorphine, in Mid-Lothian, corrupt. from _Crostorphin_,
which might mean the cross of the beautiful hill, _torr fioum_, or
the cross of a person called Torphin. In the reign of James I. the
church of Corstorphine became a collegiate foundation, with a provost,
four prebendaries, and two singing boys. _Croich_ in Gaelic means a
gallows--thus Knockacrochy (gallows hill); Raheenacrochy (the little
fort of the gallows), in Ireland.

[Sidenote: CROAGH (Gael.),]

a hill of a round form--from _cruach_ (a haystack); _e.g._ Croghan,
Crohane (the little round hill); Ballycroghan (the town of the little
hill), in Ireland; Bencruachan (the stack-shaped hill), in Argyleshire.

[Sidenote: CROFT (A.S.),]

an enclosed field; _e.g._ Crofton (the town on the croft); Thornycroft
(thorny field).

[Sidenote: CROM, CRUM (Gadhelic),
CRWM (Cym.-Cel.),
KRUMM (Ger.),
CRUMB (A.S.),]

crooked; _e.g._ Cromdale (the winding valley), in Inverness-shire;
Croome, in Worcester; Cromlin, Crimlin (the winding glen, _ghlinn_),
in Ireland; Krumbach (the winding brook); Krumau and Krumenau (the
winding water or valley); Ancrum, a village in Roxburghshire, situated
at the _bend_ of the R. Alne at its confluence with the Teviot.

[Sidenote: CRUG (Welsh),]

a hillock; _e.g._ Crughwel (the conspicuous hillock, _hywel_);
Crug-y-swllt (the hillock of the treasure), in Wales; Crickadarn,
corrupt. from _Crug-eadarn_ (the strong crag), in Wales.

[Sidenote: CUL, CUIL} (Gadhelic) (the corner),}]

_e.g._ Coull, Cults, parishes in Scotland; Culter, _i.e._ _Cul-tir_
(at the back of the land), in Lanarkshire; Culcairn (of the cairn);
Culmony (at the back of the hill or moss, _monadh_); Culloden for
_Cul-oiter_ (at the back of the ridge); Culnakyle (at the back of
the wood); Cultulach (of the hill); Culblair (the backlying field);
Culross (behind the headland), in Scotland. In Ireland: Coolboy
(yellow corner); Coolderry (at the back or corner of the oak-wood);
Cooleen, Cooleeny (little corner); Coleraine, in Londonderry, as well
as Coolraine, Coolrainy, Coolrahne, Irish _Cuil-rathain_ (the corner
of ferns); Coolgreany (sunny corner); Coolnasmear (the corner of the

[Sidenote: CUND (Hindostanee),]

a country; _e.g._ Bundelcund, Rohilcund (the countries of the Bundelas
and Rohillas).


[Sidenote: DAGH, TAGH (Turc.),]

a mountain; _e.g._ Daghestan (the mountainous district); Baba-dagh
(father or chief mountain); Kara-dagh (black mountain); Kezel-dagh
(red mountain); Belur-tagh (the snow-capped mountain); Aktagh (white
mountain); Mustagh (ice mountain); Beshtau (the five mountains);
Tak-Rustan (the mountain of Rustan); Tchazr-dagh (tent mountain);
Ala-dagh (beautiful mountain); Bingol-tagh (the mountain of 1000
wells); Agri-dagh (steep mountain); Takht-i-Suliman (Solomon’s

[Sidenote: DAIL (Gadhelic),
DOL (Cym.-Cel.),
DAHL (Scand.),
THAL (Ger.),
DOL (Sclav.),]

a valley, sometimes a field, English _dale_ or _dell_, and often joined
to the name of the river which flows through the district; _e.g._
Clydesdale, Teviotdale, Nithsdale, Liddesdale, Dovedale, Arundel,
Dryfesdale, corrupt. to _Drysdale_ (the valley of the Clyde, Teviot,
Nith, Liddel, Dove, Arun, Dryfe); Rochdale, on the Roch, an affluent
of the Trivell; Dalmellington (the town in the valley of the mill).
It is to be noted that in places named by the Teut. and Scand. races,
this root-word, as well as others, is placed after the adjective or
defining word; while by the Celtic races it is placed first. Thus, in
Scandinavia, and in localities of Great Britain where the Danes and
Norsemen had settlements, we have--Romsdalen and Vaerdal, the valleys
of the Raumer and Vaer, in Norway; Langenthal, on the R. Langent, in
Switzerland; Rydal (rye valley), Westmoreland; Laugdalr (the valley
of warm springs), Iceland. In districts again peopled by the Saxons,
Avondale, Annandale (the valleys of the Avon and Annan). This is the
general rule, although there are exceptions--Rosenthal (the valley of
roses); Inn-thal (of the R. Inn); Freudenthal (of joy); Fromenthal
(wheat valley); Grunthal (green valley). In Gaelic, Irish, and Welsh
names, on the contrary, _dal_ precedes the defining word; _e.g._ Dalry
and Dalrigh (king’s level field); Dalbeth and Dalbeathie (the field of
birches); Dalginross (the field at the head of the promontory or wood);
Dalness and Dallas (the field of the cascade, _cas_); Dalserf (of St.
Serf); Dailly, in Ayrshire, anc. _Dalmaolkeran_ (the field of the
servant, _maol_, of St. Kiaran); Dalrymple (the valley of the rumbling
pool, _ruaemleagh_); Dalgarnock (of the rough hillock); Dalhousie (the
field at the corner of the water, _i.e._ of the Esk); Dalwhinnie (the
field of the meeting, _coinneach_); Dalziel (beautiful field, _geal_);
Dalguise (of the fir-trees, _giuthas_); Dalnaspittal (the field of
the _spideal_, _i.e._ the house of entertainment); Dalnacheaich (of
the stone); Dalnacraoibhe (of the tree); Dalbowie (yellow field).
Dollar, in Clackmannan, may be from this root, although there is a
tradition that it took its name from a castle in the parish called
Castle-Gloom, Gael. _doillair_ (dark); Deal or Dole (the valley in
Kent); Dol and Dole, in Brittany, with the same meaning; Doldrewin (the
valley of the Druidical circles in Wales); Dolquan (the owl’s meadow);
Dolau-Cothi (the meadows of the River Cothi); Dolgelly (the grove of
hazels); Dalkeith (the narrow valley, _caeth_); Codale (cow field);
Grisdale (swine field); Gasdale (goosefield); Balderdale, Silverdale,
Uldale, Ennerdale, Ransdale (from the personal names, Balder, Sölvar,
Ulf, Einer, Hrani); Brachendale (the valley of ferns); Berrydale, in
Caithness, corrupt. from Old Norse, _Berudalr_ (the valley of the
productive wood); Dalecarlia, called by the Swedes _Dahlena_ (the
valleys); Dieppedal (deep valley); Stendal (stony valley); Oundle, in
Northampton, corrupt. from _Avondle_; Kendal or Kirkby-Kendal (the
church town in the valley of the R. Ken); Dolgelly (the valley of
the grove), in Wales; Dolsk or Dolzig (the town in the valley), in
Posen; Dolzen, in Bohemia; Bartondale (the dale of the enclosure for
the gathered crops), in Yorkshire; Dalarossie, in Inverness, corrupt.
from _Dalfergussie_, Fergus’dale; Dalriada, in Ulster, named from a
king of the Milesian race, named _Cairbe-Raida_, who settled there.
His descendants gradually emigrated to Albin, which from them was
afterwards called Scotland; and that part of Argyleshire where they
landed they also named Dalriada. The three brothers, Fergus, Sorn, and
Anghus, came to Argyleshire in 503 A.D. Toul and Toulouse, situated
in valleys, probably were named from the same root-word; Toulouse was
anciently called _Civitas-Tolosatium_ (the city of the valley dwellers,

[Sidenote: DAL, or GEDEL (A.S.),
DEEL (Dutch),
THEIL (Ger.),
DAL (Irish),]

a part, a district; _e.g._ Kalthusertheil (the district of the cold
houses); Kerckdorfertheil (the district of the village church);
Baradeel (the barren district), in Germany and Holland. This word,
rather than _dail_, may be the root of Dalriada; see above.

[Sidenote: DALEJ (Sclav.),]

far; _e.g._ Daliz, Dalchow, Dalichow (the distant place).

[Sidenote: DAMM (Teut.),]

an embankment, a dyke; _e.g._ Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Saardam, properly
Zaandam (the embankment on the Rivers Rotte, Amstel, and Zaan);
Schiedam, on the R. Schie; Leerdam (the embankment on the field,
_lar_); Veendam (on the marsh, _veen_); Damm (the embankment), a town
in Prussia; Neudamm (the new dyke); Dammducht (the embankment of the

[Sidenote: DAN,]

in topography, signifies belonging to the Danes; _e.g._ Danelagh
(that portion of England which the Danes held after their treaty
with Alfred); Danby, Danesbury (the Danes’ dwellings); Danesbanks,
Danesgraves, Danesford, in Salop, where the Danes are believed to
have wintered in 896; Danshalt, in Fife, where they are said to have
halted after their defeat at Falkland; Danthorpe, Denton (Danes’ town);
Denshanger (Danes’ hill or declivity); Dantzic (the Danish fort,
built by a Danish colony in the reign of Waldemar II.); Tennstedt, in
Saxony, corrupt. from _Dannenstedi_ (the Danes’ station); Cruden, in
Aberdeenshire, anc. _Cruor-Danorum_ (the slaughter of the Danes on the
site of the last battle between the Celts and the Danes, which took
place in the parish 1012). The Danish king fell in this battle, and was
buried in the churchyard of Cruden. For centuries the Erroll family
received an annual pension from the Danish Government for taking care
of the grave at Cruden, but after the grave had been desecrated this
pension was discontinued.

[Sidenote: DAR, DERA, DEIR (Ar.),
DEH (Pers.),]

a dwelling, camp, or district; _e.g._ Dar-el-hajar (the rocky
district), in Egypt; Darfur (the district of the Foor or Foorians, or
the deer country), in Central Africa; Dera-Fati-Khan, Dera-Ghazi-Khan,
Dera-Ismail-Khan (_i.e._ the camps of these three chiefs, in the
Derajat, or camp district); Deir (the monk’s dwelling), in Syria;
Diarbekr (the dwellings or tents of Bekr); Dehi-Dervishan (the villages
of the dervishes); Deh-haji (the pilgrims’ village); Dekkergan (the
village of wolves); Deir-Antonius (St. Anthony’s monastery), in Egypt;
Buyukdereh (Turc. the great district on the Bosphorus).

[Sidenote: DAR, DERO, DERYN (Cym.-Cel.),
DAIR (Gadhelic),]

an oak, cognate with the Lat. _drus_, and Sansc. _dru_, _doire_,
or _daire_, Gadhelic, an oak-wood, Anglicised _derry_, _darach_,
or _dara_, the gen. of _dair_; _e.g._ Daragh (a place abounding
in oaks); Adare, _i.e._ _Athdara_ (the ford of the oak); Derry,
now Londonderry, was originally _Daire-Calgaigh_ (the oak-wood of
Galgacus, Latinised form of _Calgaigh_). In 546, when St. Columba
erected his monastery there, it became Derry-Columkille (the oak-wood
of Columba’s Church); in the reign of James I., by a charter granted
to the London merchants, it obtained its present name; Derry-fad (the
long oak-wood); Derry-na-hinch (of the island, _innis_); Dairbhre or
Darrery (the oak forest), the Irish name for the Island of Valentia;
Derry-allen (beautiful wood); Derrybane and Derrybawn (white oak-wood);
Derrylane (broad oak-wood); Durrow, Irish _Dairmagh_, and Latinised
_Robereticampus_ (the plain of the oaks); New and Old Deer (the
oak-wood), in Aberdeenshire, was a monastery erected in early times by
St. Columba, and given by him to St. Drostan. The old monastery was
situated near a wooded hill, still called _Aikie-Brae_ (oak hill),
and a fair was held annually in the neighbourhood, called _Mercatus
querceti_ (the oak market)--_v._ _Book of Deer_, p. 48; Craigendarroch
(the crag of the oak-wood); Darnock, or Darnick (the oak hillock), in
Roxburghshire; Dryburgh, corrupt. from _Darach-bruach_ (the bank of
oaks); Dori, the name of a round hill covered with oak-trees, in Wales;
Darowen (Owen’s oak-wood), in Wales.

[Sidenote: DEICH, DYK (Teut.),]

a dyke or entrenchment. These dykes were vast earthen ramparts
constructed by the Anglo-Saxons to serve as boundaries between hostile
tribes; _e.g._ Hoorndyk (the dyke at the corner); Grondick (green
dyke); Wansdyke (Woden’s dyke); Grimsdyke and Offa’s dyke (named after
the chiefs Grim and Offa); Houndsditch (the dog’s dyke); Ditton, Dixton
(towns enclosed by a dyke); Zaadik, in Holland, (the dyke) on the R.
Zaad. Cartsdike, a village in Renfrewshire separated from Greenock by
the burn Cart. Besides Grimesdyke (the name for the wall of Antoninus,
from the R. Forth to the Clyde), there is a Grimsditch in Cheshire.

[Sidenote: DELF (Teut.),]

a canal, from _delfan_ (to dig); _e.g._ Delft, a town in Holland,
intersected by canals; Delfshaven (the canal harbour); Delfbrüke (canal

[Sidenote: DEN, DEAN (Saxon),]

a deep, wooded valley. This word is traced by Leo and others to the
Celtic _dion_ (protection, shelter); _e.g._ Dibden (deep hollow);
Hazeldean (the valley of hazels); Bowden or Bothanden (St. Bothan’s
valley), in Roxburghshire; Tenterden, anc. _Theinwarden_ (the guarded
valley of the thane or nobleman), in Kent; Howden (the _haugr_ or
_mound_ (in the valley), in Yorkshire; Howdon, with the same meaning,
in Northumberland; Otterden (the otter’s valley); Stagsden (of the
stag); Micheldean (great valley); Rottingdean (the valley of Hrotan, a
chief); Croxden (the valley of the cross).

[Sidenote: DEOR (A.S.),
DYR (Scand.),
THIER (Ger.),]

a wild animal--English, a deer; _e.g._ Deerhurst (deer’s thicket);
Durham, in Gloucester (the dwelling of wild animals). For Durham on the
Wear, _v._ HOLM. Tierbach, Tierhage (the brook and the enclosure of
wild animals).

[Sidenote: DESERT, or DISERT,]

a term borrowed from the Lat. _desertum_, and applied by the Celts to
the names of sequestered places chosen by the monks for devotion and
retirement; Dyserth, in North Wales, and Dyzard, in Cornwall; _e.g._
Dysart, in Fife, formerly connected with the monastery of Culross, or
Kirkcaldy--near Dysart is the cave of St. Serf; Dysertmore (the great
desert), in Co. Kilkenny; Desertmartin in Londonderry, Desertserges in
Cork (the retreats of St. Martin and St. Sergius). In Ireland the word
is often corrupted to _Ester_ or _Isert_--as in Isertkelly (Kelly’s
retreat); Isertkeeran (St. Ciaran’s retreat).

[Sidenote: DEUTSCH (Ger.),]

from _thiod_, the people, a prefix used in Germany to distinguish
any district or place from a foreign settlement of the same name. In
Sclavonic districts it is opposed to the word _Katholic_, in connection
with the form of religion practised by their inhabitants--as in
Deutsch-hanmer (the Protestant village, opposed to Katholic-hanmer,
belonging to the Catholic or Greek Church). In other cases it is
opposed to _Walsch_ (foreign--_v._ WALSCH), as in Deutsch-steinach and
Walsh-steinach (the German and foreign towns on the _Steinach_, or
stony water). The Romans employed the word _Germania_ for _Deutsch_,
which Professor Leo traces to a Celtic root _gair-mean_ (one who
cries out or shouts); _e.g._ Deutschen, in the Tyrol; Deutz, in
Rhenish Prussia; Deutschendorf, in Hungary; Deutschenhausen, in
Moravia, i.e. the dwellings of the Germans. The earliest name by
which the Germans designated themselves seems to have been _Tungri_
(the speakers). It was not till the seventeenth century that the word
_Dutch_ was restricted to the Low Germans. The French name for Germany
is modernised from the _Alemanni_ (a mixed race, and probably means
_other_ men, or _foreigners_).

[Sidenote: DIEP, TIEF (Teut.),
DWFN (Cym.-Cel.),]

deep; _e.g._ Deeping, Dibden, Dibdale (deep valley); Deptford (deep
ford); Market-deeping (the market-town in the low meadow); Devonshire,
Cel. _Dwfnient_ (the deep valleys); Diepholz (deep wood); Dieppe,
Scand. _Duipa_ (the deep water), the name of the river upon which it
was built; Abraham’s diep (Abraham’s hollow), in Holland; Diepenbeck
(deep brook); Tiefenthal and Tiefengrund (deep valley); Teupitz (the
deep water), a town in Prussia on a lake of this name; Defynock (a deep
valley), in Wales.

[Sidenote: DINAS, or DIN (Cym.-Cel.),]

a fortified height, a city, cognate with the Gadhelic _dun_; _e.g._
Dinmore (the great fort), in Hereford; Dynevor, anc. _Dinas-fawr_
(great fortress), in Carmarthen; Denbigh, Welsh _Din-bach_ (little
fort); Ruthin, in Co. Denbigh, corrupt. from _Rhudd-din_ (red castle);
Dinas Bran, a mountain and castle in Wales named after an ancient king
named Bran-Dinas-Powys, corrupt. from _Denes Powys_, a mansion built by
the Prince of Powys in honour of the lady whom he had married, whose
name was Denis; Hawarden, _i.e._ fixed on a hill, _den_, in Flint; its
ancient name was Penarth-Halawig (the headland above the salt marsh);
Dinefwr (the fenced hill), an ancient castle in the vale of the R.
Tywy; Tenby (Dane’s dwelling)--_v._ DAN; Welsh _Denbych-y-Pysod_,
_i.e._ of the fishes--to distinguish from its namesake in North Wales;
Tintern, corrupt. from _Din-Teyrn_ (the king’s mount), in Wales; Dinan
in France; Dinant in Belgium (the fortress on the water); Digne, anc.
_Dinia-Bodionticarium_ (the fort of the Bodiontici), in France; London,
anc. _Londinum_ (the fort on the marsh--_lon_, or perhaps on the
grove--_llwyn_). Din sometimes takes the form of _tin_, as in Tintagel
(St. Degla’s fort), in Cornwall; Tintern (the fort, _din_, of the
prince, Welsh _teyrn_), in Monmouth.

[Sidenote: DINKEL (Ger.),]

a kind of grain; _e.g._ Dinkelburg, Dinkelstadt, Dinkellage, Dinklar,
Dinkelsbuhl (the town, place, field, site, hill, where this grain

[Sidenote: DIOT, or theod (Teut.),]

the people; _e.g._ Thetford, corrupt. from _Theotford_ (the people’s
ford); Detmold, corrupt. from _Theot-malli_ (the people’s place of
meeting); Diotweg (the people’s highway); Dettweiller (the town of the
Diet, or people’s meeting); Ditmarsh, anc. _Thiedmarsi_ (the people’s
marsh); Dettingen (belonging to the people)--_v._ ING.

[Sidenote: DIVA, or DWIPA (Sansc.),]

an island; _e.g._ the Maldives (_i.e._ the 1000 islands); the
Laccadives (the 10,000 islands); Java or _Yava-dwipa_ (the island of
rice, _jawa_, or of nutmegs, _jayah_); Socotra or _Dwipa-Sukadara_ (the
island of bliss); Ceylon or _Sanhala-Dwipa_ (the island of lions),
but called by the natives Lanka (the resplendent), and by the Arabs
Seren-dib (silk island); Dondrahead, corrupt. from _Dewandere_ (the end
of the island), in Ceylon.

[Sidenote: DLAUHY, DLUGY (Sclav.),]

long, Germanised _dolge_; _e.g._ Dlugenmost (long bridge); Dolgenbrodt
(long ford); Dolgensee (long lake); Dolgen, Dolgow, Dolgenow (long

[Sidenote: DOBRO, DOBRA (Sclav.),]

good; _e.g._ Great and Little Döbern, Dobra, Dobrau, Dobrawitz,
Dobretzee, Dobrezin (good place); Dobberstroh (good pasture); Dobberbus
(good village); Dobrutscha (good land), part of Bulgaria; Dobergast
(good inn).

[Sidenote: DODD (Scand.),]

a hill with a round top; _e.g._ Dodd-Fell (the round rock), in
Cumberland; Dodmaen (the round stone), in Cornwall, popularly called
Dead Man’s Point.

[Sidenote: DOM (Ger.),]

a cathedral, and, in French topography, a house, from the Lat. _domus_;
_e.g._ Dom, in Westphalia; Domfront (the dwelling of Front, a hermit);
Dompierre (Peter’s house or church); Domblain (of St. Blaine); Domleger
(of St. Leger); Dongermain (of St. Germanus), in France; but the word
_domhnach_, in Ireland (_i.e._ a church), has another derivation.
This word, Anglicised _donagh_, signifies Sunday as well as church,
from the Lat. _Dominica_ (the Lord’s day); and all the churches with
this prefix to their names were originally founded by St. Patrick,
and the foundations were laid on Sunday; _e.g._ Donaghmore (great
church); Donaghedy, in Tyrone (St. Caidoc’s church); Donaghanie, _i.e._
_Domnach-an-eich_ (the church of the steed); Donaghmoyne (of the
plain); Donaghcloney (of the meadow); Donaghcumper (of the confluence);
Donnybrook (St. Broc’s church).

[Sidenote: DONK, DUNK, DONG (Old Ger.),]

a mound surrounded by a marsh; _e.g._ Dong-weir (the mound of the
weir); Dunkhof (the enclosure at the mound); Dongen (the dwelling at
the mound); Hasedonk (the mound of the brushwood).

[Sidenote: DORF, DORP, DRUP (Teut.),]

a village or small town, originally applied to any small assembly of
people; _e.g._ Altendorf, Oldendorf (old town); Sommerstorf (summer
town); Baiarsdorf (the town of the Boii, or Bavarians); Gastdorf
(the town of the inn, or for guests); Dusseldorf, Meldorf, Ohrdruff,
Vilsendorf (towns of the Rivers Dussel, Miele, Ohr, and Vils);
Jagersdorf (huntsman’s village); Nussdorf (nut village); Mattersdorf
and Matschdorf, Ritzendorf, Ottersdorf (the towns of Matthew, Richard,
and Otho); Lindorf (the village at the linden-tree); Sandrup (sandy
village); Dorfheim, Dorpam (village home).

[Sidenote: DORN (Ger.),
DOORN (Dutch),
DRAENEN (Cym.-Cel.),
DRAEIGHEN (Gadhelic),]

the thorn; _e.g._ Dornburg, Dornheim or Dornum, Dornburen, Thornton
(thorn dwelling); Doorn, the name of several places in the Dutch
colony, South Africa; Dornberg and Doornhoek (thorn hill); Dornach
(full of thorns); but Dornoch, in Sutherlandshire, is not from this
root; it is said to be derived from the Gael. _dorneich_, in allusion
to a certain Danish leader having been slain at the place by a blow
from a horse’s hoof. Thornhill, Thornbury, village names in England
and Scotland; Thorney (thorn island); Thorne, a town in Yorkshire; Yr
Ddreinog, Welsh (the thorny place), a hamlet in Anglesey; but Thorn,
a town in Prussia--Polish _Torun_--is probably derived from a cognate
word for _torres_, a tower. In Ireland: Dreen, Drinan, Dreenagh,
Drinney (places producing the black thorn).

[Sidenote: DRECHT (Old Ger.),]

for _trift_, meadow pasture; _e.g._ Moordrecht, Zwyndrecht,
Papendrecht, Ossendrecht (the moor, swine, oxen pasture, and the
priest’s meadow); Dort or Dordrecht (the pasture on the water),
situated in an island formed by the Maas; Maestricht, Latinised into
_Trajectus-ad-Moesum_ (the pasture or ford on the Maas or Meuse);
Utrecht, Latinised _Trajectus-ad-Rhenum_ (the ford or pasture on the
Rhine), or _Ultra-trajectum_ (beyond the ford).

[Sidenote: DRIESCH (Ger.),]

fallow ground; _e.g._ Driesch and Dresche, in Oldenburg; Driesfelt
(fallow field); Bockendriesch (the fallow ground at the beech-trees).

[Sidenote: DROICHEAD (Gadhelic),]

a bridge; _e.g._ Drogheda, anc. _Droichead-atha_ (the bridge at the
ford); Ballydrehid (bridge town); Knockadreet (the hill of the
bridge); Drumadrehid (the ridge at the bridge); Kildrought (the church
at the bridge), in Ireland; _Ceann-Drochaid_ (bridge end), the Gaelic
name for the Castleton of Braemar.

[Sidenote: DROOG, or DURGA (Sansc.),]

a hill fort; _e.g._ Savendroog (golden fort); Viziadroog (the fort
of victory); Chitteldroog (spotted fort); Calliendroog (flourishing
fort); Sindeedroog (the fort of the sun).

[Sidenote: DROWO, or DRZEWO (Sclav.),
DRU (Sansc.),
TRIU (Goth.), a tree,]

wood, or a forest; _e.g._ Drebkau, Drewitsch, Drewitz, Drohobicz (the
woody place); Drewiz, Drehnow, Drehna, with the same meaning; Misdroi
(in the midst of woods).

[Sidenote: DRUIM, DROM (Gadhelic),]

a ridge, from _droma_, the back-bone of an animal, cognate with the
Lat. _dorsum_; _e.g._ Drumard (high ridge); Dromeen, Drumeen, Drymen
(little ridge); Dromore (great ridge); Dromagh and Drumagh (full of
ridges); Dromineer, Co. Tipperary, and Drumminer in Aberdeenshire (the
ridge of the confluence, _inbhir_); Aughrim, Irish _Each-dhruim_ (the
horses’ ridge); Leitrim, _i.e._ _Liath-dhruim_ (gray ridge); Dromanure
(the ridge of the yew-tree); Drumderg (red ridge); Drumlane (broad
ridge); Drumcliff, _i.e._ _Druim-chluibh_ (the ridge of the baskets);
Drummond, common in Ireland and Scotland, corrupt. from _drumen_
(little ridge). In Scotland there are Drumoak (the ridge of St. Mozola,
a virgin)--in Aberdeenshire it was originally Dalmaile (the valley of
Mozola); Meldrum-Old (bald ridge), in Aberdeenshire; Drem (the ridge
in East Lothian); Drumalbin, Lat. _Dorsum-Britanniae_ (the back-bone
or ridge of Scotland); Drummelzier, formerly _Dunmeller_ (the fort of
Meldredus, who, according to tradition, slew Merlin, whose grave is
shown in the parish); Drumblate (the warm ridge, or the flowery ridge);
Drumcliff, Co. Sligo, _i.e._ _Druimcliabh_ (the ridge of the baskets).

[Sidenote: DRWS (Welsh),]

a door or pass; _e.g._ Drws-y-coed (the pass of the wood);
Drws-y-nant (of the valley); Drws-Ardudwy (of the black water).

[Sidenote: DU (Cym.-Cel.),
DUBH (Gadhelic),]

black; _e.g._ Ddulas, a river in Wales; Douglas, in Scotland (the
black stream); Dubyn (the black lake).

[Sidenote: DUB (Sclav.),]

the oak; _e.g._ Dubicza, Dubrau, Düben, Dubrow (the place of
oak-trees); Teupliz, corrupt. from _Dublize_, with the same meaning;
Dobojze, Germanised into _Daubendorf_ (oak village); Dubrawice (oak
village); Dubrawka (oak wood), Germanised _Eichenwäldchen_, a colony
from Dubrow. In Poland this word takes the form of Dombrowo Dombroka.

[Sidenote: DUN (Gadhelic),]

a stronghold, a hill fort, cognate with the Welsh _din_. As an
adjective, _dun_ or _don_ means strong, as in Dunluce, _i.e._
_dun-lios_ (strong fort); Duncladh (strong dyke). As a verb, it
signifies what is closed or shut in, _dunadh_, with the same meaning
as the Teut. _tun_, as in Corra-dhunta (the closed weir). Its full
signification, therefore, is a strong enclosed place, and the name
was accordingly applied in old times to forts surrounded by several
circumvallations, the remains of which are still found in Ireland and
Scotland. Many such places are called simply _doon_ or _down_; _e.g._
Doune Castle, in Perthshire; Down-Patrick, named from an entrenched
_dun_ near the cathedral; Down and the Downs, King’s Co. and West
Meath; Dooneen and Downing (little fort); Dundalk, _i.e._ _Dun-Dealgan_
(Delga’s fort); Dundonald (the fort of Domhnall); Dungannon (Geanan’s
fort); Dungarvan (Garvan’s fort); Dunleary (Laeghaire’s fort), now
Kingston; Dunhill and Dunally, for _Dun-aille_ (the fort on the cliff);
Downamona (of the bog); Shandon (old fort); Doonard (high fort); and
many others in Ireland. In Scotland: Dumbarton (the hill fort of the
Britons or Cumbrians); Dumfries (the fort among shrubs, _preas_, or
of the Feresians, _Caer Pheris_)--_v._ Dr. Skene’s _Book of Wales_;
Dunbar (the fort on the summit, or of Barr, a chief); Dunblane (of
St. Blane); Dundee, Lat. _Tao-dunum_, probably for _Dun-Tatha_ (the
fort on the Tay); Dunedin, or Edinburgh (Edwin’s fort), so named by a
prince of Northumberland in 628--its earlier names were _Dunmonadh_
(the fort of the hill), or in Welsh _Dinas-Agned_ (the city of the
painted people), and the _Castrum-Alatum_ of Ptolemy. The Pictish
maidens of the royal race were kept in Edinburgh Castle, hence it
was also called _Castrum-Puellarum_; Dunottar (the fort on the reef,
_oiter_); Dunfermline (the fort of the alder-tree pool, or of the
winding pool); Dundrennan (the fort of the thorn bushes); Dunlop (the
fortified hill at the angle of the stream, _lub_); Dunkeld, anc.
_Duncalden_ (the fort of hazels); Dunbeath (of the birches); Dunrobin
(Robert’s fortress), founded by Robert, Earl of Sutherland; Dunure
(of the yew-trees); Dunnichen, _i.e._ _Dunn-Nechtan_ (of Nechtan, a
Pictish king); Dunsyre (the prophet’s hill or fort); Donegall, Irish
_Dungall_ (_i.e._ the fort of the strangers, the Danes); Lexdon, in
Essex, Lat. _Legionis-dunum_ (the fort of the legion); Leyden, in
Holland, Lat. _Lugdunum-Batavorum_ (the fortress of the Batavians, in
the hollow, _lug_); Lyons, anc. _Lugdunum_ (the fort in the hollow);
Maldon, in Essex, anc. _Camelodunum_ (the fort of the Celtic war-god
Camal); Melun, anc. _Melodunum_ (bald fort, _maol_), in France; Nevers,
Lat. _Noviodunum_ (new fort), in France; Thuin, in Belgium, and Thun,
in Switzerland (_dun_, the hill fort); Yverdun, anc. _Ebrodunum_ (the
fort on the water, _bior_); Kempten, in Germany, anc. _Campodunum_
(the fort in the field); Issoudun (the fort on the water, _uisge_);
Emden (the fort on the R. Ems); Dijon, anc. _Dibisdunum_ (the fort on
two waters), at the conf. of the Ouche and Suzon; Mehun, Meudon, and
Meuny, in France (the fort on the plain), Lat. _Magdunum_; Verdun,
anc. _Verodunum_ (the fort on the water, _bior_), on the R. Meuse, in
France; Verden, in Hanover, on the R. Aller, with the same meaning;
Autun, corrupt. from _Augustodunum_ (the fortress of Augustus);
Wimbledon, in Surrey, anc. _Wibbandun_ (from an ancient proprietor,
Wibba); Sion, in Switzerland, Ger. _Sitten_, corrupt. from its ancient
Celtic name _Suidh-dunum_ (the seat of the hill fort). From _Daingeann_
(a fortress) are derived such names as Dangen and Dingen, in Ireland;
also Dingle, in its earlier form _Daingean-ui-Chuis_ (the fort of
O’Cush or Hussey); it received its present name in the reign of
Elizabeth; Ballendine and Ballendaggan (the town of the fort); Dangan
was also the ancient name of Philipstown.

[Sidenote: DUNE, or DOWN (A.S.),
DUN (Cel.),]

a grassy hill or mound; _e.g._ the Downs, in the south of England; the
Dunes, in Flanders; Halidon Hill (the holy hill); Dunham, Dunwick,
and Dutton, originally _Dunton_ (hill town); Croydon (chalk hill);
Dunkirk, in Flanders (the church on the dunes); Snowdon (snowy hill),
in Wales; its Welsh name is _Creigiawr_ (the eagle’s rock), _eryr_ (an
eagle); Dunse, a town in Berwickshire, now _Duns_, near a hill of the
same name; the Eildon Hills, in Roxburghshire, corrupt. from _Moeldun_
(the bald hill); Eddertoun, in Ross-shire (between the hills or dunes).

[Sidenote: DUR, or DOBHR (Gadhelic),
DWFR, or DWR (Cym.-Cel.),
DOUR (Breton),]

water; _e.g._ Dour, Douro, Dore, Duir, THUR, Doro, Adour, Durance,
Duron (river names); Glasdur (green water); Calder, anc. _Caldover_
(woody water); Derwent (bright or clear water); Lauder (the gray
water); Ledder and Leader (the broad water); Dorking, Co. Surrey,
anc. _Durchinges_, or more correctly, _Durvicingas_ (dwellers by the
water--_wician_, to dwell); Briare, on the Loire, anc. _Briva-durum_
(the town on the brink of the water, probably Dover, from this root);
Dorchester (the fortress of the Durotriges--dwellers by the water),
_trigo_, Cym.-Cel. (to dwell), called by Leland _Hydropolis_; Rother
(the red river); Cawdor, anc. _Kaledor_ (woody water).

[Sidenote: DÜRRE (Ger.),
DROOG (Dutch),]

dry, sterile; _e.g._ Dürrenstein (the barren rock); Dürrental (the
barren valley); Dürrwald (the dry or sterile wood); Droogberg (the
barren hill); Drupach (dry brook).

[Sidenote: DWOR (Sclav.),
THUR (Ger.),
DORUS (Cel.),
DWAR (Sansc.),]

a door or opening, an open court; _e.g._ Dvoretz (the town at the
opening), in Russia; Dwarka (the court or gate), Hindostan; Hurdwar
(the court of Hurry or Siva), called also _Gangadwara_ (the opening of
the Ganges), in Hindostan; Issoire, anc. _Issiodorum_ (the town at door
or meeting of the waters, _uisge_), a town in France at the conf. of
the Allier and Couze; Durrisdeer, Gael. _Dorus-darach_ (at the opening
of the oak-wood), in Dumfriesshire; Lindores, in Fife, anc. _Lindoruis_
(at the outlet of the waters), on a lake of the same name which
communicates by a small stream with the Tay.

[Sidenote: DYFFRYN (Welsh),]

a river valley; _e.g._ Dyffryn-Clydach, Dyffryn-Gwy, in the valleys of
the R. Clwyd and Gwy, in Wales; Dyffryn-golych (the vale of worship),
in Glamorgan.


[Sidenote: EA (A.S.), EY, AY, EGE or EG OE, O, or A (Scand.),
OOG (Dutch),]

an island; from _ea_, _a_, _aa_, running water; _ea_ or _ey_ enter
into the composition of many A.S. names of places which are now joined
to the mainland or to rich pastures by the river-side, as in Eton,
Eaton, Eyam, Eyworth, Eywick (dwellings by the water); Eyemouth,
Moulsy, on the R. Mole; Bermondsey, now included in the Metropolis;
Eamont, anc. _Eamot_ (the meeting of waters); Fladda and Fladday
(flat island); Winchelsea (either the corner, A.S. _wincel_, of the
water, or the island of Wincheling, son of the Saxon king Cissa, who
founded it); Swansea (Sweyn’s town, on the water), at the mouth of
the Tawey; Anglesea (the island of the Angles or English), so named
by the Danes--its Welsh name was _Ynys-Fonn_ or _Mona_; Portsea (the
island of the haven); Battersea (St. Peter’s isle), because belonging
to St. Peter’s Abbey, Westminster; Chelsea (ship island, or the island
of the sandbank)--_v._ p. 46, CEOL, CEOSEL; Ely (eel island); Jersey
(Cæsar’s isle); Olney (holly meadow); Odensee (Woden’s island or town
on the water); Whalsey (whale island, _hval_); Rona (St. Ronan’s
isle); Mageroe (scraggy island); Nordereys and Sudereys--from this
word Sudereys, the Bishop of Sodor and Man takes his title--(the north
and south isles), names given by the Norsemen to the Hebrides and the
Orkneys under their rule; Oesel (seal island); Oransay (the island
of St. Oran); Pabba and Papa (priest’s isle). The Papae or Christian
anchorites came from Ireland and the west of Scotland to Orkney and
Shetland, and traces of them were found in Iceland on its discovery
by the Norsemen, hence probably such names as Pappa and Crimea (the
island of the Cymri or Cimmerians); Morea (the mulberry-shaped island);
Shapinsay (the isle of Hjalpand, a Norse Viking); Faröe (the sheep
islands--_faar_, Scand.); Faroe, also in Sweden; but Farr, a parish in
the north of Scotland, is from _faire_, Gael. a watch or sentinel, from
a chain of watch-towers which existed there in former times; Staffa
(the island of the staves or columns, Scand. _stav_); Athelney (the
island of the nobles); Bressay, Norse _Bardie’s ay_ (giant’s island);
Bardsey (the bard’s island), the last retreat of the Welsh bards;
Femoe (cattle island); Fetlar, anc. _Fedor’s-oe_ (Theodore’s island);
Romney (marsh island), Gael. _Rumach_; Sheppey, A.S. _Sceapige_
(sheep island); Langeoog (long island); Oeland (water land); Torsay
(the island with conical hills, _torr_); Chertsey, A.S. _Ceortes-ige_
(Ceorot’s island); Lingley (heathery island), _ling_, Norse (heather);
Muchelney (large island); Putney, A.S. _Puttanige_ (Putta’s isle);
Thorney (thorny island), but its more ancient name was _Ankerige_, from
an anchorite who dwelt in a cell in the island.

[Sidenote: EADAR, EDAR (Cel.), between,
ENTRE (Fr., Span., and Port.),
INTER (Lat.),]

_e.g._ Eddertoun, Co. Ross (between hills)--_v._ DUNE; Eddra-chillis,
_i.e._ _Eadar da Chaolas_ (between two firths), Co. Sutherland;
Killederdaowen, in Galway, _i.e._ _Coill-eder-da-abhainn_ (the
wood between two rivers); and Killadrown, King’s County, with
the same meaning; Cloonederowen, Galway (the meadow between two
rivers); Ballydarown (the townland between two rivers). In France:
Entre-deux-mers (between two seas); Entrevaux (between valleys);
Entre-rios (between streams), in Spain; Entre-Douro-e-Minho (between
these rivers), in Portugal; Interlacken (between lakes), in Switzerland.

[Sidenote: EAGLAIS (Gadhelic),
EGLWYS (Cym.-Cel.),
ILIZ (Armoric),
EGYHAZ (Hung.),]

a church. These and synonymous words in the Romance languages are
derived from Lat. _ecclesia_, and that from the Grk. ὲκκλησια (an
assembly); _e.g._ Eccles, a parish and suburb of Manchester, also the
name of two parishes in Berwickshire; Eccleshall, in Staffordshire,
so called because the bishops of Lichfield formerly had a palace
there; Eccleshill (church hill), in Yorkshire; Eccleston (church
town), in Lancashire; Ecclesmachan (the church of St. Machan), in
Linlithgow; Eaglesham (the hamlet at the church), Co. Renfrew;
Ecclescraig or Ecclesgrieg (the church of St. Gregory or Grig),
in Kincardine; Eglishcormick (St. Cormac’s church), Dumfries;
Ecclescyrus (of St. Cyrus), in Fife; Lesmahago, Co. Lanark, corrupt.
from _Ecclesia-Machuti_ (the church of St. Machute, who is said to
have settled there in the sixth century); Carluke, in Lanarkshire,
corrupt. from _Eccles-maol-Luke_ (the church of the servant of St.
Luke); Terregles, anc. _Traver-eglys_ (church lands), Gael. _treabhair_
(houses), in Kirkcudbright. In Wales: Eglwys Fair (St. Mary’s
church); Hen-eglwys (old church); Aglish and Eglish (the church),
the names of parishes in Ireland; Aglishcloghone (the church of the
stepping-stones); Iglesuela (little church), in Spain; Fèhér eghaz
(white church), in Hungary. In France: Eglise-aux-bois (the church
in the woods); Eglise neuve (new church); Eglisolles, Eliçaberry,
and Eliçaberria (the church in the plain). Such names as Aylesford,
Aylsworth, Aylesby, etc., may be derived from _eglwys_ or _ecclesia_,

[Sidenote: EAS, ESS, ESSIE (Gadhelic),]

a waterfall; _e.g._ the R. Ness and Loch Ness (_i.e._ the river and
lake of the Fall of Foyers); Essnambroc (the waterfall of the badger);
Essmore (the great waterfall); Doonass (_i.e._ Irish _Dun easa_ (the
fort of the cataract), on the Shannon; Caherass, in Limerick, with the
same meaning; Pollanass (the pool of the waterfall); Fetteresso, in
Kincardine (the uncultivated land, _fiadhair_, near the waterfall);
Edessa, in Turkey, seems to derive its name from the same root,
as its Sclavonic name is _Vodena_, with the same meaning; Edessa,
in Mesopotamia, is on the R. Daisan; Portessie (the port of the
waterfall), Banff.

[Sidenote: EBEN (Ger.),]

a plain; _e.g._ Ebenried and Ebenrinth (the cleared plain); Ebnit (on
the plain); Breite-Ebnit (broad plain); Holzeben (woody plain).

[Sidenote: ECKE, or EGG (Teut. and Scand.),
VIG (Gadhelic),]

a nook or corner; _e.g._ Schönegg (beautiful nook); Eckdorf (corner
village); Eggberg (corner hill); Reinecke (the Rhine corner); Randecke
(the corner of the point, _rand_); Vilseek (at the corner of the
R. Vils); Wendecken (the corner of the Wends or Sclaves); Edgcott
(the corner hut); Wantage, Co. Berks (Wanta’s corner), on the edge
of a stream; Stevenage, Co. Herts (Stephen’s corner); Gourock (the
goal’s corner); Landeck, in the Tyrol (at the meeting or corner of
three roads); Nigg, Gael. _N-uig_ (at the corner), a parish in Co.
Kincardine, and also in Ross and Cromarty; Haideck (heath corner), in

[Sidenote: EGER (Hung.),]

the alder-tree; _e.g._ the R. Eger with the town of the same name.

[Sidenote: EILEAN (Gadhelic),
EYLANDT (Dutch),
INSEL (Ger.),]

an island, cognate with the Lat. _insula_. The Gaelic word is generally
applied to smaller islands than _innis_; _e.g._ _Eilean-sgiathach_
or Skye (the winged island); Eilean-dunan (the isle of the small
fort); Eilean-na-goibhre (of the goats); Eilean-na-monach (of the
monks); Eilean-na-Clearach (of the clergy); Eilean-na-naoimbh (of the
saints), often applied to Ireland; _Eilean-nam-Muchad_ or Muck (the
island of pigs), in the Hebrides; Flannan, in the Hebrides, _i.e._
_Eilean-an-Flannan_ (of St. Flannan); Groote Eylandt (great island),
off the coast of Australia; Rhode Island, in the United States, Dutch
(_red_ island), or, according to another interpretation, so named from
its fancied resemblance in form to the island of Rhodes.

[Sidenote: EISEN (Ger.),]

iron; _e.g._ Eisenstadt (iron town); Eisenach, in Germany (on a river
impregnated with iron); Eisenberg (iron hill fort), in Germany;
Eisenburg (iron town), Hung. _Vasvar_, in Hungary; Eisenirz (iron ore),
on the Erzberg Mountains; Eisenschmidt (iron forge), in Prussia.

[Sidenote: ELF (Goth.),

a river; _e.g._ Alf, Alb, Elbe, Elben, river names; Laagenelv (the
river in the hollow); Dol-elf (valley river); Elbing, a town on a river
of the same name.

[Sidenote: ENAGH, or ÆNAGH (Irish),]

an assembly of people, such as were held in old times by the Irish
at the burial mounds, and in modern times applied to a cattle fair;
_e.g._ Nenagh, in Tipperary, anc. _’n-Ænach-Urmhumhan_ (the assembly
meeting-place of Ormund), the definite article _n_ having been
added to the name--this place is still celebrated for its great
fairs; Ballinenagh, Ballineanig, Ballynenagh (the town of the fair);
Ardanlanig (the height of the fair); Monaster-an-enagh (the monastery
at the place of meeting). But this word is not to be confounded with
_eanach_ (a watery place or marsh), found under such forms as _enagh_
and _annagh_, especially in Ulster. Thus Annabella, near Mallow, is in
Irish _Eanachbile_ (the marsh of the old tree); Annaghaskin (the marsh
of the eels).

[Sidenote: ENDE (Teut.),]

the end or corner; Ostend, in Belgium (at the west end of the canal
opening into the ocean); Ostend, in Essex (at the east end of the
land); Oberende (upper end); Süderende (the south corner); Endfelden
(the corner of the field), probably Enfield, near London. Purmerend (at
the end of the Purmer), a lake in Holland, now drained.

[Sidenote: ENGE (Teut.),]

narrow; _e.g._ Engberg (narrow hill); Engbrück (narrow bridge);
Engkuizen (the narrow houses).

[Sidenote: ERBE (Ger.),]

an inheritance or property; _e.g._ Erbstellen (the place of the
inheritance, or the inherited property); Erbhof (the inherited
mansion-house); Sechserben (the property or inheritance of the Saxons).

[Sidenote: ERDE (Teut.),]

cultivated land; _e.g._ Rotherde (red land); Schwarzenerde (black land).

[Sidenote: ERLE (Ger.),]

the alder-tree; _e.g._ Erla and Erlabeka (alder-tree stream); Erlangen
(the dwelling near alder-trees); Erlau, a town in Hungary, on the Erlau
(alder-tree river).

[Sidenote: ERMAK (Turc.),]

a river; _e.g._ Kizel-Ermack (red river); Jekil-Ermak (green river).

[Sidenote: ESCHE (Old Ger.),]

a common or sowed field; _e.g._ Summeresche, Winteresche (the field
sown in summer and winter); Brachesche (the field broken up for
tillage); Kaiseresche (the emperor’s common). For this word as an
affix, _v._ p. 5; as a prefix it signifies the ash-tree, as in the
Aschaff or ash-tree river; Aschaffenberg (the fortress on the Aschaff);
Eschach (ash-tree stream); Escheweiller (ash-tree town); Eschau
(ash-tree meadow).

[Sidenote: ESGAIR (Welsh),]

a long ridge; _e.g._ Esgair-hir (the long ridge); Esgair-yn-eira (the
snow ridge).

[Sidenote: ESKI (Turc.),]

old; _e.g._ Eski-djuma (old ditch).

[Sidenote: ESPE, or ASPE (Ger.),]

the poplar-tree; _e.g._ Aspach (a place abounding in poplars, or the
poplar-tree stream); Espenfield (the field of poplars); Aspenstadt (the
station of poplars)--_v._ AESP, p. 5.

[Sidenote: ESTERO (Span.),]

a marsh or salt creek; _e.g._ Estero-Santiago (St. James’s marsh);
Los-Esteros (the salt creeks), in South America.

[Sidenote: ETAN, TANA (Basque),]

a district, with the same meaning as the Cel. _tan_, Latinised
_tania_; _e.g._ Aquitania (the district of the waters); Mauritania (of
the Moors); Lusitania (the ancient name of Portugal). This root-word
enters into the name of Britain, according to Taylor--_v._ _Words and

[Sidenote: EUDAN, or AODANN (Gadhelic),]

the forehead--in topography, the front or brow of a hill; _e.g._
Edenderry (the hill-brow of the oak-wood); Edenkelly (the front of the
wood); Ednashanlaght (the hill-brow of the old sepulchre); Edenmore
(the great hill-brow); Edina (one of the ancient names of Edinburgh).

[Sidenote: EVES (A.S.),]

a margin; _e.g._ Evedon (on the brink of the hill); Evesbatch (the
brink of the brook); Evesham (the dwelling on the bank of the River
Avon, in Worcester, or the dwelling of Eoves, a shepherd, afterwards
made Bishop of Worcester).


[Sidenote: FAGUS (Lat.),]

a beech-tree; _Fagetum_, a place planted with beeches; _e.g._ La Fage,
Le Faget, Fayet, Les Faus, Faumont, in France.

[Sidenote: FAHR, FUHR (Teut. and Scand.),]

a way or passage--from _fahren_, to go; _e.g._ Fahrenhorst (the
passage at the wood); Fahrenbach, Fahrwasser (the passage over
the water); Fahrwangen (the field at the ferry); Rheinfahr (the
passage over the Rhine); Langefahr (long ferry); Niederfahr (lower
ferry); Vere or Campvere, in Holland (the ferry leading to Kampen);
Ferryby (the town of the Ferry), in Yorkshire; Broughty-Ferry, in
Fife (the ferry near a _brough_ or castle, the ruins of which still
remain); Ferry-Port-on-Craig (the landing-place on the rock, opposite
Broughty-Ferry); Queensferry, West Lothian, named from Queen Margaret;
Connal-Ferry (the ferry of the raging flood), _confhath-tuil_, in
Argyleshire; Fareham, Co. Hants (the dwelling at the ferry).

[Sidenote: FALU, or FALVA (Hung.),]

a village; _e.g._ Uj-falu (new village); Olah-falu (the village of
the Wallachians or Wallochs, a name which the Germans applied to
the Sclaves); Hanus-falva (John’s village); Ebes-falva (Elizabeth’s
village), Ger. _Elizabeth-stadt_; Szombat-falva (the village at which
the Saturday market was held); Balars-falva (the village of Blaise);
Bud-falva (the village of Buda).

[Sidenote: FANUM (Lat.),]

a temple; _e.g._ Fano, in Italy, anc. _Fanum-Fortunæ_ (the temple
of fortune), built here by the Romans to commemorate the defeat of
Asdrubal on the Metaurus; Famars, anc. _Fanum-Martis_ (the temple
of Mars); Fanjeaux, anc. _Fanum-Jovis_ (of Jove); St. Dié, anc.
_Fanum-Deodati_ (the temple of Deodatus, Bishop of Nevers); St.
Dezier, anc. _Fanum-Desiderii_ (the temple of St. Desiderius);
Florent-le-Vieul, anc. _Fanum-Florentii_ (of St. Florentius); St.
Flour, _Fanum-Flori_ (of St. Florus).

[Sidenote: FARR (Norse),]

a sheep. This word seems to have given names to several places in the
north of Scotland, as affording good pasture for sheep; _e.g._ Farr, a
parish in Sutherlandshire); Farra, Faray, islands in the Hebrides and
Orkneys; Fare, a hill in Aberdeenshire.

[Sidenote: FEARN (Gadhelic),
FAUR, or VAUR (great)--_v._ MAUR,]

the alder-tree; _e.g._ Fernagh, Farnagh, and Ferney (a place abounding
in alder-trees), in Ireland; Glenfarne (alder-tree valley); Ferns, Co.
Wexford, anc. _Fearna_ (the place of alders); Gortnavern (the field of
alders); Farney, Co. Monaghan, corrupt. from _Fearn-mhagh_ (alder-tree
plain); Altanfearn (the little stream of alders); Sronfearn (the point
of alders)--_v._ p. 178; Fearns (the alder-trees), in Ross-shire;
Fearn, also in Forfar; Ferney, on the Lake of Geneva, probably with
same meaning as Ferney in Ireland.

[Sidenote: FEHER (Hung.),]

white; Szekes-Fehervar, Ger. _Stulweissenburg_ (the throne of the white

[Sidenote: FEKETE (Hung.),]

black; _e.g._ Fekete-halam (black hill).

[Sidenote: FEL (Hung.),]

upper, in opposition to _al_, lower; _e.g._ Felsovaros (upper town);
Alvaros (lower town).

[Sidenote: FELD, or VELD (Teut.),]

a plain or field; lit. a place where trees had been felled; _e.g._
Feldham (field dwelling); Feldberg (field fortress); Bassevelde, in
Belgium (low plain); Gurkfeld (cucumber field); Leckfeld, Rhinfeld (the
plain of the Rivers Leck and Rhine); Great Driffield, in Yorkshire
(dry field); Huddersfield, in Doomsday _Oderesfeld_, from a personal
name; Macclesfield (the field of St. Michael’s church); Sheffield, on
the R. Sheaf; Mansfield, on the R. Mann; Lichfield, Co. Stafford (the
field of corpses), A.S. _Licenfelt_, where, according to tradition,
a great slaughter of the Christians took place in the reign of
Diocletian; Wakefield (the field by the wayside, _waeg_); Spitalfields,
(_i.e._ the fields near the hospital or place of entertainment), Lat.
_hospitalium_. There is a watering-place near Berwick called Spital,
also a suburb of Aberdeen called the Spital; Smithfield, in London, is
a corruption of _Smethfield_ (smooth field); Beaconsfield, Berks, so
called from having been built on a height on which beacon fires were
formerly lighted); Coilsfield, in Ayrshire (the field of Coilus or King
Coil). There is a large mound near it said to mark the site of his

[Sidenote: FELL, FIALL, or FJELD (Scand.),
FEL, FELSEN (Ger.),]

a high mountain or mountain range; _e.g._ Dovrefeld (the gloomy
mountains); Donnersfeld (the mountain range of thunder or of Thor);
Snafel, Iceland, and Sneefell, in the Isle of Man (snow mountain);
Blaefell (blue mountain); Drachenfells (the dragon’s rock); Weissenfels
(the white rock); Rothenfels (red rock); Scawfell (the mountain of
the _scaw_ or promontory); Hartfell (of harts); Hestfell (of the
steed); Lindenfels (of the linden-tree); Lichtenfels (the mountain of
light), a Moravian settlement in Greenland; Fitful Head, corrupt. from
_fitfioll_ (the hill with the promontory running into the sea), Old
Norse _fit_--in Shetland; Falaise, in France, a promontory, derived
from the Ger. _fell_; Fellentin (the fort, _dun_, on the rock), in
France; Souter-fell, Cumberland; Saudfjeld, Norway; Saudafell, in
Iceland (sheep hill), from Old Norse _sauder_, a sheep; perhaps Soutra
Hill, in Mid-Lothian, may come from the same word; Criffel (the craggy
rock), Dumfries; Felza, Felsbach (rocky stream), in France; Felsberg
(rock fortress), in Germany; Goat-fell, in Arran, Gael. _Gaoth-ceann_
(the windy point), to which the Norsemen added their _fell_.

[Sidenote: FENN (Ger.),
VEN, or VEEN (Dutch),
FEN (A.S.),]

a marsh; _e.g._ the Fenns or marshy lands; Fen-ditton (the enclosed
town on the marsh); Fenny-Stratford (the ford on the Roman road,
_strat_, in the marshy land); Fenwick, Fenton, Finsbury (the town
or enclosed place on the marsh); Venloo, in Belgium (the place in
the marsh); Veenhof, Veenhusen (dwellings in the marsh); Houtveen
(woody marsh); Diepenveen (deep marsh); Zutphen, in Holland (the
south marsh); Ravenna, in Italy, called _Pludosa_ (the marshy). It
was originally built in a lagoon, on stakes, like Venice; Venice,
named from the _Veneti_, probably marsh dwellers; Vannes, in France,
and La Vendée, may be from the same word, although others derive the
names from _venna_ (a fisherman), others from _gwent_, Cel. (the fair
plain); Finland (the land of marshes). The natives call themselves
_Suomilius_, from _suoma_ (a marsh). _Fang_ in German and Dutch names,
and _faing_ in French names, are sometimes used instead of fenn--as in
Zeefang (lake marsh); Aalfang (eel marsh); Habechtsfang (hawk’s marsh);
Faing-du-buisson, Dom-faing, etc., in the valleys of the Vosges.

[Sidenote: FERN, or FARN (Teut.),]

the fern; _e.g._ Ferndorf, Farndon, Farnham, Farnborough (dwellings
among ferns); Farnhurst (fern thicket); Ferndale (fern valley);
Farringdon (fern hill); Fernruit (a place cleared of ferns).

[Sidenote: FERT, FERTA (Gadhelic),]

a grave or trench; _e.g._ Farta, Ferta, and Fartha (_i.e._ the graves);
Fertagh and Fartagh (the place of graves); Moyarta, in Clare, Irish
_Magh-fherta_ (the field of the graves); Fortingall, in Perthshire, is
supposed to have derived its name from this word, _Feart-na-gall_ (the
grave of the strangers), having been the scene of many bloody battles.

[Sidenote: LA FERTE,]

contracted from the French _La fermeté_, from the Lat. _firmitas_
(strength), applied in topography to a stronghold; _e.g._ La Ferté
Bernardi (Bernard’s stronghold); Ferté-freshal, from _Firmitas
Fraxinelli_ (the stronghold of little ash-trees); La Ferté, in Nièvre
and in Jura, etc.

[Sidenote: FESTE (Ger.),
VESTING (Dutch),
FAESTUNG (Scand.),]

a fortress; _e.g._ Altefeste (high fortress); Franzenfeste (the
fortress of the Franks); Festenburg (the town of the fortress);
Ivanich-festung (John’s fortress), in Croatia.

[Sidenote: FEUCHT (Ger.),
VOICHTIG (Dutch),]

moist, marshy; _e.g._ Feuchtwang (the marshy field), in Bavaria,
formerly called _Hudropolis_, in Greek, with the same meaning; Feucht
(the damp place), also in Bavaria; Viecht-gross and Viecht-klein (the
great and little damp place), in Bavaria.

[Sidenote: LES FÈVES (Fr.),]

beans, Lat. _faba_, from which come such places in France as La
Favière, Favières, Faverage, Favray, Faverelles, etc.

[Sidenote: FICHTE (Ger.),]

the pine-tree; _e.g._ Schoenfichten (the beautiful pine-trees);
Finsterfechten (the dark pine-trees); Fichthorst (pine-wood); Feichheim
(a dwelling among pines). In topography, however, it is difficult to
distinguish this word from _feucht_ (damp).

[Sidenote: FIN, FIONN (Gadhelic),]

fair, white, Welsh _gwynn_; _e.g._ Findrum (white ridge); _Fionn-uisge_
(the clear water). The Phœnix Park, in Dublin, was so called from
a beautiful spring well on the grounds; Findlater (the fair slope,
_leiter_); Fingart (fair field); Finnow, Finnan, and Finglass (fair
stream); Finglen (fair glen); Knockfin (fair hill); Loch Fyne (clear
or beautiful lake); Fintray, in Aberdeenshire; Fintry, in Stirling
(fair strand, _traigh_); Ventry, Co. Kerry, _i.e._ _Fionn-traigh_ (fair
strand); Finnow (the fair stream).

[Sidenote: FIORD, or FJORD (Scand.),]

a creek or inlet formed by an arm of the sea, Anglicised _ford_, or in
Scotland _firth_; _e.g._ Selfiord (herring creek); Laxfiord (salmon
creek); Hvalfiord (whale creek); Lymefiord (muddy creek); Skagafiord
(the inlet of the promontory, _skagi_); Halsfiord (the bay of the neck
or _hals_, _i.e._ the narrow passage); Waterford, named by the Danes
_Vadre-fiord_ (the fordable part of the bay)--the Irish name of the
town was _Port-lairge_ (the port of the thigh), from its form; Wexford
(the western creek or inlet), also named by the Danes _Flekkefiord_
(the flat inlet)--its Irish name was _Inverslanie_ (at the mouth of
the Slaney); Strangford Lough (_i.e._ the loch of the strong _fiord_);
Carlingford, in Irish _Caerlinn_, the _fiord_ having been added by
the Danes; Vaeringefiord, in Norway (the inlet of the Varangians or
Warings); Breidafiord (broad inlet), in Ireland; Haverford, probably
from Scand. _havre_ (oats).

