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Title: A boke made by John Fryth prysoner in the Tower of London: answerynge unto M. Mores letter, which he wrote agaynst the fyrste lytle treatyse that John Fryth made, concernynge the sacramente of the body and bloude of Christ
Author: Fryth, John
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A boke made by John Fryth prysoner in the Tower of London: answerynge unto M. Mores letter, which he wrote agaynst the fyrste lytle treatyse that John Fryth made, concernynge the sacramente of the body and bloude of Christ" ***

       A boke made by John Fryth, prysoner in the Tower of London

      ¶ A boke made by John Fryth prysoner in the Tower of London,

                            answerynge vnto
                M. Mores letter, which he wrote agaynst
               the fyrste lytle treatyse that John Fryth
                 made concernynge the Sacramente of the
                 body and bloode of Christ: vnto whiche
               boke are added in the ende the artycles of
                  hys examynacyon before the Byshoppes
                 of London, Wynchester and Lyncolne, in
                  Paules churche at London, for whyche
                       John Fryth was condempned
                     and after brente in Smythfelde
                            wythout Newgate,
                           the fourth daye of
                           July. Anno. 1533.

                 Now newly reuysed corrected & prynted.
                    In the Yeare of our Lorde, 1546,
                         the last daye of June.

                     ¶ Deade men shall ryse agayne.

                              The Preface

Grace and increace of knowelege frō God the Father through oure Lorde
Jesus Christ, be with the Christen reader, and with all thē that loue
the Lorde vnfaynedly Amen.

[Sidenote: 1. Tim. 3. Tit. 1.]

I chaunced beynge in these partyes, to be in companye with a Christen
brother which for hys commendable conversaciō, and sobre behaueoure
myght better be a Byshoppe thē many that weare myters, yf the rule of
.S. Paule were regarded in their electyon. Thys brother after moche
cōmunycacyō, desyred to knowe my mynde as touchynge the sacramēt of the
body ād bloode of our sauyoure Christ. Which thynge I opened vnto hym
accordynge to the gyfte that God had geuen me. Firste I proved vnto hym
that yt was no article of oure fayth necessarye to be beleued vnder
payne of dampnacyon. Then I declared that Christe had a naturall bodye,
euen as myne ys (savynge synne) and that yt coulde no more be in two
places at ones then myne can. Thyrdly, I shewed hym that it was not
necessarye, that the wordes shulde so be vnderstonde as they sownde. But
that yt myght be a phrase of scrypture, as there are innumerable. After
that I shewed hym certen suche phrases ād maner of speakynges. And that
yt was well vsed in oure Englyshe tongue. And fynally, I recyted after
what maner they myght receyue yt accordynge to Christes institucyon, not
fearynge the frowarde alteracyon that the Prestes vse, contrarye to the
fyrste forme and institucion.

When I had suffycyently publyshed my mynde, he desyred me to entitle the
some of my wordes, ād write them for hym, because they semed ouerlonge
to be well reteyned in memorye. And albeit I was loth to take the matter
in hāde, yet to fullfyll his instaunte intercession, I toke vpon me to
touche this terryble tragedye, and wrote a treatyse, whiche beside my
paynfull impresonment, is lyke to purchace me moste cruell death, which
I am readye ād gladde to receyue with the spiryte and inwarde man
(although the fleshe be frayle) when so euer yt shall please God to laye
yt vpon me. Notwithstondynge to saye the truthe, I wrote yt not to the
intent that yt shulde haue bene publyshed. For thē I wolde haue towched
the matter more earnestlye, and haue wryten, as well of the spyrytuall
eatynge & drynkynge whiche is of necessyte, as I ded of the Carnall,
whiche is not so necessarye. For the treatyse that I made was not
expedyent for all men, albeit yt were suffycient for thē whō I toke in
hande to instructe. For they knewe the spyrytuall and necessarye eatynge
and drynkynge of his bodye and bloode, whiche is not receyued with the
teth and belye, but with the eares and fayth, and onely neaded
instructyon in the outwarde eatynge, which thynge I therfore onely
declared. But now it is commen a brode and in many mens mowthes, in so
moche that master More which of late hathe busyed hym selfe to medle in
all soche mattres (of what zele I wyll not defyne) hath sore laboured to
confute yt. But some mē thynke that he is ashamed of his parte, ād for
that cause doth so dylygently suppresse the worke whiche he prynted. For
I my selfe sawe the worke in prynte in my Lorde of Wynchesters howse,
upon S. Stephens day last paste. But neyther I, nor all the fryndes I
coulde make, myght attayne any copye, but onely one wryten copye whiche
as yt semed was drawen out in greate haste. Not withstondynge I can not
well Judge, what the cause shulde be, that hys boke is kept so secrete.
But this I am ryght sure of, that he neuer touched the foundacyō that my
treatyse was buylded upon. And therfore syth my foundacyon stondeth so
sure and invyncyble (for els I thynke verely he wolde sore haue laboured
to haue undermyned yt) I wyll therupon buylde a lytle more, and also
declare that hys ordynaunce is to slender to breake it downe although it
were sett vpon a worse foundacyon.

❧ The foundacyon of that lytle treatyse was, that it is no artycle of
our fayth necessarye to be beleued under payne of dampnacyon, that the
Sacramēt shuld be the naturall bodye of Christe: which thynge is proued
after this maner as foloweth.