[Sidenote: FLECKE (Teut. and Scand.),]

a spot or level place, hence a hamlet; _e.g._ Flegg, East and West, in
Norfolk; Fleckney (the flat island); Fletton (flat town); Pfaffenfleck
(the priest’s hamlet); Amtsfleck (the amptman’s hamlet); Schœnfleck
(beautiful hamlet); Marktflecten (the market village); Fladda,
Flatholme, Fleckeroe (flat island); Fladstrand (flat strand).

[Sidenote: FLEOT, FLIEZ (Teut.),
VLIET (Dutch),]

a flush of water, a channel or arm of the sea on which vessels may
float; _e.g._ Fleet (a river name), in Kirkcudbright; Fleet Loch;
Swinefleet (Sweyn’s channel); Saltfleetby (the dwelling on the salt
water channel); Shalfleet (shallow channel); Depenfleth (deep channel);
Adlingfleet (the channel of the Atheling or noble); Ebbfleet, a place
which was a port in the twelfth century, but is now half a mile from
the shore; Purfleet, Co. Essex, anc. _Pourteflete_ (the channel of the
port); Fleetwood (the wood on the channel of the R. Wyre); Mühlfloss
(mill channel); Flushing, in Holland, corrupt. from _Vliessengen_
(the town on the channel of the R. Scheldt). In Normandy this kind
of channel takes the form of _fleur_, _e.g._ Barfleur (the summit or
projection on the channel); Harfleur or Havrefleur (the harbour on
the channel); Biervliet (the fruitful plain on the channel). _Flad_
as a prefix sometimes signifies a place liable to be flooded, as
Fladbury, Fledborough. The Lat. _flumen_ (a flowing stream) is akin
to these words, along with its derivations in the Romance languages:
thus Fiume (on the river), a seaport in Croatia, at the mouth of the
R. Fiumara; Fiumicina, a small seaport at the north mouth of the
Tiber; Fiume-freddo (the cold stream), in Italy and Sicily; Flims, in
Switzerland, Lat. _Ad-flumina_ (at the streams); Fiume-della Fine, near
Leghorn, is a corrupt. of its ancient name, _Ad-Fines_ (the river at
the boundary).

[Sidenote: FÖLD (Hung.),]

land; _e.g._ Földvar (land fortress); Alfold (low land); Felföld (high
land); Szekel-föld (the land of the Szeklers); Havasel-föld (the land
beyond the mountains), which is the Hungarian name for Wallachia.

[Sidenote: FONS (Lat.),
FONTE (It. and Port.),
FUENTE, and HONTANA (Span.),
FUARAN and UARAN (Gadhelic),
FFYNNON (Cym.-Cel.),]

a fountain, a well; _e.g._ Fontainebleau, corrupt. from
_Fontaine-de-belle-eau_ (the spring of beautiful water); Fontenoy
(the place of the fountain); Fontenay (the place of the fountain);
Les Fontaines, Fontanas (the fountains); Fontenelles (the little
fountains); Fontevrault, Lat. _Fons-Ebraldi_ (the well of St.
Evrault); Fuente (the fountain), the name of several towns in
Spain; Fuencaliente (the warm fountain); Fuensagrada (holy
well); Fuente-el-fresna (of the ash-tree); Fuente-alamo (of the
poplar); Fontarabia, Span. _Fuentarrabia_, corrupt. from the Lat.
_Fons-rapidans_ (the swift-flowing spring); Fuenfrido (cold fountain);
Fossano, in Italy, Lat. _Fons-sanus_ (the healing fountain); Hontanas,
Hontanares, Hontananza, Hontangas (the place of springs), in Spain;
Hontomin (the fountain of the R. Omino), in Spain; Pinos-fuente
(pine-tree fountain), in Granada; Saint-fontaine, in Belgium, corrupt.
from _Terra-de-centum fontanis_ (the land of the hundred springs); Spa,
in Belgium, corrupt. from _Espa_ (the fountain)--its Latin name was
_Fons-Tungrorum_ (the well of the Tungri); Fonthill (the hill of the
spring). The town of Spalding, Co. Lincoln, is said to have derived
its name from a _spa_ of mineral water in the market-place. The Celtic
_uaran_ or _fuaran_ takes the form of _oran_ in Ireland: thus Oranmore
(the great fountain near a holy well); Knock-an-oran (the hill of
the well); Ballynoran (the town of the well); Tinoran, corrupt. from
_Tigh-an-uarain_ (the dwelling at the well); Foveran, in Aberdeenshire,
took its name from a spring, _fuaran_, at Foveran Castle; Ffynon-Bed
(St. Peter’s well), in Wales.

[Sidenote: FORD (A.S.),
FURT, or FURTH (Ger.),
VOORD (Dutch),]

a shallow passage over a river; _e.g._ Bradford (the broad ford), in
Yorkshire, on the R. Aire; Bedford, _Bedican ford_ (the protected
ford), on the Ouse; Brentford, on the R. Brenta; Chelmsford, on the
Chelmer; Camelford, on the Camel; Charford (the ford of Ceredic);
Aylesford (of Ægle); Hacford and Hackfurth (of Haco); Guildford (of the
guilds or trading associations); Hungerford, corrupt. from _Ingle ford_
(corner ford); Oxford, Welsh _Rhyd-ychen_ (ford for oxen); Ochsenfurt,
in Bavaria, and probably the Bosphorus, with the same meaning; Hertford
(the hart’s ford); Hereford (the ford of the army), or more probably
a mistranslation of its Celtic name, _Caer-ffawydd_ (the town of the
beech-trees); Horsford, Illford, and Knutsford (the fords of Horsa,
Ella, and Canute). Canute had crossed this ford before gaining a great
battle; Watford (the ford on Watling Street); Milford, the translation
of _Rhyd-y-milwr_ (the ford of the Milwr), a small brook that flows
into the haven; Haverford West--_v._ HAVN--the Welsh name is _Hwlfford_
(the sailing way, _fford_), so called because the tide comes up to the
town; Tiverton, anc. _Twyford_ (the town on the two fords); Stamford,
A.S. _Stanford_ (stony ford), on the Welland; _Stoney Stratford_ (the
stony ford on the Roman road); Stafford, anc. _Statford_ (the ford at
the station, or a ford crossed by staffs or stilts); Crayford, on the
R. Cray; but Crawford, in Lanarkshire, is corrupt. from _Caerford_
(castle ford); Wallingford, anc. _Gual-hen_, Latinised _Gallena_ (the
old fort at the ford); Thetford, anc. _Theodford_ (the people’s ford),
on the R. Thet; Dartford, on the R. Darent; Bideford, in Devonshire
(by the ford); Furth and Pforten (the fords), in Prussia; Erfurt, in
Saxony, anc. _Erpisford_ (the ford of Erpe); Hohenfurth (the high
ford), Bohemia; Frankfort, on the Maine and on the Oder (the ford of
the Franks); Quernfurt and Velvorde (the fords of the Rivers Quern and
Wolowe); Steenvoord (stony ford); Verden, in Hanover (at the ford of
the R. Aller).

[Sidenote: FORS, FOSS (Scand.),]

a waterfall; _e.g._ High-force, Low-force, on the R. Tees; Skogar-foss
(the waterfall on the promontory), in Ireland; Wilberforce, in
Yorkshire (the cascade of Wilbera); Sodorfors (the south cascade), in
Sweden; Foston (the town of the waterfall).

[Sidenote: FORST, VORST (Teut.),]

a wood; _e.g._ Forst-lohn (the path through the wood); Forst-bach
(forest brook); Eichenforst (oak forest); Forstheim (forest dwelling).

[Sidenote: FORT,]

a stronghold; from the Lat. _fortis_, strong--akin to the Irish
_Longphorth_ (a fortress), and the French _La Ferté_, abridged from
_fermeté_--_v._ p. 79; _e.g._ Rochefort (the rock fortress); Fort
Augustus, named after the Duke of Cumberland; Fort-George (after
George II.); Fort-William, anc. _Inverlochy_ (at the mouth of the
lake), and surnamed after William III.; Fortrose (the fortress on the
promontory); Fort-Louis, in Upper Rhine, founded and named by Louis
XIV.; Charles-Fort, in Canada, named after Charles I. In Ireland the
town of Longford is called in the annals _Longphorth O’Farrell_ (the
fortress of the O’Farrells). This Irish word is sometimes corrupted, as
in _Lonart_ for _Longphorth_, and in Athlunkard for Athlongford (the
ford of the fortress).

[Sidenote: FORUM (Lat.),]

a market-place or place of assembly; _e.g._ Forli, anc.
_Forum-Livii_ (the forum of Livius), in Italy; Feurs, in France,
anc. _Forum-Segusianorum_ (the forum of the Segusiani); Forlimpopoli
(the forum of the people); Ferrara, anc. _Forum-Alieni_ (the
market-place of the foreigner); Fornova (new forum); Fossombrone,
anc. _Forum-Sempronii_ (of Sempronius); Fréjus and Friuli, anc.
_Forum-Julii_ (of Julius); Frontignan, anc. _Forum-Domitii_ (of
Domitius), also called _Frontiniacum_ (on the edge of the water);
Voorburg, in Holland, anc. _Forum-Hadriani_ (the market-place of
Hadrian); Klagenfurt, anc. _Claudii-Forum_ (the forum of Claudius);
Fordongianus, in Sardinia, anc. _Forum-Trajani_ (the forum of Trajan);
Forcassi, anc. _Forum-Cassii_ (of Cassius); Fiora, anc. _Forum-Aurelii_
(of Aurelius); _Appii-Forum_ (of Appius); Marazion, in Cornwall, or
_Marketjeu_, Latinised by the Romans into _Forum-Jovis_ (the forum of
Jove or of God), resorted to in former times from its vicinity to the
sacred shrine of St. Michael.

[Sidenote: FOSSE,]

a ditch or trench dug around a fortified place, from the Lat. _fodio_,
to dig; _e.g._ Fosseway (the road near the trench); Foston (the town
with the trench or moat); Fosse, in Belgium; Fos, at the mouths of the
Rhone, anc. _Fossæ Marianæ Portus_ (the port of the trench or canal of

[Sidenote: FRANK (Ger.),]

free, but in topography meaning belonging to the Franks; _e.g._
Franconia (the district of the Franks); France, abridged from
_Frankreich_ (the kingdom of the Franks or freemen); Frankenthal
(the valley of the Franks); Frankenberg and Frankenfels (the hill and
rock of the Franks); Frankenburg and Frankenhausen (the dwellings
of the Franks); Frankenstein (the rock of the Franks); Frankenmarkt
(the market of the Franks); Ville-franche and Ville-franche sur Saone
(free town), in France; Villa-franca (free town), several in Italy;
Villa-franca (free town), in Spain.

[Sidenote: FREI, or FREY (Ger.),]

a privileged place, as also _freiheit_ (freedom); _e.g._ Freyburg and
Fribourg (the privileged city); Schloss-freiheit and Berg-freiheit
(the privileged castle); Oude-Vrijheid (the old privileged place), in
Holland; Freystadt, in Hungary, Grk. _Eleutheropolis_ (free city).

[Sidenote: FRÊNE (Fr.),
FRESNO (Span.),
FREIXO (Port.),]

the ash-tree; _e.g._ Les Frênes, Les Fresnes (the ash-trees); Frenois,
Frenoit, Frenai, Frenay, Fresney (the place abounding in ash-trees),
in France; Frassinetto-di-Po (the ash-tree grove on the R. Po).

[Sidenote: FREUDE (Ger.),]

joy; _e.g._ Freudenthal (the valley of joy); Freudenstadt (the town of

[Sidenote: FRIDE,]

a hedge, from the Old Ger. word _vride_--akin to the Gael. _fridh_,
and the Welsh _fridd_ (a wood); _e.g._ Burgfried (the hedge of the
fortress); Friedberg, anc. _Vriduperg_ (a fortress surrounded by
a hedge); but Friedland, in East Prussia, Grk. _Irenopyrgos_ (the
tower of peace), is from _friede_, Ger. peace. The prefix _fried_ is
also sometimes a contraction for Frederick--thus Friedburg may mean
Frederick’s town.

[Sidenote: FRITH, or FIRTH,]

the navigable estuary of a river, akin to _fiord_ and the Lat.
_fretum_, a channel; _e.g._ the Firths of Forth, Tay, and Clyde; the
Solway Firth. This word Solway has had various derivations assigned to
it: one derivation is from the _Selgovæ_, a tribe; Ferguson suggests
the Old Norse word _sulla_, Eng. _sully_, from its turbid waters,
particularly as it was called in Leland’s _Itinera_ Sulway. I would
suggest the A.S. _sol_ (mire), as this channel is a miry slough at
low tide, and can be crossed on foot; Pentland Firth, corrupt. from
_Petland Fiord_ (the bay between the land of the Picts and the Orkneys).

[Sidenote: FROU, FRAU (Ger.),]

lord and lady; _e.g._ Froustalla (the lord or nobleman’s stall);
Frousthorp (the nobleman’s farm); Fraubrunnen (our lady’s well);
Frauenberg, Frauenburg, Fraustadt (our lady’s town); Frauenkirchen (our
lady’s church); Frauenfeld (our lady’s field).

[Sidenote: FUL (A.S.),]

dirty; _e.g._ Fulbeck, Fulbrook (dirty stream); Fulneck or _Fullanig_
(dirty water); Fulham or Fullenham (either the dwelling on the miry
place or, according to another derivation, from _fügel_, a bird).

[Sidenote: FÜRED (Hung.),]

a bath or watering-place; _e.g._ Tisza-Füred (the watering-place on the
R. Theis or Tisza); Balaton-Füred, on Lake Balaton.

[Sidenote: FURST (Ger.),]

a prince or the first in rank; _e.g._ Furstenau, Furstenberg,
Furstenfeld, Furstenwald, Furstenwerder, Furstenzell (the meadow, hill,
field, wood, island, church, of the prince); but Furstberg means the
chief or highest hill.


[Sidenote: GABEL (Teut.),
GABHAL, or GOUL (Gadhelic),]

a fork, applied to river forks; _e.g._ Gabelbach (the forked stream);
Gabelhof (the court or dwelling at the forked stream), in Germany. In
Ireland: Goul, Gowel, and Gowl (the fork); Gola (forks); Addergoul,
Addergoule, and Edargoule, Irish _Eadar-dha-ghabhal_ (the place between
two river-prongs); Goule, in Yorkshire (on the fork of two streams).

[Sidenote: GADEN (Ger.),]

a cottage; _e.g._ Holzgaden (wood cottage); Steingaden (rock cottage).

[Sidenote: GADR (Phœn.),

an enclosure, a city, or fortified place, from _kir_, a wall; _e.g._
Gades or Cadiz, anc. _Gadr_, in Spain; Carthage, anc. _Kartha-hadtha_
(the new city, in opposition to Utica, the old); Carthagena (New
Carthage); Kirjath-Arba (the city of Arba, afterwards Hebron);
Kirjath-sepher (of the book); Kirjath-jearim (of forests); Kirjath-Baal
(Baal’s town); Kirjath-Sannah (of palms); Keriathaim (the double town);
Kir-Moab (the citadel of Moab); Cordova, in Spain, Phœn. _Kartha-Baal_
(which may mean the city of Baal).

[Sidenote: GAMA (Tamul),]

a village; _e.g._ Alut-gama (new village), in Ceylon.

[Sidenote: GANG (Ger.),]

a narrow passage, either on land or by water; _e.g._ Birkengang (the
birch-tree pass); Strassgang (a narrow street); Gangbach (the passage
across the brook); Ganghofen (the dwelling at the ferry), on the R.
Roth, in Bavaria.

[Sidenote: GANGA, or GUNGA (Sansc.),]

a river; _e.g._ Borra Ganga or the Ganges (the great river);
Kishenganga (the black river); Neelganga (the blue river); Naraingunga
(the river of Naranyana or Vishnu); Ramgunga (Ram’s river).

[Sidenote: GARBH (Gadhelic),
GARW (Cym.-Cel.),]

rough; _e.g._ Rivers Gara, Garry, Garwe, Garwy, Owengarve, Garonne,
Garvault, Yair, Yarrow (rough stream); Garracloon (rough meadow);
Garroch head or Ard-Kingarth (the point of the rough headland), in
Bute; Garioch (the rough district), in Aberdeenshire.

[Sidenote: GARENNE,]

a word of Germanic or Celtic origin, from the Low Lat. _warenna_, and
that from the High Ger. _waran_ (to take precautions), had at first the
sense of a protected or guarded place, and more lately of a wood to
which was attached the exclusive right of the chase; _e.g._ La Garenne,
Garenne, Varenne, Varennes, Warennes, in various departments of France.

[Sidenote: GARIEF (South Africa),]

a river; _e.g._ Ky-garief (yellow river); Nu-garief (black river).

[Sidenote: GARRDH (Gadhelic), GARDD (Cym.-Cel.),]

a garden; _e.g._ Garryowen (Owen’s garden); Gairyard (high garden);
Ballingarry (the town of the garden); Garrane and Garrawn (the
shrubbery); Garranbane (white shrubbery).

[Sidenote: GARTH (Welsh),]

a hill; _e.g._ Tal-garth (the brow of the hill), in Brecknockshire;
Brecknock, named after Brychan, its king, who came from Ireland in the
sixth century. Its ancient name was _Garth-Madryn_ (the fox’s hill).

[Sidenote: GARTH, GART (Teut. and Scand.),
GARRAD (Gadhelic),
GARRD, GARZ (Cym.-Cel.),]

an enclosed place, either for plants or cattle, then a farm. It
is sometimes found in the form of _gort_ in Ireland and Scotland;
_e.g._ Garton (the enclosure or enclosed town); Applegarth (the apple
enclosure or farm); Hogarth (an enclosure for hay); Weingarten (an
enclosure for vines, or a vineyard); Stuttgart and Hestingaard (an
enclosure for horses); Nornigard (the sibyl’s dwelling, _norn_, a
prophetess); Fishgarth or Fishguard (the fisher’s farm), in Wales;
Noostigard (the farm at the _naust_ or ship station); in Shetland;
Smiorgard (butter farm); Prestgard (the priest’s farm); Yardley (the
enclosed meadow); Yardborough (the enclosed town); Gartan (little
field); Gordon, a parish in Berwickshire, corrupt. from _Goirtean_
(little farm); Gartbane and Gortban (fair field); Gartfarran (the farm
at the fountain, _fuaran_); Gartbreck (spotted field); Gortnagclock
(the field of the stones); Gortreagh (gray field); Gortenure (the
field of the yew-tree); Oulart, in Ireland, corrupt. from _Abhalghort_
(apple-field or orchard); Bugard (an enclosure for cattle), in
Shetland; Olligard (the farm or dwelling of Olaf), in Shetland;
Girthon, corrupt. from _Girthavon_ (the enclosure on the river), in
Kirkcudbright). On the other hand, _Garda_ or _Warda_ in French names
signified originally a fortified or protected place, from an old
Teutonic word _warta_; hence Gardere, Gardière, La Garderie, La Garde,
La Warde, etc.

[Sidenote: GAT (Scand.),
GHAT (Sansc.),]

an opening or passage; _e.g._ the Cattegat (the cat’s throat or
passage); Margate (the sea-gate or passage), anc. _Meregate_, there
having been formerly a _mere_ or lake here which had its influx
into the sea; Ramsgate (the passage of _Ruim_, the ancient name of
Thanet); Reigate, contraction from _Ridgegate_ (the passage through the
ridge); Yetholm (the valley at the passage or border between England
and Scotland, _yet_, Scot. a gate); Harrowgate, probably the passage
of the army, A.S. _here_, as it is situated near one of the great
Roman roads; Crossgates, a village in Fife (at the road crossings);
Ludgate did not derive its name from a certain King _Lud_, according
to popular tradition, but is an instance of tautology, there having
been an ancient A.S. word _hlid_ (a door), hence _Geathlid_ (a postern
gate)--_v._ BOSWORTH. In India the word _ghat_ is applied to a pass
between hills or mountains, as in the Ghauts (the two converging
mountain ranges); Sheergotta (the lion’s pass), between Calcutta and
Benares; and Geragaut (the horse’s pass), or to a passage across a
river, as well as to the flights of steps leading from a river to the
buildings on its banks. Thus Calcutta is _Kalikuti_ (the ghauts or
passes leading to the temple of the goddess Kali), on the R. Hoogly;
also Calicut, on the Malabar coast.

[Sidenote: GAU, GOVIA (Ger.),]

a district; _e.g._ Sundgau, Westgau, Nordgau (south, west, and north
district); Aargau, Rheingau, Thurgau (the districts watered by the
Rivers Aar, Rhine, and Thur); Schöengau (beautiful district); Wonnegau
(the district of delight); Hainault, Ger. _Hennegau_ (the district of
the R. Haine, and _ault_, the stream); Pinzgau (the district of rushes,
_binse_), in Tyrol; Oehringen or Oringowe (the district of the R. Ohr).

[Sidenote: GEBEL, or DJEBEL (Ar.),]

a mountain; _e.g._ Gebel-Kattarin, in Sinai (St. Catharine’s
mountain), where, according to tradition, the body of St. Catharine
was transported from Alexandria; Djebel-Mousa (the mountain of Moses),
in Horeb; Djebel-Nimrod (of Nimrod), in Armenia; Jebel-Khal (black
mount), in Africa; Gibraltar, Ar. _Gebel-al-Tarik_ (the mountain of
Tarik, a Moor, who erected a fort on the rock of Calpe, A.D. 711);
Jebel-Libnan or Lebanon (the white mountain), supposed to be so called
because covered with snow during a great part of the year; Gebel-Oomar
(the mountain of Omar); Gibel-el-Faro (the mountain with the
lighthouse), near Malaga; _Djebel-es-Sheikh_ (the mount of the sheik
or shah, _i.e._ of the king), the Arabian name for Mount Hermon--_v._

[Sidenote: GEESTE (Ger.),]

barren land; _e.g._ Gaste, Geist, Geeste (the barren land); Geestefeld
(barren field); Holzengeist (the barren land in the wood); Nordergast,
Middelgast (the northern and middle barren land).

[Sidenote: GEISE (Ger.),]

a goat; _e.g._ Geisa and Geisbach (the goat’s stream); Geismar (rich in
goats); Geiselhoring, Geisenhausen, Geisenheim (the goat’s dwelling);
Geisberg (goat’s hill).

[Sidenote: GEMENDE (Ger.),]

a common; _e.g._ Gmeind (the common); Petersgemeinde (Peter’s common);
Gemeindmühle (the mill on the common).

[Sidenote: GEMUND (Ger.),]

a river-mouth or a confluence; _e.g._ Neckargemund (at the mouth of the
R. Neckar); Saaregemund (at the conf. of the R. Saare and the Belise);
Gmünd, in Wurtemberg (at the conf. of the two streams); Gemund and
Gemunden, in various parts of Germany. In Holland this word takes the
form of _monde_, as in Roermonde and Dendermonde (at the mouths of the
Roer and Dender); Emden, in Hanover, is a corrupt. of _Emsmünder_ (at
the conf. of the Ems and a small stream).

[Sidenote: GEN,]

an abbreviated form of _magen_ or _megen_, the Teutonic form for the
Cel. _magh_ (a field)--_qu. v._; _e.g._ Remagen or Rhemmaghen (the
field on the Rhine); Nimeguen, for _Novio-magus_ (the new field);
Schleusingen (the field or plain of the R. Schleuse); Munchingen (the
field of the monks); Beverungen, on the R. Bever; Meiningen (the great
field or plain), in the valley of the R. Wara.

[Sidenote: GEN, GENAU (Cel.),]

a mouth or opening; _e.g._ Llanfihangel-genaur’-glyn (the church of
the angel at the mouth of the glen), in Wales; Genappe and Gennep (the
mouth of the water, _abh_); Geneva (either the opening or mouth of the
water, or the head, _ceann_, of the water, where the Rhone proceeds
from the lake); Genoa, probably with the same meaning; Ghent or Gend,
at the conf. of the Scheldt and Lys, may also mean at the mouth of the
rivers, although, according to tradition, it acquired its name from a
tribe of Vandals, the _Gandani_, and was called in the ninth century
_Gandavum-vicum_, from the name of its inhabitants.

[Sidenote: GENT,]

in French topography, beautiful; _e.g._ Gentilly, anc. _Gentiliacum_
(the place of beautiful waters), on the Bièvre--_v._ OEUIL; Nogent
(beautiful meadow).

[Sidenote: GERICHT (Ger.),]

a court of justice; _e.g._ Gerichtsbergen (the hill of the court of
justice); Gerichtstetten (the station of the court of justice).

[Sidenote: GHAR (Ar.),]

a cave; _e.g._ Garbo (the cave), in Malta; Trafalgar, _i.e._
_Taraf-al-gar_ (the promontory of the cave).

[Sidenote: GHAR, GHUR, or GORE (Sansc.),
NAGAR, a city,]

a fort; _e.g._ Ahmednaghar (the fort of Ahmed); Ramghur (of Ram);
Kishenagur (of Krishna); Furracknagur (of Furrack); Moradnagur (of
Morad); Jehanagur (of Jehan); Allighur (of Allah or of God); Bisnaghur
(triumphant fort); Futtegur (fort of victory); Deoghur (God’s fort);
Neelgur (blue fort); Seringagur (the fort of abundance); Chandernagore
(the fort of the moon); Haidernagur (of Hyder Ali); Bissengur (the fort
of Vishnu); Chunarghur (the fort of the district of Chunar).

[Sidenote: GHARI, or GHERRY (Sansc.),]

a mountain; _e.g._ Ghaur, a mountainous district in Affghanistan;
Boughir (the woody mountain); Kistnagherry (Krishna’s mountain);
Rutnagiri (the mountain of rubies); Chandgherry (of the moon);
Shevagherry (of Siva); Neilgherries (the blue mountains); Dhawalageri
(the white mountain), being the highest peak of the Himalayas.

[Sidenote: GILL, GJA (Scand.),]

a ravine; _e.g._ Buttergill, Horisgill, Ormsgill, Thorsgill, etc.
(ravines in the Lake District named after Norse leaders); Hrafngia (the
ravens’ ravine, or of Hrafan, a Norse leader); Almanna-gja (Allman’s
ravine), in Iceland. The Hebrew _gäe_ (a ravine) answers in meaning
to this word, as in Ge-Hinnom (the ravine of the children of Hinnom),
corrupt. to _Gehenna_. This word, in the form of _goe_, is applied
to a small bay, _i.e._ a ravine which admits the sea, as in Redgoe,
Ravengoe, in the north of Scotland.

[Sidenote: GLAISE (Gadhelic),]

a small stream; _e.g._ Glasaboy (the yellow stream); Tullyglush (hill
stream); Glasheena (abounding in small streams); Douglas, _i.e._
_Dubhglaise_ (the black stream), frequent in Ireland and Scotland;
Douglas, in the Isle of Man, is on the R. Douglas; also the name of a
parish and village in Lanarkshire, from which the Douglas family derive
their name. Glasheenaulin (the beautiful little stream), in Co. Cork;
Ardglashin (the height of the rivulet), in Cavan.

[Sidenote: GLAN (Cym.-Cel.),]

a shore, a brink, a side; _e.g._ Glan-yr-afon, Welsh (the river side).

[Sidenote: GLAS (Cel.),]

gray, blue, or green; _e.g._ Glasalt (gray stream); Glascloon
(green meadow); Glasdrummond (green ridge); Glaslough (green lake);
Glasmullagh (green summit), in Ireland; Glass, a parish in Scotland. In
Wales: Glascoed (greenwood); Glascombe (green hollow). Glasgow is said
by James, the author of _Welsh Names of Places_, to be a corrupt. of

[Sidenote: GLEANN (Gadhelic),
GLYN and GLANN (Cym.-Cel.),
GLEN (A.S.),]

a small valley, often named from the river which flows through it;
_e.g._ Glen-fender, Glen-finnan, Glen-tilt, Glen-shee, Glen-esk,
Glen-bervie, Glen-bucket, Glen-livet, Glen-lyon, Glen-almond,
Glen-dochart, Glen-luce, Glen-isla, Glen-ary, Glen-coe, Glen-devon
(valleys in Scotland watered by the Rivers Fender, Finnan, Tilt, Shee,
Esk, Bervie, Bucket, Livet, Lyon, Almond, Dochart, Luce, Isla, Aray,
Cona, Devon). In Ireland: Glennagross (the valley of the crosses);
Glenmullion (of the mill); Glendine and Glandine and Glendowan, Irish
_Gleann-doimhin_ (the deep valley)--sometimes it takes the form of
_glan_ or _glyn_, as in Glin on the Shannon, and Glynn in Antrim;
Glennan, Glenann, Glentane, Glenlaun, etc. (little valley). When
this word occurs at the end of names in Ireland the _g_ is sometimes
suppressed; _e.g._ Leiglin, in Carlow, anc. _Leith-ghlionn_ (half
glen); Crumlin, Cromlin, and Crimlin (the winding glen); Glencross or
Glencorse, in the Pentlands, named from a remarkable cross which once
stood there; Glenelg (the valley of hunting or of the roe); Glengarnock
(of the rough hillock); Glencroe (of the sheepfold); Glenmore or
_Glenmore-nan-Albin_ (the great glen of Scotland which divides the
Highlands into two nearly equal parts); Glenmoreston (the valley
of the great cascade, _i.e._ of Foyers); Glenbeg (little valley);
Glenburnie (of the little stream); Glenmuick (the boars’ valley);
Glenure (of the yew); Glenfinlas (of the clear stream); Glengariff
(rough glen); Glendalough, Co. Wicklow, is in Irish _Gleann-da-locha_
(the glen of the two lakes); Glennamaddy (of the dogs, _madadh_);
Glinties (the glens), Co. Donegal; Forglen, a parish in Banffshire (the
cold or the grassy glen). In Wales, Glyn-Nedd (of the R. Nedd.)

[Sidenote: GLEIZ (Old Ger.),]

shining; _e.g._ Glisbach (shining brook); Gleisberg (shining hill);
Gleesdorf, Gleesweiler (shining dwelling).

[Sidenote: GLINA (Sclav.),]

clay; _e.g._ Glinzig, Glindow, Glintock, Glianicke, Glinow (names of
places near clay pits); Glina (the clayey stream).

[Sidenote: GLOG (Sclav.),]

the white thorn; _e.g._ Glogau, _Gross_, and Upper Glogau, in Silesia
(places abounding in white thorn); Glognitz, with the same meaning.

[Sidenote: GNADE (Ger.),]

grace; _e.g._ Gnadenhütten (the tabernacles of grace), a Moravian
settlement on the Ohio; Gnadenthal (the valley of grace), in Africa;
Gnadenburg and Gnadenfeld (the city and field of grace).

[Sidenote: GOBHA (Gadhelic),]

a blacksmith--in topography _Gow_ or _Gowan_; _e.g._ Ardgowan (the
blacksmith’s height); Balgowan, Balnagowan, Balgownie, Balgonie, in
Scotland, and Ballygow, Ballygowan, Ballingown, Ballynagown, in Ireland
(the dwelling of the blacksmith); Athgoe (the blacksmith’s ford). In
early times the blacksmith was regarded as an important personage,
being the manufacturer of weapons of war, and the ancient Irish, like
other nations, had their smith god, Goban, hence the frequent use of
the word in their topography.

[Sidenote: GOLA, or GALA (Sclav.),]

a wood; _e.g._ Golschow, Goltzen, Golkojye or Kolkwitz, and Gahlen (the
woody place); Galinchen (the little Gahlen, _i.e._ a colony from that
town); Kallinichen, _i.e._ the colony from Gallun (the woody place);
Gollnow, in Pomerania, from this root; but Gollnitz, near Finsterwalde,
is corrupt. from _Jelenze_ (stag town), from _jelen_.

[Sidenote: GOLB, GULB (Sclav.),]

the dove; _e.g._ Gulbin, Golbitten, Golembin, Golembecks, Golembki
(dove town); Gollombken, in Prussia, Ger. _Taubendorf_ (dove town).

[Sidenote: GORA (Sclav.),
Ὁρος (Grk.),]

a mountain or hill; _e.g._ Goritz, Ger. _Goïs_ (the town on the hill),
in Hungary, in a province of the same name; Gorlitz (behind the
hill), called also _Sgoretz_; Gorigk, Ger. _Bergheide_ (hilly heath);
Gorgast (hill inn), _gosta_ corrupt. into _gast_; Podgorze, Podgorach,
Podgoriza, Poschgorize (near the hill). This word sometimes takes the
form of _hora_, as in Zahora, in Turkey (behind the hill); Czernahora
(the black hill).

[Sidenote: GORT (Gadhelic),]

a field, cognate with the Lat. _hortus_ and Span. _huerta_, and the
Teut. _garth_--_v._ p. 87; _e.g._ Huerta-del-rey (the king’s orchard),
in Spain.

[Sidenote: GRAB (Sclav.),]

the red beech; _e.g._ Grabkow, Grabitz, Grabig, Grabow (the place of
red beeches); Grabin, Ger. _Finsterwalde_ (the place of red beeches or
the dark wood).

[Sidenote: GRABEN (Ger.),

a grave or trench, from _graben_, _grafan_ (to dig); _e.g._ Mühlgraben
(the mill trench or dam); Vloedgraben (the trench for the flood);
Schutzgraben (the moat of the defence); Grafton and Graffham
(the moated town); Gravesend (the town at the end of the moat);
Bischofsgraef (the bishop’s trench). In Ireland the prefix _graf_ is
applied to lands that have been grubbed up with a kind of axe called a
_grafan_--hence such names as Graffan, Graffin, Graffee, Graffy.

[Sidenote: GRAF, GRAAF (Teut. and Scand.),]

a count or earl; _e.g._ Graffenau, Graffenberg, Grafenschlag,
Grafenstein (the meadow, hill, wood-clearing, and rock of the count);
Grafenworth and Grafenhain (the count’s enclosure or farm); Grafenthal
(the count’s valley); Grafenbrück (the count’s bridge); Grafenmühle
(the count’s mill); Gravelines, in Flanders, anc. _Graveninghem_
(the count’s domain). In Sclavonic names, Grabik, Grabink, Grobitz,
Hrabowa, Hrabaschin (the count’s town); Grobinow (count’s town),
Germanised into _Kroppstadt_.

[Sidenote: GRANGE (Fr. and Scot.),]

a farm or storehouse for grain, from the Lat. _granaria_, cognate
with the Gadhelic _grainnseach_, Low Lat. _grangia_; _e.g._ Grange, a
parish and village in Banffshire; Les Granges (the granaries); La Neuve
Grange (the new farm), in France; La Granja, in Spain; Grangegeeth
(the windy farm), in Ireland. From the same root such names in Ireland
as Granagh, Granaghan (places producing grain).

[Sidenote: GRENZE (Ger.),
GRAN (Sclav.),]

the boundary or corner; _e.g._ Grenzhausen (the dwellings on the
boundary); Banai-Militar Granze (the border territory under the
government of a military officer called _The Ban_); Gransee (the corner
lake); Graniz, Granowo (boundary towns), in Hungary; Gran, a town in
Hungary, in a province of the same name through which the R. Gran flows.

[Sidenote: GRIAN (Gadhelic),]

the sun; _e.g._ Greenock, either from _grianach_ (sunny) or the
knoll, _cnoc_ (of the sun); Greenan, Greenane, Greenawn, and Grennan
(literally, a sunny spot), translated by the Irish Latin-writers
_solarium_; but as it occurs in topographical names in Ireland, it is
used as another name for a royal palace; Grenanstown, in Co. Tipperary,
is a sort of translation of its ancient name _Baile-an-ghrianain_ (the
town of the palace); Greenan-Ely (the palace of the circular stone
fortress, _aileach_); Tullagreen (the hill of the sun); Monagreany
(sunny bog).

[Sidenote: GRIES (Ger.),]

sand or gravel; _e.g._ Griesbach (sandy brook); Griesau, Griesthal
(sandy valley); Grieshaim (sandy dwelling); Grieswang (sandy field);
Griesberg (sand hill); Grieskirchen (the church on the sandy land).
_Gressius_ and _Gresum_ in _bas_ Lat. have the same meaning, and
have given names to such places in France as Les Grès, Grèses, Les
Gresillons, La Gressée, La Grezille, etc.

[Sidenote: GROD, GOROD, GRAD (Sclav.),
HRAD (Turc.),]

a fortified town; _e.g._ Belgrade and Belgorod (white fortress);
Ekateringrad and Elizabethgrad (the fortified town of the Empress
Catharine and Elizabeth); Zaregorod (the fortress of the Czar or
Emperor); Novgorod (new fortress); Paulograd and Ivanograd (the
fortress of Paul or Ivan, _i.e._ John); Gratz, Gradiska, Gradizsk,
Gradentz, Grodek, Grodno, Grodzizk (the fortified towns), in Poland and
Russia; Hradeck and Hradisch, with the same meaning, in Bohemia.

[Sidenote: GRODEN (Frisian),]

land reclaimed from the sea; _e.g._ Moorgroden, Ostergroden,
Salzgroden, places in Holland.

[Sidenote: GRÖN, GROEN, GRUN (Teut. and Scand.),]

green; _e.g._ Groenloo, Gronau (the green meadow); Grunavoe (green
bay); Grunataing (green promontory); Grunaster (green dwelling), in
Shetland; Greenland, translated from _Terra-verde_, the name given to
the country by Cortoreal in 1500, but it had been discovered by an
Icelander (Lief, son of Eric the red), in the ninth century, and named
by him _Hvitsaerk_ (white shirt), probably because covered with snow;
Greenwich, A.S. _Grenavie_, Lat. _viridus-vicus_ (green town).

[Sidenote: GRUND (Ger.),]

a valley; _e.g._ Amsel-grund, Itygrund (the valleys of the Rivers Amsel
and Ity); Riesengrund (the giant’s valley); Laucha-grund (the valley of
the R. Laucha), in Thuringia.

[Sidenote: GUADA,]

the name given to the rivers in Spain by the Moors, from the Arabic
_wädy_ (the dried-up bed of a river); _e.g._ Guadalaviar, _i.e._
Ar. _Wadi-l-abyadh_ (the white river); Guadalete (the small river);
Guadalimar (red river); Guadarama (sandy river); Guadalertin (the muddy
river); Guadaloupe (the river of the bay, _upl_); Guadiana (the river
of joy), called by the Greeks _Chrysus_ (the golden); Guadalquivir,
_i.e._ _Wad-al-kebir_ (the great river); Guaalcazar (of the palace);
Guadalhorra (of the cave, _ghar_); Guadalbanar (of the battlefield);
Guadaira (of the mills).

[Sidenote: GUÉ (Fr.),]

a ford, perhaps from the Celtic _gwy_, water; _e.g._ Gué-du-Loire (the
ford of the Loire); Gué-de-l’Isle (of the island); Le Gué-aux-biches
(of the hinds); Boné, formerly _Bonum-vadum_, Lat. (the good ford), in
France; Bungay, in Suffolk, on the R. Waveney, corrupt. from _Bon-gué_
(good ford).

[Sidenote: GUISA (Old Ger.),]

to gush, found in river names; _e.g._ Buachgieso (the bending stream);
Goldgieso (golden stream); Wisgoz (the white stream).

[Sidenote: GUNGE (Sansc.),]

a market-town; _e.g._ Saibgunge (the market-town of the Englishmen);
Futtegunge (the town of victory); Sultangunge (of the Sultan);
Shevagunge (of Siva); Jaffiergunge (of Jaffier).

[Sidenote: GUT, GOED (Ger.),]

a property; _e.g._ Schlossgut (the property of the castle); Wüstegut
(the property in the waste land); but this word, used as a prefix,
denotes _good_, as in Guttenberg, Guttenbrun, Guttenstein (the good
hill, well, and fortress).

[Sidenote: GWEN (Cym.-Cel.),]

fair, white, cognate with the Gadhelic _fionn_; _e.g._ Gwenap (the
fair slope); Gwendur and Derwent (the fair water); Berwyn (the fair
boundary); Corwen (the fair choir); Ventnor (the fair shore); Guinty
or Guindy (the fair or white dwelling), common in Wales. _Gwent_,
Latinised _Venta_, meant a fair open plain, and was applied to the
counties of Monmouth, Gloucester, and Hereford, and Hampshire, as well
as to the coast of Brittany: thus Winchester was formerly _Caer-gwent_
(the fortress of the fair plain), Latinised _Venta-Belgorum_ (the
plain of the Belgians). There was a _gwent_ also in Norfolk, Latinised
_Venta-Icenorum_ (the plain of the Iceni). This root-word may be the
derivation of Vannes and La Vendée, in Normandy, if not from the
_Veneti_--_v._ FEN.

[Sidenote: GWENT (Welsh),]

a fair or open region, a campaign. It is a name now confined to nearly
all Monmouthshire, but which anciently comprehended also parts of the
counties of Gloucester and Hereford, being a district where _Caer-went_
or the _Venta-Silurum_ of the Romans was the capital; Corwen (the
blessed choir or church); Yr Eglwys-Wen (the blessed choir or church);
Wenvoe, in Glamorgan, corrupt. from _Gwenvai_ (the happy land).

[Sidenote: GWERN (Cym.-Cel.),]

the alder-tree, also a swamp; _e.g._ Coed-gwern (alder-tree wood).

[Sidenote: GWY, or WY (Cym.-Cel.),]

water; _e.g._ the Rivers Wye, the Elwy (gliding water); Llugwy (clear
water); Mynewy (small water); Leveny (smooth water); Garway (rough
water); Conway (the chief or head water, _cyn_); Gwydir, _i.e._
_Gwy-tir_ (water land), the ancient name of Glastonbury; Gwynedd (water
glen), an ancient region in North Wales.

[Sidenote: GWYRDD (Welsh),]

green, verdant; _e.g._ Gwyrdd-y-coed (the winter green).


[Sidenote: HAAR (Teut.),]

an eminence; _e.g._ Haarlem (the eminence on the clayey soil, _leem_).

[Sidenote: HAFEN, HAVN (Teut. and Scand.),

a harbour, from _haff_ (the ocean); _e.g._ Frische-haff
(freshwater haven); Kurische-haff (the harbour of the _Cures_, a
tribe); Ludwig’s-hafen (the harbour of Louis); Charles’s-haven,
Frederick’s-haven (named after their founders); Delfshaven (the
canal harbour); Vilshaven (the harbour at the mouth of the R. Vils);
Thorshaven (the harbour of Thor); Heiligenhaven (holy harbour); Hamburg
(the town of the harbour), formerly _Hochburi_ (high town); Soderhamm
(the south harbour); Osterhafen (east harbour); Ryehaven, in Sussex
(the harbour on the bank, _rive_); Milford-haven (the harbour of
Milford), the modern name of the Cel. _Aber-du-gledian_ (the confluence
of the two _swords_), a word applied to _streams_ by the ancient
Britons; Whitehaven, in Cumberland, according to Camden named from its
white cliffs; Stonehaven (the harbour of the rock), in allusion to
the projecting rock which shelters the harbour; Newhaven, Co. Sussex,
in allusion to the new harbour made in 1713--its former name was
_Meeching_; Newhaven, Co. Edinburgh, named in contradistinction from
the old harbour at Leith.

[Sidenote: HAG, HAGEN (Teut. and Scand.),

an enclosure, literally a place surrounded by a hedge, cognate with
the Celtic _cae_; _e.g._ Hagen, in Germany, and La Haye, Les Hayes,
and Hawes (the enclosures), in France, Belgium, and England; Hagenbach
(the hedged-in brook); Hagenbrunn (the enclosed well); Hagueneau (the
enclosed meadow), a town in Germany; Fotheringay (probably originally
an enclosure for fodder or fother); The Hague, Ger. _Gravenhage_ (the
duke’s enclosure, originally a hunting-seat of the Princes of Orange);
Hain-Grossen (the great enclosure); Jacob’s-hagen (James’s enclosure),
in Pomerania; Urishay (the enclosure of Uris), in Hereford; Haigh and
Haywood (the enclosed wood), in Lancashire.

[Sidenote: HAGO, HEGY (Hung.),]

a hill; _e.g._ Kiraly-hago (the king’s hill); Szarhegy (the emperor’s

[Sidenote: HAI (Chinese),]

the sea; _e.g._ Hoanghai (the yellow sea); Nankai (the southern sea).

[Sidenote: HAIDE, or HEIDE (Teut.),]

a heath or wild wood; _e.g._ Falkenheid (the falcon’s wood);
Birchenheide (the birch-wood); Hohenheid and Hochheyd (high heath);
Hatfield, Hadleigh, Hatherley, and Hatherleigh (the heathy field or
meadow); Hadlow (heath hill); Haidecke (heath corner); Heydecapelle
(the chapel on the heath), in Holland.

[Sidenote: HAIN (Ger.),]

a grove or thicket; _e.g._ Wildenhain (the wild beasts’ thicket);
Wilhelmshain (William’s grove or thicket); Langenhain (long thicket);
Grossenhain (the thick grove).

[Sidenote: HALDE (Ger.),]

a declivity, cognate with _hald_, Scand. (a rock); _e.g._ Leimhalde
(clayey declivity); Frederick’s-hald, in Norway, so named by Frederick
III. in 1665. Its old name was simply _Halden_ (on the declivity).

[Sidenote: HALL, or ALH (Teut.),
HEAL (A.S.),]

a stone house, a palace; _e.g._ Eccleshall (church house), in
Staffordshire, where the Bishops of Lichfield had a palace; Coggeshall,
in Essex (Gwgan’s mansion); Kenninghall (the king’s palace), in
Norfolk, at one time the residence of the princes of East Anglia.

[Sidenote: HALL and HALLE,]

in German topography, is a general name for a place where salt is
manufactured. The word has its root in the Cym.-Cel. _halen_ (salt),
cognate with the Gadhelic _salen_ and the Teut. _salz_, probably from
the Grk. _hals_ (the sea). Hall and Halle, as town names, are found
in connection with _Salz_; as in Hall in Upper Austria, near the
Salzberg (a hill with salt mines), and Hall, near the salt mines in
the Tyrol; Halle, in Prussian Saxony, on the R. Saale; Reichenhall
(rich salt-work), in Bavaria; Hallein, celebrated for its salt-works
and baths, on the Salza; Hallstadt, also noted for its salt-works;
Hall, in Wurtemberg, near salt springs; Halton, in Cheshire, probably
takes its name from the salt mines and works in the neighbourhood;
_Penardhalawig_ (the headland of the salt marsh) was the ancient name
of Hawarden, in Flint and Cheshire; Halys and Halycus (salt streams),
in Galatia and Sicily.

[Sidenote: HAM, HEIM (Teut. and Scand.),

a home or family residence, literally a place of shelter, from
_heimen_, Ger. (to cover), _hama_, A.S. (a covering), cognate with the
Grk. _heima_; _e.g._ Hampstead and Hampton (the home place); Okehampton
(the dwelling on the R. Oke), in Devonshire; Oakham (oak dwelling),
so called from the numerous oaks that used to grow in its vicinity;
Buckingham (the home of the Buccingus or dwellers among beech-trees);
Birmingham, probably a patronymic from the Boerings; Addlingham and
Edlingham (the home of the Athelings or nobles); Horsham (Horsa’s
dwelling); Clapham (Clapa’s home); Epsom, anc. _Thermæ-Ebbesham_
(the warm springs of Ebba, a Saxon queen); Flitcham (Felex’s home);
Blenheim, Ger. _Blindheim_ (dull home), in Bavaria; Nottingham, A.S.
_Snotengaham_ (the dwelling near caves); Shoreham (the dwelling on the
coast); Waltham (the dwelling near a wood); Framlingham (the dwelling
of the strangers), from the A.S.; Grantham (Granta’s dwelling); Ightham
(the parish with eight villages), in Kent; Wrexham, anc. _Writtlesham_
(the town of wreaths), A.S. _wreoth_; Ingelheim (the dwelling of the
Angli); Ingersheim (of Ingra); Oppenheim (of Uppo); Rodelheim (of
Rodolph); Southampton (the _south_ dwelling, in distinction from
Northampton); Twickenham (the dwelling between the streams, where the
Thames seems to be divided into two streams); Rotherham, anc. Cel. _Yr
odre_ (the boundary), Lat. _Ad-fines_ (on the boundary); Wolverhampton
(the dwelling endowed by the Lady Wulfrana in the tenth century);
Godmanham, in Yorkshire (the holy man’s dwelling), the site of an idol
temple, destroyed under the preaching of Paulinus, whose name it bears.
This root-word is often joined to the name of a river, thus--Coleham,
Coverham, Debenham, Hexham or Hestildisham, Jaxtham, Lenham, Trentham,
Tynningham (_i.e._ towns or villages on the Rivers Colne, Cover, Deben,
Hestild, Jaxt, Len, Trent, Tyne); Cheltenham, on the Chelt; Oxnam, Co.
Roxburgh, formerly Oxenham (a place of shelter for oxen); Hameln, on
the R. Hamel, in Hanover; Drontheim or Trondjeim (throne dwelling);
Kaiserheim (the emperor’s dwelling); Heidelsheim (the dwelling of
Haidulf), in Bavaria; Hildesheim, probably the dwelling near the field
of battle, Old Ger. _hilti_ (a battle); Mannheim (the dwelling of
men), as contrasted with _Asheim_ or _Asgarth_ (the dwelling of the
gods), in Baden; Hildersham, in Yorkshire, anc. _Hildericsham_ (the
dwelling of Childeric). Ham is often contracted into _om_, _um_,
_en_, or _am_, etc.--as in Dokum (the town of the port or dock), in
Holland; Nehon, in Normandy, corrupt. from Nigel’s home; Angeln (the
dwelling of the Angli); Oppeln, in Silesia (the dwelling of Oppo);
Edrom, in Berwickshire, corrupt. from _Adderham_ (the dwelling on the
R. Adder); Ednam, on the Eden, in Roxburghshire; Hitchen, on the Hiz or
Hitche, in Herts; Fulham, anc. _Fullenham_ (the home of birds), A.S.
_fugil_; Hownam (the dwelling of Howen or Owen), in Roxburghshire. In
Flanders _ham_ or _heim_ often takes the forms of _eim_, _em_, etc.,
as in Killim (the dwelling of Kilian); Ledringhem (of Ledro); Hem (of
Hugnes); Pitgain (of the well); Wolsen, for Wolfsheim; Bohemia (the
home of the Boii); Dahlen (valley dwelling); Wolsen (Wolfa’s dwelling).

[Sidenote: HAMMAN (Ar. and Turc.),

hot springs; _e.g._ Hamman-Mousa (the hot springs of Moses);
Hamman-Pharoon (of Pharaoh); Hammah-de-Cabes (the warm baths of Cabes),
in North Africa; Alhama (the town of the warm baths), the name of
several places in Spain.

[Sidenote: HAMMER (Scand.)]

This word sometimes signifies a village or small town, and sometimes a
rock; _e.g._ Lillehammer (the little town); Oesthammer (east village);
Hamr (a steep place), in Shetland; Hammerfeste, in the island of
Qualoe, probably means the rock fortress, _faestung_. In German
topography it is generally connected with the blacksmith’s hammer, and
is common in localities where metals are worked, thus--Hammersmeide
(hammer-smithy); Silberhammer (a place where silver is wrought), near
Dantzic. Kemble also suspects a reference to Thor’s hammer in the names
of some towns or villages in England; _e.g._ Hamerton, in Huntingdon,
and also in Middlesex; Hammerwich, in Staffordshire; Hamerton-kirk, in

[Sidenote: HANG (Ger.),]

a declivity, from _hängen_ (to hang), A.S. _hongian_; _e.g._ Hangenheim
(the dwelling on the declivity); Pannshanger (Penn’s slope), in Herts;
Clehonger (clayey slope), Hereford.

[Sidenote: HAR, HAER (Teut.),]

the army; _e.g._ Harwich (army town or bay), in Essex, so called
because the Danes had a great military depot at this place; Herstal,
in Belgium, anc. _Hari-stelle_ (army place); Hargrave (the army
entrenchment), in Norfolk; Harbottle (the army’s quarters), in
Northumberland. In Edmond’s _Names of Places_ this prefix, as well as
_hor_, is referred to an A.S. word signifying hoary; under which he
places Harborough, in Leicestershire, the name of which is traced by
Bailey to _havre_ (oats).

[Sidenote: HART, HARZ (Teut.),
HYRST (A.S.),]

brushwood or a wood; _e.g._ the Harz Mountains, with the town of
Harzburg (the fortress in the wood); Harsefeld (woody field),
in Hanover; Hurst, in Kent; Deerhurst (deer wood or thicket);
Hurst-Monceaux (the wood of Monceaux, probably a Norman baron),
in Sussex; Hurst, a town in Lancashire; Lyndhurst (the wood of
lime-trees); Midhurst (in the middle of the wood); Hawkhurst (hawk
wood); Gravenhorst (the count’s wood); Horstmar (rich in wood)--_v._
MAR; Billing’s-hurst (the wood of the Billings), a patronymic;
Farnhurst and Ferneyhurst (ferny wood); Sendenhorst (the rushy wood),
in Westphalia; Herzovia or Herzegovia (a woody district), in Turkey;
Murrhard, in Wurtemberg, means the wood on the R. Muhr; Delmenhorst,
on the Delme, in Hanover. Hart, in English topography, however, refers
more commonly to _heort_ (the hart), as in Hart_grove_, Hart_land_,
Hart_ley_, Hart_field_, Harts_ford_, Harts_hill_. It occasionally takes
the form of _chart_, as in Seal-chart (holy wood); Chart-Sutton (the
wood at the south town).

[Sidenote: HASEL, HAEZEL (Teut.),]

the hazel-tree; _e.g._ Hessle (the place of hazels); Haselburn and
Haselbrunnen (the stream and well of the hazels); Haslau (hazel
meadow); Heslington (the dwelling among hazels); Hasselt, in Belgium,
_i.e._ Hasselholt, Lat. _Hasseletum_ (hazel grove); Hasseloe (hazel
island), in Sweden and Denmark; Hazeldean and Haslingden (the hollow of
the hazels).

[Sidenote: HATCH, HÆCA (A.S.),]

a bolt, a gate, hence an enclosed dwelling; _e.g._ Hatch-Beauchamp (the
enclosed dwelling of Beauchamp, a personal name); Colney-Hatch (of
Colney); West-Hatch, in Somerset; Pilgrim’s Hatch, in Essex.

[Sidenote: HAUGH, HEUGH, HOW, HOPE.]

In Scotland these words generally denote a low-lying meadow between
hills or on the banks of a stream,--as in Hobkirk (_i.e._ the church
in the _hope_ or meadow); Howwood (the wood in the hollow); Hutton, for
_How_ton (the dwelling in the hollow), parishes in Scotland. In England
_how_ and _haugh_ come more frequently from the Scand. _haugr_ (a heap
or mound often raised over a grave, like the cairns in Scotland),--as
in Silver-how, Butterlip-how, in the Lake District, probably from
mounds over some Norse leader’s grave; Haugh, in Lincoln; Haugham (the
dwelling near the mound); Howden, in Yorkshire (the valley of the
_haugr_ or mound); Haughley (the meadow near the mound). La Hogue, in
France, is from _haugr_ or from the _houg_, as also Les Hogues and
La Hoguette (the little mound); Gretna Green is the modern name for
_Gretan-how_ (the great hollow). _Haugr_ also means a temple or high
place, fenced off and hallowed, among the Scandinavians; and to this
word so derived Dasent traces Harrow-on-the-hill and Harrowby.

[Sidenote: HAUPT (Ger.),
HOVED (Scand.),

a head, a promontory; _e.g._ Howth Head, in Ireland, from the Danish
_hofed_--its Irish name is _Ben Edair_ (the hill of Edar); Brunhoubt
(the well head); Berghaupt (hill head); Ruckshoft (ridge head), in
Germany; Hoft (the headland), in the island of Rugen; Sneehatten (snowy
head), in Norway; Hoddam (holm head), in Dumfriesshire.

[Sidenote: HAUS (Teut.), HUUS (Scand.), HAZA (Hung.),]

a dwelling, allied to _casa_, Lat., It., Span., and Port.; _e.g._
Mühlhausen (at the mill house); Saxenhausen (the dwelling of the
Saxons); Wendenhausen (of the Wends); Schaffhausen (the ship station),
which consisted originally of a few storehouses on the banks of
the Rhine for the reception of merchandise; Dunkelhauser (the dark
house); Aarhuus (the town on the watercourse), a seaport in Denmark;
Aggers-huus, in Norway, on the R. Agger. This district and river seems
to have been named from an _agger_ or rampart erected near Christiania
in 1302, on the Aggerfiord. Ward-huus (the dwelling in the island of
the watch-tower), on the coast of Fenmark; Holzhausen (the dwelling
at the wood); Burghausen (the fortified dwelling); Distilhousen (the
dwelling among thistles), in Belgium. In Hungary, Bogdan-haza (God’s
house); Oroshaza (the dwelling of the Russians); Chaise-Dieu, Lat.
_Casa-Dei_ (the house of God), in France. Also in France, Chaise, Les
Chaises; Casa-nova (new house); Casa-vecchia (old house), in Corsica;
Chassepierre, Lat. _Casa-petrea_ (stone house), in Belgium; Casa-bianca
(white house), in Brazil.

[Sidenote: HEL, HELLE, HELGE, HEIL,]

prefixes with various meanings in Eng., Ger., and Scand. topography.
Sometimes they mean holy, Ger. _heilig_, as in Heligoland (holy
isle); Heilbron (holy well); Heligensteen (holy rock); Heilberg and
Hallidon (holy hill); Heiligencreuz (the town of the holy cross),
Hung. _Nemet-keresztur_ (the grove of the cross); Heiligenhaven (holy
harbour); Heiligenstadt (holy town); Halifax, in Yorkshire (holy
face), is said to have been named from an image of John the Baptist,
kept in a hermitage at the place; Hoxton, in Sussex, was originally
_Hageltoun_ (holy town), because it was there that St. Edmund suffered
martyrdom. Sometimes, however, _hell_ denotes a covered place, as in
Helwell, in Devonshire (the covered well); sometimes it means _clear_,
as in Hellebrunn (clear or bright fountain); Heilbronn, in Wurtemberg
(fountain of health), named from a spring formerly used medicinally.
Hellefors, a waterfall in Norway, and Hellgate, New York, seem to
derive their names from a superstition connected with _Hel_, the
goddess of the dead; Holyhead, in Wales, is in Welsh _Pen-Caer-Gibi_
(the hill fort of St. Cybi, called _holy_ in his honour); Holy Island,
Lat. _Insula-sancta_, obtained its name from the monastery of St.
Cuthbert--its more ancient name, _Lindisfarne_, is probably the ferry,
_fahr_, of the brook Lindis, on the opposite shore; Holywell, in Flint,
took its name from St. Winifred’s Well, celebrated for its miraculous
cures--its Welsh name is _Tref-fynnon_ (the town of the clear water);
Holywood, Dumfriesshire, Cel. _Der Congal_ (the oak grove of St.

[Sidenote: HELLR (Scand.),]

a cave into which the tide flows; _e.g._ Hellr-hals (the neck or strait
of the cave); Heller-holm (the island of the cave); Hellersness (the
headland of the caves).

[Sidenote: HELY (Hung.),]

a place; _e.g._ Vasarhely (the market-place); Varhely (the place of
the fortress); Marosvasarhely (the market-place on the R. Maros), in
Ger. _Neumarkt_; Vasarhely-hod-Mezö (the market-place of the beaver’s
meadow); Szombathely (the place where the Saturday market is held,
_szombat_); Csotortokhely (the Thursday market-place), Germanised
_Donners-markt_; Udvarhely (court place); Szerdahely (Wednesday
market-place), _Vasar_, Hung. (a market), from Turc. _Bazar_.

[Sidenote: HEN (Cym.-Cel.),]

old; _e.g._ Henly (the old place), on the Thames; Hentland, for
Hen-llan (old church, now St. Asaph’s); Henlys (old palace): Hen-egglys
(old church), in Anglesea.

[Sidenote: HEN (Cym.-Cel.),]

old, ancient; _e.g._ Henlys (the ancient hall).

[Sidenote: HENGST (Teut.),]

a horse--hence Hengiston, in Cornwall, either an enclosure for horses
or the town of Hengist; Hengestdorf or Pferdsdorf (horse’s village);
Hengistridge (horse’s ridge); Hinksey (the horse’s island or marshy
place); Hinkley (the horses’ meadow).

[Sidenote: HERR, HERZOG (Ger.),
HERTOG (Dutch),]

a duke or lord; _e.g._ Herzogenbosch or Bois-le-Duc (the duke’s
grove); Hertogspodler (the duke’s reclaimed land); Herzogenburg
(the duke’s fortress); Herzogenrath (the duke’s cleared land);
Herrnsbaumgarten (the duke’s orchard); Herrnhut (the Lord’s
tabernacle), founded by Count Zinzendorf, in Saxony, for the
Moravian Brethren, in 1722; Herisau (the duke’s meadow), Lat.
_Augia-Domini_, in Switzerland.

[Sidenote: HESE, or HEES (Teut.),]

a hedge or thicket; _e.g._ Hessingen (the dwelling in the thicket);
Maashees (the thicket on the R. Maas); Wolfhees (the wolf’s thicket).

[Sidenote: HILL (A.S.),
HYL, HOLL (Scand.),]

an elevation, cognate with the Ger. _hugel_; _e.g._ Silver-hill, named
after Sölvar, a Norse leader, in the Lake District; Hilton, Hilston
(hill town); Woolwich, anc. _Hyl-vich_ (hill town); Butterhill (the
hill of Buthar), a personal name in the Lake District.

[Sidenote: HINDU (Pers.),]

water; _e.g._ the Rivers Indus, Inde, Indre, etc.; Hindostan (the
district watered by the R. Indus).

[Sidenote: HIPPO (Phœn.),]

a walled town; _e.g._ Hippo, near Carthage. There were three cities
called Hippo in Africa and two in Spain: Olisippo (the walled town),
now Lisbon; Oreppo, Belippo, Lacippo.

[Sidenote: HIR (Cym.-Cel.),]


[Sidenote: HIRSCH (Ger.),]

the hart; _e.g._ Hirzenach (the hart’s stream); Hersbrock (the hart’s
marsh); Hirschberg, Lat. _Corvamontem_ (the hart’s hill); Hirschfeld,
Herschau, Hirschholm, Hirschhorn (the field, meadow, hill, peak of the

[Sidenote: HISSAR (Turc.),]

a castle; _e.g._ Kezil-hissar (red castle); Kara-hissar (black
castle); Eski-hissar (old castle), anc. _Laodicea_; Demir-hissar (iron
castle); Guzel-hissar (white castle); Sevri-hissar (cypress castle);
Sultan-hissar (the sultan’s castle); Kulci-hissar (the castle on the R.

[Sidenote: HITHE (A.S.),]

a haven; _e.g._ Hythe, in Kent; Greenhithe (the green haven); Lambeth,
anc. _Lomehithe_ (clayey haven); Maidenhead, anc. _Mayden-hithe_,
i.e. the wharf _midway_ between Marlow and Windsor; Queenhithe (the
queen’s haven); Redriff, in Surrey, anc. _Rethra-hythe_ (the haven of
sailors), A.S. _rethra_, also called Rotherhithe (the haven for horned
cattle), Old Eng. _rother_; Stepney, anc. _Stebon-hythe_ (Stephen’s
haven or timber wharf); Erith, A.S. _Ora-hithe_ (shore haven), in Kent;
Challock, in Kent, corrupt. from _ceale hythe_ (chalk haven).

[Sidenote: HJALTI (Scand.),]

a Viking; _e.g._ Shapansay, anc. _Hjalpansay_ (the Viking’s island);
Shetland, _i.e._ _Hjaltiland_, with the same meaning.

[Sidenote: HLINC (A.S.),]

a ridge; _e.g._ Linch, in Sussex; Rouselinch (Rouse’s ridge), in

[Sidenote: HO (Chinese),]

a river or water; _e.g._ Euho (the precious river); Hoangho (the
yellow river); Peiho (white river); Yuho (imperial river); Keangho
(rapid river); Hoonan (south of the lake); Hoohe (north of the lake,
_i.e._ of Lake Tongting).

[Sidenote: HOCH, HOHEN (Ger.),
HOOG (Dutch),]

high; _höhe_ (a height); _e.g._ Hohurst and Hohenhart (high wood);
Hohenberg (high hill); Homburg (high hill fort); Homburg-von-der-höhe
(the high fort in front of the height); Hochfeld (high field); Hochain
(high enclosure); Hochstadt, Hochstetten, Hochstatten (high dwelling);
Hocheim (high home or dwelling), from which place Hock wines are
named; Hochwiesen, Sclav. _Velko-polya_ (high meadow or plain); Hochst
for Hochstadt, and Hoym for Hochham (high town); Hohenelbi, Grk.
_Albipolis_ (the high town on the Elbe); Hohenlohe (the high meadow or
thicket); Hohenstein and Hohenstauffen (high rock); Hohenwarth, Lat.
_Altaspecula_ (the high watch-tower); Hohenzollern (the high place
belonging to the Zwolf family); Hohenscheid (the high watershed);
Hockliffe (high cliff), in Bedford; Higham, Highworth (high manor or
dwelling); Highgate (high road); Wilhelmshöhe (William’s high place);
Hoy, in Shetland (the high island).

[Sidenote: HOF (Teut.),
HOEVE (Dutch),]

an enclosure, manor, and court. In Scandinavia _hoff_ means a temple;
_e.g._ Eyndhoven (the manor at the corner); Neuhof and Neunhoffen, in
France (new manor); Hof and Hoff (the enclosure), in Belgium; Hof,
in Bavaria, on the R. Saale; Stadt-am-hof, in Bavaria, anc. _Curia
Bavarica_ (the place at the court); Hof-an-der-March (the court or
manor on the R. March); Schoonhoven (beautiful manor), in Holland;
Nonnenhof (the nun’s enclosure); Meerhof (the dwelling on the marshy
land); Peterhof (the court dwelling founded by Peter the Great);
Hoff (the temple), in Iceland; Hoff, a village near Appleby, has
the same meaning, as it is situated in a wood called Hoff-land (the
temple grove). In Iceland, when a chieftain had taken possession of
a district, he erected a temple (_hoff_) and became, as he had been
in Norway, the chief, the pontiff, and the judge of the district; and
when the Norwegians took possession of Cumberland and Westmoreland they
would naturally act in the same manner.

[Sidenote: HOHN (Old Ger.),]

a low place, as in Die-Höhne (the hollows), in the Brocken.

[Sidenote: HÖLLE (Teut.),]

a cave, from _hohl_ (hollow); _e.g._ Hohenlinden, anc. _Hollinden_
(the hollow place of lime-trees); Holland or the Netherlands (the
low countries); also Holland, a low-lying district in Lincolnshire;
Holdeornesse (the low promontory of the province of Deira); Holmer, in
Hereford (the low lake, _mere_).

[Sidenote: HOLM (Scand.),]

a small island; _e.g._ Flatholm (flat island); Steepholm (steep
island); Priestholm (of the priest); Alderholm (of alders); Holm, in
Sweden, and Hulm, in Norway (the island); Stockholm, anc. _Holmia_
(the island city, built upon stakes). But _holm_ also signifies
occasionally a hill, as in Smailholm, in Roxburghshire (little hill);
and Hume, or _holm_, Castle, in Berwickshire (on a hill). Sometimes
also it signifies a low meadow on the banks of a stream, as in Durham,
corrupt. from _Dun-holm_ or _Dunelme_ (the fortress on the meadow),
almost surrounded by the R. Wear; Langholm (the long meadow); Denholm
(the meadow in the deep valley); Twynholm, anc. _Twynham_ (the dwelling
on the hillock), Welsh _twyn_, a parish in Kirkcudbright; Brachenholm
(ferny meadow); Lingholme (heather island), in Windermere; also
Silverholme (the island of Sölvar, a Norse leader); Bornholm, in the
Baltic, anc. _Burgundaland_ (the island of the Burgundians); Axholme,
an insulated district in Co. Lincoln, formed by the Rivers Trent,
Idle, and Don, from _uisge_, Cel. (water); Drotningholm, in the Mälar
Lake near Stockholm (queen’s island), from Swed. _drottmig_ (a queen);
Battleholme, found in some places in the north of England, according to
Ferguson, means fertile island, from an Old English word _battel_ or
_bette_ (fertile).

[Sidenote: HOLT, HOLZ (A.S. and Ger.),]

a wood; _e.g._ Aldershot (alder-tree wood); Bergholt (the hill or
hill fort in the wood); Evershot (the boar’s wood, _eofer_); Badshot
(badger’s wood); Bochholt (beech-wood); Jagerholz (huntsman’s wood);
Oosterhout (east wood); Holzkirchen (the church at the wood);
Thourhout, in East Flanders (the wood consecrated to the god Thor);
Tourotte, in the department of Oise, in France (also Thor’s wood);
Hootenesse (woody promontory), in Belgium; Diepholz (deep wood);
Meerholt and Meerhout (marshy wood); Holt, a woody district in Norfolk.

[Sidenote: HOO, or HOE (Scand.),]

a spit of land running into the sea; _e.g._ Sandhoe (the sandy cape);
The Hoe, in Kent; Kew, in Surrey, anc. _Kay-hoo_ (the quay on the spit
of land).

[Sidenote: HORN (Ger.),
HOORN (Dutch),]

a horn-like projection or cape jutting into the sea, or a valley
between hills, curved like a horn; _e.g._ Hoorn (the promontory), a
seaport in Holland, from which place the Dutch navigator Schoutens
named Cape Horn, Hoorn being his native place; Hornburg (the town on
the projection); Hornby (corner dwelling); Horncastle (the castle on
the promontory); Hornberg and Horndon (the projecting hill); Hornsea
(the projection on the coast); Matterhorn (the peak in the meadows), so
called from the patches of green meadow-land which surround its base;
Schreckhorn (the peak of terror); Finsteraarhorn (the peak out of which
the Finster-Aar, or dark Aar, has its source). This river is so named
to distinguish it from the Lauter or _clear_ river. Skagenshorn (the
peak of the Skaw, in Denmark); Faulhorn (the foul peak), so called
from the black shale which disintegrates in water; Wetterhorn (stormy
peak); Katzenhorn (the cat’s peak); Silberhorn (the silvery peak);
Jungfrauhorn (the peak of the maiden).

[Sidenote: HOUC, or HOOG (Teut.),]

a corner or little elevation, akin to the Scottish _heugh_ and the
Scand. _haugr_; _e.g._ Hoogzand and Hoogeveen (the sand and marsh at
the corner); Hoogheyd (corner heath); Hoogbraek (the broken-up land at
the corner); Stanhoug (stone corner).

[Sidenote: HUBEL, or HUGEL (Ger.),]

a little hill; _e.g._ Haidhugel (heath hill); Steinhugel (stony hill);
Huchel and Hivel (the little hill); Lindhövel (the hill of lime-trees);
Gieshübel (the hill of gushing brooks).

[Sidenote: HUNDRED (Eng.),
HUNTARI (Ger.),]

a district supposed to have originally comprised at least one hundred
family dwellings, like Welsh _Cantref_ (from _cant_, a hundred), the
name of a similar division in Wales; _e.g._ Hundrethwaite (the cleared
land on this Hundred), a district in Yorkshire.

[Sidenote: HÜTTE (Teut. and Scand.),]

a shed or cottage; _e.g._ Dunkelhütte (dark cottage); Mooshutten (the
cottage in the mossy land); Buxtehude (the hut on the ox pasture);
Huttenwerke (the huts at the works or mines); Hudemühlen (mill hut);
Hutton (the town of huts). But Landshut, in Bavaria, does not seem to
be derived from _hütte_, but from _schutz_, Ger. (a defence), as it is
in the neighbourhood of an old fortress, on the site of a Roman camp.

[Sidenote: HVER (Norse),]

a warm, bubbling spring; _e.g._ Uxaver (the oxen’s spring), in Iceland.


[Sidenote: I (Gadhelic),]

an island; _e.g._ I-Colum-chille or Iona (the island of St. Columba’s
cell); Ierne or Ireland (the western island or the island of Eire, an
ancient queen).

[Sidenote: IA (Cel.),]

a country or land; _e.g._ Galatia and Galicia, and anc. _Gallia_ (the
country of the Gauls); Andalusia, for Vandalusia (the country of
the Vandals); Batavia (the good land), _bette_, good; Britania or
Pictavia (probably the land of painted tribes); Catalonia, corrupt.
from _Gothalonia_ (the land of the Goths); Circassia (the land of the
Tcherkes, a tribe); Croatia (the land of the Choriots or mountaineers);
Suabia (of the Suevii); Moravia (the district of the R. Moravia);
Moldavia (of the R. Moldau). It is called by the natives and Turks
Bogdania, from Bogdan, a chieftain who colonised it in the thirteenth
century. Ethiopia (the land of the blacks, or the people with the
sunburnt faces), from Grk. _ops_ (the face), and _aitho_ (to burn);
Phœnicia (the land of palms or the _brown_ land), Grk. _Phœnix_;
Silesia (the land of the Suisli); Bosnia (the district of the R.
Bosna); Russia, named after Rourik, a Scandinavian chief; Siberia, from
_Siber_, the ancient capital of the Tartars; Kaffraria (the country of
the Kaffirs or unbelievers), a name given by the Arabs; Dalmatia (the
country of the Dalmates, who inhabited the city _Dalminium_); Iberia,
the ancient name of Spain, either from the R. Ebro or from a tribe
called the Iberi or Basques; Caledonia, perhaps from _Coille_ (the

[Sidenote: IACUM,]

an affix used by the Romans, sometimes for _ia_ (a district), and
sometimes the Latinised form of the adjectival termination _ach_--_qu.
v._ p. 5; _e.g._ Juliers, Lat. _Juliacum_ (belonging to Julius Cæsar);
Beauvais, Lat. _Bellovacum_ (belonging to the Bellovaci); Annonay,
Lat. _Annonicum_ (a place for grain, with large magazines of corn);
Bouvignes, in Belgium, Lat. _Boviniacum_ (the place of oxen); Clameny,
Lat. _Clameniacum_ (belonging to Clement, its founder); Joigny, anc.
_Joiniacum_, on the R. Yonne; Annecy, Lat. _Anneacum_ (belonging to
Anecius); Cognac, Lat. _Cogniacum_ (the corner of the water), Fr.
_coin_, Old Fr. _coiny_, Cel. _cuan_.

[Sidenote: IERE,]

an affix in French topography denoting a possession, and generally
affixed to the name of the proprietor; _e.g._ Guilletière (the
property of Guillet); Guzonière (of Guzon).

[Sidenote: ILI (Turc.),]

a district; _e.g._ Ili-Bosnia (the district of the R. Bosna); Rumeli or
Roumelia (the district of the Romans).

[Sidenote: ILLIA (Basque),]

a town; _e.g._ Elloirio, Illora, and Illura (the town on the water,
_ura_); Lorca, anc. _Illurcis_ (the town with fine water); Elibyrge
(the town with the tower), Grk. _pyrgos_; Elché, anc. _Illici_ (the
town on the hill, _ci_); Illiberus (new town, surnamed Elne after the
Empress Helena), in Spain; the isle of Oleron, anc. _Illura_ (the town
on the water).

[Sidenote: IM and IN,]

a contraction for the Ger. _in der_ (in or on the); _e.g._ Imgrund (in
the valley); Imhorst (in the wood); Eimbeck (on the brook); Imruke (on
the ridge).

[Sidenote: ING, INGEN, INGA,]

an affix used by the Teutonic races, as a patronymic, in the same
sense as _Mac_ is used in Scotland, _ap_ in Wales, and _O_ in Ireland.
_Ing_ is generally affixed to the settlement of a chief, and _ingen_
to that of his descendants. _Ing_, preceding _ham_, _ton_, _dean_,
_ley_, _thorp_, _worth_, etc., is generally an abbreviation of _ingen_,
and denotes that the place belonged to the family of the tribe, as
in Bonnington, Collington, Collingham, Islington (the home of the
Bonnings, the Collings, and the Islings). In French topography _ingen_
takes the forms of _igny_, _igné_, or _inges_; and it appears, by
comparing the names of many towns and villages in England and the
north-west of France with those of Germany, that Teutonic tribes
forming settlements in these countries transferred the names in their
native land to their new homes. For the full elucidation of this
subject reference may be made to Taylor’s _Words and Places_, chap.
vii. and the Appendix, and to Edmund’s _Names of Places_, p. 58.
Only a few examples of the use of this patronymic can be given here;
thus, from the _Offings_--Oving and Ovingham, corresponding to the
Ger. Offingen and the Fr. Offignes. From the _Eppings_--Epping, Ger.
Eppinghofen, and Fr. Epagne. The _Bings_--Bing, Bingham, Bingley;
Ger. Bingen; Fr. Buigny. The _Basings_--Eng. Basing, Basingham,
Bessingby; Fr. Bazigny. From the _Raedings_--Reading, Co. Berks.
The _Harlings_--Harlington. The _Billings_--Bellington. From the
_Moerings_ or _Merovingians_ many French towns and villages are named;
_e.g._ Morigny, Marigné, Merignac, Merrigny; in England--Merring,
Merrington. We can sometimes trace these tribe names to the nature of
the localities which they inhabited. Thus the _Bucings_, from which we
have Boking and Buckingham, to a locality abounding in beech-trees,
_boc_; the _Durotriges_, from which we have Dorset and Dorchester, are
the dwellers by the water, _dur_; as well as the _Eburovices_, who gave
their name to Evreux, in France. _Ing_, also, in A.S. names, sometimes
means a meadow, as in Clavering, in Essex (clover meadow), A.S.
_Claefer_; Mountnessing, Co. Essex (the meadow of the Mountneys, who
were formerly lords of the manor); Godalming (the meadow of Godhelm).

[Sidenote: INNER (Ger.),]

opposed to _ausser_ (the inner and outer), as in Innerzell, Ausserzell
(the inner and outer church).

[Sidenote: INNIS (Gadhelic),
YNYS, ENEZ (Cym.-Cel.),
INSEL (Ger.),
INSULA (Lat.),
NESOS (Grk.),]

an island, also in some cases pasture land near water, or a peninsula.
It often takes the form of _inch_, as in Inchkeith (the island of the
Keith family); Inchcolm (St. Columba’s Island); Inchfad (long isle);
Inchgarvie (the rough island); Inchard (high isle); Inch-Cailleach
(the island of the old women or nuns), in Loch Lomond, being the site
of an ancient nunnery; Inchmarnoch (of St. Marnoch), in the Firth of
Clyde; Inchbrackie (the spotted isle); Inchgower (the goat’s isle);
Inchtuthill (the island of the flooded stream); Craignish, anc.
_Craiginche_ (the rocky peninsula); Durness, in Sutherlandshire, is a
corrupt. from _Doirbh-innis_ (the stormy peninsula); Ynys-Bronwen (the
island of Bronwen, a Welsh lady who was buried there), in Anglesey;
Ynis-wyllt (wild island), off the coast of Wales; Inysawdre (the
isle and home of refuge), in Glamorgan. In Ireland: Ennis (the river
meadow); Enniskillen, Irish _Inis-Cethlenn_ (the island of Cethlenn,
an ancient queen of Ireland); Ennisheen (beautiful island); Devenish,
in Lough Erne, is _Daimhinis_ (the island of oxen). But Enniskerry is
not from this root; it is corrupt. from _Ath-na-scairbhe_ (the rough
ford); Orkney Isles, Gael. _Orc-innis_ (the islands of whales); they
are sometimes called _Earr-Cath_ (the tail of Caithness); Innisfallen,
in Lake Kallarney (the island of Fathlenn); the Hebrides or Sudereys,
called _Innisgall_ (the islands of the Gaels); the Aleutian Islands,
from Russ. _aleut_ (a bald rock); in Holland, Duiveland (pigeon
island), and Eyerlandt (the island of the sand-bank); Eilenburg, in
Saxony (the town on an island in the R. Mulda); Isola, a town in
Illyria (on an island); Issola or Imo-Isola (low island), in Italy;
Lille, in Flanders, anc. _L’Isle_, named from an insulated castle in
the midst of a marsh; Peloponnesus (the island of Pelops); Polynesia
(many islands).

[Sidenote: INVER, or INBHIR (Gadhelic),

a river confluence or a creek at the mouth of a river. This word is
an element in numerous names throughout Scotland; and although it is
not so common in Ireland, it exists in old names, as in Dromineer, for
_Druim-inbhir_ (the ridge of the river mouth). In Scotland it is used
in connection with _aber_, the word _inver_ being found sometimes at
the mouth and _aber_ farther up the same stream: thus--Abergeldie and
Invergeldie, on the Geldie; Abernyte and Invernyte, etc.; Inversnaid
(the needle or narrow confluence, _snathad_, a needle); Innerkip (at
the conf. of the Kip and Daff); Inveresk and Inverkeilor (at the mouths
of the Esk and Keilor), in Mid Lothian and Forfar; Innerleithen (at the
conf. of the Leithen and Tweed), in Peebles; Inveraven (at the conf.
of the Aven and Spey); Inverness (at the conf. of the Ness with the
Beauly); Inveraray (at the mouth of the Aray); Inverury (the Urie);
Inverkeithing (of the Keith); Inverbervie or Bervie (at the mouth of
the Bervie); Peterhead, anc. _Inverugie Petri_ or _Petri promontorium_
(the promontory of the rock of St. Peter), on the R. Ugie, with its
church dedicated to St. Peter; Inverleith, now Leith (at the mouth of
the Leith); Inverarity (at the mouth of the Arity), in Forfar; Cullen,
anc. _Invercullen_ (at the mouth of the back river)--_v._ CUL.

[Sidenote: ITZ, IZ, IZCH,]

a Sclavonic affix, signifying a possession or quality, equivalent to
the Teut. _ing_; _e.g._ Carlovitz (Charles’s town); Mitrowitz (the town
of Demetrius); Studnitz (of the fountain); Targowitz (the market town);
Trebnitz and Trebitsch (poor town); Schwanitz (swine town); Madlitz
(the house of prayer); Publitz (the place of beans); Janowitz (John’s
town); Schwantewitz (the town of the Sclavonic god Swantewit).


[Sidenote: JABLON (Sclav.),]

the apple-tree; _e.g._ Jablonez, Jablonka, Jablona, Jablonken,
Jablonoko, Gablenz, Gablona (places abounding in apples); Jablonnoi or
Zablonnoi (the mountain of apples).

[Sidenote: JAMA (Sclav.),]

a ditch; _e.g._ Jamlitz, Jamnitz, and Jamno (places with a ditch or
trench); Jamburg (the town in the hollow or ditch); but Jamlitz may
sometimes mean the place of medlar-trees, from _jemelina_ (the medlar).

[Sidenote: JASOR (Sclav.),]

a marsh; _e.g._ Jehser-hohen and Jeser-nieder (the high and lower
marsh), near Frankfort; Jeserig and Jeserize (the marshy place).

[Sidenote: JASSEN (Sclav.),]

the ash-tree; _e.g._ Jessen, Jessern, Jesseu, Jessnitz (the place of

[Sidenote: JAWOR (Sclav.),]

the maple-tree; _e.g._ Great and Little Jawer, in Silesia; Jauer, in
Russia; Jauernitz and Jauerburg (the place of maple-trees), in Russia.

[Sidenote: JAZA (Sclav.),]

a house; _e.g._ Jäschen, Jäschwitz, Jäschütz (the houses).

[Sidenote: JEZIRAH (Ar.),]

an island or peninsula; _e.g._ Algiers or Al-Jezirah, named from an
island near the town; Al-Geziras (the islands), near Gibraltar; Alghero
(the peninsula), in Sardinia; Jezirah-diraz (long island), in the
Persian Gulf; Al-Jezirah or Mesopotamia (between the river).

[Sidenote: JÖKUL (Scand.),]

a snow-covered hill; _e.g._ Vatna-Jökul (the hill with the lake);
Orefa-Jökul (the desert hill); Forfa-Jökul (the hill of Forfa):
Long-Jökul (long hill).

[Sidenote: JONC (Fr.),]

from _juncus_, Lat. (a rush); _e.g._ Jonchère, Joncheres, Jonchery, Le
Jonquer, La Joncières, etc., place-names in France.


KAAI, KAI, KADE (Teut.),

a quay or a bank by the water-side; _e.g._ Oudekaai (old quay);
Kadzand (the quay or bank on the sand); Moerkade (marshy bank);
Kewstoke (the place on the quay); Kew, in Surrey, on the Thames;
Torquay (the quay of the hill called _Tor_).

[Sidenote: KAHL (Ger.),
CALO (A.S.),]

bald, cognate with the Lat. _calvus_; _e.g._ Kalenberg and
Kahlengebirge (the bald mountains).

[Sidenote: KAISER (Ger.),
KEYSER (Dutch),
CYZAR (Sclav.),]

the emperor or Cæsar; _e.g._ Kaisersheim, Kaiserstadt (the emperor’s
town); Kaiserstuhl (the emperor’s seat); Kaiserberg (the emperor’s
fortress), in Alsace, named from a castle erected by Frederick II.;
Kaiserslautern (the emperor’s place), on the R. Lauter; Kaiserswerth
(the emperor’s island), on the Rhine; Keysersdyk (the emperor’s
dam); Keysersloot (the emperor’s sluice), in Holland; Cysarowes (the
emperor’s village), in Bohemia; Kaisariyeh, anc. _Cæsarea_.

[Sidenote: KALAT, or KALAH (Ar.),]

a castle; _e.g._ Khelat, in Belochistan; Yenikale (the new castle),
in the Crimea; Calatablanca (white castle), in Sicily; Calahorra,
Ar. _Kalat-harral_ (stone castle), in Spain; Calata-bellota (the
oak-tree castle), in Sicily; Calata-girone (the surrounded castle),
Sicily; Calata-mesetta (the castle of the women); Calatayud (the
castle of Ayud, a Moorish king); Alcala-real (the royal castle);
Alcala-de-Henares (the castle on the R. Henares), in Spain;
Sanjiac-Kaleh (the castle of the standard), corrupt. by the French into
_St. Jaques_, in Asia Minor; Calatrava (the castle of Rabah).

[Sidenote: KAMEN (Sclav.),]

a stone; _e.g._ Camentz, Kemmen, Kammena, Kamienetz (the stony place);
Kamminchen (the little stony place), a colony from Steenkirchen;
Chemnitz (the stony town, or the town on the stony river);
Kersna-kaimai (the Christian’s stone house); Schemnitz, Hung. _Selmecz_
(stony town), in Silesia.

[Sidenote: KARA (Turc.),]

black; _e.g._ Karamania (the district of the blacks); Karacoum (the
black sand), in Tartary; Kara-su (the black river); Kara-su-Bazar (the
market-town on the Kara-su); Kara-Tappeh (the black mound), in Persia;
Kartagh and Kartaon (the black mountain chains), in Turkey and Tartary;
Kara-Dengis, the Turkish name for the Black Sea, called by the Russians
_Tchernœ-more_, Ger. _Schawarz-meer_; Kara-mulin (black mill); Cape
Kara-bournow (the black nose), in Asia Minor.

[Sidenote: KEHLE (Ger.),]

a gorge or defile; _e.g._ Bergkehle (hill gorge): Hundkehle (the dog’s
gorge); Langkehl (long gorge); Kehl (the gorge), in Baden; Schuylkill
(the hidden gorge), a river in America.

[Sidenote: KESSEL, KEZIL (Ger.),
KYTEL (A.S.),]

literally a kettle, but in topography applied to a bowl-shaped valley
surrounded by hills; _e.g._ Ketel, in Holstein; Kessel, in Belgium;
Kessel-loo (the low-lying grove or swamp), in Belgium; Kesselt (the
low-lying wood, _holt_), in Belgium; Kettle or King’s-kettle (the
hollow), in the valley of the R. Eden, in Fife, formerly belonging to
the crown; but such names as Kesselstadt, Kesselsham, Kettlesthorpe,
and Kettleshulme are probably connected with the personal name Chetil
or Kettle, being common names among the Teutons and Scandinavians.

[Sidenote: KIR (Heb.),

a wall or stronghold, a city or town; _e.g._ Kir-Moab (the stronghold
of Moab); Kiriathaim (the two cities); Kirjath-Arba (the city of
Arba), now Hebron; Kirjath-Baal (of Baal); Kirjath-Huzoth (the city
of villas); Kirjath-jearim (of forests); Kirjath-sannah (of palms),
also called Kirjath-sepher (the city of the book). The Breton _Ker_
(a dwelling) seems akin to this word, as in Kergneû (the house at the
nut-trees), in Brittany.

[Sidenote: KIRCHE (Ger. and Scand.),
KERK (Dutch),]

a church. The usual derivation of this word is from _kuriake_, Grk.
_oikos-kuriou_ (the Lord’s house); _e.g._ Kirkham, Kerkom, Kirchdorf
(church town); Kirchhof (church court); Kirchwerder (church island),
on an island in the R. Elbe; Kirchditmold (the church at the people’s
place of meeting)--_v._ DIOT. Fünfkirchen (the five churches), in
Hungary; Kirchberg (church hill), in Saxony. Many parishes in Scotland
have this affix to their names, as in Kirkbean (the church of St
Bean); Kirkcaldy (the church of the Culdees, who formerly had a
cell there); Kirkcolm (of St. Columba); Kirkconnel (of St. Connal);
Kirkcowan, anc. _Kirkuen_ (of St. Keuin); Kirkcudbright (of St.
Cuthbert); Kirkden (the church in the hollow); Kirkhill (on the hill);
Kirkhope (in the valley); Kirkinner (the church of St. Kinneir). In
England: Kirkby-Lonsdale (the church town), in the valley of the Lune;
Kirkby-Stephen (of St. Stephen, to whom the church was dedicated);
Kirkdale, in Lancashire; Kirkham, also in Lancashire; Kirkliston
(the church of the strong fort, founded by the Knights Templars), in
Linlithgow; Kirkoswald, named after Oswald, King of Northumberland;
Kirkurd, in Peeblesshire, Lat. _Ecclesia de Orde_ (the church of Orde
or Horda, a personal name); Kirkwall, Norse _Kirk-ju-vagr_ (the church
on the bay); Hobkirk (the church in the _hope_ or valley); Ladykirk,
in Berwickshire, dedicated to the Virgin Mary by James IV. on his
army crossing the Tweed near the place; Falkirk, supposed to be the
church on the _Vallum_ or wall of Agricola, but more likely to be the
A.S. rendering of its Gaelic name _Eglais-bhrac_ (the spotted church),
_fah_ in A.S. being of divers colours; Stonykirk, in Wigtonshire,
corrupt. from _Steenie-kirk_ (St. Stephen’s church); Kirkmaden (of
St. Medan); Carmichael for Kirk-Michael (of St. Michael); Bridekirk
(of St. Bridget); Carluke for Kirkluke (of St. Luke); Selkirk, anc.
_Sella-chyrche-Regis_ (the seat of the king’s church, originally
attached to a royal hunting-seat); Laurencekirk (the church of
St. Laurence, Archbishop of Canterbury, called the Apostle of the
Picts); Kirby-Kendal (the church in the valley of the Ken or Kent);
Channelkirk, in Berwickshire, anc. _Childer-kirk_ (the children’s
church, having been dedicated to the Innocents).

[Sidenote: KIS (Hung.),]

little; _e.g._ Kis-sceg (little corner), in Transylvania; Kishissar
(little fort).

[Sidenote: KLAUSE, KLOSTER,]

a place shut in, from the Lat. _claudo_, also a cloister; _e.g._
Klausen (the enclosed place), in Tyrol; Klausenburg (the enclosed
fortress); Klausenthal (the enclosed valley); Kloster-Neuburg (the
new town of the cloister); Chiusa, in Tuscany, anc. _Clusium_, and
Clusa, in Saxony (the enclosed place), also La Chiusa, in Piedmont; but
_claus_, as a prefix, may be _Klaus_, the German for Nicholas, and is
sometimes attached to the names of churches dedicated to that saint.

[Sidenote: KLEIN (Ger.),]

little; _e.g._ Klein-eigher (the little giant), a mountain in

[Sidenote: KNAB, KNOP (Scand. and Teut.),
CNAP (Cel.),]

a hillock; _e.g._ Noopnoss (the projecting point); Knabtoft (the farm
of the hillock); The Knab, in Cumberland; Knapen-Fell (the hill with
the protuberance), in Norway; Knapdale (the valley of hillocks),
Argyleshire; Knapton, Knapwell (the town and well near the hillock);
Snape (the hillock), in Suffolk and Yorkshire; Nappan (little hillock),
and Knapagh (hilly land), in Ireland.

[Sidenote: KNOLL (Teut.),

a hillock; _e.g._ Knowle and Knoyle (the hillock); Knowl-end (hill
end); Knowsley (hill, valley, or field). In the form of _know_ or _now_
it is common as an affix in Scotland.

[Sidenote: KOH (Pers.),]

a mountain; _e.g._ Koh-baba (the chief or father mountain); Caucasus
(mountain on mountain, or the mountain of the gods, _Asses_); Kuh-i-Nuh
(Noah’s mountain), the Persian name for Ararat; Kashgar (the mountain

[Sidenote: KOI (Turc.),]

a village; _e.g._ Kopri-koi (bridge village); Haji-Veli-koi (the
village of the pilgrim Veli); Papaskoi (the priest’s village); Kadikoi
(the judge’s village); Hajikoi (the pilgrim’s village); Akhmedkoi
(Achmed’s village); Boghaz-koi (God’s house), near the ruins of an
ancient temple in Asia Minor.

[Sidenote: KÖNIG (Ger.),
CING (A.S.),]

a king; _e.g._ Königshofen (the king’s court); Königheim (the king’s
dwelling); Königsbrunn (the king’s well); Königshain (the king’s
enclosure); Königshaven (the king’s harbour); Königsberg, in Prussia,
and Kongsberg, in Norway (the king’s mountain); Königstein (the king’s
rock fortress); Coningsby, Connington, Coniston, Kingsbury, places in
England where the Anglo-Saxons held their court; Kingston, in Surrey,
where their kings were generally crowned; Kingston or Hull, upon the
R. Hull, in Yorkshire, named after Edward I.; Kingston, Co. Dublin, so
named in commemoration of George IV.’s visit to Ireland; Kingston, in
Jamaica, named after William III.; Cunningham, Kingthorpe, Kingsby (the
king’s dwelling or farm); but Cuningsburg, in Shetland, may be derived
from _Kuningr_ (a rabbit); Kingsbarns, in Fife, so called from certain
storehouses erected there by King John during his occupation of the
castle now demolished.

[Sidenote: KOPF, KOPPE (Ger.),
COPA (Welsh),
KUPA (Sclav.),
CABO (Span.),]

a headland or mountain peak; _e.g._ Catzenkopf (the cat’s head);
Schneekopf and Schneekoppe (snowy peak); Ochsenkopf (the oxen’s peak);
Riesenkoppe (giants’ peak); Perecop, in Russia (the gate of the
headland); Vogelskuppe (the birds’ peak); Cape Colonna (the headland
of the pillars), so named from the ruins of a temple to Minerva; Cape
Leuca (the white); Cape Negro (the black); Cape Roxo (the red cape);
Kuopio (on a headland), in Russia; Cabeza-del-buey (ox headland),
in Spain; Cabeciera (black headland), in Spain; Capo-d’Istria (the
summit of Istria); Copeland, a district in Cumberland full of peaks or

[Sidenote: KOPRI, KUPRI (Turc.),]

a bridge; _e.g._ Vezir-kopri (the vizier’s bridge); Keupri-bazaar (the
market-town at the bridge); Keupris (bridge town), in Turkey.

[Sidenote: KOS (Sclav.),]

a goat; _e.g._ Koselo (goat’s river); Koslin (goat town), in Pomerania.

[Sidenote: KOSCIOL (Sclav.),]

a Romish church; _e.g._ Kostel, Kosteletz (towns with a Romish church),
a Protestant church being called _Zbor_, and a Greek church _Zerkwa_.

[Sidenote: KRAL, KROL (Sclav.),]

a king; _e.g._ Kralik, Kralitz, Krolow, Kraliewa, Kralowitz (the king’s
town or fortress).

[Sidenote: KRASNA (Sclav.),]

beautiful; _e.g._ Krasnabrod (the beautiful ford); Krasnapol (the
beautiful city); Krasno-Ufimsk (the beautiful town of the R. Ufa);
Krasna and Krasne (the beautiful place).

[Sidenote: KRE (Sclav.),]

a coppice; _e.g._ Sakrau, Sakrow (behind the coppice).

[Sidenote: KREIS (Ger.),]

a circle; _e.g._ Saalkreis (the circle watered by the R. Saal);
Schwardswaldkreis (the circle of the Black Forest).

[Sidenote: KREM, KRIM (Sclav.),]

a stone building; _e.g._ The Kremlin (the stone fort of Moscow);
Kremmen, Kremenetz, Kremnitz, Kremmenaia, Kremenskaia, towns in Russia,
Poland, and Lusatia.

[Sidenote: KRONE, KRON (Teut. and Scand.),]

a crown; _e.g._ Kronstadt, Hung. _Brasso_ (crown city), in Hungary;
Cronstadt, in Russia, founded by Peter the Great; Königscrone (the
king’s crown); Carlscrone (Charles’s crown); Landscrone (the crown or
summit of the land), a mountain and town in Silesia--also with the same
meaning, Landscrona, in Sweden. _Kron_, however, as a prefix, comes
occasionally from _krahn_ (a crane), as in Kronwinkel (the crane’s

[Sidenote: KRUG (Ger.),]

a small inn; _e.g._ Dornkrug (the thorn inn); Krugmülle (the mill
at the inn).


[Sidenote: LAAG, LAGE (Ger.),
LOOG (Dutch),]

a site, a low-lying field; _e.g._ Brawenlage (brown field); Wittlage
(white field or wood field); Blumlage (flowery field); Mühlenloog (the
mill field or site); Dinkellage (wheat field). This word is also used
as an adjective, signifying _low_; _e.g._ Loogkirk (low church);
Loogheyde (low heath); Loogemeer (low lake); Laaland (low island).

[Sidenote: LAC (Fr.),
LACHE (Ger.),
LAGO (It., Span., and Port.),

a lake, cognate with the Lat. _lacus_ and the Cel. _loch_ or _lwch_.
These words in the various dialects originally signified a _hollow_,
from the roots _lag_, _lug_, and Grk. _lakos_; _e.g._ Lachen, Lat.
_Adlacum_ (at the lake), a town on Lake Zurich; Interlachen (between
the lakes), in Switzerland; Biberlachen (beaver lake); Lago Maggiore
(the greater lake), with reference to Lake Lugano, which itself means
simply the lake or hollow; Lago Nuovo (new lake), in Tyrol,--it was
formed a few years ago by a landslip; Lagoa (on a lake or marsh),
in Brazil; Lagow (on a lake), in Prussia; Lagos, in Portugal (on
a large bay or lake); Laguna-de-Negrillos (the lake of the elms)
and Laguna-Encinillos (of the evergreen oaks), in Spain; Laach, in
the Rhine Provinces (situated on a lake), the crater of an extinct
volcano; Anderlecht or Anderlac (at the lake or marsh), in Belgium;
Chablais, Lat. _Caput-lacensis_ (at the head of the lake, _i.e._ of
Geneva); Missolonghi, _i.e._ _Mezzo-laguno_ (in the midst of a marshy
lagoon); Beverley, in Yorkshire, anc. _Biberlac_ (the beaver lake or
marsh); Lago-dos-Patos (the lake of geese), in Brazil; Niederhaslach
and Oberhaslach (lower and upper lake), in Bas Rhin; Lake Champlain
takes its name from a Norman adventurer, Governor-general of Canada,
in the seventeenth century; Alagoas (abounding in lakes), a province
in Brazil, with its capital of the same name; Filey, in Yorkshire, in
Doomsday _Fuielac_ (_i.e._ bird lake, _fugæ_).

[Sidenote: LAD (Scand.),]

a pile or heap; _e.g._ Ladhouse, Ladhill, Ladcragg, Ladrigg (the house,
hill, crag, ridge of the mound or cairn), probably so named from a heap
or cairn erected over the grave of some Norse leader.

[Sidenote: LADE, or LODE (A.S.),]

a way, passage, or canal; _e.g._ Ladbrook (the passage of the brook);
Lechlade, in Gloucester (the passage of the R. Lech into the Thames);
Evenlode (at brink of the passage or stream); Cricklade, anc.
_Crecca-gelade_ or _Crecca-ford_ (the creek at the opening or entrance
of the Churn and Key into the Thames).

[Sidenote: LAEN (Teut.),

land leased out, a fief; _e.g._ Kingsland or Kingslaen, in Middlesex,
Hereford, and Orkney; Haylene (the enclosed fief), in Hereford; Lenham
(the dwelling on the laen); Lenton, ditto.

[Sidenote: LAESE (A.S.),]

pasture, literally moist, wet land; _e.g._ Lewes, in Sussex;
Lesowes, in Worcester (the wet pasture); Lewisham (the dwelling on the
pasture), in Kent; Leswalt (wood pasture), in Dumfriesshire.

[Sidenote: LAG, LUG (Gadhelic),
LÜCKE (Ger.),]

a hollow, cognate with the Lat. _lacus_ and the Grk. _lakkos_; _e.g._
Logie (the hollow), in Stirling; Logiealmond (the hollow of the R.
Almond in Perth); Logie-Buchan, in Aberdeenshire; Logie-Coldstone,
Gael. _Lag-cul-duine_ (the hollow behind the fort), Aberdeen;
Logie-Easter and Logie-Wester, in Cromarty; Logie Loch and Laggan Loch
(the lake in the hollow); Logan (the little hollow); Logierait, Gael.
_Lag-an-rath_ (the hollow of the _rath_ or castle, so called from the
Earls of Atholl having formerly had their castle there in Perthshire);
Mortlach, Co. Banff, probably meaning the great hollow. In Ireland:
Legachory, Lagacurry, Legacurry (the hollow of the pit or caldron,
_coire_); Lugduff (dark hollow); Lugnaquillia (the highest of the
Wicklow mountains), is from the Irish _Lug-na-gcoilleach_ (the hollow
of the cocks, _i.e._ _grouse_); Lough Logan (the lake of the little
hollow); Lagnieu, in France, anc. _Lagniacum_ (the place in the hollow
of the waters); Laconia and Lacedemonia (in the hollow), in Greece.

[Sidenote: LANN (Gadhelic),
LLAN (Cym.-Cel.),
LAND (Teut.),]

an enclosure, a church, a house; but Mr. Skene considers that the
Cel. _llan_ comes from the Lat. _planum_ (a level place), just as
the Gael. _lan_ (full) comes from the Lat. _plenus_. This word is
more common in Welsh names than in the topography of Ireland and
Scotland, and in its signification of a church forms the groundwork of
a vast number of Welsh names. In Ireland it means a house as well as
a church, as in Landbrock (the badger’s house); Landmore (the great
church), in Londonderry; Landahussy (O’Hussy’s church), in Tyrone;
Lanaglug (the church of the bells). It is not so frequent in Scotland,
but the modern name of Lamlash, in the Island of Arran, formerly
_Ard-na-Molas_, the height of St. Molios, who lived in a cave there,
seems to be the church or enclosure of this saint; Lambride, in Forfar,
is _Lannbride_ (St. Bridget’s church); Lumphanan is from _Lann-Finan_
(St. Finan’s church). The derivation of Lanark, anc. _Lanerk_, is
probably from the Welsh _Llanerch_ (a distinct spot or fertile piece
of ground). There are many examples of this root in Brittany; _e.g._
Lanleff (the enclosure on the R. Leff); Lanmeur (great church);
Lannion (the little enclosure); Landerneau and Lannoy (the enclosure
on the water); but in French topography the Teut. _land_ generally
signifies uncultivated ground; _e.g._ La Lande, Landes, Landelles, La
Landelle, Les Landais, Landau, etc.--_v._ Cocheris’s _Noms de Lieu_.
Launceston, in Cornwall, is probably corrupt. from _Llan-Stephen_. The
greatest number of our examples must be taken from Wales. There are
Lantony or _Llan-Ddevinant_ (the church of St. David in the valley,
_nant_, of the R. Hodeny); Llan-Dewi-Aberarth (St. David’s church at
the mouth of the Arth); Lampeter (of St. Peter); Llan-Asaph (of St.
Asaph); Llanbadern-fawr (the great church founded by Paternus), also
Llan-Badarn-Odyn; Llandelo-vawr (of Feilo the Great); Llandewi-Brefi
(St. David’s church). Brevi here means the bellowing, from the dismal
moans of a sacred animal killed here; Llandovery, corrupt. from
_Llan-ym-dyffrwd_ (the church among the rivers, at the confluence of
three streams); Llanudno (of St. Tudno); Llanelly (of St. Elian);
Llanfair (of St. Mary); Llanover (the church of the Gover wells);
Llanon (the church dedicated to Nonn, the mother of St. David);
Llanfair-yn-nghornwy (on the horn or headland of the water). There
are several of this name,--as Llan-fair-ar-y-bryn (St. Mary’s church
on the hill); Llanfair-helygen (St. Mary’s church among willows);
Llanfair-o’r-llwyn (on the lake); Llanfihangel (of the angel);
Llanfihangel-genau’r-glyn (the church of the angels at the opening of
the valley); Llanfihangel-y-creuddin, a church erected probably on the
site of a bloody battle; Llanfihangel-lledrod (the church at the foot
of a declivity); Llangadogvawr (of St. Cadoc the Great); Llangeler (of
St. Celert); Llangollen (of St. Collen); Llanidloes (of St. Idloes);
Llaniestyn (of St. Constantine); Llannethlin, anc. _Mediolanum_ (the
church among the pools or marshes); Llantrissant (of three saints);
Llanddeusaint (of two saints); Llanberis (of St. Peres); Llandegla (of
St. Theckla); Llanrhaiadr (the church of the cataract); Llanfaes (the
church of the battle-field); Landaff, on the R. Taff; Llangoedmore
(the church of the great wood); Llanaml-lech (the church on the stony
ground, etc.); Llangwyllog (the gloomy church, perhaps in the shade
of the Druidic grove); Llanfleiddian (dedicated to a bishop named
Flaidd); Llanllawer (the church of the multitude, _llawer_, close to
which was a sainted well famous for its medicinal properties, and which
was resorted to by crowds of impotent folk); Llancilcen (the church
in the nook, _cil_, at the top, _cen_, of a hill), a parish in Flint;
Llan-mabon (of St. Mabon); Llan-Beblig, corrupt. from _Bublicius_,
named for the son of Helen, a Welsh princess; Llan-sant-Fagan, named
in honour of St. Faganus, a missionary from Rome. _Llan_ is sometimes
corrupted to _long_ in Scotland, as in Longniddrie; Lagny, a town
in France, anc. _Laniacum_ (the church or enclosure on the stream).
From the Teut. _land_, _i.e._ a country or district, some names may
come in appropriately under this head--thus Scotland (the land of
the Scots), from Ireland; Monkland, in Lanarkshire (belonging to the
monks); Natland, in Norway (the land of horned cattle); Sutherland
(the southern land, as compared with Caithness), both Sutherland and
Caithness having formed part of the Orkney Jarldom; Cumberland (the
land of the Cymbri), being part of the British kingdom of Cumbria;
Holland (the marshy land, _ollant_); Gippsland, named in honour of Sir
George Gipps, a governor of Port Philip; Friesland (the land of the
Frisii); Beveland (of oxen or beeves); Baardland (of the Lombards);
Westmoreland (the land of the _Westmoringas_ or people of the Western
moors); Gothland, in Sweden (the land of the Goths); Jutland (the land
of the Getæ or Jutes, the Cimbric Chersonesus of the ancients).

[Sidenote: LAR, LAAR, LEER (Old Ger.),
LAER (A.S.),
LATHAIR, or LAUER (Gadhelic),]

a site, a bed; and in Germany, according to Buttmann, a field; in
topography, synonymous with _lage_; _e.g._ Goslar (the site or field
on the R. Gose), in Hanover; Somplar (marshy field); Wittlar (woody
field); Dinklar (wheat field); Wetzlar, in Prussia, anc. _Wittlara_
(woody field); Wassarlar (watery field); Noordlaren (the northern
site); Lahr (the site), a town in Baden. In Ireland this word takes
the forms of _laragh_ and _lara_; _e.g._ Laraghleas (the site of the
fort); Laraghshankill (of the old church). Lara, however, is sometimes
a corrupt. of _Leath-rath_ (half rath), as in Laragh, in West Meath;
and _laar_ and _lare_ often mean _middle_, as in Rosslare (the middle
peninsula); Ennislare (the middle island); Latheron, in Caithness, is
the site of the seal.

[Sidenote: LAUF, LAUFEND (Ger.),
LOOP (Dutch),]

a current, a rapid, from _laufen_, Ger.; _hlaupen_, Scand.; _hleapen_,
A.S. (to run, to leap); _e.g._ Laufen (the rapids), on the R. Salzach;
Lauffenberg (the town near the rapids of the Rhine); Laufnitz (the
leaping river); Lauffen (on the rapids of the R. Inn); Leixlip, in
Ireland, Old Norse _Lax-hlaup_ (salmon-leap), on a cataract of the R.
Liffey; Beck-loop (brook cataract), in Holland; Loop-Head, Co. Clare,
Irish _Leim-Chon-Chuillerin_ (Cuchullin’s leap)--_v._ Joyce’s _Names of

[Sidenote: LAW (A.S.), _hleaw_,

a hill, cognate with the Irish _lagh_; _e.g._ Houndslow (the dog’s
hill); Ludlow (the people’s hill, _leod_); Greenlaw, in Berwickshire
(the green hill)--the modern town is situated on a plain, but old
Greenlaw was on a hill; Winslow (the hill of victory), in Berks;
Marlow (the chalk or marshy hill); Wardlaw (guard hill); Hadlow, anc.
_Haslow_ (hazel hill); Castlelaw, in the Lammermuir range, named from
Roman camps on these hills; Sidlaw Hills (the south hills, in reference
to their forming the southern boundary of Strathmore); Warmlow, Co.
Worcester, anc. _Waermundes-hleau_ (the hill of Waermund, a personal
name); Fala, a parish in Mid Lothian, abbreviated from _Fallaw_ (the
speckled hill); Mintlaw, in Aberdeenshire, corrupt. from _Moan-alt-law_
(the hill at the moss burn).

[Sidenote: LAYA (Sansc.),]

an abode; _e.g._ Naglaya (the abode of snakes); the Himalaya Mountains
(the abode of snow); Hurrial, for _Arayalaya_ (the abode of Hari or

[Sidenote: LEAC (Gadhelic),
LLECH (Cym.-Cel.),]

a flat stone--in topography, found in the forms of _lick_ and _leck_,
cognate with the Lat. _lapis_ and Grk. _lithos_; _e.g._ Lackeen, Licken
(the little stone); Slieve-league (the mountain of the flagstone);
Lickmollasy (St. Molasse’s flagstone); Bel-leek, Irish _Bel-leice_
(the ford of the flagstone), near Ballyshannon; Lackagh (full of
flagstones); Lickfinn (white flagstone); Duleek, anc. _Doimhliag_
(the stone house or church); Auchinleck (the field of the stone), in
Ayrshire; Harlech, in Merioneth; Ar-llech (on the rock, the place being
situated on a craggy eminence); Llananl-lech--_v._ LLAN; Llech-trufin,
probably originally Llech-treffen (the rock of the look-out, or
_twrfine_); Llanml-lech (the church among many stones); Tre-llech
(stone dwelling); Llech-rhyd (the ford of the flat stone); Leck, Lech,
Leckbeck (the stony rivers); Leckfield (the field on the R. Leck);
Leckwith, in Wales, for Lechwedd (a slope).

[Sidenote: LEAMHAN (Gadhelic),]

the elm-tree; _e.g._ the Laune, a river at Killarney, and the Leven,
in Scotland (the elm-tree stream); Lennox or Levenach (the district of
the R. Leven), the ancient name of Dumbartonshire; Lislevane (the fort
of the elm-tree), in Ireland. According to Mr. Skene, the Rivers Leven
in Dumbartonshire and in Fife have given their names to Loch Lomond
and Loch Leven, while in each county there is a corresponding mountain
called Lomond.

[Sidenote: LEARG (Gadhelic),]

the slope of a hill; _e.g._ Largy, in Ireland; Lairg, a parish in
Sutherlandshire; Largs, in Ayrshire, and Largo, in Fife, from this
word; Largan (the little hill-slope); Largynagreana (the sunny
hill-slope); Larganreagh (gray hill-slope), in Ireland.

[Sidenote: LEBEN (Ger.),]

a possession, an inheritance. Forsteman thinks this word is derived
from the Old Ger. _laiban_ (to leave or bequeath), cognate with
the Grk. _leipa_, and not from _leben_ (to live); _e.g._ Leibnitz,
anc. _Dud-leipen_ (the inheritance of Dudo); Ottersleben (of Otho);
Ritzleben (of Richard); Germersleben (of Germer); Osharsleben (of
Ausgar); Sandersleben (of Sander); Hadersleben (of Hada).

[Sidenote: LEGIO (Lat.),]

a Roman legion; _e.g._ Caerleon, on the Usk, anc. _Isca-Legionis_;
Leicester, _Legionis-castra_ (the camp of the legion); Leon, in Spain,
anc. _Legio_, being the station of the seventh Roman legion; Lexdon,
anc. _Legionis-dunum_ (the fort of the legion); Megiddo, in Palestine,
now Ledjun, anc. _Castra-legionis_ (the camp of the legion).

[Sidenote: LEHM (Ger.),
LAAM (A.S.),
LEEM (Dutch),]

clay, mud; _e.g._ the Leam (the muddy river); Leamington (the town on
the R. Leam); Lehmhurst (the clayey wood); Lambourn (muddy brook);
Leemkothen (the mud huts).

[Sidenote: LEITER (Gadhelic),]

the slope of a hill; _e.g._ Ballater, in Aberdeenshire (the town on the
sloping hill); Letterfearn (the alder-tree slope); Letterfourie (the
grassy hillside, _feurach_); Findlater (the cold hill-slope, _fionn_),
in Scotland. In Ireland: Letterkenny (the hill-slope of the O’Cannons);
Letterkeen (beautiful hill-slope); Lettermullen (Meallan’s hill-slope);
Letterbrick (the badger’s hill-slope); Letterlickey (the hill-slope of
the flagstone); Letherhead, in Surrey (at the head of the slope, Welsh
_llethr_), on the declivitous bank of the R. Mole; Machynlleth for
Mach-yn-Llethr (the ridge on the slope), a town in Montgomery.

[Sidenote: LEOD (A.S.), LEUTE (Ger.),]

the people; _e.g._ Leutkirch (the people’s church); Liège, Ger.
_Lüttich_, anc. _Leodicus-vicus_ (the people’s town)--the hill on which
the citadel stands was called _Publes-mont_ (the people’s hill); Leeds,
in Yorkshire, anc. _Loidis_ (the people’s town, according to Bayley);
Whittaker, however, makes it the town of Loidi, a personal name); but
Leeds, in Kent, is said to have been named after Ledian, the Chancellor
of Ethelred II.

[Sidenote: LESSO, LESSE (Sclav.),]

a wood or thicket; _e.g._ Lessau, Leske, Leskau, Lessen, Lissa (the
woody place), towns in Prussia; Leschnitz, in Silesia, and Leizig, in
Saxony, with the same meaning; Leschkirch (the church in the wood), in
Transylvania; Liezegorike (woody hill).

[Sidenote: LEUCUS (Grk.),]

white, _e.g._ Leuctra, Leuctron, Leucadia, so named from the white
rocks at its extremity; Leucasia (the white river); Leucate (the white
promontory in Greece).

[Sidenote: LEY, LEA (A.S.),

a district--in English topography generally applied to an open field or
meadow; _e.g._ Leigh (the meadow), in Lancashire; Berkeley, Thornley,
Oakley, Auchley, Alderley, Brachley (the meadow of birch, thorn, oak,
alder, ferns); Hasley (of hazels); Hagley (the enclosed meadow);
Horsley (the meadow of Horsa, or of horses); Brockley (of the badger);
Hindley (of the stag); Everley (of the wild boar, _aper_); Bradley
(broad meadow); Stanley (stony meadow); Loxley (of Loki, a Scandinavian
deity); Ashley (ash-tree meadow); but Ashley, S. Carolina, was named
after Lord Ashley in the reign of Charles II.; Morley (moor-field);
Bisley (bean-field); Cowley (cow’s field); Linley (flax-field); Monkley
(the monk’s field); Audley, Co. Stafford (old field); but Audley, in
Essex, took its name from a palace erected by Thomas Audley, Lord
Chancellor of England; Ofley (the field of King Offa); Tarporley, in
Cheshire, corrupt. from _Thorpeley_ (the farm-field or meadow); Chorley
(the meadow of the R. Chor); Bosley (Bodolph’s field); West Leigh,
North Leigh, Leighton, from the same root; Satterleigh (the field of
Seator, an A.S. deity); Earnley, Sussex (eagle meadow); Ripley, in
Yorkshire, from _Hryp_, a personal name; Bentley, _bent_, pasture (a
coarse kind of grass); Tewesley and Tisley, from Tiw, a Saxon deity--as
also Tewing, Tuoesmere, and Teowes (thorn); Henley (the old meadow or
field), supposed to be the oldest town in Oxfordshire.

[Sidenote: LIN (Esthonian),]

a fort or town; _e.g._ Rialin, now Riga (the fortress of the Rugii), in
Russia; Pernau, anc. _Perna-lin_ (the lime-tree fort); Tepelin (hill
town; _tepe_, Turc. hill).

[Sidenote: LINDE (Ger.),
LIND, LYND (A.S. and Scand.),]

the linden-tree; _e.g._ Lindhurst and Lyndhurst (the linden-tree wood);
Lindheim, Lindorf, Limburg, in Germany (the town of linden-trees);
as also Limburg, in Holland, formerly _Lindenburg_; Lindau (the
linden-tree meadow); Lindesnaes (the promontory of linden-trees), in
Norway; La Linde, Le Lindois (abounding in linden-trees); Limbœuf,
Lindebœuf (linden-tree dwelling), in France.

[Sidenote: LINNE (Gadhelic),
LLYNN (Cym.-Cel.),

a pool, a lake, sometimes applied to a waterfall, not as associated
with the cascade, but with the pool into which it is received, as in
the Linn of Dee, in Aberdeenshire, and Corra-linn, on the Clyde. Dublin
(the black pool) takes its name from that part of the R. Liffey on
which it is built; and there are several other places in Ireland whose
names have the same meaning, although variously spelt, as Devlin, in
Mayo; Dowling and Doolin, in Kilkenny and Clare; Ballinadoolin (the
town of the black pool), in Kildare. In several such cases the proper
name was _Ath-cliath_ (hurdle ford), literally _Baile-atha-cliath_ (the
town of the hurdle ford), the original name of Dublin. The ancient
name of Lincoln, _Lindum_, is the hill fort on the pool; Linlithgow
comes from the same root, and is probably the gray lake--how it came
by the termination _gow_, _gu_, or _cu_, as it is variously spelt,
cannot be determined; Linton, in Roxburghshire, is the town on the
pool; Linton, in Peebles, on the R. Lyne--in Cambridge (on the
brook, _hlynna_); Dupplin, on the R. Earn, in Perthshire (the black
pool); Crailing, in Berwickshire, anc. _Traverlin_ (the dwellings,
_treabhar_, on the pool); Edarline (between the pools); Aber-glas-lyn
(the estuary of the blue pool), in Wales; Lynn-Regis (the king’s
pool), in Norfolk; Roslin (the projecting point on the pool), in Mid
Lothian; Lynn-yr-Afrange (the beaver’s pool), in Wales; Mauchline, in
Ayrshire (the pool in the plain, _magh_); Lincluden, in Kirkcudbright
(the pool of the R. Cluden); Lindores, in Fife, probably not from this
root, but a corrupt. of _Lann-Tours_, being the seat of the abbey of
Tours, founded by David, Earl of Huntingdon. Lyme-Regis (the king’s
pool), in Dorset; Lymington, anc. _Linton_ (the town on the pool), in
Hants; Llyn-hir (long pool); Llyn-y-cun (the dog’s pool), in Carnarvon;
Llynn-y-Nadroedd (the adder’s pool); Llynn-ye-cae (the enclosed pool),
all in Wales; Llyn-tegid (the fair or beautiful lake); Lly-gwyn, with
the same meaning; Llyn-Teivy, of the R. Teivy, in Wales; Llyn-Safaddon,
corrupt. from _Llyn-saf-baddon_ (the standing pool or fixed bathing
place)--_v._ BAD.

[Sidenote: LIOS, or LIS (Gadhelic),
LES (Breton and Cornish),]

an enclosure, a garden, or a fort. In Ireland it generally meant
originally a place enclosed with a circular entrenchment, for the
purpose of shelter and safety, and is often translated by the Lat.
_atrium_ (the entrance-room to a dwelling or temple). There are eleven
places in Ireland called Lismore (the great enclosure); Lismore also
in Argyleshire; Listowel (Tuathal’s fort); Liscarrol (Carrol’s fort);
Liscahane (Cathan’s fort); Lissan, Lissane, Lessany (the little fort);
Ballylesson (the town of the little fort); Lisclogher (stone fort);
Lislevane (the fort of the elm); Lismullin (of the mill); Lisnadarragh
(of the oaks); Lisnaskea, _i.e._ _Lios-na-sceithe_ (of the bush);
Lissard (high fort); Gortnalissa (the field of the fort); Lisbellaw,
_i.e._ _Lios-bel-atha_ (the fort at the ford mouth); Dunluce (strong
fort); Thurles, Co. Tipperary, from _Durlas_ (strong fort); Rathurles
(the rath of the strong fort)--all in Ireland; Liskard or Liskeard
(the enclosure on the height), in Cornwall and Cheshire; Lostwithel,
in Cornwall, _i.e._ _Les-vthiel_ (the lofty palace), one of the
ancient seats of the Duke of Cornwall; Lesmahago, in Lanarkshire, Lat.
_Ecclesia-Machute_ (the enclosure or church of St. Machute); Lesneven,
in Brittany, _i.e._ _Les-an-Evan_ (the enclosure or palace of Evan,
Count of Leon); Leslie, in Fife (the enclosure on the R. Leven);
Lessudden or St. Boswell’s, in Roxburghshire, bears the first name from
Aidan, the Bishop of Lindesfarne, who is said to have lived there; and
its second name from Boisel, a disciple of St. Cuthbert. The Spanish
_llosa_ is akin to the Celtic _lios_, as in Lliosa-del-Obispo (the
bishop’s enclosure).

[Sidenote: LIPA (Sclav.),]

the linden-tree; _e.g._ Leipzig, Lipten, Laubsdorf or Libanoise,
Lauban or Luban, Luben, Laubst, Labolz, etc. (the places abounding in
linden-trees); Lubeck and Lublin may come from the same root, or from a
Sclavonic word signifying _beloved_.

[Sidenote: LLWYD (Welsh),]

gray-brown; _e.g._ Rhipyn Llwyd (the gray upland); Llwyd-goed (gray

[Sidenote: LOCH, LOUGH (Gadhelic),
LLWCH (Cym.-Cel.),]

a lake; _e.g._ Loch Broom (the lake of showers, _braon_); Loch Carron
(of the winding water); Loch Doine (deep loch); Loch Duich, in
Ross-shire (the lake of St. Duthic, the same person from whom the town
of Tain took its Gaelic name, _Baile-Duich_, St. Dulhaick’s town); Loch
Fyne (the fair lake); Loch Lomond (the lake of the elm-tree river);
Loch Nell (of the swan, _eala_); Loch Ness (of the waterfall, _i.e._
of Foyers)--_v._ EAS; Loch Long (ship lake, Scand. _Skipafiord_);
Gareloch (short lake, _gearr_), in Ross-shire, and also a branch of the
Firth of Clyde; Loch Etive (dreary loch, _eitidh_); Lochlubnaig (the
lake of the little bend, _lubnaig_); Lochbuie and Lochbuy (the yellow
loch); Lochmuic (of the wild boar); Lochgorm (blue loch); Lochlaggan
(of the hollow); Loch Tay (of the R. Tay or _Tamha_, quiet river);
Lochgelly (of the fair water); Loch Maree (the lake of St. Malrube);
Lochard (high loch); Loch Awe and Loch Linnhe (here duplicate names,
_aw_ signifying water and _linne_ a pool); Loch-na-keal (the loch
of the cemetery, _cill_); Loch Earn (the west loch, _i.e._ west of
Loch Tay); Lochgelly (white lake, _gealich_); Loch Katrine, probably
the lake of the Caterans or freebooters; Benderloch, in Argyleshire,
_i.e._ _Bendaraloch_ (the hill between the lakes); Lochnagar, _i.e._
_Lochan-na-gabhar_ (the little lake of the goats, at the base of the
mountain to which it gives its name); Lochmaben, probably the loch
of the bald headland, as in an old charter the castle at the head of
the loch is called _Lochmalban_; Lochfad (long loch), in the Island
of Bute, five miles long and scarce half a mile broad; Loch Achray,
in Perthshire (the loch of the _level_ plain, _reidh_); Leuchars, in
Fife, formerly _Lough-yards_, the low grounds of the village used to
lie under water for the greater part of the year. In Ireland there are
Lough Derg (red lake), originally _Loch Dergderc_ (the lake of the red
eye, connected with a legend); Lough Conn (from a personal name Conn);
Loch Rea (gray or smooth lake, _reidh_, smooth); as also Loch Ryan, in
Kirkcudbright (of the smooth water, _reidhan_); Loch Foyle (the lake of
Febhal, the son of Lodan); Loughan, Loughane (little lake); Lochanaskin
(the little lake of the eels); Lough Corrib, corrupt. from Lough
Orbsen (the lake of Orbsen or Mannanan, over whose grave it is said
to have burst forth); Lough Erne, in Ireland, named from the _Ernai_,
a tribe; Lough Finn, named after a lady called Finn, who was drowned
in its waters; Lough, _i.e._ _Loch-n’-Echach_ (the lake of Eochy, a
Munster chief, who, with his family, was overwhelmed in the eruption
which gave their origin to its waters); Loch Swilly, probably a Scand.
name, meaning the lake of the surges or whirlpool, _swelchie_. The town
of Carlow was originally _Cetherloch_ (the quadruple lake, _cether_,
four), from a tradition that formerly the R. Barrow formed four lakes
at this spot.

[Sidenote: LOCUS (Lat.),
LOCA (A.S.),
LOK, LLE (Cym.-Cel),
LIEU (Fr.),]

a place; _e.g._ Netley, Lat. _Laeto-loco_ (at the pleasant, cheerful
place), so called from a monastery founded there by Mereward, King of
Mercia, in 658; Madley (the good place); Matlock (the meat enclosure
or storehouse); Leominster, Lat. _Locus-fanum_ (temple place); Porlock
or Portlock, in Somerset (the place of the port); Lok-Maria-Ker (the
town of Maria Ker), in Brittany. In France: Richelieu (rich place);
Chaalis, anc. _Carolis-locus_ (the place of Charles the Good, Count
of Flanders); Beaulieu (beautiful place); Loctudey, at Finisterre,
corrupt. from _Loc-Sancti-Tudené_ (the place of St. Tudy); Locdieu and
Dilo, _i.e._ _Dei-locus_ (God’s place); Lieusaint (holy place); Baslieu
(low place).

[Sidenote: LOH, LOO (Ger. and Dutch),

a meadow or thicket, and sometimes a marsh; _e.g._ Waterloo (watery
meadow); Venloo (the marshy meadow), and perhaps _Louvain_ may have
the same meaning; Groenloo (green thicket); Hohenlohe (the high marshy
meadow); Tongerloo (the marshy meadow of the Tungri); Schwarzenloh (the
black thicket); Anderlues (on the marsh).

[Sidenote: LOHN (Ger.),
LOON (Dutch),]

a path; _e.g._ Iser-lohn (the path by the R. Iser); Forstlohn (the
path in the wood); Neerloon and Oberloon (the lower and upper path);
Loon-op-Zand (the path on the sand).

[Sidenote: LUCUS (Lat.),
LLWYN (Welsh), a grove,]

a sacred grove; _e.g._ Lugo, in Italy, anc. _Lucus-Dianæ_ (the sacred
grove of Diana); Lugo, in Spain, anc. _Lucus-Augusti_ (the sacred grove
of Augustus); Les luches, in France, near the remains of an ancient
temple; Luc, anc. _Lucus_, in Dauphiny.

[Sidenote: LUG, LUKA, or LUZ (Sclav.),
LEOIG (Gadhelic),
LAUK (Esthonian),]

a marsh, cognate with the Lat. _lutum_; _e.g._ Lusatia or Lausatz (the
marshy land); Lassahn, Ger. _Laki-burgum_ (the town on the marsh);
Lugos or Lugosch, Luko and Leignitz, with the same meaning, in Poland
and Silesia; Podlachia (near the marshes), a district in Poland. The
towns of Lyons, Laon, and Leyden were formerly named _Lugdunum_ (the
fortress in the marshy land); Paris was formerly _Lutetia-Parisiorum_
(the marshy land of the Parisii). In France: Loches, formerly _Luccæ_
and _Lochiæ_ (the marshy land); and Loché, formerly _Locheium_ (the
marshy dwelling), in the department of Indre et Loire.

[Sidenote: LUND (Scand.),]

a sacred grove; _e.g._ Lund, towns in Sweden and in the Shetlands;
Lundgarth (the enclosed grove), in Yorkshire; Lundsthing (the place of
meeting at the grove), in Shetland; Charlottenlund, Christianslund,
and Frederickslund (the grove of Charlotte, Christian, and Frederick),
villages in Denmark; and perhaps the island Lundy, in the Bristol

[Sidenote: LUST, LYST (Teut.),]

pleasure--applied, in topography, to a palace or lordly mansion; _e.g._
Ludwigslust, Charlottenlust, Ravenlust (the palaces of Ludovick, of
Charlotte, and of Hrafen); Lostwithel, in Cornwall (the manor of
Withel), in the old Brit. language, _Pen Uchel coet_ (the lofty hill
in the wood, and the _Uzella_ of Ptolemy); Lustleigh (the valley of
pleasure), in Devon.

[Sidenote: LUTTER, LAUTER (Teut.),]

bright, clear; _e.g._ Lutri, on Lake Geneva; Luttar, in Brunswick (the
bright place); Latterbach and Lauterburn (clear stream); Lauterburg, in
Alsace, on the R. Lauter; Lutterworth (the bright farm); Lauterecken,
in Bavaria, at the corner, _eck_, of the R. Lauter.

[Sidenote: LUTZEL, LYTEL (Teut.),
LILLE (Scand.),]

small; _e.g._ Lutgenrode (the little clearing); Luxemburg, corrupt.
from _Lutzelburg_ (small fortress), Latinised _Lucis-Burgum_ (the city
of light), and hence passing into Luxemburg; Lucelle or Lutzel, in
Alsace; Lutzelsten (the small rock), in Alsace.


[Sidenote: MAEN (Welsh),]

a stone; _e.g._ Maentwrog (the tower-like pillar), a parish in
Merioneth; Maen or Dewi (St. David’s possession).

[Sidenote: MAES, or FAES (Cym.-Cel.),
MOED, or MEAD (A.S.),
MATTE (Ger.),]

a meadow or field, cognate with the Gael. _magh_; _e.g._ Maescar
(the pool in the field); Maisemore (great field), in Brecknock and
Gloucestershire; Marden, in Hereford, anc. _Maes-y-durdin_ (the field
of the water camp); Basaleg, a parish in Wales. The name has been
corrupted _Maes-aleg_, signifying _elect land_, from an event famous
in Welsh history, which took place there. Maes-teg (the fair field);
Maes-yr-onnen (the field of ash-trees); Cemmaes (the plain of the
ridge, _cefn_); Maes-y-Mynach (monk field); Cemmaes, _i.e._ _Cefn-maes_
(the ridge of the plain), in Wales; Runnymede, Co. Surrey (the meadow
of the council), Latinised _Pratum-concilii_; Andermatt (on the
meadow); Zermatt (at the meadow), in Switzerland; Matterhorn (the peak
of the meadow); Aeschenmatt (ash-tree meadow); Maes-Garmon (the field
of St. Germanus), in Wales; Soultzmatt (the meadow of mineral waters,
_salz_), in Alsace.

[Sidenote: MAGEN, MEKEN, or MAIN (Teut.),]

great; _e.g._ the R. Main, anc. _Magen-aha_ (great water); Mainland,
anc. _Meginland_ (great island), in the Orkneys; Mainhardt (great
wood); Meiningen (the great field)--_v._ GEN--in Germany.

[Sidenote: MAGH (Gadhelic),
MACH (Cym.-Cel.), a ridge,]

a field or plain, corrupt. into Maw or Moy, Latinised _magus_; _e.g._
Magh-breagh (the beautiful plain), in Ireland, extending from the R.
Liffey to the borders of Co. Louth; Moy and May (the plain), both in
Ireland and in Scotland; Moidart (the high plain), in Inverness-shire;
Mayo (the plain of yew-trees); Moynalty, Irish _Magh-nealta_ (the
plain of the flocks); Macosquin, in Londonderry, corrupt. from
_Magh-Cosgrain_ (the field of Cosgrain); Mallow, in Cork, _Magh-Ealla_
(the plain of the R. Allo or Ealla, now the Blackwater); Moville and
Movilla (the plain of the old tree, _bile_); Moycoba, for _Magh-Coba_
(the plain of Coba); _Machaire_, a derivative from _Magh_, is found
under the forms of Maghera and Maghery, thus--Magheracloone (the
plain of the meadow); Magheraculmony (the plain at the back of the
shrubbery); Maynooth (the plain of Nuadhat); Moira, corrupt. from
_Magh-rath_ (the plain of the forts), Co. Down; Moyarta (the plain of
the grave, _ferta_). In Scotland we find Rothiemay, in Banff, corrupt.
from _Rath-na-magh_ (the castle of the plain); Monievaird, _i.e._
_Magh-na-bhaird_ (the plain of the bards), in Perthshire; Machynlleth
(the ridge on the slope), a town in Montgomeryshire, Wales. In its
Latinised form this word is found in _Marcomagus_, now Margagen (the
plain of the Marcomanni); Juliomagus and Cæsaromagus (of Julius and
Cæsar); Noviomagus (the new plain); and again the same word became
_magen_ or _megen_ among the Teutonic races, thus Noviomagus became
Nimeguen; Nozon was anc. _Noviomagus_ or _Noviodunum_; Riom, in
France, anc. _Ricomagus_ (rich plain); Maing or Meung, on the Loire,
formerly _Magus_; Argenton, Argentomagus (silver field); Rouen, anc.
_Rothomagus_ (the fort on the plain). The ancient name of Worms was
_Bartomagus_, which Buttman says means high field; its present name was
corrupted from _Vormatia_; Mouzon, in France, was Mosomagus (the plain
of the R. Meuse).

[Sidenote: MAHA (Sansc.),]

great; _e.g._ Mahabalipoor (the city of the great god Bali); Mahanuddy
(the great river); Mahadea Mountains (the mountains of the great
goddess); Maha-vila-ganga (the great sandy river); Mantote, in Ceylon,
corrupt. from _Maha-Totta_ (the great ferry).

[Sidenote: MAHAL, MAL, or MOLD (Teut.),]

the place of meeting; _e.g._ Mahlburg or Mailburg, in Lower Austria
(the town of the place of meeting); Detmold, anc. _Theotmalli_ (the
people’s meeting-place); Wittmold (the meeting-place in the wood);
Moldfelde (in the field); Malton (the town of the meeting), in
Yorkshire; Maulden (the valley of the meeting), in Bedfordshire;
Kirch-ditmold (the church at the meeting-place).

[Sidenote: MALY, or MALKI (Sclav.),]

little; _e.g._ Malinek, Malinkowo, Malenz, Malchow, Malkow, Malkowitz
(little town); Maliverck (the little height).

[Sidenote: MAN, or MAEN (Cym.-Cel.),]

a place or district; _Maenol_ or _Mainor_, Welsh (a possession),
akin to the Lat. _mansio_ and the Fr. _maison_. From this word maybe
derived Maine, a province of France; Mans and Mantes, although more
directly they may probably come from the _Cenomanni_, a people who
formerly inhabited that district in France; Mantua, in Italy, and La
Mancha, in Spain, may be placed under this head; also Manchester,
anc. _Mancunium_, and Mancester, anc. _Manduessedum_; Menteith, in
Perthshire, the district of the R. Teith. In the Welsh language the
letter _m_ is changed into _f_ and pronounced _v_, and _fan_ abridged
to _fa_, thus--Brawdfa (the place of judgment); Eisteddfa (the sitting
place); Gorphwzsfa (resting place); Morfa (the shore or sea place);
Manaera (the place of slaughter), probably the site of a battle;
Manclochog (the ringing-stone).[4]

[Sidenote: MANSUS (Lat.),]

a farm or rural dwelling, to which was attached a certain portion of
land. It was often contracted into _mas_, _miex_, or _mex_; _e.g._ La
Manse, Mansac, Manselle, Le Mas, Beaumets, Beaumais, in France. The
Manse, _i.e._ the dwelling and glebe attached to a parish in Scotland;
Mains, a parish in Forfar.

[Sidenote: MANTIL (Old Ger.),]

the fir-tree; _e.g._ Mantilholz (the fir-wood); Mantilberg (fir-tree
hill); Zimmermantil (the room or dwelling at the fir-trees).

[Sidenote: MAR,]

a Ger. word, used both as an affix and a prefix, with various meanings.
As a prefix, it occasionally stands for _mark_ (a boundary), as in
Marbrook (the boundary brook), and Marchwiail (the boundary of poles),
in Wales; sometimes for a _marsh_, as in Marbach, on the Danube, and
Marburg, on the Neckar; sometimes also for _mark_, an Old Ger. word for
a horse, as in Marburg, on the R. Lahn, and Marburg and Mardorf (horse
town), in Hesse. As an affix, it is an adjective, and signifies, in the
names of places and persons, clear, bright, distinguished, or abounding
in; _e.g._ Eschmar (abounding in ash-trees); Geismar (in goats);
Horstmar (in wood); Weimar (in the vine).

[Sidenote: MARK (Ger.),
MARCHE (Fr.),]

the boundary; _e.g._ Styria or Stiermark, the boundary of the R.
Steyer; Markstein (the boundary stone); Markhaus (the dwelling on the
border); March, a town in Cambridge; La Marche (the frontier), a domain
in France, having been the boundary between the Franks and Euskarians;
Mercia, one of the kingdoms of the Heptarchy, bordering on Wales; and
Murcia, in Spain, the boundary district between the Moorish kingdom of
Granada and the other parts of Spain; Newmark, Altmark, Mittelmark (the
new, old, and middle boundary), in Germany; Mark, in the Scandinavian
language, meant a plain or district, thus Denmark means the plain of
the Danes; Finnmark (of the Finns); Markbury, in Cheshire; Markley, in
Hereford (the boundary town and field). The Marcomanni were the March
or boundary men of the Sclavonic frontier of Germany; the R. March or
Morava, the boundary between Lower Austria and Hungary; Marbecq and
Marbeque, rivers in France; Mardick (the boundary dike).

[Sidenote: MARKT (Teut.),

a market, sometimes found as _mart_; _e.g._ Marktmühle (the market
mill); Marktham, Marktflecken (market-town), in Germany; Martham,
also in Norfolk; Neumarkt in Germany, and Newmarket in England (new
market-town); Martock, in Somerset (the oak-tree under which the market
of the district used to be held); Market-Raisin, in Lincoln, on the
R. Raisin; Bibert-Markt, in Bavaria, on the R. Bibert; Kasmarkt, in
Hungary, corrupt. from _Kaiser-Markt_ (the emperor’s market-town);
Donnersmarkt, the German translation or corruption of _Csotartokhely_
(the Thursday market-place), in Hungary. The cattle-market at
Stratford-on-Avon is still called the _Rother-market_, from an old word
_rother_, for horned cattle.

[Sidenote: MARSA (Ar.),]

a port; _e.g._ Marsala, in Sicily, _i.e._ _Marsa-Allah_ (the port of
God); Marsalquivir, _i.e._ _Marsal-el-kebir_ (the great port). In
Malta: Marsa-scala, Marsa-scirocco, Marsa-muscetto, Marsa Torno.

[Sidenote: MAS (Irish),]

the thigh--applied in topography to a long low hill; _e.g._ Massreagh
(gray hill); Mausrower (thick hill); Massareene, _i.e._ _Mas-a-rioghna_
(the queen’s hill); but Massbrook, Co. Mayo, is not from this root; it
is a translation of _Sruthan-an-aiffrinn_ (the brook where the mass
used to be celebrated).

[Sidenote: MAUM, MOYM, or MAM,]

Irish _madhm_ (a mountain pass or chasm); _e.g._ Maum-Turk (the boar’s
pass); Maumakeogh (the pass of the mist); Maumnaman (of the women);
Maumnahaltora (of the altar).

[Sidenote: MAVRO (Modern Grk.),]

black; _e.g._ Mavrovouno (the black mountain); Mavro Potamo (the
black river), in Greece; Mavrovo and Mavroya (the black town), in

[Sidenote: MAWR,]

by mutation _fawr_, Welsh (great)--_v._ MOR, p. 143.

[Sidenote: MEDINA (Ar.),]

a city or the metropolis; _e.g._ Medina, in Arabia, called by
the Arabs _Medinat-al-Nabi_ (the city of the prophet). In Spain:
Medina-de-las-torres (the city of the towers); Medina-del-campo (of the
plain); Medina-delpomar (of the apple-orchard); Medina-del-rio-seco
(of the dry river-bed); Medina-Sidonia (of the Sidonians). This city
was so named by the Moors, because they believed it to have been built
on the site of the Phœnician city Asidur.

[Sidenote: MEER, MERE (Teut.),]

a lake, sea, or marsh; _e.g._ Blakemere (the black lake, _blaec_), in
Hereford; Great Marlow or Merelow (the hill by the marsh); Cranmere
(the crane’s lake or marsh); Winandermere, so called, according to
Camden, from the _winding_ of its shores; Wittleseamere, Buttermere,
and Ellsmere, probably from personal names; Meerfeld, Meerhof,
Meerholz, and Meerhout (the field, court, and wood near the lake or
marsh), in Holland. But _mere_, in place-names, is said sometimes to
mean a boundary--thus _Merse_, the other name for Berwickshire, may
mean either the marshy land or the boundary county between England
and Scotland. Closely connected with _meer_ (a lake) are the words
in the Celtic as well as in the Teutonic languages, denoting marshy
lands, _i.e._ lands that have lain under water, and are still partially
submerged--such as _merse_, A.S.; _morast_, Ger.; _morfa_, Welsh;
_marish_, Gadhelic; _marsk_, Scand.; and _marais_, Fr. Many places in
Great Britain and the Continent derive their names from these words,
thus--the Maros or Marosh; and the Morava (marshy rivers); Moravia
(the district of the marshy river); Morast, in Sweden (the town on the
marsh); Merton, in Berwickshire (the town on the marsh); Morebattle, in
Roxburghshire, anc. _Mereboda_ (the dwelling on the marsh); Ostermarsh
(east marsh), in Holland; Marengo (the marshy field), in Italy; Les
Moeres (the marshes), in Flanders; Marchienne, Marchienes, Maresché,
Maresches, Marest, etc., in France; Marcienisi, in Italy (marshy
localities). The River Mersey may come from this word, or it may mean
the border river between England and Wales.

[Sidenote: MENIL, MESNIL (Fr.),]

from _Mansionile_, the dim. of _mansus_; _e.g._ Grandmenil (the great
dwelling or hamlet); Le Menil-la-comtesse (the manor of the countess);
Mesnil-église (the church hamlet); Mesnil-Guillaume, Mesnil-Gilbert,
Mesnil-Jourdan, named from the proprietors; Mesnil-sur-l’Estrée (the
hamlet on the Roman road called _Strata Estrée_); Les Menils, Menillot,
etc., in France.

[Sidenote: MENZIL (Ar.),]

a village; _e.g._ Miselmeri, corrupt. from _Menzil-el-Emir_ (the emir’s
village); Mezojuso, from _Menzil-Yusuf_ (the village of Joseph).

[Sidenote: MEON (Cel.),
MIO (Scand.),]

little, cognate with the Lat. _minor_; _e.g._ the Rivers Minnow and
Mynwy, in Wales; the Mincio, in Italy; the Minho, in Portugal; Minorca
(the less), in opposition to Majorca (the greater island); Miosen (the
little sea or lake), in Norway.

[Sidenote: MICKLA, MYCEL (Teut. and Scand.),]

great, Scotch _muckle_; _e.g._ Mickledorf, Michelstadt, Michelham,
Mickleton (great dwelling); Micklebeck (great brook); Michelau
(great meadow); Mitchelmerse (the great marsh); Mecklenburg, anc.
_Mikilinberg_ (the great town or hill fort); Muchelney (the great
island), in Somersetshire, formed by the conf. of the Rivers Ivel and
Parret; Meikle Ferry (the great ferry), on Dornoch Firth; Micklegarth
(the great enclosure), the Scandinavian name for Constantinople,
Grk. _Megalopolis_; but _mikil_ or _miklos_, especially in Russia
and Hungary, is often an abbreviation of St. Nicholas, and denotes
that the churches in these places were dedicated to that saint--thus
Mikailov, Mikhailovskaia, Mikhalpol (St. Nicholas’s towns), in Russia;
Miklos-Szent and Miklos-Nagy-Szent, in Hungary; Mikolajow, in Poland;
Mitcham, in Surrey, in Doomsday is _Michelham_.

[Sidenote: MIN, MEN, or MAEN (Cym.-Cel.),]

a high rock or the brow of a hill; _e.g._ Maen-du (black rock), in
Monmouth; Minto, a parish in Roxburghshire, on the brow of a steep
hill; Meonstoke (hill station); East and West Meon, in Gloucestershire;
Mendabia (at the foot of the hill), in Spain; Altmaen, corrupt. to “Old
Man of Coniston,” in the Lake country, and to the “Old Man of Hoy,” in
the Orkneys; the “Dodmaen,” in Cornwall--_v._ DODD--has been corrupted
to _Deadman_.

[Sidenote: MINSTER, MYNSTER (A.S.),

a monk’s dwelling or monastery, hence a cathedral--Lat. _monasterium_;
_e.g._ Illminster, Axminster, Stourminster, Kremmunster, Charminster
(the monasteries on the Rivers Ill, Ax, Stour, Krem, and Char);
Beaminster, Co. Dorset, named after St. Bega; Kidderminster (the
monastery of Earl Cynebert); Westminster (the minster west of
St. Paul’s); Warminster (near the weir or dam of the R. Willey);
Monasteranenagh (the monastery of the fair); Monasterboice (of St.
Bœthus); Monasterevin (of St. Evin), in Ireland; Monasteria de la Vega
(of the plain), in Spain. In France: Moutier, Moustier, Moustoir,
Munster, Monestier (the monastery); Montereau, Montreuil, Marmoutier
(the monastery of St. Martin); Masmoutier (of Maso); Noirmoutier and
Rougemoutier (the black and red monastery); Toli-Monaster or Bitolia
(the monastery of the beech-trees), in Turkey; Munster (the monastery),
in Alsace; but Munster, a province in Ireland, is compounded from
the Scand. _ster_--_qu._ _v._--and the Irish _Mumha_, a king’s name;
Munster-eifel (the monastery at the foot of the Eifel-berg).

[Sidenote: MIR (Sclav.),]

peace; _e.g._ Mirgorod (the fortress of peace); Miropol, Mirowitz,
Mirow (the town of peace).

[Sidenote: MITTEL, MIDDEL (Teut. and Scand.),
MIEDZY (Sclav.),]

the middle, cognate with the Lat. _medius_, Grk. _mesos_, and Gadhelic
_meadhon_; _e.g._ Middleby, Middleton, Middleham, Mitton, Middleburg
(the middle town); Middlesex (the territory of the middle Saxons);
Middlewich (the middle salt manufactory), in Cheshire--_v._ WICH;
Midhurst (the middle wood), in Sussex; Midmar (the middle district of
Mar), in Aberdeenshire; Ardmeanadh, Gael. _Ardmeadhonadh_ (the middle
height), being the Gaelic name for Cromarty; Mitford (the middle
ford); Melton-Mowbray, sometimes written _Medeltune_ (the middle
town), formerly belonging to the Mowbray family; Mittelgebirge (the
middle mountain range); Mittelwalde, Sclav. _Medzibor_ (the middle of
the wood), in Silesia; Methwold, in Norfolk, with the same meaning;
Mittweyda (in the midst of pasture ground), in Saxony; Methley and
Metfield (middle field); Meseritz and Meseritsch, _i.e._ _mied-zyvreka_
(in the midst of streams), in Moravia and Pomerania; Mediasch (in the
midst of waters), in Hungary; Misdroi (in the midst of woods), in
Pomerania; Mediterranean Sea (in the middle of the land); Media (the
middle country, as then known); Mesopotamia, Grk. (the country between
the rivers); Mediolanum (in the midst of the plain or land)--_v._
LANN--the ancient name of Milan, Saintes, and some other towns.

[Sidenote: MLADY, MLODY (Sclav.),]

new; _e.g._ Mladiza, Mladowitz, Mladzowitz (new town), in Bohemia;
Bladen and Bladow, corrupt. from _Mladen_, with the same meaning,
in Silesia.

[Sidenote: MOEL (Cym.-Cel.),
MAOL, MEALL (Gadhelic),
MOOL (Scand.),]

a round hill or a bald promontory, as an adjective signifying bald, and
often applied to hills and promontories, thus--the Mull or promontory
of Cantyre and Galloway; Meldrum, in Aberdeenshire, and Meeldrum,
in Ireland (the bald ridge); Melrose, _i.e._ _Maol-ros_ (the bald
headland), Old Melrose having been situated on a peninsula formed by
the Tweed; the Eildon Hills, near Melrose, corrupt. from _Moeldun_
(bald hill); the Island of Mull, one of the Hebrides; Mealfourvounie
(the hill of the cold moor), in Inverness-shire; Glassmeal (gray hill),
in Perth; Malvern (the bald hill of the alders, _gwernen_); Moel-y-don
(the hill of the waves), in Anglesea; Moel-Aelir (the frosty hill);
Muldonach (the hill of Donald), one of the Hebrides; Moel-Try-garn (the
ridge of the three cairns); Moel-Eilio (the mount of construction);
Moel-y-crio (the hill of shouting); Moel-ben-twrch (boar’s head
hill), in Wales; Moel-cwm-Cerwyn (the bald dingle of the cauldron);
Moelfre, corrupt. from _Moelbre_ (bald hill), in Wales. In Ireland this
word often takes the form of _moyle_, as in Kilmoyle (bald church);
Rathmoyle, Lismoyle, Dunmoyle (the bald or dilapidated fort); Mweelbane
(the white hill); Meelgarrow (rough hill); Meelshane (John’s bald
hill); Mweel-na-horna (the bald hill of the barley); Maulagh (abounding
in hillocks); Mullaghmeen (smooth hillock); Mulboy (yellow hillock),
etc.; Mullanagore and Mullanagower (the little summit of the goats). In
Wales: Moel-hebog (hawk hill); Moel-eryn (eagle hill), in Wales. The
Mool of Aswich and the Mool of Land, in Shetland.

[Sidenote: MOIN, MOINE (Gadhelic),

a moss or bog. in Ireland: Mona-braher, _i.e._ _Moin-nam-brathar_
(the bog of the friars); Monalour (of the lepers); Moneen (the little
bog); Ballynamona (the town of the bog); Monard (high bog); Montiagh,
for _Mointeach_ (the boggy place); Monabrock (the badger’s moss);
Monroe (the red moss); _Mon_ is, however, sometimes used instead of
_monadh_ (a rising ground in a moor), as in Co. Monaghan, _Muineachan_
(abounding in little hills); which country, however, according to the
_Annals of the Four Masters_, was named from its chief town (the town
of monks). In Scotland: Moin, a moorland district in Sutherlandshire;
Monzie and Moonzie (the mossy land), in Fife and Perthshire; Montrose
(the boggy promontory); _Mon_, again for _monadh_, in Monimail (bald
hill), in Fife; Moncrieffe (the woody hill, _craobach_); Moness (the
hill of the cascade, _eas_).

[Sidenote: MÖNCH (Ger.),
MONACH (Gadhelic),
MYNACH (Cym.-Cel.),]

a monk, from the Greek _monos_ (alone); _e.g._ Monkton, Monkstown,
Monkswood, Monkland, named from lands belonging to the monks; Le
Mönch (the monk), one of the highest of the Bernese Alps; Monachty
(the monks’ dwelling), in Wales; Llan-y-mynach (the monks’ church
or enclosure), Co. Salop; Monksilver, in Somerset, corrupt. from
_Monk-sylva_ (the monks’ wood); Monkleagh (the monks’ meadow); Munsley,
with the same meaning, in Hereford; Monach-log-ddu (the place of
the black monks), in Wales; Munchberg (monk’s hill), in Bavaria;
Munchengratz (the monks’ fortress), in Bohemia; Munich and Munchingen
(belonging to the monks), in Germany.

[Sidenote: MONDE, MÜND (Ger.),
MUNNI, MINDE (Scand.),]

a river _mouth_; _e.g._ Dortmund, Fischmund, Dendermund, Roermonde,
Travemünde, Saarmund, Tangermünde, Ysselmonde, Rupelmonde, Orlamunda,
Stolpemünde, Swinmund or Sweinemund, Ukermünde, Warnemunde, at the
mouth of the rivers forming the first part of these names; Münden, in
Hanover (at the mouths of the Rivers Werra and Fulda); Monmouth (at the
conf. of the Mynwy and Wye); Plymouth, Falmouth, Sidmouth, Yarmouth,
Grangemouth, Teignmouth, Wearmouth, Cockermouth, at the mouths of
these rivers; Bishop’s Wearmouth, founded by Biscop in the middle of
the seventh century; Deulemont, in France, at the mouth of the Deule;
Gladmouth, in Wales, formerly _Cledemuth_, at the mouth of the Clede
or Cleddy; Minde, in Iceland, at the mouth of Lake Miosen.

[Sidenote: MONEY,]

a frequent prefix in Irish names from _muine_ (a brake or shrubbery);
_e.g._ Moneymore, Moneybeg (the great and little shrubbery); Moneygorm
(the blue shrubbery); Moneyduff (the black or dark shrubbery);
Moneygall (the shrubbery of the strangers).

[Sidenote: MONT, MONTE (Fr. and It.),
MONTANA and MONTE (Span. and Port.),]

a mountain, from the Lat. _mons_, and cognate with the Gadhelic
_monadh_, and the Cym.-Cel. _mynydd_; _e.g._ Montalto (high mount);
Montauban (the mount of Albanus); Montechiaro (clear mount);
Monte-fosoli (brown mount); Montehermosa (beautiful mount), in Spain;
Montenegro, Turc. _Karadagh_, Sclav. _Zerna-gora_ (black mount),
in Turkey; Beaumont, Chaumont, Haumont (the beautiful, bald, and
high mount); Montereale and Montreal (the royal hill); Montreal, in
Canada, so named by Cartier in 1555; Monte-Rosa, anc. _Mons-sylva_
(woody hill); Monte-Video (the prospect mount); Montmartre, anc.
_Mons-Martyrum_ (the hill of the martyrdom of St. Denis), but its
earlier name was _Mons-Martis_ (the hill of Mars); Montmirail,
Lat. _Mons-mirabilis_ (the wonderful mountain); Remiremont, Lat.
_Romaries-mons_, founded by St. Romarie in 620; Monte-Cavallo, corrupt.
from _Monte-Calvaria_ (the Mount of Calvary), so called from a number
of chapels, in which were represented the successive scenes of our
Lord’s passion. From _monticellus_, the diminutive of _mont_, have
arisen such place-names as Moncel, Le Monchel, Monchelet, etc.; Mont
d’Or (golden mount), in Auvergne; Montefrio (cold mount), in Spain;
Montpellier, Lat. _Mons-puellarum_ (the hill of the young girls), so
called from two villages belonging to the sisters of St. Fulcrum;
Montserrat (the serrated hill); Clermont (bright hill); Mondragon
and Montdragone (the dragon’s hill); Monfalcone (hawk hill); Mons,
Ger. _Berghen_ (hill town), in Belgium; Piedmont (at the foot of the
Alps); Floremont or Blumenberg (flowery hill), in Alsace; Montaign
and Monthen, anc. _Mons-acutus_ (sharp or peaked hill); Montigny,
Montignac (mountainous); Jeumont, anc. _Jovismons_ (the hill of Jove),
in France; Mount Pilatus (the mount with the _cap_ of clouds, from
_pileus_, Lat. a felt cap); Richmond, in Yorkshire, named from a
castle in Brittany, from which the Earl of Richmond took his title,
meaning the rich or fertile hill; Richmond, in Surrey, named by the
Earl after his Yorkshire estate, formerly called _Shene_ from the
splendour of the royal residence there, _seine_, A.S. (splendid);
Righimont, in Switzerland, corrupt. from _Mons-regius_ (royal hill);
Montacute (sharp hill), in Somerset; Tras-os-Montes (beyond the
hills), in Portugal; Apremont, in France, for _Aspromonte_ (rough
hill); Pyrmont, corrupt. from _Mons-Petrus_ (St. Peter’s mount);
Montferrato (the fortified hill). _Mont_ also signified a hill fort,
like _berg_ and _dun_, as in Montalcino (the fort of Alcinous), in
Italy; Montgomery, in Wales, (the fortress of Roger de Montgomerie, who
erected a castle there in 1093)--its earlier name was _Tre-Faldwyn_
(the dwelling of Baldwin, a Norman knight); Charlemont, in France,
named after Charles V.; Henrichemont, after Henri-Quatre. In Wales:
the town of Mold, abbreviated from _Mons-altus_ (high fort)--the
Normans built a castle there; Mynydd-du (black hill); Mynydd-mawr
(great hill); Mynydd-moel (bald hill). In Scotland: _Monadh-ruadh_ (the
red mount or the _mounth_), the Gaelic name for the Grampians; Mount
Battock, Gael. _Monadh-beatach_ (the raven’s hill); Mountbenjerlaw, in
Selkirkshire, originally _Ben-Yair_ (the hill of the R. Yair), to which
the A.S. _law_ and the Norman _mount_ were added. But _monadh_ in Gael.
signifies a mountain range, and sometimes a moor, as Monadh-leath (the
gray mountain range). Probably Mendip, in Somerset, is the deep hill,
Welsh _dwfn_ and _mynydd_; Monimail (bald hill); Monifieth (the hill
or moor of the deer, _feidh_). The Mourne Mountains, in Ireland, means
the mountains of the tribe; _Mughhorna_. _Mon_, in the Basque language,
also signifies a hill, and is found in Monzon, an ancient town of
Spain, with a hill fort; Monda and Mondonedo, in Spain; and Mondego, in
Portugal; and in Carmona (hill summit), in Spain.

[Sidenote: MOOS (Ger.),
MOS (Scand.),
MECH, MOCK (Sclav.),]

mossy ground; _e.g._ Donaumoss (the mossy meadow of the Danube);
Mosston (the town on the mossy ground); Moseley (moss-field or valley);
Moscow, on the R. Moskwa (mossy water); Mossow, Mehzo, Mochow,
Mochlitz (the mossy ground); Mohacs, Ger. _Margetta_ (the marshy or
mossy island), in the Danube; Miesbach (the district of the mossy
brook), in Bavaria. The Irish word _mæthail_ (soft mossy land) is
almost synonymous with these roots. It is found in Mohill, Co. Leitrim;
Mothel in Waterford, and Mothell in Kilkenny; Cahermoyle (the stone
fort of the mossy land) in Ireland, and in Muthil in Perthshire.

[Sidenote: MOR, MOER (Teut. and Scand.),]

waste land, heath; Scot. _muir_; _e.g._ Moorby, Morton, and Moreton
(the dwelling on the moor); Morpeth (the moor path); Oudemoor (the old
moor), and Oostmoer (east moor), in Holland; Moorlinch (the moor ridge,
_hlinc_); Lichtenmoer (the cleared moor); Muirkirk (the church in the
moor), in Argyleshire; Murroes, corrupt. from _Muirhouse_, a parish
in Co. Forfar; Tweedsmuir (the moor at the source of the R. Tweed), a
parish in Peeblesshire; Muiravonside (the mossy land on the banks of
the R. Avon), in Stirlingshire.

[Sidenote: MOR (Gadhelic),
MAWR (Cym.-Cel.), or by mutation _fawr_; _e.g._ Morlais for
_Mawr-clais_ (the great trench), the name of a ruined castle near
Cardiff, built above a deep gully, through which a brook passes.]

great; _e.g._ Morven (the great _ben_ or hill), a hill in Caithness and
also in Aberdeenshire; Morven or Morvern, _i.e._ _Mor-Earrain_ (the
great district), in Argyleshire, called by the Gaels Kenalban, corrupt.
from _Cenealbaltyn_, _i.e._ the tribe of Baldan, a personal name;
Kenmore (the great headland), on Loch Tay; Penmaen-mawr (the great
stone-hill), in Wales.

[Sidenote: MOR (Cym.-Cel. and Sclav.),
MUIR (Gadhelic),
MORFA (Welsh), sea-marsh,]

the sea, cognate with the Lat. _mare_, and its derivatives in the
Romance languages, and the Teut. _meer_; _e.g._ Armorica or Brittany,
and Pomerania (the districts on the sea-shore); Morbihan (the little
sea), in Brittany; Morlachia or _Moro-Vlassi_ (the Wallachs’ or
strangers’ land by the sea)--_v._ WALSCH; Morlaix (a place on the
sea-shore), in Brittany; Glamorgan, Welsh _gwlad-morgant_ (the district
of Morgan Mawr, an ancient king of Wales); Morgan, in Cornwall, _i.e._
by the sea-shore; Maracaybo (the headland by the sea-shore), in South
America; Parimaribo (the dwelling near the sea), in South America;
Connemara, in Ireland, Irish _Conmac-ne-Mara_, the descendants of
Conmac (by the sea-side).

[Sidenote: MOST (Sclav.),]

a bridge; _e.g._ Dolgemost (long bridge); Maust, Most, Mostje (the
place at the bridge), in Bohemia; Babimost (the old woman’s bridge,
_i.e._ the fragile bridge), abbreviated to Bomst; Priedemost (the first
bridge), in Silesia; Mostar (old bridge), a town in Turkey.

[Sidenote: MOT, or MOOT (A.S.),]

the place of assembly, where the Anglo-Saxons held their courts of
justice; _e.g._ Mote-hill, at Scone; the Moat Hill, near Hawick; the
Mote of Galloway; the Moat of Dull, in Perthshire, and of Hamilton, on
Strathclyde; Moot-hill, at Naseby; and in the Lake District, Montay
and Caermote; Moothill also appears in Aberdeenshire; Almoot, near
Peterhead, meaning the meeting-place on the height, has been corrupted
into _Old Maud_, and the railway company have called their station
_New Maud_. It is found in the Gaelic name for the Island of Bute,
_Baile-mhoide_ (the dwelling of the courts of justice), but in this
case, as in Ireland, the word was probably borrowed from the Saxons.
The word is found in Ireland, signifying a large mound, as well as in
connection with the courts of justice--as in _Tom-an-mhoid_ (the hill
of the court of justice); LA MOTTE, Fr. (a hillock), common in France.

[Sidenote: MÜHLE (Ger.),
MUILENN (Gadhelic),
MELIN (Cym.-Cel.),
MLYN (Sclav.),
MOLEN (Dutch),]

a mill, cognate with the Lat. _mola_, and its derivatives in the
Romance languages; _e.g._ Mülenbach and Molinbech (mill brook); Mühlan,
Mühldorf, Mühlhausen, Muhlheim (mill dwelling); Moleneynde (mill
corner), in Germany and Holland. In England and Scotland: Melbourne,
Milton, Millwick, Milford, Milden, Milnathorpe (the stream, town, ford,
hollow, farm, of the mill); but Milton, in Kent and in Dorsetshire, are
corrupt. from _middle_ town; Moulin, a parish in Perthshire. In France:
Moulins (the mills), so called from the great number of water mills
formerly on the R. Allier; Mülhausen or Mulhouse, in Alsace, celebrated
for its manufactures; Molina, a manufacturing town in Murcia; also in
Spain, Molinos-del-Rey (the king’s mills). In Ireland: Mullinahone
(the mill of the cave); Mullinavat (of the stick); Mullintra (of the
strand); Mullinakil (of the church). In Sclavonic districts: Mlineh,
Mlinki, Mlinsk, Mlinow, etc.

[Sidenote: MULLAGH (Gadhelic),]

the top or summit, and sometimes applied to hills of a considerable
height; _e.g._ Mullaghmeen (the smooth summit); Mulkeergh (the summit
of the sheep, _caoirich_); Mullan (the little summit), in Ireland;
probably the Island of Mull, in the Hebrides.

[Sidenote: MURUS (Lat.),
MAUER (Ger.),
MURA (Sclav.),]

a wall; _e.g._ Maurs (the walled town), in France; also
Villa-de-Muro-cincto (the dwelling surrounded by walls); Morsain,
in 879 _Murocinctus_ (surrounded by walls); Murviel (old walls), in
Herault,--a place where the ruins of an ancient Gaulish city are found;
Mauerhof (the enclosed court), in Germany; Trasmauer (the walled town
on the R. Trasen), in Austria; Murany-var (the walled fortress),
in Hungary; Muriel-de-la-fuente (the walled town of the fountain);
Muriel-viejo (the old walled town); Murillo (the little walled town),
in Spain; Murviedro (the old fortifications), called by the Romans
_Muriveteres_, because they believed it to be on the site of the
ancient Saguntum; Semur, in France, corrupt. from _Sinemurum_ (without


[Sidenote: NAES (A.S.),
NOES (Scand.),
NES (Fr.),]

a nose, cognate with the Lat. _nasus_, and in topography applied to
a promontory; _e.g._ the Naze, in Norway, and Nash, in Monmouth;
Nash-scaur (the promontory of the cliff), in Wales; Katznase (the cat’s
headland); Blankenese (white cape), in Holstein; Foreness, Sheerness,
Fifeness, Buchanness, Blackness, in England and Scotland; Roeness (red
cape), Shetland; Vatternish (water cape), in Skye; Borrowstounness or
Bo’ness, in West Lothian (the cape near Burward’s dwelling); Holderness
(the woody promontory); Langness and Littleness, in Man; Dungeness
(danger cape); Furness (the cape of the beacon-fire), the site of an
ancient lighthouse in Lancashire; Saturnness (the southern cape), in
Kirkcudbright; Shoeburyness, corrupt. from _Sceobirig_ (the cape of the
sea-fortress); Skegness (the cape near the wood, _skogr_); Skipness
(ship headland); Sviatanos, Sclav. (holy cape), in Russia; Caithness
(the promontory of the Catti, a tribe).

[Sidenote: NAGORE (Hindu _nagar_, Sansc. _nagura_),]

a city; _e.g._ Barnagore for _Varaha-nagur_ (the city of the boar);
Chandernagore (of the moon); Serenagur (of the sun).

[Sidenote: NAGY (Hung.),]

great; _e.g._ Nagy-Karoly (Charles’s great town); Nagy-Malton (St.
Matthew’s great town); Nagy-Szent-Miklos (of St. Nicholas); Nagy-varad
(great fortress); Nagy-Koros (the great town on the R. Köros).

[Sidenote: NAHR (Semitic),]

a river; _e.g._ Nahr-el-keber (the great river); Nahr-el-kelb or Lycus
(the river of the dog or wolf), so named from a fancied resemblance of
a rock near its mouth to the head of these animals; Nahr-Mukatta (the
river of slaughter); Aram-Naharaim (the high lands of the two rivers,
_i.e._ Mesopotamia); Nahar-Misraim (the river of Egypt, _i.e._ the

[Sidenote: NANT (Cym.-Cel.),]

a brook or a valley through which a stream flows; _e.g._ Nantmel (the
honey brook); Sych-nant (dried-up brook); Nancemillin (the valley of
the mill), in Wales; Dewffneynt (the deep valley) was the ancient
British name of Devonshire; Levenant (smooth stream); Nant-frangon,
_i.e._ _Nant-yr-a-franc_ (the beavers’ valley); Nantglyn (the glen of
the brook); Nant-y-Gwrtheyren (Vortigern’s valley), in Wales; Nans,
in Cornwall; also in Cornwall--Penant (the head of the valley), and
Cornant (a brook); Nantwich, in Cheshire (the salt-works, _wich_,
on the brook or stream, _i.e._ the Weaver); Nantua (in a valley of
the Alps); Nantes named from the Namnetes (dwellers in the valley);
Mochnant (the swift brook); Nannau (the brooks), in Wales; Nangle,
a bay on the coast of Wales, perhaps Nant-gel or cel (a secret
corner)--the Rev. J. James. Nevern, a parish in Wales, for _Nant-ynfer_
(the brook of the confluence); Nancy (the valley dwellings); Nans,
Nant, with the same meaning, in France; Nanteuil (the valley of the
fountain)--_v._ ŒUIL; Nantberis (St. Peris’s brook).

[Sidenote: NASS (Ger.),]

moist; _e.g._ Nassau (the moist meadow); Nassenfeld (moist field);
Nassenhuben (the huts in moist land); Nassenbeuren (the dwelling in
moist land).

[Sidenote: NAVA (Basque),]

a plain; _e.g._ Nava-de-los-Oteros (the plain of the heights);
Nava-hermosa (beautiful plain); Navarre and Navarreux (the plain among
hills); Navarette (the plain at the foot of the hill); Paredes-de-nava
(the houses of the plain).

[Sidenote: NEDER, NIEDER, NEER (Teut. and Scand.),]

lower; _e.g._ Netherlands (the lower lands); Netherby (lower town);
Niederlahnstein (the fortress on the lower R. Lahn); Nederheim,
Nederwyk (lower dwellings).

[Sidenote: NEMET (Celtic),]

a sacred grove, cognate with the Lat. _nemus_ and the Grk. _nemos_;
_e.g._ Nemours, anc. _Nemoracum_ (the place of the sacred wood or
grove); Nanterre, also in France, anc. _Nemetodurum_ (the sacred grove
on the waters); Nismes, anc. _Nemausus_ (the place in the grove);
Augustonemetum (the splendid place of the grove), being the ancient
name of Clermont; Nemetacum, the ancient name of Arras; Nemea (the
place of the grove), in Greece.

[Sidenote: NEU (Ger.),
NEWYDD (Cym.-Cel.),
NUADH (Gadhelic),
NOWY and NAU (Sclav.),]

new, cognate with the Lat. _novus_ and the Grk. _neos_ and their
derivatives; _e.g._ Neuburg, Neudorf, Neustadt, Neuville, Newbury,
Newburgh (new town); Neumarkt (new market); Newbold, Newbottle,
Newbattle (new building), in Germany, England, and Scotland; Newburgh,
in Fife, is a town of considerable antiquity. It owes its origin to
the Abbey of Lindores, in its neighbourhood. It was erected into a
burgh or barony by Alexander III., in 1266, and in the charter it was
called “_Novus burgus, juxta monasterium de Lindores_.” It seems,
therefore, that there was a more ancient burgh belonging to the
abbey in the neighbourhood--Newburn (new stream), in Fife. Newhaven
(the new harbour), in relation to the older harbour of Leith. In the
sixteenth century Newhaven had a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary,
and was then called our Lady’s port of grace; but in the year 1511
the city of Edinburgh bought up the village and harbour. In France:
Nevers and Noyon, anc. _Noviodunum_ (the new fortress); Neuvy, with
the same meaning; Neuvéglise (new church); Villeneuve (new villa);
Nièvre and Nivernais, a department and ancient province of France;
Nienburg, corrupt. from _Neuenburg_ (new town), in Hanover; Newport
(new harbour), in Belgium; Newport, in the Isle of Wight, so named
because it superseded the older harbour at Carisbrook; Newport,
in Wales, which superseded Caerleon; Neusatz or Neoplanta (new
station), founded in 1700, on the Danube; Neusohl (new seat), in
Hungary--its native name is _Bestereze-banya_ (the mine on the R.
Bistritz); Neustadl (new stall); Neuwied (new pasture); Nimeguen,
anc. _Noviomagus_ (new field), in Holland; Novgorod and Novigrad (new
fortress); Novidwar (new court), in Russia; Nowe-mjasto (new bridge),
in Poland; Novobeilaiaskaia (the new town on the white stream), in
Russia; Nova-Zembla, _i.e._ _Novaia-Zemlia_ (the new land); Nowazamka
(new castle); Novi-Bazaar (new market), in Turkey; Nowosedl (new seat);
Nienburg, Nyborg, Nyby, Nystead (new town), in Denmark and Holland;
Neocastro (new camp), in Greece; Nola or _Novla_ (new place), in the
Sardinian states; Naumburg and Nienburg, corrupt. from _Neuenburg_
(new town); Nykioping (new market-town), in Sweden, and Nykjobing, in
Denmark, with the same meaning; Newington, in Surrey, corrupt. from
_Neweton_; Newfoundland, so called when rediscovered by John Cabot in
1427, but known previously by Icelandic colonists as _Litla-Helluland_;
Nova Scotia (New Scotland), called by the Norseman _Markland_; New
River, a large aqueduct from Hertfordshire to Islington, by which a
great part of London is supplied with water; New Ross, Co. Wexford,
corrupt. from its Irish name _Ros-mic-Treoin_ (the wood of Treun’s
son); Newtown-Hamilton, in Ireland, founded by the Hamilton family in
1770; Newtown-Limavady, Co. Londonderry, named from a castle in the
neighbourhood called Limavady (the dog’s leap); Newtown-Stewart, Co.
Tyrone, so called from Sir William Stewart, to whom it was granted by
Charles I.; New York, named in honour of the Duke of York, afterwards
James II.; New Zealand, called by Tasman, its Dutch discoverer, in
honour, it is supposed, of his native province.

[Sidenote: NIJNY (Sclav.),]

lower; _e.g._ Nijny-Novgorod (the lower new fortress); Nijny-Neviansk
(the lower town on the Neva), as distinguished from Verkii-Neviansk,
the upper; Nijnaia-ozernaia-krepost (the lower fort of the lakes);
Nijny-Devitzk (the lower town on the Devitza); Nijni-Tagelsk (the lower
town on the R. Tagel), in Russia.

[Sidenote: NIMZ (Sclav.),]

foreign, from _nemy_ or _nêmec_, dumb--a word applied by the Sclavonic
races to the Germans, because their language was unintelligible to
them: _e.g._ Niemitsch, Niemez, Niemtschitz, German towns in Bohemia;
Nemet-uj-var (the new German fortress), in Hungary; but there is a
Sclavonic deity called Njam, to whom the names of some of these places
may be traced.

[Sidenote: NO, NOE, NOUE (Old Fr.),]

a low meadow habitually overflowed with water. It has evidently arisen
out of _noyer_, to submerge; _e.g._ Noaillac, Noallau, La Noalle,
Noalles, Noyelle, Noyellette, in which the word is probably joined to
_œuil_, a water-source; Nogent (pleasant meadow); No-aux-Bois (in the
woods); Les Noues, Neuillay, Neuilly, Noisy, Lat. _Noesiacum_.

[Sidenote: NORDEN, NÔORD (Teut.),
NOR (Scand.),
NORD (Fr.),]

the north; _e.g._ Normandy (the land given by the French to the Normans
under Rollo in 912); Noordbroek (the north marshy land); Noordwolde
(north wood), in Holland; Norbury, Nordenburg, Norton, Nordhausen
(north dwelling or town); Norham, on the R. Tweed; Northampton (the
town on the north side of the _Aufona_, now the R. Nen); Northumberland
(the land north of the Humber); Nordkyn (north cape); Normanton and
Normandby (dwellings of the Norsemen or Danes), in England; Norrköping
(northern market-town), in Sweden; Norrland (a large division of
Sweden); Northallerton, in Yorkshire, so called to distinguish it from
Allerton-Mauleverer; North Cape (the most northerly point of Norwegian
Lapland); North Berwick, Co. Haddington, so called to distinguish it
from Berwick-upon-Tweed; Norway (the northern kingdom)--_v._ REICH,
REIKE; Norfolk (the abode of the north people, as distinguished from
Suffolk to the south); Northleach, north of the R. Leach; Northwich,
in Cheshire (the north salt manufactory)--_v._ WICH; Norwich, the
town which superseded _Venta-Icenorum_, whose inhabitants fled at the
approach of the Danes, and erected a castle of defence farther north.

[Sidenote: NOYER (Fr.),]

the walnut-tree, Lat. _nucarius_, from which are derived _nucetum_,
_nucelletum_, and _nugaretum_ (a place planted with walnut-trees);
_e.g._ Noyers, Nozay, Noroy, La Nozaye, Les Nozées, Nozieres, Nozeroy,
etc., in France.

[Sidenote: NUDDY (Pali),]

a river; _e.g._ Maha-nuddy (great river); Nuddea (the district of the

[Sidenote: NUWERA (Tamil),]

a city; _e.g._ Alut-nuwera (new city); Kalawa (the city on the
Kala-Oya, _i.e._ the rocky river); Nuwera-Panduas (the city of
Panduas), in Ceylon.


[Sidenote: OB, OBER (Ger.),
OVER (Dutch),]

upper; _e.g._ Oberhofen (upper court); Oberlahnstein (the upper
fortress on the R. Lahn); Oberndorf, Overbie, Overham, Overton,
Overburg (upper town); Oberdrauburg (the upper town on the R. Drave);
Overyssel (beyond the R. Yssel); Orton (upper town), in Westmoreland;
St. Mary’s-Overy, Southwark (_i.e._ over the water from London).

[Sidenote: OE--_v._ EA, p. 71.]

[Sidenote: ŒUIL (Fr.),]

the eye--(in topography applied to the source of a stream or a
fountain; _e.g._ Arcueil (the arched fountain or aqueduct); Berneuil
(the source of the water, _bior_); Verneuil and Vernel (alder-tree
fountain, Lat. _vernus_); Argenteuil (silver fountain); Bonneuil (good
fountain); Nanteuil (the source of the stream); Auneuil (alder-tree
fountain, Fr. _aune_); Auteuil (high fountain); Boisseuil (the
woody fountain); Chantilly, anc. _Cantilliacum_ (the head of the

[Sidenote: OFER, or ORE (A.S.),
OVER (Dutch),
UFER (Ger.),
OIR (Gadhelic),
EYRE, or ORE (Scand.), a point,]

a border, boundary, or shore--cognate with the Lat. _ora_ and the
Grk. _horos_; _e.g._ Oare and Ore (the shore), in Kent, Sussex, and
Somerset; Windsor, _i.e._ _Windle-sora_ (the winding shore, A.S.
_windle_); Southover and Westover (the south and west shore); Ventnor
(the shore of _Gwent_, the ancient name of the Isle of Wight); Pershore
(the willow shore, _pursh_), or, according to Camden, corrupt. from
_Periscorum_--in allusion to the abundance of _pear-trees_ in its
vicinity; Andover, anc. _Andeafaran_ (the shore or ferry of the R.
Anton); Ravensore (the point or promontory of Hrafen, a Scand. personal
name); Hanover, anc. _Hohenufer_ (high shore); Elsinore (the point near
the town of Helsing), in Denmark; Argyle, Gael. _Oirirgaedheal_ (the
coast lands of the Gaels); Dover, in Kent, and Douvres, in Normandy,
perhaps from _ofer_.

[Sidenote: OICHE (obs. Gael.),]

water; _e.g._ Oich River and Oichel (the Rivers Ock, Ocker, Ocke, Eck);
Loch Oich, Duich (the black water).

[Sidenote: ORE (Hindostanee),]

a city; _e.g._ Ellore, Vellore, Nellore; Tanjore, anc. _Tanja-nagaram_
(the city of refuge); Bednore (bamboo city); Mangalore (the city of

[Sidenote: ORMR (Scand.),]

a serpent, also a personal name; _e.g._ Ormeshead, in Cumberland,
named either from the serpent-like shape of the rock, or from the
common Norse name _Ormr_; Ormathwaite, Ormsby, Ormiston, Ormskirk (the
clearing, the dwelling, and the church of Ormr). The same prefix in
French topography signifies the elm-tree, as in Les Ormes (the elms);
Ormoy, Lat. _Ulmetium_ (the elm-grove), synonymous with Olmedo and
Olmeto, in Spain. The Orne or Olna (elm-tree river), in Normandy; Ulm
or Ulma (the place of elm-trees), in Wurtemburg; Olmeta, in Corsica.

[Sidenote: ORT (Ger.),
OORT (Dutch),
ORD (Scand.),]

a point, a corner, and sometimes a place; _e.g._ Angerort (the corner
of the R. Anger); Ruhrort (of the Rohr or Ruhr); Grünort (green point);
Schönort (beautiful point); Akkerort (the corner of the field);
Tiegenort (of the R. Tiege); Störort (of the R. Stör); the Ord or
headland of Caithness.

[Sidenote: OST, OEST (Ger.),
OOST (Dutch),
OSTER (Scand.),]

the east; _e.g._ Ostend (at the east end or opening of the canal into
the ocean); Osterburg, Osterfeld, Osterhofen (the east town, field,
and court); Osterholtz (the east wood); Osterdalen (the east basin of
the R. Duhl), in Sweden; Ostheim, Osthausen, Oesthammer (the eastern
dwelling or village); Ostwald (east wood), in Alsace; Essex (the
country of the East Saxons, in opposition to Wessex); Austerlitz (the
east town of the R. Littawa); Alost (to the east), in Belgium.

[Sidenote: OSTROW, or OZERO (Sclav.),]

an island or lake; _e.g._ Ostrov, in Russia (on a river-island);
Kolkoe-Ostrog (the island in the R. Kola); Ostrova (an island in the
Danube); Bielo-Ozero (the white lake); Tschudskoe-Ozero (the lake of
the Tschudes, a tribe); Ostrownoye (the new island). But Ostrow and
Wustrow are sometimes Germanised forms of _Wotschow_, Sclav, (a marshy
place), as in Wustrow, Ostropol, Ostrasatz, Ostrawiec (the place on the
marshy ground).

[Sidenote: OTERO (Span.),]

a hill or rising ground; _e.g._ El-Otero (the rising ground);
Otero-de-las-duenas (the hill of the old ladies); Otero-del-Rey (the
king’s hill).

[Sidenote: OW, ITZ, OWIZ, OO,]

Sclavonic affixes, used as patronymics, like the Ger. _ingen_; _e.g._
Nowakwitz (the possession of the descendants of Nouak); Jvanow, Janow,
Janowitz (belonging to John and his descendants); Karlowitz (to
Charles); Petrowitz (to Peter); Kazimiritz (to Casimir); Mitrowitz (to
Demetrius); Stanislowow (to Stanislaus); Tomazow (to Thomas); Cracow
or Kracow (the town of Duke Craus or Krak of Poland, by whom it was
founded in 1700).


[Sidenote: PALATIUM (Lat.),
PALAS (Cym.-Cel.),
PAILIS (Gadhelic),]

a palace; _e.g._ the Upper and Lower Palatinate, so called from the
palaces erected by the Roman emperors in different parts of the
empire; Palazzo, in Dalmatia and Naples; Palazzolo and Palazzuolo (the
great palace), in Piedmont; Los Palachios (the palaces), in Spain;
Pfalsbourg, anc. _Palatiolum_ (the town of the palace, founded in
1570), in France; Semipalatinsk, in Siberia (the town of the seven
palaces), so called from the extensive ruins in its neighbourhood;
Spalatro, in Dalmatia, named from the palace of Diocletian, originally
_Salonæ-Palatium_ (the palace near Salona), at first corrupted to
_As-palthium_ (at the palace), and then to Spalatro. In Wales:
Plas-gwyn (the white palace); Plas-newydd (the new palace).

[Sidenote: PALLI (Tamil),]

a small town or village, sometimes corrupted to Poly, Pilly, or Pally;
_e.g._ Trichinopoly, _i.e._ _Trisira-palli_ (the town of the giant).

[Sidenote: PALUS (Lat.),
PADULE (It.),]

a marsh; _e.g._ Padula and Paduli, towns in Italy; Peel, Lat. _palus_,
an extensive marsh in Belgium; La Pala, La Palud, and Paluz, in France;
Perugia (the town on the marsh), in a province of the same name in
Italy; Pelusium, Coptic _Permoun_ (the muddy or marshy place), on the
Delta of the Nile.

[Sidenote: PANT (Welsh),]

a hollow; _e.g._ Pant-y-crwys (the hollow of the cross), in Wales;
Pant-yr-Ysgraff for _Pont-yr-Ysgraff_--_v._ PONT.

[Sidenote: PAPA, or PABBA (Scand.),
PFAFFE (Ger.),
POP (Sclav.),]

a priest; _e.g._ Pabba (the priest’s island), several of this name in
the Hebrides; Papa-Stour (the great island of the priest), in Shetland;
Papa-Stronsay (the priest’s island near Stronsay), Orkney; Pappenheim,
Pfaffenhausen, Pfaffenberg, Pfaffenhofen (the priest’s dwelling), in
Germany; Papendrecht (the priest’s pasture); Pfarrkirchen (the priest’s
or parish church); Poppowitz, Poppow, Sclav. (places belonging to the

[Sidenote: PARA (Brazilian),]

a river, water, or the sea; _e.g._ Para, Parahiba, Parana, Paranymbuna,
rivers in Brazil; Paraguay (the place of waters); Parana-Assu (the
great river); Parana-Mirim (the small river); Parahyba (bad water).

[Sidenote: PARA (Sclav.),]

a swamp or marsh, cognate with the Lat. _palus_; _e.g._ Parchen,
Parchau, Parchim (places in a marshy locality); Partwitz or Parzow,
Paaren (the town on the marsh), in several localities. The letter _p_
is sometimes changed into _b_ as in Barduz, Barzig, Baruth, in Prussia,
and Bars or Barsch, in Hungary.

[Sidenote: PATAM, or PATTANA (Sansc.),]

a city; _e.g._ Nagapatam (the city of the snake); Masulipatam (of
fishes); Periapatam (the chosen city); Viziapatam (the city of
victory); Seringapatam, _i.e._ _Sri-ranja-Pattana_ (the city of
Vishnu); Pata or Pattana (the city); Madras or _Madras-patan_ (the city
of the college or school; _madrasa_, Ar., a university). Madras is
called by the natives _Chenna-patana_ (the city of Chenappa, an Indian

[Sidenote: PEEL (Cel. _pile_),]

a small fortress; _e.g._ Peel, in the Isle of Man, and numerous Peel
towers on the border between England and Scotland. The Pile of Foudrig
(the peel or tower of the fire island), called Furness, the site of
an ancient lighthouse; Les Pilles, in Dauphiny; Ile du Pilier, in La
Vendée, with a lighthouse; _Pillas_, in the Lithuanian language also,
is a castle, thus--Pillkallan (the castle on the hill), in E. Prussia,
as well as the towns of Pillau, in E. Prussia, Pilsen, in Bohemia, and
Pillnitz (the towns with fortifications).

[Sidenote: PEN (Cym.-Cel.),]

a head, or a promontory, or hill summit; _e.g._ Pen-carrig (rocky hill
or cape); Pen-brynn (hill summit); Pencoid (of the wood); Penmon (the
promontory of Mona or Anglesea); Pentir (the headland); Pentyrch (the
boar’s head); Pen-y-cwm-gwig (the top of the woody vale), in Wales;
Pen-y-groes (the headland of the cross); Penby-diog (land’s end), in
Wales; Pencelly (the chief grove); Pen-y-gelly (the head of the grove,
_cell_, a grove); Penllech (of the stone or rock); Penhill, Somerset,
and Penlaw, Dumfries (the hill summit); Pendarves (the head of the
oak-field); Penpont (the head of the bridge), in Dumfriesshire; Penn (a
hill), in Stafford; Pencombe (the head of the hollow); Penforfa (of the
moor); Pennant (of the valley); Pen-mynnydd (of the mountain); Penrith,
anc. _Pen-rhyd_ (of the ford); Penicuik (the cuckoo’s hill); Cockpen
(red hill); Pen-maen-maur (the great stone head or hill); Pennigant
(windy hill); Penryn and Penrhyn (the head of the promontory);
Pentraeth (of the strand); Pen-y-craig or Old Radnor (the head of the
rock); Penzance, formerly _Pensans_--it is called the saint’s headland,
from a head of John the Baptist (the town’s arms), but Camden thinks
it might mean the head of the sands; Pain-bœuf or Penn-Ochen (the ox’s
headland); Pendennis (the fort on the headland)--_v._ DINAS. Mount
Pindus and the Grampians, Van in Brecknock, and the Vans in Wales,
embody this root; also the Apennines and the Pennine Alps, Pena and
Penha, in Spain and Portugal are applied to rocks, thus--Penafiel (the
loyal rock), in Spain, and also Cape Penas; Penha-verde (green rock) in

[Sidenote: PFERCH (Ger.),
PARC (Fr.),
PAIRC (Irish).]

In Germany this word signifies an enclosure for cattle--in England
and France, an enclosure for the protection of game or for pleasure;
_e.g._ Parkhurst (the enclosure in the wood); Parkfoot (at the foot
of the park), Co. Stirling; Parkham (park dwelling); Parkmore (great
park or field), in Ireland; Parkatotaun (the field of the burning), Co.

[Sidenote: PFERD (Ger.),]

a horse; _e.g._ Pferdsfeld (the horse’s field); Pfersdorf (the horse’s

[Sidenote: PFORTE (Ger.),
POORT (Dutch),
PORTH (Cym.-Cel.),
PORT (Gadhelic),]

a haven, landing-place, or passage--cognate with the Lat. _portus_;
_e.g._ Seligenpforten (the blessed port); Sassenpoorte (the Saxons’
haven); Himmelpforte (the port of heaven); Pforzheim (the dwelling at
the passage or entrance to the Hyrcenian forest), in Baden; Zandpoort
(sandy haven); Porlock (the enclosed haven), in Somersetshire;
Portsmouth (the mouth of the haven); Porthkerry (rocky haven), in
Wales; Porthaethroy (the landing-place of the terrible water), a
dangerous ferry in Wales; Portholgoch, corrupt. from _Porth-y-wal-goch_
(_i.e._ the harbour of the red wall); Porthstinian (the port of
Justinian), in Wales; Porth-y-cawl, corrupt. from _Porth-y-Gaul_ (the
harbour where the Gallic invaders used to land), in Wales. In Ireland:
Portraine, now Rathlin (the landing-place of Rachra); Portadown (at the
fortress); Portlaw, Irish _Port-lagha_ (at the hill); Portmarnock (the
haven of St. Marnock); Port-na-Spania (the port of the Spaniard), where
one of the vessels of the Invincible Armada was wrecked, off the coast
of Ireland; Port-Arlington, named after the Earl of Arlington in the
reign of Charles II.; Port-Glasgow, anc. _Kil-ma-Colm_ (St. Columba’s
church). It received its modern name in 1668, when purchased by the
merchants of Glasgow; Portmoak, in Kinross (the landing-place of St.
Moak); Port-Patrick (the place from which it is said St. Patrick sailed
for Ireland); Portree, in Skye, and Port-an-righ, in Ross (the king’s
haven); Portnellan (the landing-place of the island), in Loch Tummel;
Portmore (the great port), in Wigton; Port-na-craig (of the rock);
Port-na-churaich (of the boat), in Iona, where St. Columba landed
from Ireland; Port-skerrie (the rocky landing-place), in Sutherland;
Snizort, in Skye, corrupt. from _Snisport_, probably named after a
Norse leader or pirate; Port-ny-hinsey (the haven of the island), the
Celtic name of Peel, in the Isle of Man; Portinscale, in Westmoreland
(the passage where the _skaala_ or booths for the Scandinavian _thing_,
_i.e._ meeting, were erected); Portobello (the beautiful harbour), in
South America, so named by its founder; Portobello, in Mid Lothian,
named in commemoration of the capture of the South American town in
1739; Portskewitt or _Porth-is-coed_ (the port below the wood), in
Monmouth; Porth-yn-lyn (the port of the pool), in Wales; Portsoy, in
Banffshire, _i.e._ _Port-saith_ (the safe port); Port-dyn-Norwig (the
port of the Northman), in Wales; Maryport, in Cumberland, named after
the wife of its first proprietor; Portlethan, Gael. _Port-leath-an_
(the port of the gray river), Kincardine; Port-Logan, in Wigton, _i.e._
Gael. _Port-na-lagan_ (the port of the hollow). _Port_ became an
established Saxon word for a market-town--hence we have such names as
Newport, Longport, applied to inland towns; Bridport, on the R. Brit.
The Cinque-ports, Fr. _cinq_ (five), were the towns of Dover, Hastings,
Hythe, Romney, Sandwich. In Portugal: Oporto (the port); Portugal,
anc. _Portus-cale_, both meaning the harbour; Porto-rico (rich port),
an island of the Antilles group; Porto-Santo (the holy port), in the
Madeira Isles; Porto-seguro (safe port); Porto-Vecchio (old port), in
Corsica; Porto-Alegre (the cheerful port), in Brazil; Porto-farina
(the port of wheat), in North Africa; Porto-ferrajo (fortified port),
in Tuscany, on the coast of the Island of Elba; Port-Vendres, Lat.
_Portus-Veneris_ (the port of Venus), in France; Le Treport, corrupt.
from the Lat. _Ulterior-Portus_, in Normandy, at the mouth of the

[Sidenote: PIC, PIKE (A.S.),
PIC and PUY (Fr.),
SPITZE (Ger.),]

a peak or promontory; _e.g._ the Pike o’ Stickle (the peak of the
high rock); the Peak, in Derbyshire; Pike’s Peak, in the Rocky
Mountains, named after General Pike; Spitz, in Austria, built around
a hill; Spitzbergen (the peaked mountains); Spithead (the head of
the promontory); Le Puy (the peak), a town situated on a high hill;
Puy-de-dome (the dome-shaped peak).

[Sidenote: PISCH (Sclav.),]

sand; _e.g._ Pesth, in Hungary (on a dry, sandy soil); but Buttman
suggests that the name may be derived from _paz_, Sclav. (a baking
place), as the German name for Buda, on the opposite side of the
Danube, is _Ofen_ (the oven); Peschkowitz, Peshen, Pisck, Pskov,
Peckska, in Russia and Bohemia. _Pies_, Sclav. (the dog), may, however,
be the root-word of some of these names.

PITT, PITTEN (Gadhelic),

a hole, a small hollow. This word, as a prefix, occurs very frequently
in Scotland, especially in Fife, in which county the most important
place is Pittenweem (the hollow of the cave, _uaimh_), the seat of an
ancient monastery, near which is the cave from which it was named;
Pitcairn (the hollow of the cairn), near Perth, in the neighbourhood
of which there are two large cairns of stones; Pitgarvie (the rough
hollow); Pitglas (the gray hollow); Pettinain (the hollow of the
river), a parish on the Clyde; Pittencrieff (the hollow of the
tree, _craobh_); Pitgober (of the goat); Pitnamoon (of the moss);
Pittendriech (the Druid’s hollow); Pitcaithly, probably the hollow
of the narrow valley, in Perthshire; Pittentaggart (the priest’s
portion)--as in ancient times, the word _pitte_ is understood to have
also meant a part or portion of land; and it has probably this meaning
in Pitlochrie, in Perthshire, anc. _Pittan-cleireach_ (the portion of
the clergy or church-land), as well as in Pittan-clerach, in Fife;
Pitmeddin, in Aberdeenshire, named after St. Meddane. Pittenbrae (the
hollow of the hill); Petty or Pettie, anc. _Petyn_ (the hollow of the
island), on Beauly Loch, Inverness; Pettycur (the hollow of the dell,
_coire_), in Fife.

[Sidenote: PLESSA (Fr.),

meaning successively a hedge, an enclosed and cultivated place
surrounded by trees, an enclosed garden, a park, a mansion, or
country residence; _e.g._ Plessis, Le Plessin, Plessier, Le Plessial,
etc.--_v._ Cocheris’s _Noms de Lieu_.

[Sidenote: PLEU, or PLOE (Cym.-Cel.),]

a village, found only in Brittany; _e.g._ Pleu-meur (great village);
Pleu-nevey (new village); Ploer-mel (the mill village); Pleu-Jian
(John’s village); Pleu, Ploven, Pleven, etc.

[Sidenote: PLÖN, POLSKI (Sclav.),]

a plain; _e.g._ Ploen, a town in Holstein; Plönersee (the lake of the
plain); Juriev-Polskoi (St. George’s town on the plain); Poland, _i.e._
_Polskoi_ (the plain or level land); Volkynia (the level country).

[Sidenote: POD (Sclav.),]

near or under; _e.g._ Podgoriza (under the hill); Podmokla (near the
moss); Potsdam, from _Pozdu-pemi_ (under the oaks).

[Sidenote: POLDER (Dutch),]

land reclaimed from the sea; _e.g._ Polder and Polders, in Belgium;
Beemsterpolder (the meadow of the reclaimed land); Charlotten-Polder
(Charlotte’s reclaimed land); Pwlpolder (land reclaimed from a pool or

[Sidenote: POLIS (Grk.),]

a city; _pol_ (Sclav.), probably borrowed from the Greek;
Constantinople, Adrianople, founded by the emperors Constantine and
Adrian; Nicopolis and Nicopoli (the city of victory)--the first founded
by Augustus to commemorate the battle of Actium, and the second by
Trajan to commemorate his victory over the Dacians; Persepolis (the
city of the Persians); Pampeluna, corrupt. from _Pompeiopolis_, so
called because rebuilt by the sons of Pompey the Great; Decapolis (the
district of the ten cities), colonised by the Romans, in Palestine;
Sebastopol (the august city); Stavropol (the city of the cross), in
Russia; Bielopol (the white city); Bogopol (the city of God, Sclav.
_Bog_); Gallipoli, anc. _Calipolis_ (the beautiful city); Naples,
Nauplia, Nablous, and Neapolis (the new city); Grenoble, corrupt. from
_Gratianopolis_ (the city of Gratian); Heliopolis (the city of the
sun), being the Greek name for On, in Egypt, and also for Baalbec, in
Syria; Krasnapol (the fair city); Theriasipol, in Hungary (named after
the Empress Theresa)--its Hungarian name _Szabadka_ (the privileged);
Yelisabetpol (after the Empress Elizabeth); Tripoli, in Syria (the
three cities), being a joint colony from Tyre, Sidon, and Aradus;
Tripoli, in Barbary, named from its three principal cities, Lepta,
Oca, and Sabrata; Tripolitza, in the Morea, built from the remains
of the three cities Tegea, Mantinea, and Palantium; Amphipolis, now
_Emboli_ (the surrounded city), so called because almost encircled by
the R. Strymon; Anapli, in the Morea, corrupt. from _Neapolis_ (new
town); Annapolis, in Nova Scotia, named after Queen Anne; Antibes, in
Provence, a colony from Marseilles, anc. _Antinopolis_, named after its
founder; Stamboul, the Turkish name for Constantinople, means _eis ten
polin_ (to the city).

[Sidenote: POLL (Gadhelic),
PWL (Cym.-Cel.),
POEL (Teut.),]

a pool or marsh, cognate with the Lat. _palus_; _e.g._ Poole, in
Dorset, situated on a lagune; Pontypool (the pool at the bridge);
Welsh-pool, so called to distinguish it from Poole in Dorset--its
Welsh name is _Trellyn_ (the dwelling on the pool); Hartlepool, Danish
_Hartness_ (the pool hard by the headland)--the Normans added _le
pol_, from a pool called the Slake, by which it is almost insulated;
Liverpool, probably _Llyr-pwl_, Welsh (the sea pool); Blackpool, in
Lancashire, named from a marsh now drained; Polton and Pulborough
(pool town); Polbaith and Polbeath, Gael. (the pool of the birches);
Poltarf (of the bull); Pollnaranny and Polrane (of the ferns), in
Ireland; Wampool in Cumberland (_i.e._ Woden’s pool); Pwl-helli (the
salt pool); Pwll-du (black pool); Pwll-broch-mael (the pool of the
warlike weapons), the site of a battle between the Welsh and Saxons;
Pwll-tin-byd (the very deep pool, literally the pool at the bottom
of the world); Pwll-y-wrach (the hag’s pool), in Wales. _Pill_, in
Gloucester, means the mouth of a brook, _e.g._ Cow-pill, Horse-pill,
etc.; Polmont, Co. Stirling, corrupt. from _poll-monaidh_ (the pool
near the hill).

[Sidenote: POMMIER (Fr.),]

the apple-tree; _pomeratum_ (a place planted with apple-trees);
_e.g._ La Pommerée, Pommeray, Pomiers, Pommera, Pommeraie, Pommereau,
Pommereuil, in France.

[Sidenote: PONS (Lat.),
PONT (Welsh),]

the bridge, with its derivatives in the Romance and in the Welsh
languages; _e.g._ Pontefract, Lat. _Ad-pontem-fractum_ (at the broken
bridge); Pontoise (the bridge across the R. Oise); Pont-Audemer (the
bridge built by Aldemar across the R. Rille); Pont-de-briques (the
bridge of bricks); Pont-d’Espagne, corrupt. from _Pont-de-sapins_
(the fir-tree bridge); Ponteland, in Northumberland, corrupt. from
_Ad-pontem-Ælianum_ (at the bridge of Ælius); Pontigny (bridge
town); Les-Ponts-de-Cé (the bridges of Cæsar), a town in France,
with four bridges across the Loire; Negropont, probably a corrupt.
of _Egripo_, which the Italian sailors translated into Negripo or
Negropont (black bridge), in allusion to the narrow strait called
in Greek _Euripos_ (_i.e._ the strait with the violent current), on
which the town was built--the name of the town was gradually extended
to the whole island, till then called _Eubœa_; Ponte-vedra (the old
bridge), and Puenta-de-la-Reyna (the queen’s bridge), in Spain;
Grampound, in Cornwall, Welsh _Pout-maur_ (the great bridge), corrupt.
from the Fr. _Grand-pont_; Paunton, in Lincoln, anc. _Ad-pontem_
(at the bridge); Pontesbury (bridge town), in Cheshire; Ponte-corvo
(the crooked bridge), in Campania; Deux-ponts (the two bridges), in
Bavaria. In Wales: Pont-faen (stone bridge); Pont-newydd (new bridge);
Pont-glasllyn (the bridge at the blue pool); Pont-y-glyn (the bridge
of the glen); Pont-y-pair (the bridge of the cauldron); Pont-ar-ddulas
(the bridge on the dark water); Pont-ar-Fynach (the devil’s bridge);
Pontypool (the bridge of the pool); Pant-yr-ysgraff, probably corrupt.
from _Pont-yr-ysgraff_ (the bridge of boats). In France: Poncelle,
Ponchel, Poncelet, Ponceaux, etc.; Pont-à-couleuvre, in the depart. of
Oise, probably from an Old Lat. text, in which this place is called
_Pont-à-qui-l’ouvre_ (_i.e._ the bridge to whomsoever may open), it
being a bridge closed by barriers--Cocheris’s _Noms de Lieu_.

[Sidenote: POOR, PORE, PURA (Sansc.),]

a city; _e.g._ Nagpoor (snake city); Chuta Nagpore (the little snake
city); Amarapoora (divine city); Bejapore or Visiapoor (the city of
victory); Berampore (of the Mahometan sect called _Bohra_); Bhagulpore
(tiger city); Ahmedpore (the city of Ahmed); Ahmedpore Chuta (the
little city of Ahmed); Callianpoor (flourishing city); Bhurtpore (the
city of Bhurat, the brother of the god Ram); Rampoor (Ram’s city);
Bissenpoor (of Vishnu); Ferozepore (of Feroze-Togluk); Huripoor (of
Hari or Vishnu); Shahjehanpoor (of Shah Jehan); Mahabalipoor (of
Bali the Great); Caujapoor (of the Virgin); Rajapore (of the rajah);
Cawnpoor or Khanpur (of the Beloved One, a title of Krishna); Hajipoor
(of the pilgrim); Ghazipore (of Ghazi, a martyr); Mirzapoor (the
city of the emir); Secunderpoor (of Secunder Lodi); Sidhpoor (of
the saint); Singapore (of the lions); Russoulpoor (of the prophet);
Chandpoor (of the moon); Joudpoor (war city); Ratnapoor (of rubies);
Munnipora (of jewels); Darmapooram (of justice); Dinajpore (of
beggars); Futtepoor (of victory); Sudhapura (bright city); Conjeveram,
corrupt. from _Canchipura_ (the golden city); Trivandrum, corrupt. from
_Tiruvanan-thapuram_ (the town of the holy Eternal One), in Travancore.

[Sidenote: PRAAG, PRAYAGA (Sansc.),]

a holy place; _e.g._ Vissenpraag (the holy place of Vishnu);
Devaprayaga (God’s holy place).

[Sidenote: PRADO (Span. and Port.),
PRATA (It.),

a meadow, derived from the Lat. _pratum_; _e.g._ the Prairies or meadow
lands; Prato-Vecchio (the old meadow), in Tuscany; Ouro-preto, corrupt.
from _Ouro-prado_ (the gold meadow), near a gold mine in Brazil. In
France, Prémol, _i.e._ _pratum molle_ (the smooth meadow); Prabert,
_i.e._ _Pratum Alberti_ (Albert’s meadow); Pradelles, Les Prések,
Prémontié, Lat. _Pratum-mons_ (the mount in the meadow), the site of an
abbey, chief of the order of the Prémontié.

[Sidenote: PUEBLA (Span.),]

a collection of people, hence a village; _e.g._ La Puebla, in Mexico;
La Puebla-de-los-Angelos (the village of the angels), in Mexico.

[Sidenote: PULO (Malay),]

an island; _e.g._ Pulo-Penang (betel-nut island).

[Sidenote: PUSTY (Sclav.),]

a waste place; _e.g._ Pustina (on the waste ground); Pusta-kaminica
(the stony waste).

[Sidenote: PYTT (A.S.),
PFUTZE (Ger.),
PYDEN (Welsh),]

a well or pool of standing water, cognate with the Lat. _puteus_ and
its derivatives in the Romance languages; _e.g._ Puozzuoli in Italy,
and Puteaux in France, anc. _Puteoli_ (the place of wells); Le Puiset,
anc. _Puteolis castrum_ (the camp of the well); Pfutzenburg and
Pfutzenthal (the town and valley of the wells or pools), in Germany;
Poza-de-la-sal (the salt well), near a salt mine in Spain; also in
Spain: Pozanca and Pozancos (the stagnant pools); Pozo-blanco and
Pozo-hondo (the white and deep pool); Putney, anc. _Puttenheath_ (the
pool on the heath), in Surrey; Puttenheim, in Belgium (a dwelling near
a well or pool).


[Sidenote: QUELLE (Ger.), WEDEL (Old Ger.),
WYL (A.S.),
KILDE (Scand.),
KILL (Dutch),]

a place from which water flows--from _quellen_, to spring, and
_wyllan_, to flow; _e.g._ Mühlquelle (the mill fountain); Hoogkill
(corner well), and Bassekill (low well), in Holland; Quillebœuf
(well town), in Normandy; Roeskilde (the fountain of King Roe), in
Denmark; Salzwedel (salt well); Hohenwedel (high well); Tideswell,
in Derbyshire--probably from a personal name, as there is a Tideslow
in the neighbourhood; Wells, in Norfolk (a place into which the tide
flows); Wells, in Somerset, named from a holy fountain dedicated to St.
Andrew; Motherwell, in Lanarkshire, named from a well dedicated to the
Virgin Mary; Amwell, in Hants, corrupt. from _Emma’s well_; Holywell,
in Wales, named from St. Winifred’s well--in Welsh it is called
_Treffynnon_ (the town of the well); Shadwell, in London (St. Chad’s
well); Bakewell, anc. _Badican-wylla_ (the bath wells), in Derbyshire;
Walston, a parish in Lanarkshire, named from a sacred well near the
site of the church; Ashwell (the well among ash-trees), in Hertford;
Ewell, in Surrey, found written _Etwell_ and _Awell_ (_at_ the well).


[Sidenote: RADE, RODE (Teut.),]

a place where wood has been cut down, and which has been cleared
for tillage, from _reuten_, to root out, to plough or turn up. The
word in its various forms, _reud_, _reut_, and _rath_, is common in
German topography; _e.g._ Wittarode (the cleared wood); Herzegerode
(the clearing on the Hartz Mountains); Quadrath (the clearing of the
Quadi); Lippenrode (the clearing on the R. Lippe); Rade-vor-dem-walde
(the clearing in front of the wood); Randarath and Wernigerode (the
clearing of Randa and Werner); Zeulenroda (the clearing on the
boundary, _ziel_); Schabert, corrupt. from _Suabroid_ (the Swabian
clearing); Pfaffrath (the priest’s clearing); Baireuth (the cleared
ground of the Boii or Bavarians); Schussenried (the clearing on the R.
Schussen). Royd, in England, means a path cut through a wood, as in
Huntroyd, Boothroyd, Holroyd. _Terra-rodata_ (rode land) was so called
in opposition to _Terra-Bovata_, _i.e._ an ancient enclosure which had
been from time immemorial under the plough, _i.e._ Ormeroyd (Ormer’s
rode land).

[Sidenote: RAIN, RAND, RA (Teut. and Scand.),
RHYNN (Cym.-Cel.),
RINN (Irish),
ROINN (Gael.),]

a promontory or peninsula; _e.g._ Rain, a town name in Bavaria
and Styria; Randers, on a promontory in Denmark; Hohenrain (high
promontory); Steenrain (rock headland); Renfrew (the promontory of
the stream, _frew_), anc. _Strathgriff_, on the R. Griff; the Rhinns
(_i.e._ the points), in Galloway; Rhynie, a parish in Aberdeenshire;
Rhind, a parish in Perthshire, with the parish church situated on
a headland jutting into the R. Tay; Rinmore (the great point), in
Devon, Argyle, and Aberdeenshire; Rindon, in Wigton; Tynron, Gael.
_Tigh-an-roinne_ (the house on the point), a parish in Dumfriesshire;
Reay, in Sutherlandshire, and Reay, a station on the Lancaster and
Carlisle Railway, from _Ra_, Norse (a point); Penryn (the head of
the point), in Cornwall. This word, in various forms, such as _rin_,
_reen_, _rine_, _ring_, is of frequent occurrence in Ireland; _e.g._
Ringrone (the seal’s promontory); Rineanna (the promontory of the
marsh, _eanaigh_); Ringville and Ringabella, Irish _Rinn-bhile_ (the
point of the old tree); Ringfad (long point); Ringbane (white point);
Rineen (little point); Ringagonagh (the point of the O’Cooneys);
Rinville, in Galway (the point of Mhil, a Firbolg chieftain); Ringsend,
near Dublin (the end of the point).

[Sidenote: RAJA, RAJ (Sansc.),]

royal; _e.g._ Rajamahal (the royal palace); Rajapoor (royal
city); Rajpootana (the country of the Rajpoots, _i.e._ the king’s
sons--_putra_, a son).

[Sidenote: RAS (Ar.),
ROSH (Heb.),]

a cape; _e.g._ Ras-el-abyad (the white cape); Rasigelbi, corrupt. from
_Rasicalbo_ (the dog’s cape); Rasicarami (the cape of the vineyards);
Ras-el-tafal (chalk cape); Rasicanzar (the swine’s cape); Ras-el-shakah
(the split cape); Ras-el-hamra (red cape); Rascorno (Cape Horn).

[Sidenote: RATH, RAED (Teut.),]

council; _e.g._ Rachstadt or Rastadt (the town of the council or
court of justice); Rathenau (the meadow of the council): Raithby (the
dwelling of the court of justice).

[Sidenote: RATH (Gadhelic),]

a round earthen fort or stronghold, cognate with the Welsh _rhath_, a
mound or hill; _e.g._ Rathmore (the great fort); Ratass or Rathteas
(the south fort); Rattoo or _Rath-tuaith_ (northern fort); Rathbeg
(little fort); Rathduff (black fort); Rathglass (green fort); Rathcoole
(the fort of Cumhal, the father of Finn); Rathcormac (of Cormack);
Rathdrum (of the ridge); Rathdowney, Irish _Rath-tamhnaigh_ (of the
green field); Rathbane (white fort); Rathfryland (Freelan’s fort)--all
in Ireland. Rattray, in Perthshire, where there are the remains of an
old fortress on a hill, and near what is called the Standing Stones,
supposed to have been a Druidical temple; Rathven (hill-fort), in
Banffshire; Rathmorail (the magnificent fort), in Aberdeenshire;
Raphoe, Co. Donegal, abbrev. from _Rathboth_ (the fort of huts).

[Sidenote: REICH, REIKE (Goth.),
RICE (A.S.),
RIGH (Scand.),]

a kingdom; _e.g._ France, _i.e._ _Frank-reich_ (the kingdom of the
_Franks_, who are supposed to have derived their name from a kind of
javelin called _franca_); Austria, _Œstreich_ (the eastern kingdom), as
opposed to Neustria (the western); Surrey or _Sud-rice_ (the southern
kingdom); Goodrich, in Hereford (Goda’s rule or kingdom); Rastrick
(Rasta’s rule), in Yorkshire; Norway or _Nordrike_ (the northern
kingdom); Ringerige, in Norway (the kingdom of King Ringe); Gothland,
anc. _Gotarike_ (the kingdom of the Goths); Sweden, anc. _Sviarike_
(the kingdom of the Suiones).

[Sidenote: REIDH (Gadhelic),]

smooth, used also as a noun to signify a level field, and Anglicised
_re_, _rea_, or _rey_; _e.g._ Remeen (the smooth plain); Muilrea
(smooth hill, _mullagh_, p. 145); Rehill for _Redh-choill_ (smooth

[Sidenote: REKA (Sclav.),]

a river; _e.g._ Riga, Rega, Regan, Regnitz (river names); also the R.
Spree, Sclav. _Serbenreka_ (the river of the Serbs or Wends); Meseritz
and Meseritsch (in the midst of rivers), in Moravia and Wallachia;
Rakonitz (the town on the river), in Russia; Reka, the Sclavonic name
for _Fiume_, It. (the river), a town on the Adriatic, at the mouth of a
stream of the same name.

[Sidenote: RHEDIG (Cym.-Cel.),
RUITH (Gadhelic),
REO (Grk.),
RUO (Lat.),
RI, SRI (Sansc.),]

to flow, from whence are derived _rivus_ and _rivula_, Lat.; _rio_,
Span. and Port.; _rivola_, _raes_, and _rith_, A.S. (a stream).
The Eng. _river_ comes through the Fr. _rivière_, and that from
_riparia_, in Mediæval Lat. a river, but literally a river-bank. From
these root-words many river names are derived, or from _rhe_, _rea_
(swift), joined to root-words signifying water; _e.g._ the Rhone, anc.
_Rhodanus_, the Rhine, Rye, Rea, Rhee, Rhea, Rey, Rheus, Roe, Ruhr,
etc.; Rio-doce and Rio-dulce (sweet or fresh river), in opposition to
Rio-salada (salt river); Rio-branco (white river); Rio-bravo-del-norte
(the great north river); Rio-grande-do-sul (the great south river);
Rio-negro (black river); Rio-tinto (coloured river); Rio-colorado, with
the same meaning; Rio-de-Janeiro, generally called Rio--so named by
the Portuguese discoverer because the bay was discovered on the feast
of St. Januarius: the city founded at the place, and now called Rio,
was originally named St. Sebastian; Rio-de-Cobra (the snake river), in
Jamaica; Rio-dos-Reis (the river of the kings), in Africa, so named
by Vasco de Gama, because discovered on the feast of the Epiphany;
Rio-de-Ouro (the river of gold), on the coast of Guinea; Rio-azul (the
blue river); Rio-Marahão (the tangled river); Rio-de-la-Plata (the
river of _plata_, _i.e._ silver), so called from the booty taken on its

[Sidenote: RHIADUR (Cym.-Cel.),]

a cataract; _e.g._ Rhayadar (the cataract), a town in Radnor, near
a fall of the R. Wye, removed in 1780. Radnor itself is supposed to
have taken its name from _Rhiadur-Gwy_ (the cataract of the R. Wye);
Rhiadur-mawr (the great cataract), in Caernarvonshire; Rhaidr-y-wennol
(the cataract of the swallow), so named from the rapidity of its
motion, like that of the bird.

[Sidenote: RHIW (Welsh),]

an ascent; _e.g._ Ruabon, corrupt. from _Rhiw-Fabon_ (the ascent of St.

[Sidenote: RHOS, ROS (Cym.-Cel.),]

in Wales signifying a moor, in Cornwall a valley; _e.g._ Ross, a town
in Hereford; Rhoscollen (the moor of hazels), in Anglesea; Rhos-du
(black moor); Penrhos (the head of the moor), in Wales. In Cornwall:
Roskilly (the valley of hazels); Rosecrewe (the valley of the cross);
Rosvean (little valley); Rosmean (stony valley).

[Sidenote: RHUDD (Cym.-Cel.),
RUADH (Gadhelic),
ROTH and RUD (Teut.),
ROD (Scand.),]

red; _e.g._ Rutland (red land), or perhaps cleared ground--_v._ RODE;
Rhuddlan (the red bank, _glan_); Rhuthin, corrupt. from _Rhudd-din_
(the red land); Llanrhudd (the red church), in Wales; Romhilde,
anc. _Rotemulte_ (red land); Rother, Rotha, Rothback (red stream);
Rotherthurm, Hung. _Vörostoroney_ (red tower); Rothen-haus, Sclav.
_Czerweny-hradek_ (red house or castle), in Bohemia; Rotenburg, in
Switzerland (the town on the red brook); Rothenburg, in Hanover and
Bavaria (the red fortress); Rothenburg, in Prussia proper, is called
by the Sclaves _Rostarezewo_ (the town of the Sclavonic deity Ratzi);
Rothenfels (red rock); Rotherham (the dwelling on the red river);
Roughan and Rooghaun (reddish land), in Ireland. But the prefix _rud_
is sometimes the abbreviation of a proper name, thus--Rudesheim, in
Germany, is from _Hruodinesheim_ (the dwelling of Hruodine); Rudby, in
Yorkshire (of Routh); Rudkioping, in Denmark (the market-town of Routh).

[Sidenote: RHYD (Welsh),]

a ford; _e.g._ Rhyderin, corrupt. from _Rhyd-gerwin_ (the rough
ford); Rhyd-y-Boithan, corrupt. from _Byddin_ (the ford of the army);
Rhydonen, corrupt. from _Rhyd-hen_ (the old ford); Rhyd-dol-cynfar (the
ford of the valley of the ancient fight).

[Sidenote: RIDING, or THRITHING,]

the three _things_, _q.v._, _i.e._ the three places or districts where
the Scandinavians held their judicial assemblies; _e.g._ the Ridings,
in Yorkshire, so named under the Danish rule; Lincoln was divided by
the Danes in the same manner.

[Sidenote: RIED (A.S.),]

a reed; _e.g._ Retford and Radford (the reedy ford); Radbourne (reedy
brook); Redbridge, in Hants, anc. _Reideford_ (reedy ford). Bede calls
it _Arundinis-vadum_, Lat. (the ford of the reeds).

[Sidenote: RIGGE (A.S.), RÜCHEN (Ger.),]

a ridge; _e.g._ Hansrücke (John’s ridge); Hengistrücke (the horses’
ridge); Hundsricke (the dog’s ridge); Rudgeley (the field at the
ridge); Brownrigg, Grayrigg (the brown and gray ridge); Reigate (the
passage through the ridge), contracted from _ridgegate_; Lindridge
(lime-tree ridge); Rucksteig (the steep path on the ridge); Langrike
(long ridge); Steenrücke (stony ridge).

[Sidenote: RIPA (Lat.),
RIVA (It.),
RIBA (Span. and Port.),
RIVE (Fr.),]

a bank or the border of a stream; _e.g._ Riva (on the bank of Lake
Como); Riva or Rief (on Lake Garda); Rive-de-Gier and Aube-rive (on the
banks of the R. Gier and Aube); Aute-rive and Rives-altes (the high
river-banks); Rieux, anc. _Rivi-Castra_ (the camp of the river-bank);
Riberac (on the bank of the water), in France; Rivalta (the high bank),
in Piedmont; Rivoli, anc. _Ripula_ (the little bank), in Piedmont;
Romorantin, anc. _Rivus-Morentini_ (the bank of the R. Morantin), in
France; _Riveria_ or _Riberia_, in Low Lat. signified a plain on the
bank of a river--hence Rivière, Rivières, Hautes-Rivières, La Rivoire,
etc., in France; Rivarrennæ, _i.e._ _Ripa-arenæ_ (the sandy bank), on
the R. Cher; the Rialto at Venice is corrupt, from _Riva-alto_ (the
high bank); Rye, in Sussex, in Lat. records _Ripa_; Ryde, in the Isle
of Wight, formerly _Rye_ (on the bank of the water); Altrupp, on the
R. Rhone, anc. _Alta-ripa_ (the high bank); Ribaute and Autrepe, for
_Haute-rive_ (high bank), in Belgium; Ribadavia and Riba-de-Sella (the
bank of the Rivers Avia and Sella), in Spain; Ripon, in Yorkshire, anc.
_Ripum_ (on the bank of the R. Ure).

[Sidenote: RISCH (Ger.),
ROGOSCHA (Sclav.),]

the rush; _e.g._ Ruscomb (the rushy hollow); Rushbrook (the rushy
stream); Rushford, Rushmere, Rushholme, Ryston (the rushy ford, marsh,
island, and town); Rogatzn, in Poland, and Rogatchev, in Russia (the
place of rushes).

[Sidenote: ROC, ROCHE (Fr.),
ROCCA (It.),
ROC (A.S.),]

a rock--derivatives from the Lat. _rupes_; _e.g._ Rocca-bianca (white
rock); Rocca-casale (rock village or dwelling); Rocca-secura (the
safe rock fortress), in Italy; Rocca-Valoscuro (the rock in the dark
valley), in Naples; Rochefort-sur-mer (the strong fortress on the
sea), at the mouth of the R. Charente; La Rochelle (the little rock
fortress); Rochefort (rock fortress), in Belgium; Rochester, Co. Kent
(the fortress on the rock), or, according to Bede, the fort of Hrop,
a Saxon chief; Rochester, in New York, named after Colonel Rochester,
one of the early settlers; Roche-Guyon, Lat. _Rupes-Guidonis_ (the
rock fortress of Guido); Roche-Foucault, anc. _Rupes-Fucaldi_ (the
fortress of Foucalt); Rocroi, Lat. _Rupes-Regia_ (the royal fortress),
in France; Roxburgh (the rock fortress)--the ancient town, as well as
the county, taking their name from the strong castle, situated on a
rock near the junction of the Tweed and Teviot--the ancient name of the
castle was _Marchidun_ (the hill-fort on the marshy land).

[Sidenote: ROS, ROSS (Gadhelic),]

a promontory or isthmus, and also, in the south of Ireland, a wood;
thus New Ross, Co. Wexford, anc. _Ros-mic-Treoin_ (the wood of Treuon’s
son); Roscommon (of St. Coman); Roscrea (Cree’s wood); Ross-castle (on
a promontory on Lake Killarney); Muckross (the peninsula of the pigs),
in several places in Ireland; Muckros (with the same meaning--the pig’s
headland) was the ancient name of the town of St. Andrews; Rossbegh
(of the birches); Rossinver (of the confluence); Port-rush (the
landing-place of the promontory); Ross-shire seems to have taken its
name from _Ross_ (a wood); Montrose, anc. _Monros_ (the promontory on
the marshy land, _moin_); Rosneath, anc. _Rosneveth_ (the promontory of
St. Nefydd), in Dumbartonshire; Roslin (the promontory on the pool);
Kinross (the head of the promontory), either with reference to the
county--in regard to Fife, of which it anciently formed part--or with
reference to the town at the head of Loch Leven. Fife was anciently
called _Ross_: it got the name of Fife in honour of Duff, Earl of
Fife, to whom it was given by Kenneth II.; and in 1426 Kinross was
made a separate county. Roskeen (the head or corner of Ross-shire);
Rosehearty, in Aberdeenshire, corrupt. from _Ros-ardty_ (the dwelling
on the high promontory).

[Sidenote: RÜHE (Ger.),]

rest; _e.g._ Ludwigsrühe (Ludowic’s rest); Carlshrühe (Charles’s rest),
founded by Charles William, Margrave of Baden, in 1715; Henricksrühe
(Henry’s rest).

[Sidenote: RUN (A.S.),]

council; _e.g._ Runhall (the hall of the council); Runnington, anc.
_Runenton_ (the town of the council); Runnymede (the meadow of the

[Sidenote: RYBA (Sclav.),]

fish; _e.g._ Rybnik, Rybniza (the fish pond); Rybinsk, Rybnaia (fish

[Sidenote: RYSCH, or ROW (Sclav.),]

a dam or ditch; _e.g._ Prierow (near the dam); Prierosbrück (the bridge
near the dam); Ryswick (the town on the dam); Riez, Rieze, Riezow,
Riezig (at the dam).


[Sidenote: SA (Sclav.),

behind; _e.g._ Sabor (behind the wood); Zadrin (behind the R. Drin);
Zamosc (behind the moss); Zabrod (behind the ford); Zablat (behind the

[Sidenote: SABHALL (Gadhelic),]

a barn; _e.g._ Saul, Co. Down, anc. _Sabhall-Patrick_ (Patrick’s barn),
being the first place of worship used by St. Patrick in Ireland; Saval
(the barn used as a church), near Newry; Drumsaul (the barn or church
on the ridge); Sawel, a mountain in Ireland, probably from the same
root; Cairntoul, a hill in Aberdeenshire, originally _Carn-t-Sabhall_
(the cairn of the barn).

[Sidenote: SABLE (Fr.),]

sand; _e.g._ Sable, Sablé, Sablat, Sablon, Sablières, La Sablonière, in

[Sidenote: SALH, SAEL (A.S.),
SALIX (Lat.),]

the willow; _e.g._ Salehurst (willow copse); Salford (willow ford);
Saul, in Gloucestershire (the place of willows). In France many places
take their name from _Saule_, Fr. (the willow); _e.g._ Sailly, from
_Salicetum_ (a place planted with willows), as also Saux, Saules,
Saulzais, etc.

[Sidenote: SALL (Teut.),

a stone dwelling; _sel_, a cottage, cognate with the Span. and Port.
_sala_; _e.g._ Hohensale (high dwelling); Nordsehl (north dwelling);
Oldenzeel (old dwelling); Eversal (the dwelling of the wild boar);
Brunsele (the dwelling at the well); Holzselen (at the wood);
Laufenselden (the dwelling near the waterfall); Marsal (on the marsh),
in France. In Spain: Salas (the halls); Salas-de-la-ribera (the
dwellings on the river-bank); Salas-de-los-Infantes (the dwellings of
the infantry); Upsal, Scand. _Upsalr_ (the high halls), in Sweden.

[Sidenote: SALZ (Ger.),
SALANN (Gadhelic),
SOL (Sclav.),
HALEN (Cym.-Cel.),]

salt, cognate with the Lat. _sal_ and the Grk. _hals_; _e.g._ the
Rivers Saale, Salzach, Salzbach, Sal, Salat (salt stream); Salies,
Salins, Salinas, Salines, Salenillas, Salskaia, place-names in France,
South America, and Russia (in the neighbourhood of salt mines or
springs); Saalfeld, on the R. Saal, in Saxony; also Saalfelden, in
Austria (the salt field); Salamanca, in Spain, anc. _Salmantica_
(the place in the neighbourhood of salt springs); Salzburg, on the
R. Salzach; Salzbrunn (the salt well); Salzkammergut (the public
treasury of the salt-works); Soultz or Soultzbad (the saline bath);
Soultzbach (the salt brook); Soultz-sous-forets (the salt springs
under the woods); Soultzmatt (the meadow of the salt springs);
Selters, anc. _Saltrissa_, in Nassau, near the Selzar or mineral
springs; Saltzkotten (the huts of the salt miners), in Westphalia;
Solikamsk (the town of the salt-works on the R. Kama), in Russia;
_salt_ and _saltz_, as affixes, are also applied to dwellings on the
sea-coast, thus--Westersalt, Ostersalt, Neusaltz (the west, east, and
new watering-place by the sea); but Salton, a parish in East Lothian,
does not come from this word. It is said to have derived its name from
Nicolas de Soules, who possessed that part of the country in the
thirteenth century. _Hal_, the Celtic word for salt, still exists in
the names of places where there are or were salt-works; _e.g._ Haling,
in Hants; Halton, in Cheshire; Halsal and Hallaton, in Lancashire;
Halle, in Prussian Saxony, stands on the R. Saala; Reichenhall, on the
Saale; Hallein, on the Salza, near the salt mines in Tyrol.

[Sidenote: SANG (Ger.),]

a place cleared of wood by burning, from _sengen_, to burn; _e.g._
Feuersang (the fire clearing); Altensang (the old clearing); but
Vogelgesang means the place of singing-birds.

[Sidenote: SARN (Welsh),]

a road. The word _sarn_ refers to the old Roman road which the Emperor
Maximus called in honour of his wife Helen, a Welsh princess whom he
had married; _e.g._ Sarn-Helen (Helen’s road); Pen-Sarn (the head or
end of the road); Tal-Sarn (the face of the road).

[Sidenote: SAX, SAHS (Teut.),]

a stone, cognate with the Lat. _saxum_; _e.g._ Sachsa (the stony water
in the neighbourhood of quarries); Sasso, in Italy (the stone or tomb);
Sassoferrato (the fortified rock); Sassuolo (the little rock or stone),
in Italy; but these words, either as prefixes or affixes, in topography
generally indicate places belonging to the Saxons, who were so called
from the _seax_, a kind of sword which they used in warfare; thus
Sachsenberg, Sachsenburg, Sachsenheim, Sachsendorf, Sassetot, denote
the dwellings of the Saxons; Saxony, in Germany (peopled by Saxons);
Sussex, Essex, and Wessex (the south, east, and west districts of the
Saxons), in England; Saxby (the Saxons’ town), in Lincoln; Saxlingham
(the home of the descendants of the Saxons), in Norfolk; Sassenberg
(the Saxons’ hill), in Westphalia.

[Sidenote: SCALE, SKALI (Scand.),

a hut or shed; _e.g._ Scalby and Scaleby (hut town); Scalloway (the
huts on the bay, _vig_), in Shetland; Galashiels (the huts on the
R. Gala); Biggarshiels (the huts near the town of Biggar); Larbert,
Co. Stirling, formerly _Lairbert-scheills_ (the huts of a man named
Lairbert); North and South Shields, originally a collection of
fishermen’s huts; but as _scald_, in the Scandinavian language, means
a bard--that word is likely to have formed an element in place-names.
Scaldwell is probably the bard’s well; Skalholt, in Iceland, may be the
bard’s hill.

[Sidenote: SCAM (Old Ger.),]

little; _e.g._ Schambach, Schamach (the little stream).

[Sidenote: SCHANZE (Ger.),]

a bulwark; _e.g._ Rheinschanze (the bulwark of the Rhine); Hochschanze
(high bulwark).

[Sidenote: SCHEIDE (Ger.),]

a watershed, from _scheiden_, to divide; _e.g._ Lennscheide, Remschede,
Nettenscheide (the watershed of the Rivers Lenn, Rems, and Nette); but
this word sometimes means a place separated by an enclosure from the
surrounding land, as in Scheidhof (the separated or enclosed court);
Scheidlehen (the separated fief).

[Sidenote: SCHENKE (Ger.),]

a public-house; _e.g._ Schenholtz (the wood near the public-house);
Shenklein (the little public-house); Shenkendorf (the inn village).

[Sidenote: SCHEUNE (Ger.),]

a shed or barn; _e.g._ Ziegelscheune (the brick barn); Kalkscheune
(lime-shed); Scheunenstelle (the place of sheds).

[Sidenote: SCHLAG (Ger.),]

a wood clearing or field; _e.g._ Leopoldschlag (the field of Leopold);
Grafenschlag (of the count); Pfaffenschlag (of the priest); Kirchsclag
(of the church); Schlagenwald (the cleared wood); Schlagberg and
Schlaghöck (the cleared hill and corner); Murzuschlag (the clearing on
the R. Murz), in Styria.

[Sidenote: SCHLANGE (Ger.),]

a snake; _e.g._ Slagenhorst (snake thicket); Schlangenbad (snake bath).

[Sidenote: SCHLEUSE (Ger.),
SLUYS (Dutch),
ECLUSE (Fr.),]

a sluice; _e.g._ Rhinschleuse (the sluice of the Rhine); Sluys, in
Holland; and Slooten, also a town in Holland, on a lake of the same
name (from _sloot_, a ditch); Sluispolder (the reclaimed land at the
sluice); Schlusseburg, in Russia (the fortress at the sluice), built
on an island at the spot where the R. Neva issues from Lake Ladoga;
Helvoetsluis (the sluice on the Haring-vliet, an arm of the R. Maas);
Fort de l’Ecluse (the fortress of the sluice), in France.

[Sidenote: SCHLOSS (Ger.),]

a castle; _e.g._ Marienschloss (the castle of the Virgin Mary);
Heidenschloss (the castle on the heath); Schlossmühle (castle mill);
Schlosshof (the castle court).

[Sidenote: SCHMAL (Ger.),
SMAA (Scand.),]

little; _e.g._ Schmalkalden, anc. _Schmalenaha_ (the town on the small
stream); Smalley, with the same meaning; Smaalehlen (the small fief),
in Norway; Smallburgh (little town); Schmallenberg (little hill);
Smailholm (little hill), a parish in Roxburghshire.

[Sidenote: SCHMEIDE (Ger.),]

a smithy; _e.g._ Nagelschmeide (the nail smithy); Schmeidefeld and
Schmeidsiedel (the field and site of the smithy); Schmeideberg (the
hill of the smithy).

[Sidenote: SCHWAIG (Old Ger.),

a cattle-shed; _e.g._ Herrnschweige (the count’s cattle-shed);
Brunswick, anc. _Braunsweig_ (Bruno’s shed, or the town of Bruno).

[Sidenote: SCHWAND (Ger.),]

a wood clearing; _e.g._ Schwand or Schwandt, in Bavaria; Schwanden, in
Switzerland; Schwandorf (the village at the wood clearing).

[Sidenote: SCHWARZ (Ger.),]

black; _e.g._ Schwarza, Schwarzach, Schwarzbach, Schwarzwasser (black
stream); Schwarzburg (black fortress); Schwarzberg (black mountain);
Schwarzwald (black wood); Schwarzkreutz (the black cross).

[Sidenote: SCHWERE (Sclav.),]

a wild beast; _e.g._ Schwerin and Schwerinlake, in Mecklenburg; and
Schwersentz, in Posen (places infested by wild beasts).

[Sidenote: SCIR (A.S.),

clear, bright; _e.g._ Sherbourne (the clear stream); but this word is
sometimes used instead of _scyre_, a division or shire, as in Sherwood
(the wood where the shire meetings were held); Sherston (shire boundary
stone); Shardlow and Shardhill (the boundary hill); Sharnford (the
boundary ford); Sharrington (the town of the children of the shire or

[Sidenote: SEANN (Gadhelic),]

old; _e.g._ Shanmullagh (the old summit); Shandrum (the old ridge);
Shangarry (the old garden); Shanbally and Shanvally (the old dwelling);
Shanbo, Shanboe, and Shanbogh (the old hut), in Ireland; also Shankill
(old church), and Shandon, Irish _Seandun_ (old fort). There are
several places in Ireland called Shannon from this word, but it is
uncertain what is the origin of the R. Shannon, whose ancient name
was _Senos_; Sanquhar, Gael. _Seann-Cathair_ (the old fortress), in
Dumfriesshire, named from an old castle near the town.

[Sidenote: SEE (Ger.),
ZEE (Dutch),]

a lake or sea; _e.g._ Ostsee and Oostzee (east lake); Zuyderzee (the
Southern Sea); Zealand and Zeeland (land surrounded by the sea);
Gransee (boundary or corner lake); Bodensee or Lake Constance, named
from _Bodami-Castrum_, the castle of the legate of the Carlovingian
kings on its shore, and latterly from a fortress erected by Constantine
the Great; Dolgensee, Sclav. (the long lake); the Plattensee (the lake
on the marsh, _blatto_); Unterseen (below the lakes); the Red Sea, the
translation of the sea of _Edom_ (the red).

[Sidenote: SEIFEN (Ger.),]

a place where metals are washed; _e.g._ Seifen and Seifendorf (towns
where metals were washed); Seifengold (where gold is washed);
Seifenzinn (where tin is washed); Seifenwerk (the hill of the metal

[Sidenote: SEILLE,]

an affix in French and Belgian topography, signifying a wood or
forest, derived from the Lat. _saltus_ and _sylva_; _e.g._ Baseille
(low wood); Haseille (high wood); Forseille (out of the wood); Senlis,
Lat. _Civitas Sylvanectensium_ (the town of the _Sylvanectes_, _i.e._
dwellers in the woods); Savigny and Souvigny, Lat. _Sylvaniacum_
(in the woods); Selvigny, Souvigné, with the same meaning;
La-silve-bénite (the blessed wood); Silve-réal (royal wood), etc., in
France; Transylvania (the district beyond the woods)--its Hungarian
name, _Erdely-Orsag_, means the woody country; Selwood, anc. Brit.
_Coit-mawr_, Lat. _Sylva-magna_ (the great wood), perhaps Selby, in

[Sidenote: SELENY, or ZIELENY (Sclav.),]

green; _e.g._ Selinga (the green river); Zelendorf (green village);
Zielonagora (green mountain); Zieleng-brod (green ford); Zielenzig and
Szelenek (green place).

[Sidenote: SELIG (Teut.),]

holy; _e.g._ Seligenstadt, Seligenfeld, Seligenthal (the holy place,
field, valley); Sellyoak (holy oak), perhaps Selby, in Yorkshire, if it
is not from _sylva_, wood.

[Sidenote: SET, SEATA (A.S.),
ZETEL (Dutch),
SITZ (Ger.),
SSEDLIO (Sclav.),
SUIDHE (Gadhelic),]

a seat, settlement, or possession, cognate with the Lat. _sedes_;
_e.g._ Dorset (the settlement of the _Durotriges_, _i.e._ dwellers
by the water); Wiltshire, anc. _Wilsaetan_ (the settlement on the
R. Willy); Shropshire, anc. _Scrobsaetan_ (the settlement among
shrubs); Somerset, named from _Somerton_ (the summer seat of the
West Anglo-Saxon kings); Settle, in Yorkshire (the settlement);
Sittingbourne, in Kent (the settlement on the brook). In the Lake
District, colonised by Norsemen, this word often takes the form
of _side_; _e.g._ Ormside, Ambleside, Kettleside, Silverside (the
settlement of Ormr, Hamel, Ketyl, Soelvar), etc.; Pecsaeten (the
settlement at the peak), in Derbyshire; Alsace, anc. _Alsatia_, _i.e._
the _other_ settlement, with reference to the German settlements
on the west bank of the Rhine, as distinguished from the Franks or
_Ripuari_, on the east; Holstein, anc. _Holtsatia_ (the settlement in
the woods); Waldsassen (wood settlement); Winkelsass and Endzettel
(the corner settlement); Neusass, Neusiedel, and Neusohl (the new
settlement); Einsiedeln (the settlement of Eina), in Switzerland;
Wolfsedal (of Wolfa); Soest or Söst, in Prussia, for _Suth-satium_ (the
southern seat). In Sclavonian names we have Sedlitz (the possession);
Stary-Sedlo (the old possession); Sedlitz-gross (the great settlement);
Sursee, in Switzerland (the seat or dwelling, Old Fr. Zi), on the R.
Sur; Sion or Sitten, in Switzerland, Cel. _Suidh-dunum_ (the seat on
the hill-fort). In Ireland: Seagoe, Irish _Suidhe-Gobha_ (St. Gobha’s
seat); Seeoran (Oran’s seat); Seaghanbane (the white seat); Seaghandoo
(the black seat); Shinrone, anc. _Suidhe-an-roin_ (literally the seat
of the seal, but figuratively of a certain hairy man); Hermosillo, in
Mexico, Span. (beautiful seat).

[Sidenote: SHAN (Chinese),]

a mountain; _e.g._ Shan-tung (east of the mountain); Shan-se (west of
the mountain); Thian-Shan (the celestial mountain).

[Sidenote: SHAMAR (Pers.),]

a river; _e.g._ Samer, Samara, Sambre, river names. The Samur, which
flows into the Sea of Asoph.

[Sidenote: SHAW (A.S.), _sceaga_,
SKEG (Scand.),]

a wood or grove; _e.g._ the Shaws, in Cumberland and Lanarkshire;
Birchenshaw (the birch grove); Pollokshaws (the woods near the village
of Pollok); Bradshaw (broad wood); Shaugh-Prior (the prior’s wood);
Shawbury (the town in the wood); Evershaw (the wood of the wild boar,
_eofer_); Skegness (the headland of the wood).

[Sidenote: SHEHR (Pers.),
CHERI (Tamil),]

a dwelling; _e.g._ Begshehr (the dwelling of the beg or bey);
Abou-shehr (the dwelling of Abou); Allah-shehr (God’s house); Eskshehr
(old dwelling); Yenishehr (new dwelling); Anoopshehr (incomparable
dwelling); Pondicherry, originally _Pudicheri_ (new dwelling or town);
Paraicherie (the village of Pariahs)--probably Shiraz and Shirvan
belong to this root.

[Sidenote: SIDH, SITH (Gadhelic),]

a fairy or a fairy hill. The belief in these supernatural beings is
still general among the Celtic races. It was believed that they resided
in the interior of pleasant hills called _sidhe_ or _siodha_. The
word frequently takes the form of _shee_, as in the Shee Hills, in
Co. Meath; Glenshee, in Perthshire; Mullaghshee (the fairy hillock);
Sheetrim, _i.e._ _Sidh-dhruim_ (the fairy ridge), the old name of the
rock of Cashel; Killashee (the church near the fairy hill); Rashee (the
fort of the fairies); also Shean, Sheann, Sheane, Shane, in Ireland.

[Sidenote: SIERRA (Span.),
CERRO (Port.),]

a mountain chain, having a serrated appearance, from the Lat.
_serra_, a saw; or perhaps from the Ar. _sehrah_, an uncultivated
tract of land, being the root of the desert of Sahara, in Africa;
_e.g._ Sierra-de-fuentes (the mountain chain of the fountains);
Sierra-de-los-vertientes (of the cascades); Sierra Leone (of the lion);
Sierra-Calderona (the mountain chain with the cauldrons or craters);
Sierra-de-las-Monas (of the apes); Sierra Morena (the dark mountain
range); Sierra Nevada (the snowy); Sierra Estrella (the starry mountain
range); Sierra-de-Culebra (of the snake); Sierra-de-gata (of agates);
Esmeraldas-Serradas (the emerald mountains), in Brazil; Cerro-da-vigia
(the mountain of observation); Cerro-de-la-Giganta (of the giantess);
Cerro-largo (broad mountain); Cerro-gordo (fruitful mountain);
Cerro-del-cobre (of the snake); but _serra_, in Italian, means a narrow
place--as in Serra-capriola (the narrow place of the goats); and
Serra-Monascesca (of the monks).

[Sidenote: SKAER (Scand.),
SGOR and SGEIR (Gadhelic),]

a sharp rock-allied to the Welsh _skerid_, cleft asunder, _ysgariad_;
_e.g._ Skerid-fawn and Skerid-fach (the great and little skerid or
division). _Esgair_ is another word from the same root, applied to
a long ridge; _e.g._ Esgair-hir (the long ridge); Esgair-graig (the
rock ridge)--_e.g._ Scarcliff (the cliff of the sharp rock); Nashscaur
(the promontory of the steep rock); Scarborough (the town on the rock
or cliff); Scorton, with the same meaning, in Yorkshire; Scarnose
and Scarness (the sharp cape); Skerryford, Skeerpoint, on the coast
of Wales; Sheerness (the sharp headland), on the Thames; Scaranos,
with the same meaning, on the coast of Sicily; Scarabines (the sharp
points), in Caithness; Scuir (a sharp rock), on the island of Egg;
Scordale, in Westmoreland, and Scordal, in Iceland (the valley of the
steep rock); Scarsach (abounding in steep rocks), in Perth; Scarba (the
island of the sharp rock), and Scarp, in the Hebrides; the Skerry and
the Skerries, in the Shetlands, and on the coast of Ireland and Wales;
Skerry-vore (the great rock), in the Hebrides.

[Sidenote: SKAW, SKAGI (Scand.),]

an isthmus or promontory; _e.g._ the Skaw or Skagen Cape, on the coast
of Denmark; Skagerack or Skagen-rack (the strait near the promontory).

[Sidenote: SKI, SK, SKIA,]

an affix in Sclav. topography, signifying a town, often annexed to
the name of the river near the town, or to the name of its founder;
_e.g._ Tobolsk, Tomsk, Pinsk, Vitepsk, Volsk, Omsk, on the Rivers
Tobol, Tom, Pina, Viteba, Volga, Om; Irkutsk, Berdiansk, Bielorietzk,
Bobroninsk, Illginsk, Miask, Olekminsk, Okhotsk, Olensk, on the Rivers
Irkut, Berda, Biela, Bobronia, Ilga, Miass, Olekma, Okhota, and Olenek;
Bielozersk (the town on the white island); Jarensk (the town on the
Jarenga or strong river); Kesilskaia (on the red river); Krasno-Ufimsk
(the beautiful town of the R. Ufa); Petsk (silk town), in Turkey, where
the mulberry-tree is extensively cultivated; Yakutsk (the town of the
Yakuts, a Tartar tribe); Salskaia, on the R. Sal; Sviajsk (the town on
the Sviga, holy river); Sviatskaia (the town of Sviatovid, a Sclav.
deity); Dmitrovisk (the town of Demetrius, a Russian saint); Kupiansk
and Kupiszki (the town on the promontory, _kupa_).

[Sidenote: SKIP (Scand.),

a sheep; _e.g._ Skipton, Skipwich, Schaefheim (sheep town); Shapfells
(sheep hills); Sheppey (sheep island); Skipsia (sheep’s stream);
Schaefmatt (sheep meadow); Shefford (sheep’s ford); Scaefstadt (sheep

[Sidenote: SLIABH, SLIEVE, or SLIEU (Gadhelic),]

a mountain or heath, akin to the Ger. _sliet_, a declivity; _e.g._
Slieve-Anieran (the iron mountain), so called from its mines;
Slievesnaght (snowy mountains); Slieve-Bernagh (gapped mountain);
Bricklive (speckled mountain); Beglieve (small mountain). In all
these places in Ireland the original names have been corrupted:
Sleaty (the mountains); Sleeven (the little hill); Slievenamon,
_i.e._ _Sliabh-na-mban-fion_ (the mountain of the fair women or
fairies); Slievebloom (Bladh’s mountain); Slieve-beagh (birch-tree
hill); Slieve-corragh (rugged hill); Slieveroe (the red hill);
Sliabh-cuailgne, now the Cooley Mountains, in Ireland; Sleibhe-Cuillinn
(the Coolin or Cuchullin Hills), in Skye; Slamannan (the _sliabh_ or
moor of the district formerly called _Manan_, parts of Stirling and

[Sidenote: SLOG (A.S.),]

a slough or marshy place; _e.g._ Slough, Co. Bucks; Sloby, Slawston,
Slaugham (the dwelling on the marshy ground).

[Sidenote: SLUAGH (Gadhelic),]

a multitude, a host; _e.g._ Ballinasloe (the ford-mouth of the hosts),
in Co. Galway; Srahatloe, _i.e._ _Srath-a’-tsluagh_ (the river holm
of the hosts); Knockatloe and Tullintloy (the hill of the hosts), in

[Sidenote: SNAID, SNOED (Teut.),]

a separated piece of land, from the Old Ger. _sniden_ and Modern Ger.
_schneiden_ (to cut); _e.g._ Eckschnaid (the oak snaid); Hinterschnaid
(behind the snaid); Snaith, in Yorkshire; Snead, Montgomery; Sneyd, Co.
Stafford; Sneaton (the town on the snaid); Snodland and Snodlands (the
separated lands); Snodhill (the hill on the snaid).

[Sidenote: SOC (A.S.),
SOKE (Scand.),]

a place privileged to hold local courts; _e.g._ Thorpe-le-Soke and
Kirby-le-Soken (the village and church-town where the courts were wont
to be held); Walsoken and Walton-le-Soken (the place near the _wall_,
or perhaps the _well_, where the court was held); Sockbridge and
Sockburn (the bridge and stream near the court station).

[Sidenote: SOTO (Span.),]

a grove; _e.g._ Soto, the name of several places in Spain; Sotilla
(the little grove); Sotilla-de-las-Palomas (the little grove of the
doves); Sotilla-de-la-ribera (the little grove of the river-bank).

[Sidenote: SPINA (Lat.),
EPINE (Fr.),]

a thorn; _e.g._ Epinac, Epinal, Epinay, in France; Espinosa, in Spain
(the thorny place); Epinville (the thorny villa); Epineuil (the thorny
fountain, _œuil_); Epinoy, Epineuse, etc., in France; Speen, in Co.
Berks, anc. _Spinæ_ (the thorny place).

[Sidenote: SPITAL (Nor.-Fr.),
YSPYTTY (Cym.-Cel.),
SPIDEAL (Gadhelic),]

an hospital or place of entertainment for strangers or invalids, from
the Lat. _hospitium_; _e.g._ Spittal, in Caithness and Co. Pembroke;
Spittle, in Cheshire and in Berwickshire; the Spital of Glenshee, in
Perthshire; Dalna-Spidal (the field of the hospital); Spittalfields,
in Middlesex; Yspytty-Rhew-Ystwith, on the R. Ystwith; Yspytty-Evan
(Evan’s hospital), in Wales; Llanspithid, in Brecknock, which derived
its name from an ancient _Ysbytty hospitium_ that existed here,
supported by the priory of Malvern. These names and many others in
England and Scotland derived their names from hospitals attached to
religious houses in the Middle Ages.

[Sidenote: SPRING (Teut.),
SPRONG (Scand.),]

a water-source; _e.g._ Springthorpe (the farm at the fountain);
Adlerspring (the eagle’s fountain); Lippspring (at the source of the
R. Lippe); Springe (at the source of the R. Haller); Magdespring (the
maiden’s fountain).

[Sidenote: SRATH (Gadhelic),
YSTRAD (Cym.-Cel.),]

an extensive valley, Anglicised _strath_; _e.g._ Strathmore and
Strathbeg (the great and little valleys); Strathavon, Strathblan,
Strathbogie, Strathconan, Strathearn (the valleys of the Rivers Avon,
Blane, Bogie, Conan, and Earn); Strathyre, corrupt. from _Srathiar_
(the western valley, with reference to Strathearn, the eastern),
in Perthshire; Strathclyde, Strathnaver, Strathspey, Strathallan,
Strathpeffer, Strathbran, Strathgriffe (the valleys of the Rivers
Clyde, Naver, Spey, Allan, Peffer, Bran, and Griffe); Strath Tary,
in Sutherlandshire (the bull’s strath, _tairebb_); Strichen, in
Aberdeenshire, corrupt. from _Srath-Ugie_ (the valley of the R. Ugie);
Strathdon, corrupt. from _Srath-domhain_ (the valley of the deep
river); Ystrad-Tywy (the valley of the R. Tywy), in Wales; Ystrad-yw
(yew-tree valley or the valley of the brook Ywen); Yester, a parish in
East Lothian, from _Ystrad_; Ystrad-fflur (the flowery valley), called
by the Romans _Strata-Florida_; Ystrad-gwnlais (the valley of the
trench, _clais_, through which a stream flows); Straiton, in Ayrshire
(the town on the Strath); Traquhair (sheep valley).

[Sidenote: SRON (Gadhelic),
TRWYN (Cym.-Cel.),]

a nose, hence a promontory; _e.g._ Stronaba (the cow’s promontory);
Stronaclacher (the stony promontory); Stronechrigen (the rocky point);
Stronfearn (the point of the alders); Strondeas (the southern point);
Strontian (the little promontory); Sorn, in Ayrshire, named from an
ancient castle situated on a rocky headland; Troon (the promontory),
on the Ayrshire coast; Sroan-keeragh (the sheep’s promontory);
Shrone-beha (birch-tree promontory), in Ireland; Duntroon Castle
(the fortress on the promontory), in Argyleshire; Turnberry Head, in
Ayrshire, from _trwyn_; also Trwyn Point, in Ayrshire; Au-tron (on the
point), in Cornwall; Trwyn-y-Badan (the promontory of the boats), in

[Sidenote: SRUTH, SRUTHAIR (Gadhelic),
SROTA (Sansc.),]

a river or flowing water; _sru_, Sansc., to flow--cognate with
_stroum_, Teut., _struja_, Sclav.; _e.g._ Srue, Sruh, Shrough,
Sroughan (the stream), in Ireland; also Abbeyshrule (the abbey on
the stream); Bealnashrura (the ford-mouth of the stream); Sroolane,
Srooleen, Sruffan, and Sruffaun (little stream); Killeenatruan, anc.
_Cillin-a-tsruthain_ (the little church of the stream); Anstruther in
Fife, and Westruther in Berwickshire, probably from the same root; but
Strowan, in Perthshire, is named for St. Rowan; Ardstraw, in Tyrone, is
a corrupt. of _Ard-sratha_ (the height near the bank of the stream).

[Sidenote: STACKR (Scand.),
STUAIC (Gadhelic),]

a projecting rock or point; _e.g._ the Stack Rocks and South Stack, on
the coast of Wales; the Stags, on the Irish coast; Stack Island, Wales;
and St. Bude’s Stack. In Ireland this word is generally Anglicised
into _stook_; thus--the Stookans (the little rock pinnacles), near the
entrance of the Giant’s Causeway; Stookan and Stookeen (the little

[Sidenote: STADT and STATT (Ger.),
STEDE, or STEAD (A.S.),]

a place or town; _gestade_, a station for ships; _stadel_, a small
town; _staeth_, a bank or shore; _e.g._ Carlstadt, TheresienStadt,
Christianstadt (towns named after one of the German emperors, Charles,
after the Empress Theresa, and after Christian IV. of Sweden);
Darmstadt, Illstadt, Stadt-Steinach, Lippstadt (towns on the Rivers
Darm, Ill, Steinach, and Lippe); Bleistadt (lead town), near lead
mines; Brahestadt, in Russia (founded by Count Brahe); Elizabethstadt,
Hung. _Ebes-falva_, named after the Empress Elizabeth; Frederickstadt
(Frederick’s town), in Denmark and in Norway; Gerbstadt, in Saxony
(the town of Gerbert); Glückstadt, Lat. _Fanum-fortunæ_ (the fortunate
town or the temple of fortune); Halbertstadt (the town of Albert);
Heiligenstadt (holy town); Hermanstadt (the town of Herman, one of
the Germans who colonised certain German cities in Transylvania in the
twelfth century); Ingoldstadt, in Bavaria (the town of Ingold)--the
name of this town was mistranslated by Latin and Greek authors into
_Auripolis_ and _Chrysopolis_ (the golden city); Rudolstadt (the town
of Rudolph); Grimstadt, in Norway, and Grimstead, in Co. Wilts (the
town of Grim, a common Scandinavian name); Stade (the station), in
Hanover; Scoppenstadt, in Brunswick, anc. _Scipingestete_ (the ship
station); Stadt-am-hop (the town at the court), in Bavaria; Tennstadt,
anc. _Dannenstedi_ (the station of the Danes), in Saxony; Kroppenstadt,
the Germanised form of the Sclav. _Grobenstadt_ (the count’s town);
Reichstadt (rich town); Altstadt (old town); Elstead, in Sussex and
in Surrey (the place of Ella, the Saxon); Stadhampton (the town at
the home place), in Oxford; Thaxsted (the thatched place), in Essex;
Boxstead (the place of beech-trees, or of the Bokings, a patronymic);
Hampstead (the home place); Wanstead (Woden’s place); Armenianstadt, in
Transylvania, colonised by Armenians in 1726; Staithes (the banks), in
Cumberland; Stathern (the dwelling on the bank), Leicester; Halstead,
A.S. _Haelsted_ (a healthy place).

[Sidenote: STAEF, STAUF (Teut.),
STAV (Scand.),]

a stake or pole, also, in Germany, applied to a perpendicular rock;
_e.g._ Stauffenberg (the mountain with pillar-like rocks), in Lower
Hesse; Donaustauff (the steep rock on the Danube); Hohenstauffen (the
high rocks), in Wurtemberg; Regenstauf (the rock on the R. Regen);
Staufen (a fort situated on a rock), in Baden; Staffa (the island with
the pillar-like rocks), off the coast of Argyleshire; Staffenloch (the
lake of the pillars), in the Island of Skye.

[Sidenote: STAL, STUHL (Teut.),

a stall, place, or seat; _e.g._ Hohenstellen (the high place); Herstal
(the place of the army); Tunstall (the place on the hill, _dun_), in
Co. Stafford.

[Sidenote: STAN (A.S.),
STEIN (Ger.),
STEEN (Dutch),]

a stone or rock, and in topography sometimes applied to a
rock-fortress; _e.g._ Staunton, Steynton (the town on the stony
ground); Stanton, in Gloucestershire, named from a remarkable stone in
the neighbourhood); Fewstone (fire stone), in Yorkshire, said to have
been named from a fire-circle near the place; Staines (the stones),
in Middlesex, marking the jurisdiction of the mayor of London; Stantz
(the stony place), in Switzerland; Steenbeke, Steenbegue, Steinbach
(the stony brook); Stanley (stony field), in Yorkshire; Steenbirge,
Steenbrugge, Steenhout, Steenkirche (the stony hill, bridge, wood,
church), in Belgium; Steenvorde (stony ford); Stein-am-anger (the rock
on the field); Steinitz (the German rendering of _Sczenz_, dog town),
in Moravia; Offenstein (the fortress of Offa); Lahnstein (the fortress
on the R. Lahn); Lauenstein (the lion’s fortress, with reference to
some person who bore that sobriquet); Ehrenbreitstein (the broad
stone of honour); Stennis (the headland of the stones), in Orkney;
Hauenstein, in Baden (the hewn rock), so called because the precipices
of the Jura in that locality resemble masonry; Ysselstein (the rock
on the R. Yssel); Bleistein (lead rock), near lead mines, in Bavaria;
Dachstein, in Alsace, anc. _Dagoberti Saxum_ (the rock of Dagobert);
Frankenstein (the rock of the Franks); Falkenstein (of the falcon or of
the personal name Falk); Greiffenstein (of the vulture); Schaunstein
(the beautiful rock or fortress); Neckar-Steinach (the stony place
on the Neckar); Iselstein, on the Isel; Wetterstein, on the Wetter;
Buxton, in Derbyshire, was named from the piles of stones called
buck-stones, found in the Yorkshire and Derbyshire moors; Standish,
in Gloucestershire, corrupt. from _Stonehouse_. In some cases the
affix _stone_ is used instead of _town_ or _ton_, as in Maidstone,
A.S. _Medwegston_, Cel. _Caer-Medwig_ (the town on the R. Medway);
Goodmanstone (the priest’s town), Dorsetshire; and in Cumberland and
Westmoreland, where the Norsemen had settlements, this word often
marks the site of the grave of one of their heroes, as in Haroldstone,
Hubberstone, Thurston, Gamfrestone, Silverstone, Stanton, Drew (the
Druid’s stone), in Somersetshire, near an ancient stone-circle;
Kingston, in Surrey, where in the centre of the town is still shown the
_stone_ on which the A.S. kings were crowned.

[Sidenote: STAN (Pers.),
STHANA (Sansc.),]

a district or region; _e.g._ Hindostan (the district watered by the
R. Indus, Pers. _hindu_--water); Affghanistan (the district of the
Affghans, who are said to have taken their designation from a certain
chief called Malik Afghāna); Rajpootana (the district of the Rajpoots
or king’s sons); Kurdistan (of the Kurds); Beloochistan (of the
Beluchis); Gurgistan or Georgia (the district watered by the R. Kur
or Kyros); Kaffaristan or Kaffraria (of the unbelievers); Arabistan
(of the Arabs); Bootan (the district of the Highlanders); Dushistan
(the south region), also called _Gurmsir_ (warm country); Gulistan
(the district of roses); Baghistan (of gardens); Khorasan (the country
of the sun); Zangistan or Zanguebar, Pers. and Ar. (the country or
coast-lands of the Zangis)--_v._ BAHR.

[Sidenote: STAPLE (Teut.),]

literally a prop, support, or heap; but in the commerce of the Middle
Ages it was applied, in the first place, to the buildings or towns in
which the chief products of a district were treasured up or sold; and,
in the second place, to the commodities themselves; _e.g._ Stapleton
(the town of the market); Staplehurst and Stapleford (the wood and
ford near the market-place); Dunstable (the market-place on the hill),
formerly _Dunstaple_; Whitstable (white market-place); Barnstaple, anc.
_Berstable_ (the market-place for the produce of the district--_beor_,
what it bears). In France: Etaples, L’étape, Staple, etc.

[Sidenote: STARY (Sclav.),]

old; _e.g._ Stargard, Starogard (the old fortress); Stary-sedlo,
Storosele, Starosol (the old settlement); Starodub (the old oak-tree);
Starwitz, Staria, Starinka, Stariza (old place); Starobielsk (the
old town on the R. Biela); Staro-Constantinov (the old town of
Constantine). In places where the population is chiefly German this
word takes the form of _stark_, as in Starkenburg, Starkenhorst;
Istarda or Starova (old town), in Turkey; Staroi-Oskol (the old town on
the R. Oskol, in opposition to Novoi-Oskol, the new town on that river).

[Sidenote: STEIG, STIG, STY (Teut. and Scand.),]

a steep path; _e.g._ Stickney (the island or watery meadow by the steep
path); Kirchsteg (the steep path to the church); Durnsteeg (thorny
path); Stiegmühle (the mill on the steep path); Amsteg (at the steep

[Sidenote: STEORT (A.S.),
STERZ (Old Ger.),]

the tail--in topography a point; _e.g._ Startpoint, in Devonshire;
Starston (the town on the point); Sterzhausen, Sterzmühle,
Staartpolder--_v._ HAUS, MÜHLE, POLDER; Staartven (the marsh on the

[Sidenote: STEPPES (Sclav.),]

an uncultivated waste--a word applied to the extensive desert plains in

[Sidenote: STER, or ESTER,]

in Brittany, a stream; _e.g._ Ster-boueux (the muddy stream);
Stercaer (the stream at the fort); Sterpoulder (of the black pool),
etc. According to Forsteman, there is a Teutonic river-root, _str_,
which he finds in the names of 100 German streams; _e.g._ Elster,
Alster, Wilster, Gelster, Laster, and _Ister_--an ancient name of the
Danube--Stour, Stura, etc.

[Sidenote: STER (Scand.),]

Old Norse _setr_ (a station or place), contracted from _stadr_ (a
place); _bu-stadr_ (a dwelling-place), contracted to _bister_ or
_buster_; _e.g._ Grunaster (green place); Keldabister (the place
at the well or fountain); Kirkbuster (the dwelling at the church);
Hesting-ster (the settlement of Hesting). The same word appears in the
names given by the Danes to three of the provinces of Ireland--Ulster,
for the Irish _Uladh_, _i.e._ _Ulla-ster_; Leinster, Irish _Laighen_ or
_Layn_; Munster, Irish _Mumha_ (named after a king).

[Sidenote: STOC, STOW (Teut.),]

literally a stake or the trunk of a tree, applied at first to a place
protected by a stockade, or surrounded by stocks or piles; and in
German topography sometimes applied to hills, as in Hochstock (high
hill); Stockheim (the home on the hill); sometimes to places built upon
stakes, as in Stockholm. In Great Britain, standing alone, it means
simply the place, as Stock, in Essex; Stow, a parish in Mid Lothian;
Stoke-upon-Trent; Stow-in-the-Wold or waste land; Stoke-Bardolph,
Stoke-Fleming, Stoke-Gabriel, Stoke-Poges, Stoke-Edith (named from the
proprietors); Stow-market (the market-place); Stow-Upland (the place in
the high lands); Kewstoke (at the quay); Elstow, in Wilts (old place);
Elstow, in Bedford (St. Helen’s place), the site of a nunnery dedicated
to that saint; Basingstoke (the place belonging to the Basings, a
patronymic); Bridstow (St. Bridget’s place); Bristol, anc. _Briegstow_
(the place at the breach or chasm, _brice_, through which the R. Avon
passes)--its Celtic name was _Nant-Avon_ (on the valley of the Avon);
Padstow, in Cornwall, anc. _Petrocstowe_, Welsh _Llan-petroc_ (the
place or church of St. Petroc); Tavistock and Tawstock (places on the
Rivers Tavy and Taw). As a prefix, _stock_ often denotes the chief
place in a district, as in Stockton (the chief town on the Tees), and
in Stockport (the chief port on the Mersey).

[Sidenote: STOLL (Ger.),]

a mine-shaft; _e.g._ Stollenberg (the hill of the mine-shaft);
Stollenschmeide (the smithy at the mine-shaft); but Stollenkirchen,
_i.e._ _Stallinchirchun_, is from Stalla (a person’s name).

[Sidenote: STOLPE (Sclav.),]

a rising ground in a marshy place; _e.g._ Stolpe, the name of a circle
and of several towns in Hungary and Pomerania; Stolpen, in Saxony.

[Sidenote: STÖR (Scand.),]

great; _e.g._ Störfiord (the great bay); Störhammer (great hill);
Störoe (great island); Störaa (great river); Störsjon and Störsoen
(great lake); Störa-kopparberg (the great copper mountain), in Sweden
and Norway.

[Sidenote: STRAD (A.S.),
STRŒDE (Scand.),
SRAID (Gadhelic),
YSTRAD (Cym.-Cel.),]

a row, a street, a road, borrowed from the Lat. _strata_; _e.g._
Stratford (the ford near one of the great Roman roads, called streets);
Stratford-le-Bow (the ford with the bow or bridge near the Roman road);
Stratsett (the road station); Streatham and Stretton (the town on the
road); Stratton, in Cornwall, and Stradbally, in Ireland (the village
of one street); Straid, Strade (the street); Stradeen (little street),
in Ireland; Strond, on the R. Strond; Strasbourg, in West Prussia (the
town on the highway); but Strasbourg, in Alsace, anc. _Stratiburg_, is
the German translation of its Latin name _Argentoriatum_ (the town of
silver--_strati_, Teut., silver); Stony Stratford (the stony ford on
the great Roman road, called Erming Street); Watling Street is said
to have been named from _waedla_ (the mendicant or pilgrim); Icknield
Street from the _Iceni_; Erming Street from _earm_ (a pauper).

[Sidenote: STRAZNA (Sclav.),]

a watch-tower, akin to the A.S. _streone_; _e.g._ Straznitz,
in Moravia (the town with the watch-tower).

[Sidenote: STRELITZ (Sclav.),]

a huntsman; _e.g._ Strelitz-klein and Strelitz-gross (the great and
little town of the huntsman, or of the _Strelitzi_, the name given to
the lifeguards), in Russia; Strelitzkaia and Strielinskaia, with the
same meaning.

[Sidenote: STROM, STROOM (Teut.),]

a stream or current; _e.g._ the Maelstrom (mill stream, so called from
its rushing sound); Rheinstrom (the Rhine current); Stroomsloot (the
sluice of the current); Stroma, Stromoe, Stromsoe, Stromay (the island
of the current); Stromen and Stromstadt (the place near the current);
Stromen-Fiorden (the bay of the current); Stromberg (the town or hill
on the stream); Stromness (the headland of the current).

[Sidenote: SU (Turc.),]

water; _e.g._ Ak-su (the white stream); Kara-su (the black stream);
Adji-su (bitter water).


the south; Buttman traces this word to the sun, the oldest form of
the word being _sundar_; _e.g._ Sonnenburg, Sonderhausen, Sundheim,
Soudham, Southofen (the south dwelling or enclosure); Southdean
(south hollow); Southwark, Dan. _Sydvirche_ (the south fortress);
Southover (south shore); Suffolk (the district of the south people, as
distinguished from Norfolk); Sutton and Sodbury (south town); Sudborne
(south stream); Suderoe (south island); Sudetic Mountains (the southern
mountain chain); Sudereys (the southern islands), a name applied by
the Norsemen to all the British islands under their rule south of
the Orkneys and north of the Island of Man--hence the bishoprick of
_Sodor_ and Man; Sutherland (the land to the south of Caithness);
Soderköping (the south market-town), in Sweden; Soest, in Prussia (on
the Sosterbach); Sidlaw Hills (the south hills, in reference to their
forming the south boundary of Strathmore).

[Sidenote: SUMAR, SOMAR (Teut.),]

summer; _e.g._ Somercotes, Somersall, Somerton (summer dwellings);
Somerghem in Belgium, and Sommerberg in Bohemia, with the same meaning;
but Somarsheim, in Hungary, is the German corrupt. of _Szomorfalva_
(the village of sorrow); Szmarja or Szent-marfa (St. Mary’s town),
Germanised into _Sommarein_.

[Sidenote: SUND (Scand.),]

a strait; _e.g._ the Sound, between Sweden and Zealand; Christiansund,
at the mouth of a narrow inlet, founded by Christian IV.;
Frederichsund, on a narrow inlet in Zealand; Ostersund (the eastern
strait), in Sweden; Stralsund (the arrow-like strait--_straele_, an

[Sidenote: SUNTARA (Teut.),]

privileged land; _e.g._ Frankensundern (the privileged place of the
Franks); Beversundern (the privileged place on the R. Bever); Sontra,
in Hesse-Homburg (the privileged place); Sunderland (the privileged
land), in Durham.

[Sidenote: SZASZ (Hung.),]

Saxon; _e.g._ Szasvaros, Ger. _Sachsenstadt_ (the town or fortress of
the Saxons), in Transylvania; Szasz-Sebes (the Saxon-Sebes or swift

[Sidenote: SZENT (Hung.), SANT (Welsh),]

a saint; _e.g._ Szenta, Szentes (the saints’ town or holy town); _e.g._
Szendro (St. Andrew’s town); Mindszent (the town of All Saints);
Szent-kercsyt (the town of the holy cross); Santarem, in Portugal,
from St. Irene, Santiago (for St. James); St. Denis, named after St.
Dionysius, where the remains of this saint were interred; St. Heliers,
in Jersey (for St. Hilarius); Szent-György (St. George’s town); St.
Ives, in Cornwall, named after an Irish saint called _Jia_, who came to
that spot; St. Ives, in Huntingdon, named after Ivon, a bishop.


[Sidenote: TA (Chinese),]

great; _e.g._ Ta-kiang (the great river); Ta-Hai (the great lake);
Ta-Shan (great mountain); Ta-Gobi (the great desert).

[Sidenote: TABERNA (Lat. and Span.),
TAFARN (Welsh),]

an inn; _e.g._ Taberna, in Spain; Zabern-Rhein (the inn on the Rhine);
Zabern-berg (the hill inn); Zabern-Elsass (the Alsatian inn), called
in French _Savernæ_, corrupt. from the Lat. _Tabernæ_; Tavernes and
Taverny, in France.

[Sidenote: TAING, TANGA (Teut. and Scand.),

a tongue, a point of land; _e.g._ Tongue, a parish in Sutherlandshire;
Tong, in Ross; Tongland, in Kirkcudbright, upon a peninsula formed by
the Rivers Dee and Tarf; Tonge, in Lancashire; but Tongres, Tongrinnes,
and Tongerloo, in Belgium, derive their names from the _Tungri_, a
tribe; Tong-fell, in Cumberland, and Tangfjeld, Norway, and Tunga-fell,
Iceland (the mountain with the tongue or point); Thong-castle, in Kent,
and Thong-castor, near Grimsby.

[Sidenote: TAL (Cym.-Cel.),]

the forehead, or, as an adjective, high; _e.g._ Talgarth (the brow of
the hill; Talibont (bridge-end, _pont_); Talbenny (the head of the
hill-pen), in Wales. Tal-y-cavn (the head of the trough); Tal-y-Llychan
(the head of the pools), in Caermarthen; Talachddu (the head of the
black water, a small brook called Achddu), a parish in Brecknock.

[Sidenote: TAMH, TAW (Cym.-Cel.),]

quiet, cognate with A.S. _tam_, found in many river names; _e.g._
the Tame, Tamar, Tamer, Teane, Teign, Thame, Taw, Tawey, Tavoy, Tay,
Temesch, Tees, Thames (the quiet water), joined to _uisge_, _a_, _y_,
_o_, _or_, _ri_ (flowing water).

[Sidenote: TAMNACH (Gadhelic),]

a green field, common in Irish topography under various forms,
such as Tawny, Tawnagh, Tonagh, and Taminy; _e.g._ Tonaghneeve,
for _Tamhnaich-naemh_ (the field of the saints), now Saintfield;
Tawnaghlahan (broad field); Tawnkeel (narrow field); Tamnaghbane (white
field); Tavnaghdrissagh (the field of the briers).

[Sidenote: TANNA (Old Ger.),]

wood; _tanne_ (modern), the fir-tree; _e.g._ Niederthan (the lower
wood); Hohenthan (high wood); Thanheim, Thanhausen, Tandorf (the
dwellings at the wood); Tanberg (wood hill).

[Sidenote: TARBERT, or TAIRBERT (Gadhelic),]

an isthmus; _e.g._ Tarbet, in Cromarty and Ross; Tarbert, in Harris;
Tarbet, on Loch Lomond; East and West Tarbert, in Argyleshire;
Tarbetness (the point of the isthmus), in Ross-shire.

[Sidenote: TARBH (Gadhelic),
TARW (Cym.-Cel.),]

a bull, cognate with the Lat. _taurus_ and the Grk. _tauros_; _e.g._
Knockatarriv and Knockatarry (the hill of the bull); Clontarf, anc.
_Cluain-tarbh_ (the bull’s meadow); Cloontarriff and Cloontarriv, with
the same meaning. Some river names, such as Tarf, Tarras, Tarth, Tarn,
may have this word as a prefix, or perhaps _tara_, Irish, rapid.

[Sidenote: TARNIK (Sclav.),]

the thorn; _e.g._ Tarnowce and Tarnowitz (thorn village); Tarnau,
Tarnow, Tornow, Torniz (a thorny place); Tarnograd (thorn fortress);
Tarnopol (thorn city).

[Sidenote: TEACH and TIGH (Gadhelic),
TY (Cym.-Cel.),]

a house or dwelling, cognate with the Lat. _tectum_, Ger. _dach_, and
Scand. _tag_, a roof; Anglicised _tagh_, in the genitive, _tigh_.
This word, under various forms, is common in Irish topography; _e.g._
Tagheen (beautiful house); Taghboy and Taghbane (the yellow and white
house); Taghadoe (St. Tua’s house); Tiaquin, in Co. Galway, _i.e._
_Tigh-Dachonna_ (St. Dachonna’s house); Timahoe, for _Tech-Mochua_ (St.
Mochua’s house or church). Joined to the genitive of the article, it
takes the form of _tin_ or _tinna_, thus--Tinnahinch (the house of the
island or river holm, _innis_); Tincurragh (of the marsh); Tinakilly
(of the church or wood); Timolin (of St. Moling); Tigh-na-bruaich,
in Argyleshire (the dwelling on the edge of the bank); Tynron, in
Dumfries, _i.e._ _Tigh-an-roinne_ (the house on the point); Tyndrum, in
Perthshire (the dwelling on the ridge); Tisaran, anc. _Teach-Sarain_
(the house of St. Saran), in King’s Co. Stillorgan, also in Ireland,
corrupt. from _Tigh-Lorcain_ (the house of St. Lorcain or Lawrence);
Saggard, from _Teach-Sacra_ (of St. Mosacra); Cromarty, anc.
_Crum-bachtyn_ (the dwelling on the winding bay); Tinnick, in Ireland,
_i.e._ _Tigh-cnuie_ (the house on the hill). In Wales: Ty-gwyn (white
house); Ty-Ddewi (St. David’s house); Great Tey and Little Tey (great
and little dwelling); Tey-at-the-elms, in Essex.

[Sidenote: TEAMHAIR (Irish),]

a palace situated on an elevated spot; _e.g._ Tara, anc. _Teamhair_,
the ancient capital of Meath, and several other places called Tara, in
Ireland. This word sometimes takes the form of _tavver_, _tawer_, or
_tower_, as in Towerbeg and Towermore (the little and great palace).

[Sidenote: TEAMPULL (Gadhelic),]

a temple or church, derived from the Lat. _templum_; _e.g._
Templemichael, Templebredon (the churches of St. Michael and St.
Bredon); Templemore (the great church or cathedral); Templecarriga (of
the rock); Temple-tochar (of the causeway), in Ireland; Templemars and
Talemars, in France, anc. _Templum-Martis_ (the temple of Mars).

[Sidenote: TEINE (Gadhelic),
TÂN (Cym.-Cel.),]

fire. In topography this word is found in the forms of _tin_ and
_tinny_, and must indicate spots where fires of special importance were
wont to be kindled. Whether these fires were beacon-fires, or whether
they referred to the Beltane fires kindled by the ancient Celts on May
Day, cannot, in special cases, be determined; but that the Beltane
fires were connected with the religious rites of the Druids is allowed,
even by those who do not derive the word _Beltane_ from the name of a
Celtic deity, or trace the observance of these rites to the sun and
fire worship once alleged to have existed among the Celtic tribes, but
now held to be an untenable theory by Celtic scholars.[5] In Ireland,
near Coleraine, we find Kiltinny (the wood of the fire); Tamnaghvelton
(the field of the Beltane sports); Clontinty, Co. Cork (the meadow of
the fires); Mollynadinta, anc. _Mullaigh-na-dtaeinte_ (the summit of
the fires); Duntinny (the fort of the fire), Co. Donegal. In Scotland
_tinny_ is also found in topography, thus--Ardentinny and Craigentinny
(the height and rock of the fire); Auchteany, and perhaps Auchindinny
(the field of the fires); Tinto (the hill of the fire), in Lanarkshire.

[Sidenote: TEPETL (Astec),]

a mountain; _e.g._ Popocatepetl (the smoky mountain), in Mexico;
Citlaltepetl (the star-like mountain--_citaline_, a star);
Naucampatepetl (the square-shaped mountain), in Mexico.

[Sidenote: TEPLY (Sclav.),]

warm; _e.g._ Tepla (the warm stream); Tepel, on the R. Tepla (in the
neighbourhood of warm mineral waters); Teplitz, the name of towns in
Hungary, Bavaria, and Illyria, sometimes written Toplitz; Teplik and
Teplovka, in Russia; Teflis, in Georgia, celebrated for its warm baths.

[Sidenote: TERRA (Lat., It., and Port.),
TIERRA (Span.),
TERRE (French),
TIR (Gadhelic and Cym.-Cel.),]

land; _e.g._ Terciera (the rough land), in the Azores; Terranova
(the new land), in Sicily, supposed to be on the site of the ancient
Gela; Tierra-del-fuego (the land of fire), so named on account
of the numerous fires seen on the land by the first discoverers;
Terregles (church land); Tiree Island, Gael. _Tir-ith_ (the land
of corn); Terryglas, _i.e._ _Tir-da-ghlas_ (the land of the two
rivers), Co. Tipperary; Terryland, _i.e._ _Tir-oilein_ (the land of
the island); Tyrone, anc. _Tir-Eoghain_ (Owen’s land); Tir-Rosser,
_i.e._ _Tir-Rhos-hir_ (the long peat land), in Caermarthen; Pentir
(the headland); Gwydir, from the roots _gwy_, water, and _tir_, a
general term for moist land in different places in Wales. It was the
ancient name of Glastonbury; Tiranascragh (the land of the sand hill,
_esker_), Co. Galway; Tyrconell (the land of Conell), the ancient
name of Co. Donegal; Carstairs, in Lanarkshire, anc. _Casteltarras_,
probably corrupt. from _Castelterres_ (the castle lands), the castle
in the village having been the site of a Roman station; Culter, in
Lanarkshire, anc. _Cultir_ (the back of the land); _Finisterroe_
(land’s end), now Cape Finistère, the north-west extremity of France;
Blantyre (warm land--_blane_, warm), in Lanarkshire; Terrebonne (good
land), in Canada; Terre-haute (high land), in Indiana.

[Sidenote: THAL (Ger.),]

a valley--_v._ DAL.

[Sidenote: THING, or TING,]

a term applied by the Scandinavians to the legislative assemblies of
their nation, and also to the places where these assemblies met, from
an old word _tinga_, to speak. Traces of these institutions appear
in the topography of certain districts in Great Britain formerly
occupied by Danes or Norwegians. The Norwegian Parliament is still
called the _Storthing_ or great assembly; smaller courts are called
_Lawthings_, and the _Althing_ was the general assembly of the whole
nation. These meetings were generally held on some remote island,
hill, or promontory, where their deliberations might be undisturbed.
The Swedish Parliament used to assemble on a mound near Upsala, which
still bears the name of _Tingshogen_, Scand. _haugr_; Thingveller (the
council-plains), in Iceland; Sandsthing (the place of meeting on the
sand), in Iceland; Aithsthing (the meeting-place on the headland),
in Iceland; Dingwall, in Ross-shire, has the same derivation--its
Gaelic name is _Inverpeffer_ (at the mouth of that stream); Tingwall,
in Shetland, Tynwald Hill, Isle of Man, Thingwall in Cheshire, and
Dinsdale in Durham, from the same root; Tinwald, in Dumfries (the wood
of the meeting); Tain, in Ross-shire, Norse _Thing_--its Gaelic name is
_Baile-Duich_ (St. Duthic’s town).

[Sidenote: THOR and THUR,]

prefixes derived from the Saxon and Scandinavian deity _Thor_; _e.g._
Thorley, Thurley, Thursley, Thorsby, Thurlow, the valley, dwelling,
and hill, named after Thor, or perhaps from a people or family name
derived from the god, _i.e._ the _Thurings_, from whence also probably
come Thorington in England, and Thorigné and Thorigny in France;
Thüringerwald, in Germany; Thurston, Thursford, Thurscross, Thurlstone,
etc.; Thorsoe (Thor’s island); Thurso (Thor’s stream, on which the
town of Thurso is situated); Thorshaven (Thor’s harbour), in Norway
and in the Faroe Islands. On the continent the god Thor was worshipped
under the name of Thunor, hence the English word _thunder_ and the
German _Donner_ (supposed, in the Middle Ages, to be Thor’s voice).
From this word are derived Thunersberg and Donnersberg (the mountain of
Thor); Donnersbach (Thor’s stream), in Styria; Torslunde (Thor’s sacred
grove), in Denmark.

[Sidenote: THORPE (A.S.),]

an assembly of people, cognate with the Welsh _torf_ (a crowd or
troop), Gael. _treubh_ (a tribe), and _troupe_, French; and then
gradually coming to denote a farm or village; _e.g._ Thorp, in
Northamptonshire; Calthorpe (cold village); Langthorpe (long village);
Ingelthorpe, Kettlesthorpe, Swansthorpe, Bischopsthorpe (the farm or
village of Ingold, Kettle, Sweyn, and the bishop); Nunthorpe (the nun’s
village); Raventhorpe (Hrafen’s village); Thorparch, in Yorkshire
(the village bridge), on the R. Wharfe; Milnethorpe (the village of
the mill); Althorpe (old villages); Basingthorpe (the village of the
Basings, a patronymic); Copmanthorpe (of the merchant).

[Sidenote: THWAITE (Scand. _thveit_),]

a cleared spot or an isolated piece of land, akin to the Danish
_tvede_, a peninsula; _e.g._ Harrowthwaite, Finsthwaite, Ormathwaite,
Sattersthwaite, places cleared and cultivated by the Scandinavians,
whose names they bear; Applethwaite (of apples); Calthwaite (cold
clearing); Birkthwaite (of birches); Micklethwaite (great clearing);
Crossthwaite, in Cumberland, where St. Kentigern is said to have
erected a cross; Lockthwaite (Loki’s clearing).

[Sidenote: TOBAR (Gadhelic),]

a fountain or well, from the old word _doboir_, water. Wells and
fountains were held in great veneration by the Celts in heathen times,
and are the subjects of many traditions in Ireland and Scotland. Many
of the early preachers of Christianity established their foundations
near these venerated wells, which were the common resorts of the
people whom they had come to convert. In this way the new religion
became associated in the minds of the converts with their favourite
wells, and obtained the names of the saints, by which they are known
to this day; _e.g._ Tobermory (St. Mary’s well), in the Island of
Mull; Tobar-na-bhan-thighern (the chieftainess’s well), in Badenoch;
Ballintobar (the town of the well), Co. Mayo, now called Tobermore (the
great well), which had a well blessed by St. Patrick; Tibbermore or
Tippermuir (the great well), in Perthshire; Tobar-nam-buadh, in Skye
(the well of virtues); Tipperary, anc. _Tiobrad-Arann_ (the well of the
district of Ara); Tipperkevin (St. Kevin’s well); Tipperstown, anc.
_Baile-an-tobair_ (the town of the well); Tobercurry (the well of the
cauldron); Toberbilly (the well of the old tree); Tobernaclug (the well
of the bells, _clog_). Bells were held sacred by the Irish on account
of a certain bell favoured by St. Patrick. Perhaps the rivers Tiber and
Tiverone, as well as Tivoli, anc. _Tibur_, may come from this root.

[Sidenote: TOFT, TOT (Scand.),]

an enclosure or farm; _e.g._ Lowestoft, Dan. _Luetoft_ (the enclosure
or place of the beacon-fire, which in early times was placed on the
promontory where the town stands); Langtoft (long farm); Monk’s Tofts
(the monk’s farm), and West Tofts, in Norfolk; Ecclestofts (the church
farm buildings), in Berwickshire; Ivetot, anc. _Ivonis-tot_ (the farm
of Ivo and Hautot (high farm), in Normandy; Sassetot (the Saxon’s
farm); Littletot (little farm); Berguetot (birch farm), in Normandy.

[Sidenote: TOM (Gadhelic and Welsh),]

a knoll or mound; _e.g._ Tomintoul (the knoll of the barn), Gael.
_Tom-an-t-sabhail_, Co. Banff; Tomachuraich (the boat-shaped knoll),
Inverness-shire; Tom-ma-Chessaig (St. Kessag’s mound), at Callander;
Tom-na-faire (the knoll of the watch-tower), on Loch Etive; Tomatin
(the knoll of the fire, _teine_); Tomnacroiche (of the gallows);
Tom-da-choill (of the two woods); Tombreck (speckled knoll); Tomgarrow
(rough knoll); Tomnaguie (windy knoll), in Ireland; Tom-bar-lwm (the
mound of the bare hill); Tommen-y-Bala (the mound of Lake Bala, having
been raised as representative of Mount Ararat); Tommen-y-mur (of the

[Sidenote: TON (A.S.),
TUN (Scand.),]

an enclosure, a town. The primary meaning of this word comes from
the Gothic _tains_, Scand. _teinn_, Ger. _zaun_, a fence or hedge
formed of twigs. Originally it meant a place rudely fortified with
stakes, and was applied to single farm-steadings and manors, in which
sense _tun_ is still used in Iceland, and _toon_ in Scotland. The
word _toon_ retained this restricted meaning even in England in the
time of Wickliffe. These single enclosures became the nucleus of a
village which, gradually increasing, became a town or city, in the same
manner as villages and towns arose around the Celtic _duns_, _raths_,
and _lises_. This root, in the names of towns and villages, is more
common than any other in Anglo-Saxon topography, being an element
in an eighth part of the names of dwelling-places in the south of
Great Britain. The greatest number of these names is connected with
those of the original proprietors of the places, of which but a few
examples can be given here. In such cases, the root _ton_ is generally
preceded by _s_ or _ing_--_qu. v._; _e.g._ Grimston, Ormiston, Ribston,
Haroldston, Flixton, Kennington (the property of Grim, Orm, Hreopa,
Harold, and Felix); Canewdon (of Canute); Addlington and Edlington
(of the nobles); Dolphinton, Covington, and Thankerton, parishes in
Lanarkshire, took their names from Dolphine, Colban, and Tancred, to
whom the lands were given in very early times; Symington and Wiston, in
Lanarkshire, are found mentioned in old charters, the one as Symington,
in Ayrshire, named from the same Simon Lockhart, the progenitor of the
Lockharts of Lee; Cadoxton, _i.e._ Cadog’s town, in Wales; _Ecclesia
de uilla Simonis Lockard_ (the church of Simon Lockhart’s villa), and
the other, _Ecclesia uilla Withce_ (the church of Withce’s villa);
Haddington (the town of Haddo); Alfreton, Wimbledon, Herbrandston,
Houston (of Alfred, Wibba, Herbrand, Hugh); Riccarton, in Ayrshire,
formerly Richardston, took its name from Richard Waleys, _i.e._
Richard the Foreigner, the ancestor of the great Wallace); Stewarton,
in Ayrshire, had its name from the family which became the royal race
of Scotland; Boston, in Lincoln (named after St. Botolph, the patron
saint of sailors); Maxton, a parish in Roxburghshire (the settlement of
Maccus, a person of some note in the reign of David I.); Flemingston
and Flemington (named from Flemish emigrants); Woolston (from St.
Woolstan); Ulverston (from Ulphia, a Saxon chief); Wolverhampton and
Royston (from ladies who endowed religious houses at these places);
Minchhampton (the home of the nuns, _minchens_); Hampton (the enclosed
home); Preston and Presteign (priest’s town); Thrapston (the dwelling
at the cross-roads); Broughton (the town at the fort or mound), a
parish in Peeblesshire, with a village of the same name; Albrighton
(the town of Aylburh); Harrington (of the descendants of Haro); Barton
and Barnton (the enclosure for the crop; literally, what the land
bears); Shettleston, in Lanarkshire, Lat. _Villa-filii-Sadin_ (the
villa of Sadin’s son); Bridlington (the town of the _Brihtlingas_, a
tribe), sometimes called _Burlington_; Adlington (town of Eadwulf);
Prestonpans, in Mid Lothian, named from the salt pans erected there
by the monks of Newbattle; Layton, in Essex, on the R. Lea; Luton, in
Bedford, also on the Lea; Makerston, in Roxburghshire, perhaps from
St. Machar; Johnstone, in Renfrew (founded by the Laird of Johnston
in 1782); Liberton, near Edinburgh, where there was an hospital for
lepers; Honiton, Co. Devon, _Ouneu-y-din_ (the town of ash-trees);
Kensington (of the Kensings); Edmonton, in Middlesex (Edmond’s town);
North and South Petherton, in Somerset (named from the R. Parret),
anc. _Pedreda_; Campbeltown, in Argyleshire, received its name from
the Argyle family in 1701--its Gaelic name was _Ceann-Loch_ (the loch
head); Launceston--_v._ LANN; Torrington, in Devon (the town on the
hill, _tor_, or on the R. Torridge); Watlington (the village protected
by _wattles_). Of towns named from the rivers near which they are
situated, Collumpton, Crediton, Frampton, Taunton, Lenton (on the Culm,
Credy, Frome or Frame, Tone, and Lee); Northampton (on the north shore
of the R. _Aufona_, now the Nen); Okehampton, on the R. Oke; Otterton,
Leamington, Bruton, Moulton, Wilton, on the Otter, Learn, Brue, Mole,
and Willy; Darlington or Darnton, on the Dar; Lymington, in Hants,
anc. _Lenton_ (on the pool); Southampton (the south town on the Anton
or Test, which with the Itchen forms Southampton Water); Ayton, in
Berwickshire, on the R. Eye.

[Sidenote: TOPOL (Sclav.),]

the poplar-tree; _e.g._ Töplitz, Neu and Alt (the place of poplars),
in the basin of the R. Elbe, to be distinguished from Teplitz, in
Bohemia--_v._ TEPLY, which is sometimes misnamed Töplitz.

[Sidenote: TORGAU (Sclav.),]

a market-place; _e.g._ Torgau, Torgovitza, Torgowitz (market-towns).

[Sidenote: TORR (Gadhelic),
TWR (Cym.-Cel.),]

a mound, a heap, a conical hill, cognate with the Lat. _turris_, the
Ger. _thurm_, and the Grk. _pyrgos_ (a tower); Tor, in Ireland, means
a tower also; _e.g._ Toralt (the tower of the cliff); Tormore (great
tower or tower-like rock); Tornaroy (the king’s tower); Tory Island,
off the Irish coast, had two distinct names--_Torach_ (_i.e._ abounding
in tower-like rocks), and _Toirinis_ (the island of the tower), so
named from a fortress called _Tor-Conaing_ (the tower of Conaing, a
Fomorian chief); Torran, Tortan (little tower), applied to little
knolls, as in Toortane and Turtane; Mistor and Mamtor, in Devonshire;
Croken Torr, in Cornwall (a hill where meetings were held--_gragan_,
Welsh, to speak); Torphichen (the raven’s hill), a parish in West
Lothian; Torbolton, in Ayrshire, tradition says is the town of Baal’s
mound. There is a beautiful hill in the parish where superstitious
rites are still held; a bonfire is raised, and a sort of altar erected,
similar to those described in the sacrifices to Baal on Mount Carmel;
Torbay, in Devonshire, named from the hill which overlooks the bay,
which gives its name to Torquay; Torrdubh and Torrduff (black hill);
Torbane and Torgorm (the white and the blue hill); Torbreck (speckled
hill); Torinturk (the wild boar’s hill); Kintore (at the head of
the hill), in Aberdeenshire; Turriff, in Banffshire, is the plural
form of _toir_. From the Lat. _turris_ and its derivatives, come
Tordesillas (the tower of the bishop’s see), in Spain; Torquemada,
Lat. _Turris cremata_ (the burned tower); Torr-alba and Torre-blanca
(the white tower); Torrecilla, Lat. _Turricellæ_ (the church-towers),
in Spain; Torres-novas and Torres-vedras (the new and old towers),
in Portugal; Torella (the little tower), Naples; Truxillo, in Spain,
_i.e._ _Turris-Julii_ (the tower of Julius); Tourcoing (corner
tower), in France; La-tour-Sans-Venin, near Grenoble, is a corrupt.
of _Tour-Saint-Verena_--to this saint the chapel was dedicated;
Tournay, in Belgium, Lat. _Turris Nerviorum_ (the tower of the Nervii);
Torres-Torres (the fortifications of the mountains), Tours, in France,
is not named from this root, but from the _Turones_, a tribe; but
Torres Strait was named after the navigator Torres, who discovered it
in 1606. In the Semitic languages also _Tzur_ means a rock; it is the
root of the names of the city of Tyre, and of Syria, of which in early
times it was the chief city. Taurus or Tor is a general name for a
mountain chain; Tabris (the mountain town), a city of Persia.

[Sidenote: TRAETH (Cym.-Cel.),
TRAIGH (Gadhelic),]

a strand; _e.g._ Traeth-mawr (great strand); Traeth-bach (little
strand); Trefdraeth (the dwelling on the strand), in Wales; Traeth-coch
(red strand), in Anglesea. In Ireland: Tralee, Co. Derry, is from
_Traigh-liath_ (the gray strand); Tranamadree (the strand of the dogs),
Co. Cork; Ballintra, when it occurs on the coast, means the town on the
strand, but inland it comes from _Baile-an-tsratha_ (the town on the
river-holm); Ventry, Co. Kerry, is from _Fionn-traigh_ (white strand);
as also Trabane, Trawane, and Trawbawn, which derive their names from
the whitish colour of the sand; Fintray, a parish in Aberdeenshire
on the R. Don, is also white strand; but Fintray, in Dumbartonshire,
was formerly _Fyntref_ or _Fyntre_, probably the dwelling, _tre_, on
the Fenach, which is the boundary-stream of the parish on one side;
Traeth-Saith, in Wales, named after a mythological patriarch.

[Sidenote: TRANK (Ger.),]

a tank for watering animals; _e.g._ Kleintrank (little tank); Rosstrank
(horse tank); Trankmühle (mill tank).

[Sidenote: TRAWA (Sclav.),]

grass; e.g. the Traun and the Trave (_i.e._ the grassy rivers);
Traunkirchen (the church on the Traun); Traunik, Trawitz (the grassy
place); Traunviertel (the district of the R. Traun), in Silesia and

[Sidenote: TRE, or TREF (Cym.-Cel.),

a dwelling, a town; _e.g._ Treago, anc. _Tref-y-goll_ (hazel-tree
dwelling), in Monmouth; Tre-n-eglos (church town), in Cornwall;
Tremaine (stone dwelling), Cornwall; _Tref-y-clawdd_ (the town of
the dyke, _i.e._ Offa’s dyke), the Welsh name for Knighton, in
Pembrokeshire; Oswestry might come naturally from this word, but the
Welsh call it _Croes-Oswald_ (the place of St. Oswald’s martyrdom);
Coventry, too, might be from the same root, but Camden says it is a
corruption of _Conventria_ (the district of the convent); Daventry,
abridged from _Dwy-avon-tre_ (the dwelling on the two rivers); Truro,
_i.e._ _Tre-rhiw_ (the dwelling on the sloping bank, or on the stream);
Redruth, in Cornwall, anc. _Tref-Derwydd_ (the Druid’s town); Trefrhiw
(the town on the stream), in Caernarvon; Tremadoc (Madoc’s dwelling);
Trecoid (the dwelling in the wood); Braintree, Co. Essex (hill
dwelling); Dreghorn, in Ayrshire, anc. _Trequern_ (the dwelling near
alder-trees); Thrisk, in Yorkshire, anc. _Tref-Ysk_ (the dwelling by
the water); Tranent, in Mid Lothian, corrupt. from _Treabhairnant_ (the
dwellings in the valley); Crailing, in Berwickshire, anc. _Traverlin_
(the dwellings on the pool); Tring, Co. Herts, anc. _Treungla_
or _Treangle_ (the village at the corner), Welsh _ongl_, Lat.
_angulus_; Trelech (the dwelling at the stone, called Harold’s grave);
Tre-Taliesin (the dwelling of Taliesin, the celebrated Welsh bard);
Trenewydd (new dwelling), in Wales; Rhuddry, a parish in Glamorgan,
probably corrupt. from _Yr-yw-tre_ (the yew-trees’ home); Tre’r Beirdd
(bard’s town); Trefawr, Trefach (great and little town); Tredegar,
_i.e._ _Tre-deg-fair-ar_ (land), (the choice abode); Tre-Wyddel (the
forester’s abode); Trefhedyn, _i.e._ _Tref-y-din_ (hill town).

[Sidenote: TROM, TRIUM (Gadhelic),]

the elder-tree; _e.g._ Trim, in Co. Meath, corrupt. from _Ath-trium_
(the ford of the elder-trees); Trummery and Trimmer (places abounding
in elder-trees); Tromann, Trumman (the little elder-tree).

[Sidenote: TUAIM, TOOM (Gadhelic),]

a mound raised over a grave, cognate with the Lat. _tumulus_; _e.g._
Tuam, Co. Galway, anc. _Tuaim-da-ghualann_ (the tumulus of the two
shoulders, from the shape of the ancient sepulchral mound); Toome, on
the R. Bann; Tomfinlough (the tumulus of the clear lake); Tomgraney
(the tomb of Grian); the Tomies (hills on Lake Killarney); Toomona (the
tomb of the bog); Toomyvara, _i.e._ _Tuaim-ui-Mheadra_ (O’Mara’s tomb).

[Sidenote: TUAR (Gadhelic),]

a bleach-green, Anglicised _toor_; _e.g._ Tooreen (little
bleach-green); Tooreenagrena (the sunny little bleach-green); Monatore
(the bog of the bleach-green); Tintore, for _Tigh-an-tuair_ (the house
at the bleach-green), in Ireland.

[Sidenote: TULACH (Gadhelic),]

a little hill or mound, and also a measure of land--Anglicised
_tulla_, _tullow_, _tully_, or _tulli_; _e.g._ Tullow (the hill);
Tullamore (great hill); Tullanavert (the hill of the graves, _ferta_);
Tullaghcullion and Tullycullion (of the holly); Kiltullagh (church
hill); Tullaghan (little hill); Tallow, Co. Waterford, more correctly
_Tealach-an-iarainn_ (the hill of the iron, from the neighbouring
iron mines); Tullyallen, on the Boyne, and Tulliallan, in Perthshire,
_i.e._ _Tulaigh-álainn_ (the beautiful hill); Tullyard (high hill);
Tillicoultry (the hill at the back of the land), in Clackmannan;
Tullibardine (the bard’s hill); Tulloch-gorum (the blue hill);
Tullybody (the hill of the black cow, _bo dubh_); Tillyfour (the
grassy hill, _feoiridh_). _Tully_ or _tilly_, however, is sometimes
a corruption of _teaglach_ (a family), as in Tullynessle and
Tillymorgan--_v._ W. SKENE, LL.D.

[Sidenote: TUNDRA (Tartar),]

a mossy flat, the name given to the vast plains on the Arctic Ocean.

[Sidenote: TURA (Tartar),]

a town or settlement; _e.g._ Tura, a river in Russia, so called by
the Tartars because they made a settlement at the place; Tura, also
in Hungary; O’Tura (old town); Turinsk (the town on the R. Tura), in

[Sidenote: TWISTLE (Scand.),]

a boundary; _e.g._ Twistleton (the town on the boundary);
Oswaldtwistle (Oswald’s boundary); Haltwistle (high boundary);
Birchtwistle (birch-tree boundary); Ectwistle (oak-tree boundary).


[Sidenote: UAMH (Gadhelic),]

a cave; _e.g._ Cluain-uamha (the pasture of the cave), the ancient name
of Cloyne, Co. Cork; Drumnahoe, _i.e._ _Druim-na-huamha_ (the ridge
of the cave); Mullinahone (the mill of the cave); Lisnahoon (the fort
of the cave), in Ireland. Wem, in Salop, and Wembdon, in Somerset, as
well as other place-names with the prefix _wem_, may be derived from
the A.S. _wem_ (a hollow), analogous to the Cel. _uaimh_. Wamphray, in
Dumfriesshire, Gael. _Uamh-fridh_ (the forest-cave).

[Sidenote: UCHEL, UCH (Cym.-Cel.),]

high, cognate with the Gael. _uchda_ (a height); _e.g._ Ucheltref and
Ochiltree (the high dwelling); the Ochills, a hill range in Perthshire,
Lat. _Ocelli-montes_.

[Sidenote: UISCE, or UISGE (Gadhelic),
GWY (Cym.-Cel.),]

water; _e.g._ Esk, Usk, Esky, Esker, Eskle, Oise, Ouse, Issy, Ax,
Axe, Ux, Ex, Use, Ousel, Wisk, Eska, Esla, Aisne, Isar, Isère, Isen,
Etsch (river names); Duffus and Doubs (black water); Marosh (marshy
water); the Theis, anc. _Tibiscus_; Adige, anc. _Athesis_; the Po,
anc. _Padusa_; Loch Ewe, and Ewes, a parish in Dumfries watered by a
stream of this name; Wisbeach (on the beach of the _Wysg_ or _Wash_),
now some miles from the beach by the gradual advance of the land;
Knockaniska (the hillock on the water); Killiskey and Killiskea (the
church on the water), in Limerick; but Balihiskey, in Tipperary, is
from _Bealach-uisce_ (the road of the water); the Rivers Minho and
Mincio, anc. _Minius_ and _Mincius_ (little stream); Duffus (dark
water); Istria (half land, half water); Argense or Argenteus (silver
stream), in France; Caldas (warm waters), in Spain and Portugal; Ischia
(the island of waters), abounding in mineral springs; Issny, on the R.
Leine, anc. _Issiacum_ (on the water); Metz, anc. _Mettis_ (between the
waters), also named _Divodurum_ (on the two rivers); Osimo, in Italy,
anc. _Auximum_, and Osna, in Spain, anc. _Uxama_ (on the water).

[Sidenote: URA (Basque),]

water; _e.g._ Astura (rocky water), a river which gives its name to
the Asturias; Illuria (the town on the water); Illuro, with the same
meaning, now _Maturo_, in Spain; Osuno, anc. _Ursonum_, and Tarazona,
anc. _Turiaso_ (the place of good waters), in Spain--_osoa_, Basque
(good); Oloron, anc. _Illura_ (the town on the water)--_illia_, Basque
(a town).

[Sidenote: URBS (Lat.),]

a city; _e.g._ Orvieto, Lat. _Urbs-vetus_ (the old city).


[Sidenote: VALLIS (Lat.),
VAL and VALLÉE (Fr.),
VALLE (Span., Port., and It.),]

a valley; _e.g._ Vallais (the land of valleys), in Switzerland--its
inhabitants were formerly called _Nantuates_, _i.e._ valley dwellers;
Val-de-Avallano (the valley of hazels); Val-de-fuentes (of fountains);
Val-del-laguna (of the lagoon); Val-del-losa (of the flagstone);
Val-del-Moro (of the Moor); Val-de-Olivas (of olive-trees);
Val-de-penas (of the rocks); Val-de-robles (of the oak-trees), in
Spain; Val-de-lys (the valley of streams), in the Pyrenees, from an old
Provençal word _lys_ (water); Vallée-de-Carol (of Charles), through
which Charlemagne passed from his conquest of the Moors; Vallombrosa
(the shady valley); Valparaiso (the valley of Paradise); Valtelline,
in Lombardy, consisting of a long valley, traversed by the R. Adda and
Teglio; Vaucluse, Lat. _Vallis-clusa_ (the enclosed valley); Orvaux,
Lat. _Aure-vallis_ (the golden valley); Riéval, Lat. _Regia-vallis_
(the royal valley); Vals (in the valley of the Volane); Vaucouleurs,
Lat. _Vallis-coloris_ (the valley of colour), in a valley of the
R. Meuse, whose green and smiling meadows have given it this name;
Gerveaux or Yorvaux, in Durham, Lat. _Uri-vallis_ (the valley of the
R. Ure); Pays-de-Vaud (the country of valleys or of the Waldenses);
Clairvaux, Lat. _Clara-vallis_ (the bright valley); Roncesvalles (the
valleys abounding in briers); Vaudemont, Lat. _Vallis-de-monte_ (the
valley of the mountain); Val-di-chiana (the valley of the standing
pool), in Italy.

[Sidenote: VAR, VARAD (Hung.),]

a fortress; _e.g._ Kolos-var, Ger. _Klausenburg_, anc. _Claudipolis_
(the enclosed fortress, or the city of Claudius); Nagy-varad (great
fortress); Vasvar, Ger. _Eisenburg_ (iron fortress); Szamos-Ujvar (the
new fortress), on the R. Zamos; Sarivar (palace fortress); Foldvar
(the land fortress); Szekes-Fehervar, Ger. _Stuhl-Weissenburg_ (the
white fortress of the throne); Karoly-Fehervar or Karlsburg (Charles’s
white fortress); Varosvar, Ger. _Eisenthurm_ (the red fortress or iron
tower), in Hungary; Ersek-Ujvar, Ger. _Neuhausel_ (the bishop’s new
fortress or seat).

[Sidenote: VAROS (Hung.),]

a town; _e.g._ Ujvaros (the new town); Also-varos (lower town);
Szasz-varos, Ger. _Sachsenstadt_ (the Saxon’s town.

[Sidenote: VATN and VAND (Scand.),]

a lake; _e.g._ Vatnsdalr (the valley of lakes); Arnarvatn (eagle lake);
Fiskvatn (fish lake); Langavat (long lake); Steepavat (steep lake);
Sanvatn (sandy lake); Miosen-Vand (little lake); Helgavatn (holy
lake); Vatster (the lake dwelling); Myvatn (the lake of the midges);
Vatnagaard (the farm on the lake).

[Sidenote: VEGA (Span.),]

a plain; _e.g._ Vega-de-la-neustra-Senora (the plain of our Lady);
Vega-Espinarada (the plain surrounded by thorns).

[Sidenote: VELIKA, or WELIKI (Sclav.),]

great; _e.g._ Velikaia (the great river); Velikja-luki (the great
marsh), in Russia; Welkawes (the great village or dwelling), in
Sclavonia; Welka, Welkow, Welchau, Welchow, etc., with the same meaning.

[Sidenote: VERNUS (Lat.),]

the alder-tree, Cel. _gwern_; _e.g._ Verney, Vernez, Vernois, Vernoy,
Verneuil, Vernieres, etc., the names of various places in France.

[Sidenote: VIE, VE, WY (Scand.),]

holy; _e.g._ Wydale (the holy valley); Wyborg, Weighton, Wisby,
Wigthorpe (holy dwelling); Wigan, anc. _Wibiggan_ (the holy building),
in Lancashire; Wigton, in Cumberland (holy town); but Wigton, in
Scotland (the town on the bay, _vig_); Sviga (holy river), in Russia;
Sviajsk (the town on the holy river); Sveaborg and Viborg (holy town);
Sviatos-nos (holy cape); Sviatskaia (holy town, or of the deity
worshipped by the Sclavonians, called _Sviatovid_), in Russia.

[Sidenote: VILLA (Lat.),]

a farm, manor, or town, with its derivatives in the Romance languages;
_e.g._ Villa-hermosa (the beautiful town); Villa-franca-de-panades (the
free town of the bakers), in Spain. In France: Charleville (named after
Charles, Duc de Nevers); Flamanville (founded by a colony of Flemings),
in Normandy; Joinville, Lat. _Jovis-Villa_ (the city of Jove, named
from a Roman tower near the town); Luneville (the city of the moon),
supposed to have been named from a temple to Diana; Offranville, in
Normandy, Lat. _Vulfrani Villa_ (the manor of Wulfran); Auberville
and Aubervilliers (the manors of Albert); Thionville (the manor of
Theodone), Lat. _Theodonis Villa_; La Ville-tertre (hill town);
Deville, formerly _Dei Villa_ (the city of God); Marteville, Lat.
_Martis Villa_ (of Mars); Villa-Viçosa (abundant town), in Spain and
Portugal; Villa-rica (rich town); Yeovil, in Somerset (the town on the
R. Yeo); Maxwell, in Kirkcudbright and in Roxburghshire, corrupt. from
_Maccusville_ (the manor or settlement of Maccus, to whom the lands
were given by David I.); Philipville or Philipstadt, in Belgium (named
by Charles V. after his son); Louisville, in the United States (named
after Louis XVI., whose troops assisted the Americans in the War of

[Sidenote: VINEA, VINETUM (Lat.),]

a vineyard; _e.g._ Le Vignæ, La Vignelle, Les Vigneaux, Vigneaux,
Vigny, Vinax, and places abounding in the vine; La Vigne, in France.

[Sidenote: VOE (Scand.),

a bay; _e.g._ Leirvogr (mud bay); Laxvoe (salmon bay); Siliavoe
(herring bay); Grunavoe (green bay); Westvoe (west bay); Aithsvoe (the
bay on the _aith_ or headland); Sandvoe (sandy bay); Kaltenwaag (cold
bay); Vaage (on the bay), a town in Norway.

[Sidenote: VORM (Ger.),]

in front of; _e.g._ Vormbach, Vormbusch, Vormhorst, Vormhagen (in
front of the brook, thicket, wood, and hedge).


[Sidenote: WAD, WATH (A.S.),
VAD (Scand.),]

a ford, cognate with the Lat. _vadum_ and the Gadhelic _ath_; _e.g._
Wadebridge (the bridge at the ford), in Cornwall; Wath-upon-Dearne (the
ford of the R. Dearne), in Yorkshire; Carnwath (the ford at the cairn),
in Lanarkshire; Lasswade (the ford on the pasture-land, _laes_), in Mid
Lothian; Wath (the ford), on the Yorkshire Ouse; Langwaden (long ford),
in Germany; Wageningen, Lat. _Vadu_ (on the ford), in Holland, on the
R. Leck.

[Sidenote: WÂDI, or WADY (Ar.),]

a river-course or ravine; _e.g._ Wâdi-el-Ain (the ravine of the
fountain); Wâdi-Sasafeh (of the pigeons); Wâdi-Sidri (of the
thorn); Wady-Solab (of the cross); Wâdy-Shellal (of the cataract);
Wâdy-Magherah (of the caves); Wady-Sagal (of the acacia); Wady-Mousa
(of Moses); Wâdy-Abou-hamad (of the father fig-tree, named from a
very old tree); Wady-Mokatteb (of the writing, from the number of
inscriptions made by pilgrims); Wady-hamman (of the wild pigeons).

[Sidenote: WALD (Ger.),

a wood or waste land; _e.g._ Walden-Saffron, in Essex (the waste land
on which saffron was afterwards cultivated); the Weald, Wold, and
Wealdon (the waste lands), in Essex, Kent, Lincoln, and Yorkshire;
Waltham and Walthamstow (the dwelling-place near the wood); Waldstadt,
Waldheim, Walddorf (dwellings near the wood), in Germany; Waldeck
(woody corner, or corner of the wood); Waldshut (the forest hut), in
Switzerland; Boëmerwald (the Bohemian forest); Waldau (woody meadow);
Waldsassen (the settlement in the wood); Unterwalden (under or
below the wood); Zinnwald-Sachsisch (the wood near the Saxon’s tin
mine); Finsterwalde (the dark wood); Greifswald (the griffin’s wood);
Habechtswald (hawk’s wood); Lichtenwald (the cleared wood); Rugenwalde
(the wood of the Rugii, a tribe), in Pomerania; Regenwalde and
Saalwalde (the woody districts of the rivers Rega and Saale); Methwald
(in the midst of woods), in Norfolk; Leswalt (the pasture, _laes_, in
the wood), in Wigtonshire; Mouswald (the wood near Lochar Moss), in
Dumfriesshire; Wooton-Basset, in Wilts (the woody town of the Basset
family, so called from the quantity of wood in the neighbourhood).

[Sidenote: WALL (Old Ger.),
WEALL (A.S.),]

an embankment, a rampart, a wall, cognate with the Lat. _vallum_, the
Gadhelic _balla_, and the Welsh _gwal_; _e.g._ Walton, on the Naze,
where there was a walled enclosure to defend the northern intruders
from the assaults of their hostile Saxon neighbours; Walton, also, in
the east corner of Suffolk (the town near the wall); also Walton, on
the Thames; Walton-le-dale and Walton (on the hill), in Lancashire;
Wallsend (at the end of the wall), in Northumberland; Walford, in
Hereford (the ford near a Roman fortification); Wallsoken (the place
near the wall, where the judicial courts were held)--_v._ SOC; Walmer
(the sea-wall), in Kent; Wallburg, Walldorf (walled towns), in Germany;
Wallingford, in Berks, anc. _Gallena_, Welsh _Gwal-hen_ (the old wall
or fortification), A.S. _Wealingaford_; Wallmill, Wallshiels, Wallfoot,
Wallhead, places in Northumberland near the wall of Adrian; Walpole
(the dwelling, _bol_, near the wall), in Norfolk, a sea-bank raised by
the Romans as a defence from the sea; but Walsham and Walsingham, in
Norfolk, take their name from the _Waelsings_, a tribe. This place was
called by Erasmus Parathalasia, Grk. (by the sea-beach).

[Sidenote: WALSCH (Ger.),
VLACH (Sclav.),]

foreign. These words were applied by the Teutonic and Sclavonic nations
to all foreigners, and to the countries inhabited or colonised by
those who did not come from a Teutonic stock or speak their language.
In the charters of the Scoto-Saxon kings the Celtic Picts of Cambria
and Strathclyde were called _Wallenses_; _e.g._ Wales, _Gwalia_--root
_gwal_ or _gall_, foreign. The Welsh call their own country _Cymru_
(the abode of the Kymry or aborigines)--(the home of the Cymric Celts),
so named by the Saxons; Wallachia (the strangers’ land, _vlach_), so
called by the Germans and Sclaves because colonised by the Romans;
Walcherin, anc. _Walacria_ or _Gualacra_ (the island of the strangers
or Celts); Cornwall (the horn or promontory of the Celts); also
Cornuailles (a district in Brittany peopled by British emigrants from
Wales); Wallendorf (the town of the strangers), the German name for
_Olaszi_ or _Olak_, in Hungary, peopled by Wallachians; Wallenstadt and
Wallensee (the town and lake on the borders of the Romansch district of
the Grisons, conquered by the Romans under Constantius); Wâlschland,
the German name for Italy. The Celts of Flanders were also called
Walloons by their German neighbours; and Wlachowitz, in Moravia, means
the town of the Wallachs or strangers. The Gadhelic _gall_ (foreign),
although used with the same meaning as _wealh_, is not connected with
it. It is a word that has been applied to strangers by the Irish
from the remotest antiquity; and as it was applied by them to the
natives of Gaul (_Galli_), _gall_, in the first instance, might mean
simply a native of Gaul. It was afterwards used in reference to the
Norwegians, _Fionn-ghaill_ (the _fair_-haired strangers); and to the
Danes, _Dubh-ghaill_ (the _dark_-haired strangers); and in connection
with them and with the English the word enters largely into Irish
topography; _e.g._ Donegal, _i.e._ _Dun-nau-Gall_ (the fortress of
the foreigners or Danes); Clonegall and Clongall (the meadow of the
strangers); Ballynagall and Ballnagall (the town of the strangers,
or English). For the further elucidation of these words _v._ _Irish
Names of Places_, by Dr. Joyce, and _Words and Places_, by the Rev.
Isaac Taylor. The words _Gaill_ and _Gallda_ are applied by the
Highlanders of Scotland to their countrymen in the Lowlands, but they
have no connection with the name which they apply to themselves--_The
Gaidheil_, derived from an ancestor _Gaodal_.

[Sidenote: WANG (Ger. and A.S.),]

a field or strip of land, allied to the Scottish _whang_, a slice;
_e.g._ Feuchtwang (moist field); Duirwangen (barren field); Ellwangen,
anc. _Ellhenwang_ (the field of the temple, _eleh_ or _alhs_);
Affolterwangen (apple-tree field); Wangford (the ford of the _wang_).

[Sidenote: WARA (Sansc.),]

a dwelling; _e.g._ Kattiwar (the dwelling of the Katties, a tribe);
Judwar (of the Juts or Jats); Kishtewar (the dwelling in the wood).
In Anglo-Saxon _wara_ means inhabitants--thus _Lindiswaras_ (the
inhabitants of Lincoln; _Cantwara_, of Kent).

[Sidenote: WARD, WART, WARTH (Teut.),]

a watch-tower or beacon, or a place guarded, A.S. _waerdian_, Ger.
_warten_, to guard--_waering_, a fortification; _e.g._ Hohenwarth,
Lat. _Altaspecula_ (the high watch-tower); Warburg (the town of the
watch-tower), in Westphalia. In England: Warden, Wardle, Wardley
(guarded places, or places where the warden of the district resided);
Wardlaw (the beacon hill); Wardoe (beacon island), in Norway; Warwick,
_i.e._ _Waering-vic_ (the fortified dwelling, or the fort of the
_Waerings_); Wöerden or Warden (the fortified place), in Holland;
Vordhill, in Shetland, and Varberg, in Sweden (the hill of the
beacon); Warthill, or beacon hill, in Westmoreland; Warburton, found
as _Wardeburgh_ (the town near the watch-fort)--here Athelfreda, Oueen
of Mercia, built a citadel; Warrington (the town with the fortress,
_waering_); Gross-wardein, the German rendering of _Nagy varad_, Sclav.
(great fortress). From _guardar_, Span. (to defend), we have Guardamar
(the sea guard, with a hill-fort at the mouth of the R. Segura); La
Guardia (built as a defence against the incursions of the Moors);
Guardia-regia (royal fortress); Leeuwarden, anc. _Lienwarden_ (the
guarded place near lime-trees), in the Netherlands.

[Sidenote: WARID, WERID (Old Ger.),
WERDER (Mod. Ger.),]

a river island, or sometimes a plot of ground insulated by marshes
and secured by dykes. It often takes the forms of _werth_ or _wirth_,
cognate with the A.S. _worth_ or _worthing_, _qu. v._; _e.g._
Bischopswerder (the bishop’s island); Elsterwerder, Saarwerder (the
islands in the Rivers Elster and Saar); Donauworth (the island in the
R. Danube); Kirchwerder (church island); Marienwerder (the island or
enclosure dedicated to the Virgin Mary); Falconswaart (the falcon’s
enclosure), in Holland; Poppenwarth (the priest’s enclosure); Werden,
Werder, Wertheim (dwellings near river islands); Worth (the enclosed
place), in Bavaria; Worth-sur-Sauer (the enclosure on the R. Sauer);
Nonnenwerth (the nun’s enclosure); Furstenwerder (the prince’s
island); Verden (near a large island formed by the R. Aller), in
Hanover; Verderbruch (the island bridge); Bolswaard (Bolswine’s
river island), in Holland; Wertingen (a town on an island in the
R. Schmutter); Schönwerder (beautiful island on the R. Unstruth);
Werth-sur-Sauer, in Alsace (on an island formed by the Rivers Sauer
and Soultzbach); Borumeler-Waard (an island near the town of Berumel),
in Holland, formed by the junction of the Rivers Waal and Maas; but
Hoyerswerda, in Silesia, is a corruption of the Wendish name _Worejze_
(the town on the ploughed land).

[Sidenote: WARK, VIRKI (Scand.),]

a fortress; _e.g._ Wark, in Dumfriesshire, Warke Castle, on the
Scottish border; Warkthwaite (the enclosure belonging to the fortress),
in Cumberland; Aldwark (old fortress); Newark, in Nottingham and in
Selkirk (the new fortress); Southwark (the south fortress); Warksburn,
Warkton, Warkworth (places named from their vicinity to Warke Castle),
in Northumberland.

[Sidenote: WASSER, WAZAR (Teut.),
WODA (Sclav.),]

water; _e.g._ Rothwasser (a town on the red river); Schwartzwasser
(black water); Whiteadder (white water), river names; Ullswater
(named from Ulla or Ulf, a Norse chief); Wasserburg, in Bavaria, on
the R. Inn, and Wasserburg on Lake Constance (the town on the water);
Waterloo (the watery marsh); Wasserbillig (the plain by the river);
Zwishenwassern (between the waters, at the confluence of two streams),
in Illyria; Altwasser, Sclav. _Starawoda_ (the old stream), in Moravia.
The ancient name of the R. Odra was _Wodra_ (water).

[Sidenote: WEG (Ger.),
WAAG (Dutch),
WAEG (A.S.),]

a way, a road, cognate with the Lat. _via_; _e.g._ Wegefurt and Wayford
(the way to the ford); Bradenwaag, (broad way); Lichtenweg (the cleared
road); Wegmühle (mill road); Wainfleet (the way by the harbour);
Wakefield (the field by the wayside); Norway, A.S. _Norwaegas_ (the
northern districts or paths); Courbevoie, Lat. _Curba-via_ (the curbed
way), in France.

[Sidenote: WEIDE (Ger.),
WEOD (A.S.),]

pasture; _e.g._ Langenweid (the long pasture); Rathsweide (the
councillor’s pasture); Neuweid (new pasture); Mittweyda (the middle

[Sidenote: WEILER (Ger.),]

a hamlet, Old Ger. _wila_; _e.g._ Kleinweil (the little hamlet);
Kurzweil (short hamlet); Langweil (long hamlet), Pfaffwyl (the priest’s
hamlet); Weiller, in Alsace, Echzell, in Hesse-Darmstadt, corrupt. from
_Achizwila_ (the hamlet on the water); Eschweiler (the hamlet near
ash-trees); Dettweiler (the hamlet of the diet, or people’s meeting);
Rappersweil (the hamlet of Rappert, a personal name); Rothwell, in
Baden, anc. _Rotwili_ (red hamlet). In England this word takes the
form of _well_ or _will_, as in Kittlewell and Bradwell. In Normandy,
Hardvilliers, Rohrwiller, Neuviller, etc.

[Sidenote: WEIR (A.S.),]

a dam, that which wards off the water, _wearan_, A.S., to guard; _e.g._
Ware, in Co. Hertford, named from a dam on the R. Lea, made by the
Danes; Wareham (the town on the Weir), in Dorsetshire; Warminster (the
monastery near the weir.)

[Sidenote: WEISS (Ger.),
HWIT (A.S.),
HVID (Scand.),]

white; _e.g._ Weisshorn (white cape); Weissmaes (white field);
Weissenberg and Weissenfels (white rock); Weissenburg and Weissenstadt
(white town); Weissenthurm (white tower). Sometimes the word takes the
form of _witten_, as in Wittenberg and Wittenburg (white fortress),
although this prefix is frequently derived from _vitu_, wood; Whitacre
(white field); Whitburne, Whitbourne, Whitbeck (white stream); Witley
(white meadow); Whiston, in Worcester, so named because it was
originally a convent of _white_ nuns.

[Sidenote: WEND, WIND,]

words applied in German topography to mark the settlements of the Wends
or Sclavonians, from the verb _wandeln_, to wander. The Sclavonians
call themselves _Slowjane_, which means intelligible men, or _Srb_,
which means _kinsmen_; while, by all the Sclavonic tribes, the
Germans are called _niemiec_, the dumb men, because their language
is unintelligible to their Sclavonic neighbours. The Wends in the
sixth century occupied the north-eastern parts of Germany, but are
now chiefly confined to Lusatia; _e.g._ Wendischbach (the Wends’
brook); Wendischhausen and Windsheim (the dwellings of the Wends);
Wendischgratz (the Wends’ fortress); Wendischkappel (the Wends’
chapel or church); Windecken and Wendischhayn (the Wends’ corner and

[Sidenote: WERBA (Sclav.),]

pasture; _e.g._ Werben, on the Elbe.

[Sidenote: WERCH (Sclav.),]

a summit; _e.g._ Werchau (the town on the height), in Prussia;
Werch-see (the lake on the height); Werchne-Udinsk (the height on
the R. Uda); Verkne-Dnieprevosk (the high town on the R. Dnieper);
Werchne-Uralish, on the R. Ural; Verkne-Kolynski, on the R. Kolyma;
Verkne-Sousensk, on the R. Sosna; Werchblatt (high marsh).

[Sidenote: WERF, WARF (Teut.),]

a dam or wharf; literally, what is thrown up--_werfen_; _e.g._
Werfen (the town on the embankment), in Upper Austria; Antwerp, anc.
_Andoverpum_ (at the wharf); Hohenwerpum (high wharf); Neuwarp (new

[Sidenote: WERK, WEORC (Teut.),]

a work, applied in topography to places where manufactures are carried
on; _e.g._ _Bergwerk_ (a hill work or mine); Konigswerk (the king’s
manufactory); Hofwerk and Werkhausen (places connected with mines);
Hüttenwerk (the huts of the workmen in the Hartz Mountains); Seifenwerk
(the place for washing the metals at the mines); Frederickswerk (a
cannon foundry in Denmark established by King Frederick); Wirksworth,
in Derbyshire (the enclosure near the mines).

[Sidenote: WESTEN (Ger.),]

the west. This word Buttman traces to an old Ger. root _wesen_, Goth.
_visan_ (rest), _i.e._ the quarter of the heavens where the sun sinks
to rest; _e.g._ Westphalia (the western plain); Westerwald (west wood);
Westerufer (the western shore, _i.e._ of the R. Inn); Westhausen and
Westhoffen (the west dwellings and court), in Alsace; Wesen, on the
west shore of Lake Wallensee; Westeraas, in Sweden, anc. _Vestra-aros_
(western dwelling), so called to distinguish it from Ostra-aros (the
eastern dwelling); Westman’s Isles, Scand. _Vestmanna-eyar_, on the
coast of Iceland, so called because peopled by men from the west--Irish
pirates; Westbury, Westbourn, Weston, Westbrook, from the same root.

[Sidenote: WICH, WIC, WYK (Teut.),
WICK, VIG (Scand.),
WAS, WIES (Sclav.),]

a dwelling, a village, a town--a word in general use in the topography
of Great Britain, as well as on the continent, but with various
meanings. According to Leo, the Teut. _wich_ or _vichs_ arose from
the root _waes_, A.S., and _wiese_, Ger. (a moist meadow) and hence
was applied to places situated on low lands, often on the bank of
a stream; _e.g._ Meeswyk (the town on the Maas); Beverwyk, on the
Bever. The primary meaning seems to have been a station--with the
Anglo-Saxons a station or abode on the _land_, with the Norsemen a
station for _ships_. The root of the word runs through all the Aryan
languages--Sansc. _veça_, Grk. _oikos_, Pol. _wies_, Ir. _fieh_,
Cym.-Cel. _qwic_, all meaning an abode; _e.g._ Alnwick (the town on
the R. Alne); Ipswich, anc. _Gippenswich_, on the Gipping; York, A.S.
_Eorvic_, Lat. _Eboracum_, Welsh _Caer-Ebreuc_ (the town on the water,
or R. Eure); Hawick (the town on the haugh or low meadow); Noordwyk
(north town); Nederwyk (lower town); Zuidwyk and Zuick (south town),
in Holland and Belgium; Harwich (army town), so called from having
been a Saxon station or military depot; Keswick (the town of Cissa);
Wickware, in Gloucestershire (the town of the family of De la Ware).
On the other hand, the Scandinavian _wich_ or _vig_ signifies a bay,
or a place situated on the coast, or at the mouth of a river--thus
Schleswick (on a bay formed by the R. Schlie), in Prussia; Wick (the
town on the bay), in Caithness; Sandwich (the town on the sandy bay);
Lerwick (on the muddy bay); Greenwich, Scand. _Granvigen_ (the town on
the pine bay); Reikjavik, in Iceland (the reeky or smoky bay); Vigo
in Spain, and Vaage in Norway (on spacious bays); Swanage, in Dorset,
anc. _Swanwick_ (Sweyen’s bay town); Brodick, in Arran (the broad bay
town); Wicklow, in Ireland, probably Danish _Vigloe_ (bay shelter),
used by the Danes as a ship station; Smerwick (butter bay); Berwick,
contracted from _Aberwick_ (at the mouth of the R. Tweed)--_v._ ABER.
_Wiche_ also denotes a place where there are salt mines or springs, and
in this sense is probably connected with the Scand. _vig_, as salt was
often obtained by the evaporation of sea-water in shallow bays; thus
Nantwich--_v._ NANT; Middlewich (the middle salt works); Droitwich,
Lat. _Salinæ_ (the salt springs, where the _droit_ or tax was paid).
In some cases _wich_ or _wick_ is derived from the Lat. _vicus_,
cognate with the Grk. _oikos_ and Sansc. _veça_ (a dwelling)--thus
Katwyk-sur-mer and Katwyk-sur-Rhin are supposed to occupy the site
of the Roman _Vicus-Cattorum_ (the dwelling-place of the Chatti);
Vick or Vique, in Spain, from _Vicus-Ausoniensis_ (the dwelling of
the Ausones); Vidauban, in France, from _Vicus-Albanus_ (the dwelling
of Albanus); Longwy, from _Longus-vicus_ (long town); Limoges, anc.
_Lemovicum_ (the town of the Lemovici); also in France: Vic-desprès
(the town on the meadows); Vic-sur-Losse and Vic-sur-Aisne, the towns
on these rivers. The Sclav. _wice_ is found in Jazlowice (the town on
the marsh); and Malschwice (Matthew’s town), etc.

[Sidenote: WIDR, or VITU (Teut. and Scand.),]

wood; _e.g._ Norwood (north wood); Selwood, Lat. _Sylva-magna_ (great
wood), Celtic _Coitmaur_; Coteswold (from its sheep-cotes, in the
wood); the Wolds, near Wolderness, in Yorkshire; Ringwood, in Hants,
Lat. _Regni-sylva_ (the wood or forest of the _Regni_, a tribe);
Wittstock and Woodstock (woody place); but Wittingau, Wittingen,
Wittgenstein, Wittgensdorf, and other names with this prefix in
Germany, come from the patronymic _Wittick_ or _Wittikind_ (_i.e._ the
children of the woods). In England the same prefix may mean _white_,
as in Witney, or from places where the Saxon _Witangemote_ held their
meetings; Holywood, in Dumfriesshire, Lat. _Abbia sacra nemoris_ (the
abbey of the sacred wood), called by the Irish _Der-Congal_ (the sacred
oak grove of Congal).

[Sidenote: WIECK, or WIKI (Sclav.),]

a market especially for corn; _e.g._ Wieck (the market town), the name
of numerous places in the Sclavonic districts; Wikow (the Sclavonic
name for Elsterwerder)--_v._ WARID, etc.

[Sidenote: WIESE (Ger.),
WAES (A.S.),]

pasture-ground or meadow; _e.g._ Pfaffenwiese (the priest’s meadow);
Schaafwiese (sheep pasture); Wiesbaden (the meadow baths); the Wash
(near moist pasture-ground); Wismar (beautiful or rich meadow),
in Mecklenburg; Wiesflech (the hamlet in the meadow pasture);
Ziegelwasen (the goat’s meadow); Wisheim (the dwelling in the meadow or

[Sidenote: WILIG (A.S.),]

the willow; _e.g._ Wilcrick (willow crag); Wilden (willow hollow); but
Willoughby and Willoughton, probably from a personal name.

[Sidenote: WIN (A.S.),]

victory; _e.g._ Winford, Winslow, Wingrave, Wimborne (the ford, hill,
entrenchment, and brook of the victory).

[Sidenote: WINKEL (Ger.),

a corner; _e.g._ Winceby (corner dwelling); Winchcomb (the corner
hollow); Winchelsea (the island or moist land at the corner);
Winchendon (corner hill); Winkleigh (corner meadow); Winkelhorst
(corner thicket); Winkeldorf (corner village); Winklarn (the waste
field at the corner).

[Sidenote: WISCH, or OSSICK,]

contracted from the Sclav. _hussoki_ (high); _e.g._ Wissek, Weissagh,
Wisowice or Wisowitz, Ossiegt, and Ossagh (high village); Wischhrad
(high fortress); Wisoki-mazo-wieck (the high middle market-town), in
Poland; but in Germany _wisch_ is sometimes a form of _wiese_ (meadow),
as in Wischmühle (the meadow mill); Wischhausen (the dwelling in the
meadow); Essek, for _Ossick_ (high place), in Sclavonia.

[Sidenote: WITHIG (A.S.),]

the willow; _e.g._ Witham, Withern (willow dwelling); Withybrook
(willow stream); Withridge (willow ridge).

[Sidenote: WOH (A.S.),]

a turning; _e.g._ Woburn, Wooburn (the bend of the stream); Woking
(the turning at the chink or chine).

[Sidenote: WOL (Sclav.),]

the ox; _e.g._ Wolgast (the oxen’s shed); Wohlau (an enclosure for
oxen), a town in Prussia which carries on a great trade in cattle;
Wollin (the place of oxen), at the mouth of the R. Oder.

[Sidenote: WOLSCHA, or OELZA (Sclav.),]

the alder-tree; _e.g._ Wolschau, Wolschen, Wolsching, Wolschinka (the
place abounding in alders); the Sclavonic name for the R. Elster is
_Wolshinka_ (the river of alders); Oels, in Silesia, on the Oelse
(alder-tree stream); Oelsen and Olsenice (the village of alder-trees);
Olsnitz (the town on Elster, or alder stream).

[Sidenote: WOLV, or WOL,]

a prefix sometimes employed with reference to the wolf, as in
Wolvesley (the wolves’ island), where a tribute of wolves’ heads was
paid annually by the Britons to the Saxons, by order of King Edgar.
Sometimes as a contraction for _wold_ (the waste land), as in Wolford,
Wolborough, Woldingham, Wooler, and in Woolverton; but it comes often
also from a personal name, as in Wolfhamcote, Wulferlow, Wolferton
(from Ulp or Wulfhern).

[Sidenote: WORTH, or WEORTHING (A.S.),]

a farm, manor, or estate, a place warded or protected, A.S. _warian_
(to defend); cognate with the Ger. _warid_ or _werder_; _e.g._ Worthing
in Sussex, Worthen in Salop, Worthy and Worting in Hants, Worthington
in Lancashire (the farm or manor); Highworth (high manor); Kenilworth
(the estate of Kenelm); Bosworth (of Bosa); Edgeworth (the estate on
the border); Edgeware, anc. _Edgeworth_, same meaning; Polwarth (the
estate on the marshy land), a parish in Berwickshire; Ravenworth (the
manor of Hrafen); Rickmansworth (of Rickman); Tamworth (the manor),
on R. Tam; Wandsworth, on the R. Wandle; Worksworth (the place near
the miner’s works); Chatsworth (the manor in the wood), Celtic _coed_;
Hammersmith, corrupt. from _Hermoderworth_ (the manor of Hermode).

[Sidenote: WURZE (Ger.),
WYRT (A.S.),]

an herb, a plant; _wyrtun_, a garden; _e.g._ Wurtzburg, anc.
_Herbipolis_ (the city of plants); Wortley (the place or field of
herbs); Warton (the garden).


[Sidenote: YEN (Chinese),]

salt; _e.g._ Yen-shan (salt hill); Yen-yuen (salt spring).

[Sidenote: YENI (Turc.),]

new; _e.g._ Yenidja-Vardar (the new fortress), anc. _Pella_;
Yenidya-Carasu (the new place on the black water); Yenikale (the
new castle); Yenikhan (new inn); Yeniseisk (the new town on the R.
Yenisei); Yenishehr (the new dwelling); Yeni-Bazar (new market);
Yenikoi (new village); Yeni-Hissar (new castle).


[Sidenote: ZAB (Ar.),]

a fountain; _e.g._ Great and Little Zab, in Turkey.

[Sidenote: ZARNY, or CZERNY (Sclav.),]

black; _e.g._ Zschorne (black town); Sornosche-Elster, _i.e._ the black
R. Elster; Zschornegosda (black inn); Zarnowice, Zarnowitz, Sarne,
Sarnow, Sarnowo, Sarnaki (black village).

[Sidenote: ZERENY, or CZERENY (Sclav.),]

red; _e.g._ Tscherna (the red river); Tscherniz or Zerniz (red town);
Tzernagora (red mountain).

[Sidenote: ZERKWA (Sclav.),]

a Greek church, from the Grk. _kuriake_; a Romish church in their
language is called _kosciol_; a Protestant church, _zbor_; _e.g._
Zerkowo, Zerkowitz, Zerkwitz (the town of the Greek church).

[Sidenote: ZETTEL (Sclav.),]

from _sedal_ (Ger.), a seat or settlement; _e.g._ Brockzettel (the
settlement or seat on the broken-up land); Endzettel (the settlement at
the corner); Weinzettel (the wine settlement).

[Sidenote: ZI (Old Fr.),]

a habitation; _e.g._ Sussi (the habitation on high ground); Issy (the
dwelling, _here_, or on low ground); Passy (the dwelling near the
boat--_bac_ or _bad_).


 _A few Names which do not occur in the body of the Work are explained
                            in the Index._


    Abbeville, 4

    Abbeyfeale, 4

    Abbeyleix and Abbeyshrule, 4

    Abyssinia, named from the Rivers Abai and Wabash, or, according to
      Bruce, from _habish_ (mixed), _i.e._ the country of the
      mixed races

    Acapulca, 9

    Acre, anc. _Accho_, Ar. the sultry or sandy shore

    Adelsberg, the nobles’ fortress

    Aden, Ar. a paradise

    Afium-kara-hissar, Turc. the black castle of opium

    Agades, the enclosure

    Agde, in France, Grk. _Agathos_, the good place, founded by
      Greeks from Marseilles

    Aghrim, or Aughrim, 67

    Agosta, Lat. _Augusta_

    Agra, 2

    Airdrie, 10

    Aix, 9

    Aix-la-Chapelle, 9

    Akerman, Turc. (white castle)

    Akhalzk, new fortress

    Alabama, the land of rest

    Alagous Bay (abounding in lakes)

    Aland, water land

    Albania, 7

    Albert, in Cape Colony, named after the Prince Consort

    Albuera, Ar. the lake

    Albuquerque, Lat. the white oak-tree

    Alcala, Ar. the castle, 114

    Alcantara, 6

    Alcarez, Ar. the farm

    Aldershott, 107

    Alemtayo (beyond the R. Tagus)

    Aleutian Islands, the bold rocks

    Alexandria and Alexandretta, named after Alexander the Great

    Alexandria, in Cape Colony, in honour of Queen Victoria

    Alexandria, in Italy, after Pope Alexander III.

    Alhama, 100

    Alleghany Mountains, from a tribe

    Alloa, the way to the sea

    Almaden, Ar. the mine

    Almanza, Ar. the plain

    Almanzor, Ar. victorious

    Almeida, Ar. the table

    Altona, called by the Hamburgians _All-zu-nah_, _i.e._
      (all too near), in allusion to its vicinity to Hamburg

    Alyth, the ascent or slope

    America, named after the Florentine adventurer Amerigo-Vespucci

    Angora, anc. Ancyra

    Annam (the place of the South)

    Anstruther, 179

    Antrim (at the elder trees)

    Antwerp, 208

    Aoasta, Lat. _Augusta_

    Apennine Mountains, 154

    Appenzel, 4

    Appleby, 37

    Applecross, 3

    Aranjues, Lat. _Ara Jovis_, the altar of Jove

    Aravali Mountain, the hill of strength

    Arbois, anc. _Arborosa_, the woody place

    Arbroath, 3

    Archangel, named in honour of the Archangel Michael

    Archipelago, the chief sea

    Arcos, anc. _Argobriga_, the town on the bend

    Ardeche, now Ardoix, in France, from _ardoise_, slate

    Ardee, in Ireland, on the R. Dee, now the Nith

    Ardeen and Ardennes, 10, 11

    Ardfert, 10

    Ardrossan, 10

    Argos, the plain

    Argyle, 150

    Arles, Cel. _Ar-laeth_, the marshy land

    Armagh, _i.e._ _Ardmacha_, Macha’s height

    Armorica, 143

    Arras, named from the _Atrebates_

    Arthur Seat, in Edinburgh, Gael. _Ard-na-said_, _i.e._
      the height of the arrows, meaning a convenient ground to shoot

    Ascension Island, so named because discovered on Ascension Day

    Asperne, 11

    Aspropotamo, Modern Grk. (the white river)

    Assouan, Ar. the opening at the mouth of the Nile

    Astrakan, named after a Tartar king

    Astura R., 199

    Asturias, 12

    Attica, Grk. the promontory

    Aubusson, 36

    Auch, named after the _Ausci_, a tribe

    Auchinleck, 5

    Auckland, 5

    Audlem, 7

    Augsburg, 35

    Aurillac, supposed to have been named after the Emperor Aurelian

    Auriol, anc. _Auriolum_, the golden or magnificent

    Austerlitz, 151

    Australia, the southern land

    Austria, 164

    Autun, 69

    Auvergne, the high country, 11

    Ava, or Awa, named from _angwa_, a fish-pond

    Avignon, 14

    Avranches, named from the _Abrincatui_

    Awe, Loch, 2

    Azores Isles, Port. the islands of hawks


    Baalbec, 15

    Babelmandeb Strait, 15

    Bactria, Pers. the east country

    Badajos, corrupt. from Lat. _Pax Augusta_

    Baden, 15

    Baffin’s Bay, named in honour of the discoverer

    Bagdad, 16

    Bahar, corrupt. from _Vihar_, a Buddhist monastery

    Bahia, Port. the bay, 16

    Bahr-el-Abiad, 17

    Bahrein, 17

    Baikal, the rich sea

    Baireuth, 162

    Bakewell, 162

    Bakhtchisarai, the palace of the gardens

    Bala (river head), in Wales

    Balachulish, 17

    Balaclava, 21

    Bala-Ghauts, 18

    Bala-hissar, 18

    Balasore, 18

    Balbriggan, Brecan’s bridge

    Balearic Isles, because their inhabitants were skilful in the use
      of the sling (_Balla_, Grk. to throw)

    Balfour, 17

    Balkan, 18

    Balkh, 18

    Ballantrae, the dwelling on the sea-shore, 196

    Ballater, 125

    Ballina, corrupt. from _Bel-atha_, ford mouth, 21

    Ballingry, the town of the king--_v._ BAILE

    _Note._--For Scotch or Irish names beginning with _bal_ or _bally_,
    _v._ BAILE or BEAL, pp. 17 and 21

    Ballintra, 196

    Balloch, 22

    Ballycastle, castle-town--_v._ 17

    Ballymena, 17

    Ballymoney, 17

    Ballyshannon, 22

    Balmaghie, 18

    Balmaklellan, the town of the Maclellans, 18

    Balmerino, 17

    Balmoral, 17

    Balquhidder, the town at the back of the country

    Balta and Baltia, the country of the belts or straits, the ancient
      name of Scandinavia, 18

    Banbury, 35

    Banchory, the fair valley

    Banchory-Devenick and Banchory-Ternan, named in honour of two
      saints who lived there

    Banda-Oriental, the eastern bank of the Rio-de-la-Plata

    Banff, 34

    Bangor, 23

    Banjarmassin, from _bender_, a harbour, and _masing_,
      usual, or from _banjer_, water, and _massin_, salt

    Banks Islands and Banks Land, named in honour of Sir Joseph Banks

    Bantry, Ir. _Beantraighe_, _i.e._ belonging to the
      descendants of Beann, of the royal race of Ulster

    Barbadoes, Port. the island of pines

    Barbary, the country of the Berbers

    Barbuda, the island of the bearded men, so named by the Portuguese

    Barcelona, named from Hamilcar Barca, who founded it

    Bardhwan, Pers. the thriving place

    Bardsey, 72

    Barfleur, 81

    Bar-le-Duc, 19

    Barnstaple, 152

    Barrow, 19

    Barrow Strait, named in honour of Sir John Barrow

    Barton, 194

    Basque Provinces, from _bassoco_, a mountaineer, or, according
      to Humboldt, from _basoa_, a forest

    Bass Strait, named after Bass, a navigator

    Basse Terre, low land

    Bassora, or Bozra, the fortress

    Batavia, 108

    Bath, 16

    Battersea, 71

    Battle and Buittle, 27

    Bautzen, 33

    Bavaria, the country of the Boii

    Bayeux, named from the _Bajoccas_, a tribe

    Bayonne, 17

    Beachy Head, 19

    Beauley and Beaulieu, 21

    Beaumaris, 21

    Beauvais, named from the _Bellovacii_

    Bedford, 82

    Bednore, 151

    Beersheba, 20

    Behring Strait, so named by Captain Cook in honour of Behring, a
      Russian navigator

    Beinn, Ben, etc., a mountain, 22

    Beira, Port. the river-bank

    Beja, corrupt. from the Lat. _Pax-Julia_

    Belfast, 22

    Belgium, named from the Belgae

    Belgrade, 21

    Belize, named after a person called Wallace

    Bell Rock or Inch Cape, a reef of rocks south-east from Arbroath,
      so called from the lighthouse which was erected on it in 1811,
      previous to which the monks of Arbroath caused a bell to be
      suspended upon it so as to be rung by the waves, and thus give
      warning to mariners

    Belleisle, 21

    Bellie, the mouth of the ford

    Belper, 21

    Beluchistan, 182

    Benares, named from the names of the two rivers on which it is

    Bender, etc., 23

    Beni, etc., 23

    Benin, corrupt. from Lat. _benignus_, blessed

    Berbice, at the mouth of the R. Berbice

    Berdiansk, 176

    Berg and its derivatives, 23

    Bergamo, on a hill

    Berhampore, 160

    Berkeley, 25

    Berkshire, 25

    Berlin, perhaps from Sclav. _berle_, uncultivated ground, but

    Bermudas Isles, named after the discoverer Juan Bermudez

    Berriew, corrupt. from _Aber-Rhiw_, at the mouth of the R.
      Rhiw, in Wales, 3

    Bervie, 112

    Berwick, 209

    Berwyn, 19

    Beveland, 122

    Beverley, 25

    Bewdley, 21

    Beyrout, 20

    Bhagulpore, 160

    Bhurtpore, 160

    Bicester, corrupt. from _Birincester_, _i.e._ the
      fortress of Birin, Bishop of Gloucester

    Bideford, by the ford

    Biela-Tsorkov, white church

    Bielgorod, white fortress

    Bielorietzk, 176

    Biggar, the soft land

    Bilbao, under the hill

    Bingley, the field of Bing, the original proprietor

    Bir, 20

    Birkdale, the birch valley

    Birkenhead and Birkhampstead, 25

    Birmingham, 99

    Biscaya and Bay of Biscay, named from the Basques, which, according
      to Humboldt, means forest dwellers

    Bishop-Auckland, so called from the number of oaks that grew here,
      and from the manor having belonged to the bishops of Durham

    Black Sea, perhaps so called from its frequent storms and fogs. The
      Greeks called it Euxine, from _euxinos_, hospitable,
      disliking its original name, Axinos, inhospitable

    Blaen and its derivatives, 26

    Blair and its derivatives, 26

    Blantyre, the warm retreat

    Bodmin, 27

    Bohemia, 100

    Bois-le-Duc, the duke’s wood

    Bokhara, the treasury of sciences, the chief town in a state of the
      same name

    Bolivia, named after its liberator Bolivar

    Bologna and Boulogne, named from the Boii

    Bombay, named after an Indian goddess Bombé, but translated by the
      Portuguese into _Bom-bahia_, good bay

    Bordeaux, 9

    Bornholm, 127

    Borovsk, 28

    Borrowstounness, 145

    Bosphorus, Grk. the passage of the bull

    Bourges, named from the _Bituriges_

    Brabant, 18

    Bramapootra R., the offspring of Brahma

    Brazil, named from the colour of its dye-woods, _braza_, Port.
      a live coal

    Breadalbane, 29

    Brecknock, the hill of Brecon or Brychan, a Welsh prince

    Breda, 29

    Breslaw, named after King _Vratis-law_

    Breton, Cape, discovered by mariners from Brittany

    Bridgenorth, 31

    Bridgewater, 31

    Brieg, 29

    Brighton, corrupt. from _Brighthelmston_, from a personal name

    Bristol, 183

    Britain: the Cym.-Cel. root _brith_, to paint, is supposed by
      some to be the root of the word; the British poets called it
      _Inis gwyn_, white island, which answers to the Roman name

    Brixton, 31

    Brodick, 209

    Brody, 30

    Brooklyn, in New York, Dutch, the broken-up land

    Bruges, 31

    Brunswick, 172

    Brussels, 30

    Brzesce-Litewski, 28

    Bucharest, the city of enjoyment

    Buckingham, a tribe name, or the dwelling among beeches, 33

    Buda, 33

    Budweis, 33

    Buenos-Ayres, 28

    Builth, 8

    Bungay, 95

    Burgos, 36

    Burslem, Burward’s dwelling in the clayey soil, _leim_

    Bury, 34

    Bushire, 174

    Bute, 33

    Buttermere, 136

    Buxton, 33


    Cabeza-del-Buey, 117

    Cabrach, the timber-moss, a parish in Co. Banff

    Cader-Idris, the chair of Idris, in Wales

    Cadiz, 86

    Cahors, named from the _Cadurci_

    Cairo, Ar. _Al-kahirah_, the victorious

    Calahorra, 114

    Calais, 39

    Calatayud, 114

    Calcutta, 88

    California is supposed to have taken its name from an old romance,
      in which this name was given to an imaginary island filled with
      gold, and Cortes applied the name to the whole district

    Callander, the corner of the water--_v._ DUR

    The Calf of Man. The word _calf_ was frequently used by the
      Norsemen for a smaller object in relation to a larger--_i.e._
      the small island off Man

    Calvados, named from one of the vessels of the Spanish Armada,
      wrecked on the coast of France

    Cambay, anc. _Khumbavati_, the city of the pillar

    Cambuskenneth, 39

    Canada, Ind. _Kannahta_, a collection of huts

    Candahar, named after Alexander the Great

    Candia, Ar. _Khandæ_, the trench island

    Cannes, 40

    Cannoch, _i.e._ _cann_, bright, and _oich_, water,
      the ancient name of the spot on which Conway Castle stands

    Canopus was called by the Egyptians the city of Kneph, a god

    Cantal, the head of the rock, 41

    Canton, _i.e._ _Kwang Chou_, the metropolis

    Cantyre or Kintyre, 45

    Capri and Caprera, the islands of wild goats

    Cardigan, named after its ancient king Ceredig, and is therefore
      corrupted from _Ceredigion_

    Carew, 38

    Carlingford, 39

    Carlisle, 38

    Carlow, 129

    Carlscroone, 118

    Carlshamm, Charles’s haven, 97

    Carluke, 39

    Carmel, Heb. the fruitful field

    Carmichael, 39

    Carnac, 41

    Carnatic, named from the _Carnates_, a tribe

    Carniola, 41

    Carolina, U.S., named after Charles II.

    Caroline Isles, named after Carlos II. of Spain

    Carpathian Mountains, from _Chrabat_, a mountain range

    Carrantuohill, Ir. the reversed reaping-hook, the highest mountain
      in Ireland

    Carthage, 86

    Carthagena, 86

    Casale, 42

    Cashel, 42

    Caspian Sea, named from the _Caspii_, a tribe

    Cassel, 42

    Castile, 42

    Catania, Phœn. the little city

    Cattegat, 88

    Caucasus, 147

    Cavan, 44

    Caxamarca in Peru, the place of frost

    Cefalu, 46

    Cephalonia, 46

    Cerigo, anc. _Cythera_, the harp-shaped

    Cerro--_v._ SIERRA

    Cevennes, 46

    Ceylon, 65

    Chambery, the bend of the water, on the R. Leysse, in France

    Chamouni, 40

    Champlain, named from the Governor-General of Canada in the
      seventeenth century

    Charles Cape, named after Baby Charles in the reign of James I.

    Charlestown, named after Charles II.

    Chatham, 55

    Chaumont, 39

    Chelsea, 46

    Chemnitz, 114

    Chepstow, 47

    Chester, 43

    Cheviot Hills, 46

    Chilham, 99

    Chiltern Hills, 11

    China, probably named from the dynasty of Thsin in the third
      century B.C.

    Chippenham, 47

    Chiusa, 116

    Christchurch, in Hants, anc. _Twinam-burne_, between two
      streams, and afterwards named from a church and priory founded
      by the W. Saxons in the reign of Edward the Confessor

    Christiana, named after Christian IV. of Sweden

    Ciudad, 49

    Civita-Vecchia, 49

    Clackmannan, 49

    Clameny, 109

    Clare Co., 50

    Cleveland, 50

    Cleves, 50

    Clifton, 50

    Clitheroe, 50

    Clogheen, 49

    Clonakilty, 50

    Clones, 50

    Clontarf, 50

    Closeburn, 48

    Cloyne, 50

    Coblentz, 54

    Cochin, _kochi_, a morass

    Cockburnspath, in Berwickshire, corrupt. from _Colbrand’s Path_

    Cognac, the corner of the water

    Coire or Chur, 56

    Colberg, 31

    Coleraine, 58

    Colmar, Lat. _Collis-Martis_, the hill of Mars

    Colombo, corrupt. from _Kalan-Totta_, the ferry on the Kalawa

    Colonna, Cape, 117

    Como, Lake, 54

    Comorin, Cape, named from a temple to the goddess Durga

    Compostella, Santiago de, corrupt. from _Sanctus Jacobus
      Apostolus_, so called from a legend that the Apostle James was
      buried there

    Comrie, at the confluence of three rivers, in Perthshire, 53

    Condé, 33

    Congleton, 33

    Connaught, anc. _Conaicht_, the territory of the descendants
      of Conn of the hundred battles

    Connecticut, Ind. _Qunnitukut_, the country on the long river

    Connemara, 144

    Constance, Lake, 172

    Copeland Isle, 47

    Copenhagen, 47

    Corbridge, 56

    Cork, 54

    Cornwall, 54

    Coromandel, corrupt. from _Cholomandala_, the district of the
      _Cholas_, a tribe

    Corrientes, Span. the currents

    Corryvreckan, 52

    Corsica, the woody

    Corunna, corrupt. from _Columna_, the pillars, in allusion to
      a tower of Hercules

    Cosenza, Lat. _Cosentia_, the confluence

    Cotswold Hills, 52

    Cottian Alps, named after a Celtic chief

    Coutance and Cotantin, named after the Emperor Constantius

    Coventry, 196

    Cowal, in Ayrshire, named after King Coill

    Cowes, 45

    Cracow, the town of Krak, Duke of Poland

    Cramond, 38

    Crathie, 56

    Cremona, anc. _Cremonensis-ager_, the field named from a tribe

    Crewe, 56

    Crewkerne, 56

    Crieff, Gael. _Craobh_, a tree

    Croagh-Patrick, 56

    Croatia, 109

    Cromar, the heart of Mar, a district in Aberdeenshire

    Cronstadt, 118

    Croydon, 70

    CRUG, as prefix, 58

    Cuença, Lat. _concha_, a shell

    Cueva-de-Vera, 45

    Culebra R., the snake river

    Cumberland, 122

    Cumbernauld, 53

    Cumbraes Isles and Cumbrian Mountains, named after the _Cymbri_

    Cundinamarca, named after an Indian goddess

    Curaçoa, named from a kind of bird

    Currie, 56

    Cuzeo, the centre, in Peru

    CWM, as prefix--_v._ 53, at COMBE

    Cyclades Isles, Grk. _kuklos_, a circle

    Cyprus, perhaps named from the herb _kupros_, with which it
      abounded, called by the Greeks _Cerastes_, the horned

    Czernowitz, Sclav. black town


    Dacca, Sansc. _Da-akka_, the hidden goddess, from a statue of
      Durga found there

    Dantzic, Danish fort, 61

    Daventry, 196

    Daviot, 6

    Dax, 9

    Deal, 59

    Deccan, Sansc. _Dakshina_, the south land

    Delft, 62

    Delhi, Sansc. _dahal_, a quagmire

    Denbigh, 64

    Denmark, 134

    Deptford, 54

    Derbend, the shut-up gates or the difficult pass

    Derry or Londonderry, 61

    Derwent R., 70

    Desaguadero R., Span. the drain

    Detmold, 64

    Détroit, the strait between Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie

    Devizes, anc. _de vies_, denoting a place where two ways met

    Devonshire, 64

    Dhawalagiri Mountain, 90

    Dieppe, 54

    Digne, 64

    Dijon, 69

    Dinan and Dinant, 54

    Dingle, 58

    Dingwall, 190

    Dinkelsbuhl, 33

    Dmitrov, the town of St. Demetrius

    Dnieper R., _i.e._ _Don-ieper_, upper river

    Dniester, _Don-iester_, lower river Don

    Doab, 2

    Dole, 59

    Dolgelly, 60

    Dominica Isle, so named because discovered on Sunday, _i.e._
      _Dies Dominica_

    Donagh, as prefix, 65

    Dondra Head, 65

    Donegall, 69

    Donnybrook, 65

    Doon R., 14

    Dorchester, 44

    Dorking, 70

    Dornoch, 66

    Dorset, 173

    Dort or Dordrecht, 66

    Douglas, 91

    Douro R., 70

    Dover, anc. _Dubris_, or anc. Brit. _Dufy-rraha_

    Dovrefield Mountains, 78

    Downpatrick, 68

    Downs, The, 69

    Drachenfels, 78

    Drenthe, 18

    Dresden, Sclav. _Drezany_, the haven

    Dreux, named from the _Durocasses_

    Drogheda, 66

    Drohobicz, Sclav. the woody place

    Droitwich, 209

    Dromore, 67

    Drontheim, 99

    Dryburgh, 62

    Dubicza, 68

    Dublin, 126

    Dubro, 57

    Dumbarton, 68

    Dumfries, 68

    Dungeness, 145

    Dunkirk, 70

    Dunluce, 128

    Dunse, now Duns, 70

    Dunstable, 182

    Durham, 106

    Durrow, 62

    Dynevor, 64

    Dyrrachium, Grk. the place with the dangerous breakers, _Dus_ and

    Dysart, 63


    Eaglesham, church hamlet

    Ecclefechan, the church of St. Fechan

    Eccleshall, 72

    Ecija, 12

    Ecuador, _i.e._ on the equator

    Edessa, 73

    Edfou, corrupt. from _Atbo_, the Coptic synonym for _Hut_,
      the throne of Horus

    Edinburgh, 68

    Edom, the red land

    Egripo or Negropont, 159

    Ehrenbreitstein, 181

    Eichstadt, Ger. oak town

    Eiger, the giant, in Switzerland

    Eisenach, 74

    Eisenberg, 74

    Elbing, named from the river on which it stands

    Elbœuf, 37

    Elché, 109

    Elgin, named after Helgyn, a Norwegian chief, about A.D. 927

    Elimo or Elath, the trees

    Elizabeth, county in New York, named from the daughter of James I.

    Elizabethgrad, 94

    Elmina, Ar. the mine

    Elphin, Ir. _Aill-finn_, the rock of the clear spring

    Elsinore, 150

    Elster R., the alder-tree stream

    Elstow, 183

    Elvas, anc. _Alba_, Basque, the place on the steep hill, _alboa_

    Ely, 71

    Emden, 69

    Empoli, corrupt. from the Lat. _emporium_, the market-place

    Enkhuizen, 75

    Ennis, 111

    Enniskillen, 111

    Eperies, Hung. the place of strawberries

    Eperney, anc. _aquæ-perennes_, the ever-flowing water

    Epinal, 177

    Epping, 110

    Epsom, 99

    Erekli, anc. _Heraclea_

    Erfurt, 83

    Erith, 105

    Erivan, Pers. _Rewan_, named after its founder

    Erlangen, 75

    Erlaw, 75

    Errigal, Ir. _Airegal_, a small church

    Erzeroom, corrupt. from _Arz-er-Room_, the fortress of the Romans

    Eschwege, ash-tree road

    Eschweiller, 6

    ESGAIR--_v._ SKAFR, 175

    Esk R., 198

    Essek or Ossick, 211

    Essex, 151

    Estepa, 12

    Estepona, 12

    Esthonia, the district of the people of the East

    Estremadura, Lat. _Estrema-Durii_, the extreme limits of the R.

    Etna, corrupt. from _attuna_, the furnace

    Eton, 71

    Eubœa, the well-tilled land

    Euho or Yuho R., 105

    Euphrates R., the fruitful, Ar. _Furat_, sweet water

    Europe, Grk. _euros_ and _ops_, the broad

    Euxine, Grk. the hospitable, formerly _axinos_ the inhospitable sea

    Evesham, 76

    Evora, the ford, in Spain

    Evreux, 9

    Exeter, 44


    Faenza, Lat. _Faventia_, the favoured

    Fair Head and Fair Island, from _farr_, Scand. a sheep

    Falaise, 78

    Falkirk, 116

    Famars, 77

    Fano, 76

    Fareham, 76

    Farnham, 79

    Faroe Islands, 71

    Faulhorn, 108

    Fazal, the beech-tree island, in the Azores

    Femern, 11

    Fermanagh, Ir. the men of Monagh

    Fermoy, the men of the plain

    Fernando Po, named after the discoverer

    Ferney, 77

    Ferns, 77

    Ferrara, 84

    Ferriby, 76

    Ferrol, Span. _farol_, the beacon

    Fetlar Isle, 72

    Fez, Ar. fertile

    Fife, said to be named from Feb, a Pictish chief

    Figueras, Span. the fig-trees

    Finisterre, Cape, and district, 190

    Finster-Aar-horn, 107

    Fintray and Fintry, 196

    Fishguard, 87

    Fiume, 81

    Flamborough Head, anc. _Fleamburgh_, the flame hill or beacon

    Flèche, La, named from the lofty spire of the church of St. Thomas

    Fleetwood, 81

    Flintshire, supposed to have derived its name from the abundance of
      quartz in the country

    Flisk, the moist place, Gael. _fleasg_

    Florence, Lat. _Florentia_, the flourishing

    Florida, called by the Spaniards _Pascua-Florida_ because
      discovered on Easter Sunday

    Flushing, 81

    Fochabers, Gael. _Faichaber_, the plain of the confluence, but
      more anciently _Beulath_, the mouth of the ford

    Foldvar, 81

    Folkstone, the people’s fortress, Lat. _Lapis-populi_

    Fondi, 81

    Fontenay, 81

    Fontenoy, 81

    Fordyce, the south pasture

    Forfar, supposed to have been named from a tribe, the _Forestii_

    Forli, 83

    Formentara, abounding in grain

    Formosa, Span. the beautiful

    Forth R., Scot. _Froch_, and Welsh _Werid_

    Fossano, 81

    Frankenstein, 181

    Frankfort, 83

    Frankfürt, 83

    Fraubrunnen, 32

    Frederickshald, 98

    Freiburg, 84

    Friesland, 122

    Frische Haff, 97

    Friuli, 84

    Fuentarrabia, 82

    Fühnen Isle or Odensey, 71

    Fulham, 100

    Funchal, a place abounding in _funcho_, Port. fennel

    Fürth, 83


    Gainsborough, the town of the _Ganii_, a tribe

    Galapago Isles, Span. the islands of the water tortoises

    Galashiels, 170

    Galatia, 108

    Galicia, 108

    Galilee, Heb. a district

    Galle, Point de, Cingalese, the rock promontory, _galle_

    Galway, named from _Gaillimh_, rocky river, 86

    Ganges R., 86

    Garioch, 86

    Garonne R., 86

    Gateshead, 40

    Gaza, Ar. a treasury

    Gebirge--_v._ BERG, 24

    Genappe, 89

    Geneva, 89

    Genoa, 90

    Georgia, named after George III.

    Ghauts Mountains, 88

    Ghent, 89

    Giant’s Causeway, 49

    Gibraltar, 89

    Giessbach, the rushing brook

    Girgeh, St. George’s town, on the Nile

    Girvan R., the short stream

    Giurgevo, St. George’s town

    Glamorgan, Welsh _Morganwg_, _i.e._ Gwlad-Morgan, the
      territory of Morgan-Mawr, its king in the tenth century, 143

    Glarus, corrupt. from _St. Hilarius_, to whom the church was

    Glogau, 92

    Gloucester, 44

    Gmünd, 89

    Goat Fell, 78

    Godalming, Godhelm’s meadow, in Surrey

    Goes or Ter-Goes, at the R. Gosa

    Gollnitz and Gollnow, 92

    Goole, 86

    Goritz, 93

    Gorlitz, 93

    Goslar, 122

    Göttingen, a patronymic

    Gouda, on the R. Gouwe

    Gower, Welsh _Gwyr_, a peninsula in Wales, sloping west from
      Swansea--it may signify the land of the sunset

    Grabow, 93

    Gradentz, 94

    Gran, on the R. Gran

    Grasmere, the lake of swine

    Gratz, 94

    Gravelines, 93

    Gravesend, 93

    Greenland, 95

    Greenlaw, 123

    Greenock, 94

    Greenwich, 209

    Grenoble, 158

    Gretna Green, 102

    Grisnez, Cape, gray cape, 145

    Grisons, Ger. _Graubünden_, the gray league, so called from
      the dress worn by the Unionists in 1424

    Grodno, 94

    Grongar--_v._ CAER, 38

    Gröningen, a patronymic

    Grossenhain, 97

    Guadalquivir, 95

    Guadiana, 95

    Güben, Sclav. dove town

    Gueret, Fr. land for tillage

    Guienne, corrupt. from _Aquitania_

    Gustrow, Sclav. guest town

    Gwasanau, corrupt. from _Hosannah_, a place in North Wales. The
      name was given in allusion to the _Victoria-Alleluiatica_, fought
      on the spot in 420, between the Britons, headed by the Germans,
      and the Picts and Scots


    Haarlem, 96

    Hadersleben, 124

    Haemus Mountain, 18

    Hague, The, 97

    Haguenau, 97

    Hainan, Chinese, south of the sea, corrupt. from _Hai Lam_

    Hainault, 88

    Halicarnassus, Grk. _Halikarnassos_, sea horn place

    Halifax, 103

    Halifax, Nova Scotia, named for the Earl of Halifax

    Hall and Halle, 98

    Hamburg, 97

    Hameln, 99

    Hammerfest, 100

    Hampstead, 98

    Hankau or Hankow, the mouth of commerce, a city in China

    Hanover, 150

    Harbottle, 27

    Harrogate, 88

    Hartlepool, 158

    Hartz Mountains, 101

    Harwich, 100

    Haselt, 101

    Hastings, A.S. _Haestinga-ceaster_, the camp of Hastings, a
      Danish pirate

    Havana, the harbour

    Havre, Le, 97

    Hawarden, Welsh, upon the hill

    Hawes, 97

    Heboken, Ind. the smoked pipe, the spot in New Jersey at which the
      English settlers smoked the pipe of peace with the Indian chiefs

    Hechingen, a patronymic.

    Hedjas, the land of pilgrimage

    Heidelberg, 24

    Heilbron, 32

    Heiligenstadt, 103

    Heligoland, 103

    Helvellyn, if Celtic, perhaps _El-velin_, the hill of Baal

    Hems, probably named from _Hms_, the Egyptian name of Isis

    Henly, Cym.-Cel. old place

    Herat, anc. _Aria-Civitas_, the town on the Arius, now the R. Heri

    Hereford, 82

    Hermon, the lofty peak

    Herstal, 180

    Hesse, named from the _Catti_ or _Chatti_

    Himalaya Mountains, 123

    Hinckley, the horse’s meadow

    Hindostan, 181

    Hindu Koosh Mountains, _i.e._ the Indian Caucasus

    Hinojosa, Span. the place of fennel

    Hirschberg, 105

    Hitchen, 100

    Hoang Ho, 105

    Hobart Town, named after one of the first settlers

    Hohenlinden, 106

    Holland, 106

    Holstein, 174

    Holt, 107

    Holyhead, 103

    Holy Island, 103

    Holywell, 103

    Holywood, 103

    Homburg, 105

    Honduras, Span. deep water

    Hong Kong, the place of fragrant streams

    Hoorn, 107

    Hor, the mountain

    Horeb, the desert

    Horn, Cape, 107

    Horncastle, 107

    Horsham, 99

    Howden, 102

    Howth Head, 102

    Hudson R., named after Henry Hudson, who ascended the river A.D.

    Huelva, Basque _Onoba_, at the foot of the hill; and Ar.
      _Wuebban_, corrupt. to Huelva

    Huesca, anc. _Osca_, the town of the Basques or Euscs

    Hull, 117

    Hungary, Ger. _Ungarn_, the country of the Huns; Hung.
      _Magyar-Orzag_, the country of the Magyars

    Huntingdon, hunter’s hill, or a patronymic

    Hurdwar, 70

    Huron, Lake, from a tribe

    Hurryhur, named from the goddess Hari or Vishnu

    Hurst, 101

    Hythe, 105


    Ilfracombe, 54

    Illinois, named after the tribe _Illini_, _i.e._ the men; and
      _ois_, a tribe

    Imaus, the snowy mountain

    Inch--_v._ INNIS, 111

    Ingleborough Mountain, 24

    Inkermann, Turc. the place of caverns

    Innerleithen, 112

    Innsbrück, at the bridge, on the R. Inn

    Interlachen, 119

    Inverness, 112

    Iona or I, 108

    Iowa, the drowsy ones, a tribe name, U.S.

    Ipswich, 209

    Ireland or Ierne, 108

    Irkutsk, 176

    Irrawädi, the great river

    Iscanderoon, named after Alexander the Great

    Iserlohn, 130

    Isla, in the Hebrides, named after Yula, a Danish princess who was
      buried there

    Ispahan, Pers. the place of horses

    Issoire, 70

    Issoudun, 69

    Ithaca, the strait or steep


    Jabalon R., 112

    Jaffa or Joppa, Semitic, beauty

    Jamaica, corrupt. from _Xaymaca_, the land of wood and water

    Jamboli, Sclav. the city in the hollow

    Janina, Sclav. John’s town

    Jaroslav, named after its founder

    Jassy, Sclav. the marshy place

    Jauer, 113

    Java, 65

    Jersey, 71

    Jersey, in U.S., so named by Sir George Carteret, who had come from
      the Island of Jersey

    Jerusalem, Semitic, the abode of peace

    Joinville, 201

    Joppa--_v._ Jaffa, the beautiful

    Jouare, anc. _Ara-Jovis_, the altar of Jove

    Juggernaut, or more correctly _Jagganatha_, the Lord of the
      world--_jacat_, Sansc. the world, and _natha_, Lord

    Juliers, 109

    Jumna R., named after Yamuna, a goddess

    Jungfrau Mountain, Ger. the maiden or the fair one, so called from
      its spotless white

    Jura Isle, Scand. _Deor-oe_, deer island

    Jüterbogk, named for the Sclav. god of spring

    Jutland, named from the Jutes


    Kaffraria, Ar. the land of the _Kafirs_ or unbelievers

    Kaisarizeh, the mod. name of anc. _Cæsarea_

    Kaiserlautern, 113

    Kalgan, Tartar, the gate, a town in China

    Kampen, 35

    Kandy, splendour

    Kansas, a tribe name

    Karlsbad, 16

    Keith, Gael. the cloudy, from _ceath_, a cloud or mist

    Kel and Kil--_v._ COILL or CILL

    Kells, 48

    Kelso, 38

    Kempen, 40

    Ken--_v._ CEANN

    Kendal, 60

    Kenmare, 46

    Kensington, the town of the _Kensings_

    Kent, 45

    Kentucky, the dark and bloody ground

    Kerry Co., Ir. _Ciarraidhe_, the district of the race of Ciar

    Kettering, a patronymic

    Kew, 107

    Khartoum, the promontory

    Khelat, 114

    Kin--_v._ CEANN

    Kinghorn, 45

    Kingsclere, 5

    King’s Co., named after Philip II. of Spain

    Kingston, 147

    Kingussie, 45

    Kirkillisia, the forty churches in Turkey

    Kirkintilloch, 38

    Kirkwall, 115

    Kishon R., _i.e._ the tortuous stream

    Kissengen, a patronymic

    Klagenfurt, 84

    Knock--_v._ CNOC

    Königgratz, the king’s fortress

    Kordofan, the white land

    Koros R., Hung, the red river

    Koslin, 118

    Kothendorf, 47

    Kralowitz, 118

    Kraszna R., beautiful river

    Kremenetz, 118

    Kremnitz, 118

    Krishna or Kistna R., the black stream, in India

    Kronstadt, 118

    Kulm, 47

    Kyle--_v._ CAOL


    La Hogue, Cape, 102

    Laaland Isle, 119

    Labuan Isle, Malay, the anchorage

    Laccadives, 65

    Laconia, 120

    Ladrone Isles, Span. the islands of thieves

    Lagnieu, 120

    Lagos, 120

    Laguna, 120

    Lahr, 123

    Lambeth, 105

    Lambride, 121

    Lamlash, 120

    Lampeter, 121

    Lamsaki, anc. _Lampsacus_, the passage

    Lanark, 121

    Land’s End--_v._ PEN

    Landerneau, 121

    Langres, anc. _Langone_, named from the _Lingones_, a tribe

    Languedoc, named from the use of the word _oc_, for _yes_,
      in their language, _i.e._ Langue-d’oc

    Lannion, 121

    Laon, 130

    Larbert, named from a man of this name

    Largo, 124

    Largs, 124

    Larissa, named after a daughter of Pelasgus

    Lassa, the land of the Divine intelligence, the capital of Thibet

    Latakia, corrupt. from anc. _Laodicea_

    Latheron, 103

    Lauder, named from the R. Leader

    Lauffen, 123

    Launceston, 121

    Laval, anc. _Vallis-Guidonis_, the valley of Guido

    Lawrence R., so named because discovered on St. Laurence’s Day,

    Laybach or Laubach, 15

    Leam R., 125

    Leamington, 125

    Lebanon Mountain, 89

    Leeds, 125

    Leibnitz, 124

    Leighlin, 91

    Leighton-Buzzard, 21

    Leinster, 183

    Leipzig, 128

    Leith, named from the river at whose mouth it stands

    Leitrim, 67

    Lemberg, 24

    Leobschütz, the place of the _Leubuzi_, a Sclavonic tribe

    Leominster, 130

    Leon, anc. _Legio_, the station of the 7th Roman Legion

    Lepanto, Gulf of, corrupt. from _Naupactus_, Grk. the ship station

    Lerida, anc. _Llerda_, Basque, the town

    Lesmahago, 128

    Letterkenny, 125

    Leuchars, the marshy land

    Levant, Lat. the place of the sun-rising, as seen from Italy

    Leven R., 124

    Lewes, _Les ewes_, the waters

    Lewis Island, Scand. _Lyodhuus_, the wharf

    Leyden, 69

    Liberia, the country of the free, colonised by emancipated slaves

    Lichfield, 77

    Lidkioping, 47

    Liège, 125

    Liegnitz, 130

    Lifford, 25

    Ligny, a patronymic

    Lille, 111

    Lilybaeum, Phœn. opposite Libya

    Lima, corrupt. from _Rimæ_, the name of the river on which it
      stands and of a famous idol

    Limbourg, 126

    Limerick, corrupt. from _Lomnech_, a barren spot; _lom_, bare

    Limoges, anc. _Lemovicum_, the dwelling of the Lemovici

    Linares, Span. flax fields

    Lincoln, 53

    Lindesnaes, 126

    Lindores, in Fife, probably a corruption of _Lann-Tours_, being
      the seat of an anc. Abbey of Tours, founded by David, Earl of

    Linkioping, 47

    Linlithgow, 127

    Lisbellaw, 128

    Lisbon, 104

    Lisieux, in France, Lat. _Noviomagus_, the new field,
      subsequently named from the Lexovii

    Liskeard, 128

    Lissa, 125

    Liverpool, 158

    Livno, Livny, Livonia, named from the _Liefs_, a Ugrian tribe

    Llanerch-y-medd, the place of honey, in Wales

    Llanos, Span. the level plains

    Lochaber, 3

    Lockerby, 37

    Lodi, anc. _Laus-Pompeii_

    Logie, 120

    Lombardy, the country of the _Longobardi_, so called from a
      kind of weapon which they used

    London, 64

    Londonderry, 61

    Longford, 83

    Longniddrie--_v._ LLAN, 122

    Loop Head, 123

    Lorca, 109

    Loretto, named from Lauretta, a lady who gave the site for a chapel
      at that place

    L’Orient, so named from an establishment of the East India Company
      at the place in 1666

    Lorn, Gael. _Labhrin_, named after one of the Irish colonists
      from Dalriada

    Lossie R., 1

    Loughill, Ir. _Leamchoil_, the elm-wood

    Louisiana, named after Louis XIV. of France

    Louisville, 201

    Louth, in Lincoln, named from the R. Ludd

    Louth Co., Ir. _Lugh Magh_, the field of Lugh

    Louvain, Ger. _Löwen_, the lion, named after a person called

    Lowestoft, 192

    Lubeck, 128

    Luben, 128

    Lublin, 128

    Lucca, anc. _Luca_--_v._ LUCUS

    Lucena, Basque _Lucea_, the long town

    Lucerne, named from a lighthouse or beacon, _lucerna_,
      formerly placed on a tower in the middle of the R. Rheus

    Lucknow, corrupt. from the native name _Laksneanauti_,
      the fortunate

    Ludlow, 123

    Ludwigslust, 131

    Lugano, 119

    Lugo, 130

    Lugos, 130

    Lund, 131

    Lurgan, Ir. the low ridge

    Luxembourg, 131

    Luxor, corrupt. from _El-Kasur_, the palaces

    Lycus R., Grk. _leukos_

    Lyme, in Kent, anc. _Kainos-limen_, Grk. the new haven

    Lyme-Regis, on the R. Lyme

    Lyons, 69


    Macao, in China, where there was a temple sacred to an idol named
      Ama. The Portuguese made it _Amagoa_, the bay of Ama,
      corrupted first to Amacao and then to Macao

    Madeira, Port. the woody island

    Madras, 153

    Madrid, anc. _Majerit_, origin unknown, but perhaps from
      _Madarat_, Ar. a city

    Maelawr, from _mael_, Welsh, mart, and _lawr_, ground, a
      general name for places in Wales where trade could be carried on
      without any hindrance from diversity of races.--James’s _Welsh
      Names of Places_

    Maestricht, 66

    Magdala, Semitic, a watch-tower in Abyssinia

    Magdala, in Saxe-Weimar, on the R. Midgel

    Magor, corrupt. from _Magwyr_, Welsh, a ruin, the name of a
      railway station near Chepstow

    Maidenhead, 105

    Maidstone, 181

    Main R., 132

    Maine, in France, named from the _Cenomani_

    Mainland, 132

    Malabar Coast, or _Malaywar_, the hilly country

    Malacca, named from the tree called Malacca

    Malaga, Phœn. _malac_, salt, named from its trade in salt

    Malakoff, named after a sailor of that name who established a
      public-house there

    Maldives Islands, 65

    Maldon, 69

    Mallow, 132

    Malpas, Fr. the difficult pass

    Malta, Phœn. _Melita_, a place of refuge

    Malvern, 139

    Mancha, La, Span. a spot of ground covered with weeds

    Manchester, 44

    Manfredonia, named after Manfred, King of Naples, by whom it was

    Mangalore, named after an Indian deity

    Mangerton Mountain, in Ireland, corrupt. from _Mangartach_,
      _i.e._ the mountain covered with _mang_, a long
      hairlike grass

    Mans, Le, named after the _Cenomani_

    Mansorah, in Egypt, the victorious

    Mantinea, Grk. the place of the prophet or oracle, _mantis_

    Mantua, 133

    Manzanares, Span. the apple-tree orchard

    Maracaybo, 143

    Maranao, Span. a place overgrown with weeds

    Marathon, a place abounding in fennel, _marathos_

    Marazion, 84

    Marburg, 134

    March, 134

    Marchena, the marshy land

    Marengo, 136

    Margarita, the island of pearls

    Margate, 88

    Marienwerder, 205

    Marlow, Great, 136

    Marmora, Sea of, named from an adjacent island, celebrated for its
      marble, _marmor_

    Marnoch, Co. Banff, named from St. Marnoch

    Maros R., 136

    Maros-Vasarhely, 103

    Marquesas Isles, named after Marquis Mendoza, Viceroy of Peru, who
      originated the voyage through which they were discovered

    Marsala, 135

    Maryland, named after the queen of Charles I.

    Mathern, corrupt. from _Merthyr_, the martyr, the name of a
      church near Chepstow, built in memory of Fewdrig, King of Gwent,
      who died on its site as he was returning wounded from a battle
      against the Saxons

    Mathravel, the land of apples, one of the ancient provinces into
      which Wales was divided

    Matlock, 130

    Mauritius, discovered by the Portuguese in 1505, visited by the
      Dutch in 1596, who named it after Prince Maurice of the
      Netherlands. From 1713 till 1810 it belonged to the French, who
      called it Isle of France

    May Island, 132

    Maynooth, 132

    Mayo, the plain of yew-trees

    Mazzara, Phœn. the castle

    Mazzarino, the little castle

    Mearns, corrupt. from _Maghgkerkkin_, the plain of Kerkin

    Meaux, named from the _Meldi_

    Mecklenburg, 137

    Medellin, named after its founder, Metellus, the Roman consul

    Medina, 135

    Mediterranean Sea, 138

    Meiningen, 132

    Meissen, on the R. Meissa

    Melbourne, named after Lord Melbourne in 1837

    Meldrum, 67

    Melrose, 139

    Melun, 69

    Memmingen, a patronymic

    Memphis or Memphe, _i.e._ _Ma-m-Phthah_, the place of the
      Egyptian god Phthah

    Menai Strait, anc. _Sruth-monena_

    Menam, the mother of waters, a river of Siam

    Mendip Hills, _i.e._ _mune-duppe_, rich in mines

    Mentone, It. the chin, on a point of lead

    Merida, Lat. _Augusta Emerita_, the town of the _emeriti_
      or veterans, founded by Emperor Augustus

    Merioneth, named after Merion, a British saint

    Merthyr-Tydvil, named after the daughter of an ancient British king

    Meseritz, 138

    Meshed, Ar. the mosque

    Mesolonghi or Missolonghi, 119

    Mesopotamia, 138

    Metz, named from the _Meomatrici_, a tribe

    Michigan Lake, Ind. great lake, or the weir, or fish-trap, from its

    Middelburg, 138

    Midhurst, 138

    Miklos, 137

    Milan, 115

    Milton, 144

    Minnesota R., the sky-coloured water

    Miramichi, Ind. happy retreat

    Mirgorod, 138

    Mississippi R., Ind. the father of waters

    Missouri, Ind. the muddy stream

    Mitrovicz or Mitrovitz, 152

    Mittau, named from _Mita_, a Sclav. deity

    Modena, Lat. _Mutina_, the fortified place

    Moffat, the foot of the moss

    Mogadore, named after a saint whose tomb is on an island off the

    Moguer, Ar. the caves

    Mohawk R., named from a tribe

    Moidart or Moydart, 132

    Mola, It. the mound, anc. _Turres-Juliani_, the town of Julian

    Mold, 142

    Monaghan, Ir. _Muneachain_, a place abounding in little hills

    Monaster, 138

    Monasterevin, 138

    Monda, 142

    Mondego, 142

    Monena, the river or sea of Mona

    Monmouth, at the mouth of the Mynwy, _i.e._ the border river,
      from which it took its ancient name

    Montgomery, 142

    Montrose, 168

    Moravia, 136

    Morayshire, 119

    Morbihan, 119

    Morecambe Bay, 39

    Morocco, the country of the Moors, 22

    Morpeth, 143

    Morven, 143

    Morvern, 143

    Moscow, 142

    Moulins, 141

    Mourne Mountains, 142

    Moy, Moyne, 132

    Muhlhausen, 141

    Mull Island, 145

    Münden, 140

    Munich, 140

    Munster, in Germany, 138

    Munster, in Ireland, 138

    Murcia, 134

    Murviedro, 145

    Muscat or Meschid, Ar. the tomb of a saint

    Muthil, 143

    Mysore, corrupt. from _Mahesh-Asura_, the name of a
      buffalo-headed monster, said to have been destroyed by the
      goddess Kali


    Naas, Ir. a fair or place of meeting

    Nablous, 158

    Nagore, _na-gara_, Sansc. a city

    Nagpore, 160

    Nagy-Banja, 18

    Nagy-Koros, 146

    Nairn, on the R. Nairn, anc. _Ainear-nan_, east-flowing river

    Nancy, 146

    Nankin, Chinese, the southern capital

    Nantes, 146

    Nantwich, 146

    Naples, 158

    Narbonne, named from the _Narbonenses_

    Naseby, the town on the cape

    Nashville, named from Colonel Nash

    Nassau, 146

    Natal, Colony, so named because discovered on Christmas Day,
      _Dies-natalis_, by Vasco de Gama in 1498

    Natchez, a tribe name

    Naumburg, 148

    Naupactus, the place of ships

    Nauplia, a sea-port, from the Grk. _naus_, a ship, and
      _pleos_, full

    Navan, Ir. _n’Eamhain_, literally the neck brooch, so named
      from a legend connected with the foundation of an ancient palace

    Navarre, 147

    Naxos, the floating island

    Naze, Cape, 145

    Nebraska, Ind. the shallow river

    Nedjed, Ar. the elevated country

    Negropont, 159

    Neilgherry Hills, 90

    Nemours, the place of the sacred grove, _nemus_

    Nenagh, 74

    Ness, Loch and R., 73

    Neston, 73

    Netherlands, 147

    Neusatz, 148

    Neusohl, 148

    Neuwied, 148

    Nevada Mountains--_v._ SIERRA, 175

    Nevers, anc. _Nivernum_ and _Noviodunum_, the new fort or the R.

    Neviansk, on the R. Neva

    Newark, 206

    Newcastle, 43

    Newport, 156

    New Ross, 167

    Newry, Ir. _Iubhar-cinn-tragha_, the yew-tree at the head of
      the strand

    New York, named after the Duke of York, brother of Charles II.

    Niagara, corrupt. from _Oni-aw-ga-rah_, the thunder of waters

    Nicastro, new camp

    Nicopoli, 158

    Nijni Novgorod, 148

    Nile R., native name _Sihor_, the blue, called by the Jews
      Nile, the stream

    Nimeguen, 133

    Nimes or Nismes, 147

    Ningpo, the repose of the waves

    Niphon Mount, the source of light

    Nippissing, a tribe name

    Nogent, 149

    Noirmoutier, 138

    Nola, 148

    Nombre-de-dios, the name of God, a city of Mexico

    Nörrkoping, 47

    Northumberland, 149

    Norway, 149

    Nova Scotia, so named in concession to Sir William Alexander, a
      Scotsman, who settled there in the reign of James II. It was
      named _Markland_ by its Norse discoverer, Eric the Red

    Nova Zembla, 148

    Noyon, anc. _Noviodunum_, the new fort

    Nubia, Coptic, the land of gold

    Nuneaton, the nun’s town, on the R. Ea, in Warwickshire, the seat
      of an ancient priory

    Nurnberg, 24

    Nyassa and Nyanza, the water

    Nyborg, 148

    Nyköping or Nykobing, 47

    Nystadt, 148


    Oakham, 5

    Oban, Gael. the little bay

    Ochill Hills, 198

    Ochiltree, 198

    Odensee, 71

    Oeta Mount, sheep mountain

    Ofen or Buda, 33

    Ohio, beautiful river, called by the French _La Belle rivière_

    Oldenburg, 7

    Olekminsk, 176

    Olympus Mountain, the shining

    Omagh, _Omeha_, named from a tribe

    Omsk, 176

    Oosterhout, 107

    Oporto, 156

    Oppeln, the town on the R. Oppo

    Oppido, Lat. _Oppidum_

    Orange, anc. _Arausione_, the town on the R. Araise

    Orange R. and Republic, named after Maurice, Prince of Orange

    Oregon R., from the Span. _organa_, wild marjoram

    Orellana R., named from its discoverer

    Orissa, named from a tribe

    Orkney Islands, 111

    Orleans, corrupt. from _Aurelianum_, named after the Emperor

    Orme’s Head, Norse _ormr_, a serpent, from its shape

    Ormskirk, 125

    Orvieto, 199

    Osborne, named after the Fitz-Osborne family

    Oschatz, Sclav. _Osada_, the colony

    Osimo, 199

    Osnabrück, 31

    Ossa Mountain, Grk. the watch-tower

    Ostend, 74

    Ostia, Lat. the place at the river’s mouth, _Os_

    Oswestry, 57

    Othrys, the mountain with the overhanging brow, Grk. _othrus_

    Otranto, anc. _Hydruntum_, a place almost surrounded by water,
      _ùdor_, Grk.

    Ottawa, a tribe name

    Ottawa R., a tribe name

    Oudenarde, 7

    Oudh or Awadh, corrupt. from _Ayodha_, the invincible

    Oulart, corrupt. from _Abhalgort_, Ir. apple field

    Oundle, 60

    Ouro-preto, 160

    Ouse R., 198

    Overyssel R., 150

    Oviedo is said to have derived this name from the Rivers Ove and
      Divo. Its Latin name was _Lucus-Asturum_, the grove of the

    Owyhee, the hot place


    Paderborn, 32

    Padstow, 183

    Paestum, anc. _Poseidonia_, the city of Poseidon or Neptune

    Palamcotta, 55

    Palermo, corrupt. from _Panormus_, Grk. the spacious harbour

    Palestine, the land of the Philistines, _strangers_; from
      Crete, who occupied merely a strip of the country on the coast,
      and yet gave their own name to the whole land

    Palma, the palm-tree

    Palmas, Lat. the palm-trees

    Palmyra or Tadmor, the city of palms

    Pampeluna or Pamplona, 158

    Panama Bay, the bay of mud fish

    Panjab or Punjaub, 2

    Paraguay, 153

    Parahyba, 153

    Paramaribo, 144

    Parapamisan Mountains, the flat-topped hills

    Parchim, 153

    Paris, 130

    Parsonstown, named for Sir William Parsons, who received a grant of
      the land on which the town stands, with the adjoining estate,
      from James II. in 1670

    Passau, 44

    Patagonia, so called from the clumsy shoes of its native

    Patna, 153

    Paunton, 159

    Pays de Vaud, 200

    Peebles, anc. _Peblis_, Cym.-Cel. the tents or sheds

    Peel, 153

    Peiho R., 105

    Pe-king, Chinese, the northern capital

    Pe-ling Mountains, the northern mountains

    Pelion, the clayey mountains, _pelos_, Grk. clay

    Pella, the stony

    Pembroke, 30

    Penicuik, 154

    Pennsylvania, named after William Penn, whose son had obtained a
      grant of forest land in compensation for £16,000 which the king
      owed to his father

    Pentland Hills, corrupt. from the Pictsland Hills

    Penzance, 154

    Perekop, the rampart

    Perigord, named from the _Petrocorii_

    Perm, anc. _Biarmaland_, the country of the Biarmi

    Pernambuco, the mouth of hell, so called from the violent surf at
      the mouth of its harbour

    Pernau, 126

    Pershore, 130

    Perth, 19

    Perthddu, Welsh, the black brake or brushwood, in Wales

    Perugia, 152

    Peshawur, the advanced fortress

    Pesth, 150

    Peterhead, 112

    Peterwarden, the fortress of Peter the Hermit

    Petra, the stony

    Petropaulovski, the port of Peter and Paul

    Pforzheim, 135

    Philadelphia, the town of brotherly love, in America

    Philippi, named after Philip of Macedon

    Philippine Isles, named after Philip II. of Spain

    Philipstown, in Ireland, named after Philip, the husband of Queen

    Phocis, the place of seals

    Phœnice, either the place of palms or the Phœnician settlement

    Phœnix Park, in Dublin, 80

    Piedmont, the foot of the mountain

    Pietermaritzburg, named after two Boer leaders

    Pillau, 153

    Pisgah Mountain, the height

    Pittenweem, 157

    Pittsburg, named after William Pitt

    Placentia, Lat. the pleasant place

    Plassy, named from a grove of a certain kind of tree

    Plattensee or Balaton, 173

    Plenlimmon Mountain, Welsh, the mountain with five peaks

    Plock, or Plotsk, 26

    Ploermel, 157

    Podgoricza, 157

    Poictiers, named from the _Pictones_

    Poland, Sclav. the level land

    Polynesia, 112

    Pomerania, 143

    Pondicherri, Tamil, the new village

    Pontoise, 159

    Poole, 158

    Popocatepetl Mountain, the smoking mountain

    Portrush, 168

    Portugal, 156

    Potenza, Lat. _Potentia_, the powerful

    Potsdam, 157

    Powys, the name of an ancient district in North Wales, signifying a
      place of rest

    Pozoblanco, 161

    Prague, Sclav. _Prako_, the threshold

    Prato-Vecchio, 160

    Prenzlow, the town of Pribislav, a personal name

    Presburg or Brezisburg, the town of Brazilaus

    Prescot, 55

    Presteign and Preston, 194

    Privas, anc. _Privatium Castra_, the fortress not belonging to
      the state, but private property

    Prossnitz, on the R. Prosna

    Providence, in U.S., so named by Roger Williams, who was persecuted
      by the Puritan settlers in Massachusetts because he preached
      toleration in religion, and was obliged to take refuge at that
      place, to which, in gratitude to God, he gave this name

    Prussia, the country of the _Pruezi_

    Puebla, Span. a town or village

    Puebla-de-los-Angelos, the town of the angels, so called from its
      fine climate

    Puenta-de-la-Reyna, 159

    Puerto, the harbour

    Pulo-Penang, 161

    Puozzuoli, 161

    Puy-de-dome, 156

    Pwlhelli, 159

    Pyrenees Mountains, named either from the Basque _pyrge_, high,
      or from the Celtic _pyr_, a fir-tree

    Pyrmont, 142


    Quang-se, the western province, in China

    Quang-tung, the eastern province

    Quatre-Bras, Fr. the four arms, _i.e._ at the meeting of four

    Quebec, in Canada, named after Quebec in Brittany, the village on
      the point

    Queensberry, 24

    Queen’s County, named after Queen Mary

    Queensferry, 76

    Queensland and Queenstown, named after Queen Victoria

    Quimper, 53

    Quimper-lé, 53

    Quita, the deep ravine


    Radnorshire, 165

    Radom and Radomka, named after the Sclav. deity Ratzi

    Rajputana, 163

    Ramgunga, 86

    Ramnaggur, ram’s fort

    Ramsgate, 88

    Randers, 162

    Raphoe, 163

    Rapidan R., named after Queen Anne

    Rappahannock R., Ind. the river of quick-rising waters

    Rastadt, 163

    Ratibor, 28

    Ratisbon, Sclav. the fortress on the R. Regen, Ger. _Regena Castra_
      or _Regensburg_

    Ravenna, 79

    Rayne, Gael. _raon_, a plain, a parish in Aberdeenshire

    Reading, a patronymic

    Redruth, in Cornwall, in old deeds, _Tre-Druith_, the dwelling
      of the Druids

    Reeth, on the stream, _rith_

    Rega R., 164

    Reichenbach, 15

    Reichenhall, 98

    Reigate, 88

    Reims or Rheims, named for the _Remi_, a tribe

    Remscheid, 171

    Renaix, corrupt. from _Hrodnace_, the town of Hrodno

    Renfrew, 162

    Rennes, named from the _Rhedoni_, a tribe

    Resht, Ar. headship

    Resolven, Welsh _Rhiw_, Scotch _maen_, the brow of the
      stonehead, in Glamorganshire

    Reculver, in Kent, corrupt. from _Regoluion_, the point against the

    Retford, 166

    Reutlingen, a patronymic

    Revel, named from two small islands near the town, called _reffe_,
      the sand-banks

    Reykiavik or Reikiavik, 209

    Rhine R. and Rhone R., 164

    Rhode Island, 74

    Rhodes and Rosas, in Spain, named from the _Rhodians_, a
      Grecian tribe

    Rhyddlan or Rhuddlan, Cym.-Cel. the red church

    Rhyl, the cleft, a watering-place in North Wales

    Rhymni, the marshy land, in Monmouthshire, on a river called the
      Rhymni, from the nature of the land through which it flows--_v._
      Romney, at EA, 71

    Riga, 126

    Ringwood, in Hants, the wood of the Regni

    Rio-de-Janeiro, 164

    Ripon, 167

    Ritzbuttel, 27

    Rive-de-Gier, 166

    Rivoli, 166

    Rochdale, the valley of the R. Roche

    Rochefort, 167

    Rochelle, 167

    Rochester, 167

    Roermonde, 140

    Romania or Roumilli, 109

    Romans, anc. _Romanum-Monasterium_, the monastery of the
      Romans, founded by St. Bernard

    Rome, perhaps named from the _groma_, or four cross roads
      that at the forum formed the nucleus of the city

    Romorantin, 166

    Roncesvalles, 200

    Roque, La, Cape, the rock

    Roscommon, 167

    Roscrea, 167

    Rosetta, anc. Ar. _Rasched_, headship

    Ross, in Hereford, 165

    Rossbach, the horse’s brook

    Ross-shire, 168

    Rothenburg, 165

    Rotherham, 165

    Rotherthurm, 165

    Rothesay, the isle of Rother, the ancient name of Bute

    Rotterdam, 60

    Rouen, 133

    Rousillon, named from the ancient town of _Ruscino_, a Roman

    Roveredo, Lat. _Roboretum_, a place planted with oaks, in

    Row, in Dumbartonshire, from _rubha_, Gael. a promontory
      running into the sea

    Roxburgh, 167

    Ruabon, corrupt. from _Rhiw-Mabon-Sant_, the ascent of St.
      Mabon, in North Wales

    Rudgeley or Rugely, 166

    Rugen, named from the Rugii

    Runcorn, 45

    Runnymede, 132

    Rushbrook and Rushford, 167

    Russia, named from the _Rossi_, a tribe of Norsemen in the ninth

    Ruthin and Rhuddlan, 165

    Rutland, 165

    Rybinsk, 168

    Ryde, 167

    Ryswick, 168


    Saale R., 169

    Saarbrück, 31

    Saar-Louis, 12

    Sabor, 28

    Sabor R., 28

    Saffron Walden, 202

    Sagan, Sclav. behind the road

    Sahara, 176

    Saida or Sidon, Semitic, fish town

    Saintes, named from the _Santones_

    Salamanca, 169

    Salem, in U.S., intended by the Puritans to be a type of the New

    Salford, 169

    Salins, 169

    Salisbury, 35

    Salonica, corrupt. from _Thessalonica_

    Salop, contracted from _Sloppesbury_, the Norman corruption of
      _Scrobbesbury_, the town among shrubs, now
      Shrewsbury--_v._ 34

    Saltcoats, 55

    Salzburg, 169

    Samarcand, said to have been named after Alexander the Great

    Samaria, the town of Shemir

    Samos, Phœn. the lofty

    Sandwich, 209

    Sangerhausen--_v._ SANG

    Sanquhar, 172

    San Salvador, the Holy Saviour, the first land descried by
      Columbus, and therefore named by him from the Saviour, who had
      guarded him in so many perils

    San Sebastian, the first Spanish colony founded in South America

    Santa Cruz, 57

    Santa Fé, the city of the holy faith, founded by Queen Isabella
      after the siege of Granada

    Santander, named after St. Andrew

    Saragossa, corrupt. from _Cæsarea Augusta_; its Basque name
      was _Saluba_, the sheep’s ford

    Sarawak, Malay _Sarakaw_, the cove

    Sarnow, 212

    Saskatchewan, swift current, a river in British North America

    Saul, in Gloucester--_v._ SALH, 169

    Saul, Co. Down--_v._ SABHALL, 168

    Saumur, anc. _Salmurium_, the walled building

    Saxony, 170

    Scala-nova, 39

    Scalloway, 170

    Scarborough, 175

    Scawfell Mountain, 78

    Schaffhausen, 102

    Schemnitz, 114

    Schichallion Mountain, Gael. _Ti-chail-linn_, the maiden’s pap

    Schleswick, 209

    Schmalkalden, 171

    Schotturen, the Scotch Vienna, a colony of Scottish monks having
      settled there

    Schreckhorn Mountain, 107

    Schweidnitz, Sclav. the place of the cornel-tree

    Schweinfurt, the ford of the Suevi

    Schwerin, 172

    Scilly Islands, the islands of the rock, _siglio_

    Scinde, the country of the R. Indus or Sinde

    Scratch meal Scar, in Cumberland--_v._ SKAER, 175

    Scutari, in Albania, corrupt. from _Scodra_, hill town

    Scutari, in Turkey, from _Uskudar_, Pers. a messenger, having
      been in remote periods, what it is to this day, a station for
      Asiatic couriers

    Sebastopol, 158

    Sedlitz, 174

    Segovia, anc. _Segubia_, probably the plain on the river-bend;
      _ce_, a plain, and _gubia_, a bend

    Selby, 173

    Selinga, 173

    Semipalatinsk, 152

    Senlis, 173

    Sens, named from the _Senones_

    Seringapatam, 153

    Settle, 173

    Seville, Phœn. _Sephala_, a marshy plain

    Sevres, named from the two rivers which traverse it, anc. _Villa

    Shamo, Chinese, the desert

    Shan--_v._ SEANN, 172

    Shanghai, supreme court

    Shansi, west of the mountain

    Shantung, east of the mountain

    Sherborne, 172

    Shetland Islands, 104

    Shields, 170

    Shiraz, 174

    Shirvan, said to have been named after Nieshirvan, a king of Persia

    Shotover, corrupt. from _Chateauvert_, green castle

    Shrewsbury--_v._ Salop

    Sicily, named from the _Siculi_, a tribe

    Sidlaw Hills, fairy hills--_v._ SIDH

    Sidon--_v._ Saida, in Index.

    Silesia, Sclav. _Zlezia_, the bad land

    Silhet or Sirihat, the rich market

    Silloth Bay, perhaps herring bay, _sil_, Norse, a herring, and
      _lod_, a bundle of fishing lines

    Sion or Sitten, 174

    Sion, Mount, the upraised

    Skagen, Cape, 176

    Skager-rack, 176

    Skaw Cape, 176

    Skipton, 176

    Skye Island, Gael. _Ealan-skianach_, the winged island

    Slamanan, 177

    Sligo, named from the R. _Sligeach_, shelly water

    Sluys, 171

    Slyne Head, 46

    Snäfell Mountain, 78

    Snaith, 177

    Snowdon Mountain, 70

    Socotra, 65

    Soissons, named from the _Suessiones_

    Sokoto, the market-place

    Soleure, corrupt. from St. Ours or Ursinus, to whom the church was

    Solway Firth, according to Camden, was named from a small village
      in Scotland called Solam

    Somerset, 173

    Sommariva, the summit of the bank

    Somogy, Hung. the place of cornel-trees

    Sophia, Grk. wisdom, dedicated to the second person of the Trinity

    Sorbonne, named from Robert de Sorbonne, almoner of St. Louis

    Söst or Soest, 174

    Soudan--_v._ BELED

    Southampton, 194

    Southwark, 206

    Souvigny, 173

    Spa, 82

    Spalatro, 152

    Sparta, Grk. the sowed land or the place of scattered houses

    Spires or Speyer, named from the R. Speyerbach

    Spitzbergen, 156

    Spurn Head, the look-out cape, from _spyrian_, to look out

    St. Alban’s Head, corrupt. from St. Aldhelm’s Head

    St. Andrews, so named from a tradition that the bones of St. Andrew
      were brought to that place by St. Regulus: formerly called
      _Mucros_, the boar’s headland, and then Kilrymont, the church
      or cell of the king’s mount

    St. Cloud for St. Hloddwald

    St. David’s, in Wales, Welsh _Ty-Ddewi_--_v._ TY

    St. Heliers for St. Hilarius

    St. Omer for St. Awdomar

    Stadel, etc., 179

    Staffa, 180

    Staines, 181

    Stamboul, 158

    Stanislaus, named after Stanislaus of Poland

    Stantz, 181

    Stargard, 182

    Starodub, 182

    Startpoint, 182

    Stavropol, 158

    Stellenbosch, 36

    Stepney, 105

    Stetten, Sclav. _Zytyn_, the place of green corn

    Stirling, Cym.-Cel. _Ystrevelyn_, the town of the Easterlings,
      from Flanders

    Stockholm, 106

    Stockport, 184

    Stockton, 184

    Stoke, 183

    Stolpe, 184

    Stonehaven, 97

    Stow-market, 183

    Stradbally, 184

    Stralsund, 185

    Strasbourg, 184

    Strehlitz, 184

    Striegau or Cziska, Sclav. the place on the small stream, _tschuga_

    Stulweissenburg--_v._ FEHER

    Stuttgard, 87

    Styria or Steyermark, the boundary of the R. Steyer

    Sudetic Mountains, 185

    Suez, the mouth or opening

    Suffolk, 185

    Sumatra, corrupt. from _Trimatra_, the happy

    Sunderbunds, corrupt. from _Sundari-vana_, so called from the
      forest, _vana_, of _Sundari_-trees

    Sunderland, 186

    Surat, _i.e._ _Su-rashta_, the good country

    Surrey, 164

    Susa, a city of ancient Persia, so called from the _lilies_ in
      its neighbourhood; _susa_, a lily

    Sussex, 170

    Sutherlandshire, 185

    Sviatoi-nos, 146

    Swan R., so named from the number of black swans seen by the first

    Swansea, 71

    Sweden, 164

    Sydney, named after a governor of the colony

    Syria--_v._ BELED, 20

    Szent-kercsyt, 186

    Szentes, for saint, 186


    Tabriz, anc. _Taurus_, the mountain town

    Tagus or Tejo R., Phœn. the fish river

    Tain, 190

    Takhtapul, the throne city, the seat of the Turkish Afghan

    Takht-i-Soliman, the throne of Solomon, being the highest of the
      Solomon Mountains

    Talavera, 29

    Tamsai, fresh water town, in China

    Tananarivo, the city of one thousand towns, the capital of

    Tanderagee, Ir. _Ton-legœith_, the place with its back to the

    Tanjier, Phœn. the city protected by God

    Tanjore, corrupt. from _Tanjavur_, derived from its ancient
      name _Tanja-Nagaram_, the city of refuge

    Tarazona, 199

    Tarifa, named after a Moorish chief

    Tarnopol, 187

    Tarporley, 126

    Tarragona, anc. _Tarraco_, Phœn. _Tarchon_, the citadel
      or palace

    Tarsus, Phœn. the strong place

    Tasmania, named after Abel Tasman, who discovered it in 1642. It
      was called Van Diemen’s Land in honour of the Governor-General of
      the Dutch East India Company

    Taurus Mountain, 196

    Tavistock, 184

    Tay R., 187

    Tcherniz, 212

    Teflis, 189

    Teltown, Ir. _Tailten_, where Taillte, the daughter of the
      King of Spain, was buried

    Temeswar, Hung. the fortress on the R. Temes

    Temisconata, the wonder of water, a county and lake in Canada

    Temple, a parish in Mid-Lothian, where there was an establishment
      for the Templars or Red Friars, founded by David I.

    Tennessee R., the spoon-shaped river, so called from its curve

    Tenterden, 62

    Teramo, 14

    Terni, 14

    Terranova, 189

    Texas, Ind. hunting ground

    Tezcuco, Mexican, the place of detention

    Thames R., 187

    Thannheim, 187

    Thapsus, the passage

    Thaxsted, 180

    Thebes, in Egypt, _Taba_, the capital

    Thermia, Grk. the place of warm springs, in Sicily

    Thermopylæ, the defile of the warm springs

    Thian-shan, Chinese, the celestial mountains

    Thian-shan-nan-loo, the country south of the celestial mountains

    Thian-shan-pe-loo, the country north of the celestial mountains

    Thibet, supposed to be a corrupt. of _Thupo_, the country of
      the Thou, a people who founded an empire there in the sixth

    This or Abou-This, _i.e._ the city of This, corrupted by the
      Greeks into _Abydos_

    Thouars, 12

    Thrace, Grk. the rough land, _trachus_

    Thun, 69

    Thurgau, 88

    Thurles, 128

    Thurso, 1

    Tiber R., 192

    Tideswell, 161

    Tierra-del-Fuego, 189

    Tillicoultry, 198

    Tilsit or Tilzela, at the conf. of the R. Tilzele with the Memel

    Tinnevelly, corrupt. from _Trinavali_, one of the names of Vishnu

    Tinto Hill, 189

    Tipperary, 192

    Tiree Island, 189

    Tiverton, 83

    Tlascala, Mexican, the place of bread

    Tobermory, 192

    Tobolsk, 176

    Todmorden, corrupt. from _Todmare-dean_, the valley of the
      foxes’ mere or marsh

    Tomantoul, 192

    Tomsk, 176

    Tongres, 186

    Tonquin, Chinese _Tang-king_, the eastern capital

    Toome--_v._ TUAIM, 197

    Töplitz, Neu and Alt

    Torgau, 195

    Torquay, 195

    Torres Straits, named after one of Magalhaen’s lieutenants

    Torres-Vedras, 195

    Torquemada, 195

    Tory Island, 195

    Toul and Toulouse, 50

    Toulon, anc. _Telonium_ or _Telo Martius_, named after its founder

    Tourcoing, 195

    Tours, 196

    Towie and Tough, parishes in Aberdeenshire, from Gael, _tuath_, the

    Trafalgar, 90

    Tralee, 196

    Tranent, 197

    Transylvania, 173

    Trapani, anc. _Drapanum_, the sickle, Grk. _drepanon_

    Tras-os-Montes, 142

    Traun R., 196

    Traunik, 196

    Traunviertel, 196

    Trave R., 196

    Trebizond, Grk. _trapezus_, the table, so called from its form

    Trent, anc. _Civitas-Tridentium_, the town of the _Tridenti_

    Trêves, named from the _Treviri_, a tribe

    Trichinapalli, the town of the giant _Trisira_

    Trim, at the elder-tree, 197

    Trinidad, so named by Columbus from its three peaks, emblematic of
      the Holy Trinity

    Tring, a patronymic

    Tripoli, 158

    Tripolitza, 158

    Trolhätta Fall, Goth. the abyss of the trolls or demons

    Trondhjem or Drontheim

    Troon, 178

    Troppau, _i.e._ _Zur-Oppa_, on the R. Oppa

    Troyes, named from the _Tricasses_

    Truro, 197

    Truxillo, in Spain, corrupt. from _Turris-Julii_, Julius’s tower

    Tuam, 197

    Tubingen, anc. _Diowingen_, probably a patronymic

    Tudela, anc. _Tutela_, the watch-tower

    Tullamore, 197

    Tulle, anc. _Tutela_, the watch-tower

    Tullow, 197

    Turin, anc. _Augusta-Taurinorum_, named from the Taurini,
      _i.e._ dwellers among hills

    Tweed R., Brit. _tuedd_, a border

    Tyndrum, 188

    Tynron, 188

    Tyre, 196

    Tyrnau, on the R. Tyrnau

    Tyrone, 189

    Tzerna or Czerna R., 212

    Tzernagora, 212


    Udny, a parish in Aberdeenshire, _i.e._ _Wodeney_, from the Saxon
      god Woden

    Uist, North and South, Scand. _Vist_, an abode

    Uj-hely, Hung. new place

    Ukraine, Sclav. the frontier or boundary

    Ulleswater, 206

    Ulm or Ulma, the place of elm-trees

    Ulster, 183

    Unst Island, anc. _Ornyst_, Scand. the eagle’s nest

    Unyamuezi, the land of the moon

    Upsala, 169

    Ural Mountains and R., Tartar, the belt or girdle

    Usedom, the Germanised form of _Huzysch_, Sclav. the place of

    Usk R., 198

    Utrecht, 66


    Valais, 199

    Valence, in France, and

    Valencia, in Spain, anc. _Valentia_, the powerful

    Valenciennes and Valenza, or Valence, said to have been named after
      the Emperor Valentinian

    Valentia Island, in Ireland, Ir. _Dearbhre_, the oak wood

    Valetta, in Malta, named after the Grand Master of the Knights of
      St. John in 1566

    Valparaiso, 200

    Van Diemen’s Land, named after Maria Van Diemen by Tasman

    Vannes, named from the _Veneti_

    Varna, Turc. the fortress

    Varosvar, 200

    Vasarhely, 103

    Vaucluse, 200

    Vaud, Pays de, 200

    Velekaja R., 200

    Vendée, La, and

    Vendôme, named from the _Veneti_

    Venezuela, little Venice, so called from an Indian village
      constructed on piles, discovered by the Spaniards

    Venice, 79

    Venloo, 79

    Ventnor, 150

    Ventry, 196

    Verdun and Verden, 69

    Vermont, green mountain

    Vevey, anc. _Vibiscum_, on the R. Vip

    Viborg, 201

    Vick, 210

    Vienna, Ger. _Wien_, on the R. Wien, an affluent of the Danube

    Viesti, named from a temple dedicated to Vesta

    Vigo, 209

    Vimeira, Port. the place of osiers, _vime_

    Vincennes, anc. _Ad-Vicenas_

    Virginia, named after Queen Elizabeth

    Vistula or Wisla, the west-flowing river

    Vitré, corrupt. from _Victoriacum_, the victorious

    Vitry, the victorious, founded by Francis I.

    Vladimir, founded by the ducal family of that name in the twelfth

    Vogelberg, the hill of birds

    Volga, the great water

    Volhynia, Sclav. the plain

    Voorburg, 84

    Voralberg, _i.e._ in front of the Arlberg ridge

    Vukovar, the fortress on the R. Vuka


    Wakefield, 206

    Walcherin Island, 204

    Waldeck, 202

    Walden, Saffron, 202

    Wales, 203

    Wallachia, 204

    Wallendorf, 204

    Wallenstadt, 204

    Wallingford, 203

    Walthamstow, 202

    Ware, 207

    Wareham, 207

    Warminster, 207

    Warrington, a patronymic

    Warsaw, the fortified place--_v._ VAR

    Warwick, 205

    Waterford, 80

    Waterloo, 130

    Weimar, 134

    Weissenfels, 207

    Weistritz R., the swift, straight stream

    Well--_v._ QUELLE

    Welland R., the river into which the tide flows

    Wellingborough, a patronymic

    Wellington, a patronymic

    Wells, 161

    Welshpool, Welsh _Trallwng_, the quagmire

    Wem, 198

    Wemys, _uamh_, the cave

    Werden, 205

    Wesely, Hung. pleasant

    Weser R., 1

    Westeraas, 208

    Westphalia, the western plain

    Wetterhorn, 108

    Wexford, 80

    Whitby, 37

    Whitehaven, 97

    Whithorn, 11

    Wiborg, 201

    Wick, 209

    Wicklow, 209

    Wiesbaden, 16

    Wigan, 201

    Wight, Isle of, anc. _Zuzo-yr-with_, the island of the channel

    Wigton, 201

    Wiltshire, 173

    Wimbleton, 193

    Wimborne, 210

    Winchester, 44

    Windsor, 150

    Wirksworth, 208

    Wisbeach, the shore of the R. Ouse, _uisge_, water

    Wisconsin, Ind. the wild rushing channel

    Wismar, 210

    Withey, 207

    Wittenberg, 207

    Wittstock, 210

    Wladislawaw, the town of Wladislav

    Wokingham, 5

    Wolfenbuttel, 27

    Wolga--_v._ Volga

    Wolverhampton, 193

    Woodstock, 210

    Wooler, 211

    Woolwich, 104

    Worcester, anc. _Huic-wara-ceaster_, the camp of the _Huieci_

    Worms, 133

    Worm’s Head, the serpent’s head, _ornr_, from its form

    Worthing, 211

    Wrath, Cape, Scand. the cape of the _hvarf_, or turning

    Wrietzen or Brietzen, Sclav. the place of birch-trees--_v._ BRASA

    Wroxeter, anc. _Uriconium_

    Wurtemberg, anc. _Wrtinisberk_, from a personal name

    Wurtzburg, 212

    Wycombe, 53

    Wyoming Valley, corrupt. from _Maugh-wauwame_, Ind. the large


    Xanthus R., Grk. the yellow river

    Xeres de la Frontera, anc. _Asta Regia Cæsariana_, Cæsar’s royal

    Xeres de los Caballeros, Cæsar’s cavalry town


    Yakutsk, named from the _Yakuts_, a Tartar tribe

    Yang-tse Kiang R., the son of the great water

    Yarra, the ever-flowing, a river in Australia

    Yeddo or Jeddo, river door

    Yell, barren

    Yemen, to the south or right

    Yeni-Bazaar, 212

    Yenisi R., 212

    Yeovil, 201

    York, 209

    Youghal, anc. _Eochaill_, the yew wood

    Ypres or Yperen, the dwelling on the Yperlea

    Ysselmonde, 140

    Yunnan, the cloudy south region, in China

    Yvetot, 192

    Yvoire, 9


    Zab R., 212

    Zabern, 186

    Zambor, Sclav. behind the wood

    Zanguebar or Zanjistan, Pers. and Arab., the land of the Zangis and

    Zaragossa--_v._ Saragossa

    Zealand, in Denmark, _Sjvelland_, spirit land

    Zealand, in Netherlands, land surrounded by the sea

    Zeitz, named after Ciza, a Sclav. goddess

    Zell or Cell, 48

    Zerbst, belonging to the Wends, _Sserbski_

    Zittau, the place of corn

    Zug, anc. _Tugium_, named from the _Tugeni_, a tribe

    Zurich, anc. _Thiouricum_, the town of the Thuricii, who built
      it after it had been destroyed by Attila

    Zutphen, 79

    Zuyder-Zee, 172

    Zweibrücken, 31

    Zwickau, the place of goats, Ger. _Ziege_

    Zwolle, anc. _Suole_, Old Ger. _Sval_, at the swell of the water

                                THE END

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“I feel strongly the great importance of the subject, not only as a
mental discipline and essential part of a liberal education, but as
more especially necessary for Englishmen, many of whom will be called
upon in after life to turn their geographical knowledge to practical
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[1] _Ancient Books of Wales_, vol. i. p. 144, with reference to the
famous work of Chalmers, the _Caledonia_.

[2] _A_, signifying in possession, seems to be derived from _a_, Old
Norse, I have; _aga_, I possess. The Old English _awe_, to own, is
still retained in the north of England and in Aberdeenshire.

[3] Caer-afon (the fortress on the water) was its ancient name.

[4] It obtained the name from two large stones that lay on the roadside
near the church, and possessed that property.

[5] For the word _Beltein_, _v._ Joyce’s _Irish Names of Places_, vol.
i. p. 187; Chambers’s _Encyclopædia_; and Petrie’s _Round Towers of

Transcriber’s Notes:

1. Obvious printers’, punctuation and spelling errors have been
corrected silently.

2. Some hyphenated and non-hyphenated versions of the same words have
been retained as in the original.

3. Italics are shown as _xxx_.

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