Firste we muste all aknowlege that it is no artycle of our fayth whiche
can saue vs nor whiche we are bounde to beleue under the payne of
eternall dampnacyon. For yf I shulde beleue that hys verye naturall
bodye bothe fleshe and bloode were naturally in the breade and wyne,
that shulde not save me, seynge many beleue that, and receyue it to
their dampnacyon, for it is not hys presēce in the breade that cā saue
me, but hys presence in my harte through fayth in hys bloode, which
hathe washed out my synnes and pacyfyed the Fathers wrathe towarde me.

[Sidenote: Obiection.]

And a gayne yf I do not beleue hys bodelye presence in the breade and
wyne, that shall not dampne me, but the absence out of my harte through
vnbeleue. Now yf they wolde here obiecte that thoughe yt be true that
the absence out of the breade coulde not dampne vs: yet are we bounde to
beleue it because of Goddes worde, whiche who beleueth not, as moche as
in hym lyeth, maketh God a lyer. And therfore of an obstynate mynde not
to beleue hys worde, maye be an occasyon of dampnacyon.

[Sidenote: Soluciō]

To this we may answere, that we beleue Goddes worde and knowlege that it
is true: but in this we dissent, whether it be true in the sense that we
take it in, or in the sense that ye take it in. And we saye agayne, that
though ye haue (as yt apereth vnto yow) the evidēt wordes of Christe,
and therfor consiste in the barke of the letter: yet are we compelled by
conferrynge of the scryptures together, within the letter to serche out
the mynde of our sauiour whiche spake the worde. And we saye thyrdly,
that we do it not of an obstinate mynde. For he that defendeth a cause
obstinatly (whether yt be true or false) is euer to be reprehended. But
we do yt to satysfye our consciences whiche are compelled by other
places of scripture, reasons, and doctours, so to Iudge of yt.

And euen so ought yow to Iudge of youre partye, and to defend youre
sentence not of obstinacye, but by the reason of scriptures which cause
you so to take yt. And so ought neyther partye to dispyse other, for
eche seaketh the glory of God, and the true vnderstondynge of the
scripture. This was the foundacyon of my fyrste treatyse that he hathe
left vnshaken, which ys agreate argument that yt is very true. For els
hys pregnant witte could not haue passed yt so cleane over. But wolde
haue assayled yt with some sophisticall cavillacyon which by hys paynted
poetrye he myght so haue colloured, that at the least he myght make the
ignoraunt some apparēce of truthe, as he hathe done agaynste the resydue
of my fyrste treatyse, which neuertheles ys true ād shall so be proved.
¶And firste that it is none article of our faythe necessarye to be
beleued vnder payne of dampnacyon, may thus be furder cōfyrmed. The same
faithe shall saue vs whiche saued the old fathers before Christes
incarnacyon: But they were not bounde vnder payne of dāpnacyon to beleue
this poynte, therfore yt foloweth that we are not bounde therto vnder
the payne of dampnacyon. The fyrste parte of myne argument ys proued by
S. Austen ad Dardamum. And I dare boldly say almost in an .C. places
more. For I thynke there be no proposicyon which he doth more often
inculcate then thys, that the same faythe saved vs which saued our
fathers. The secōde parte ys manyfest, that yt nedeth no probacyon. For
how coulde they beleue that thynge which was neuer sayde nor done, and
without the worde they coulde haue no faythe. Upon the truthe of these
two partes muste the conclusyon neades folowe. Not withstōdynge they all
ded eate Christes bodye and dronke hys bloode spirytually, although they
had hym not presēt to their teth. And by that spirytuall eatynge (which
is the fayth in hys body ād blode) were saued as well as we are. For
assoone [Sidenote: Adam.] as our fore father Adam had transgressed Godes
precepte, & was fallē vnder cōdēpnacyō, oure moste mercyfull father of
hys gracyous favoure gaue hym the promyse of helthe and conforte, wherby
as many as beleued yt, were saued frō the thraldome of their
transgressyon. The worde and promyse was this. I shall put enmyte
betwene thy sede and her sede, [Sidenote: Gene. 3.] that sede shalt
treade the on the heade, and thou shall trede yt on the hele. In this
promyse they had knowlege that Christe shulde destroye the devyll with
all his power, ād delyuer hys faythfull from their synnes. And where he
sayd that the devyl shulde treade yt on the hele, they vnderstode ryght
well that the devyll shulde fynde the meanes by his wyles and wycked
mynysters to put Christe to deathe. And they knewe that God was true,
and wolde fulfyll hys promyse vnto them, and hartely longed after this
sede, and so dede bothe eate hys bodye and drynke his bloode,
acknowlegynge with infynyte thankes, that Christ shulde for their synnes
take the perfecte nature of manhode upon hym and also suffer the deathe:
This promyse was geuen to Adam, and saued as many as ded beleue and were
thankefull to God for his kyndnes, ād after yt was [Sidenote: Abrahā.
Gene. 12] establyshed vnto our father Abraham by the worde of God, which
sayde, in thy sede shall all nacyons of the earthe be blessed. And with
hym God made a couenāt, that he wolde be his God and do hym good. And
Abraham a gayne promysed to kepe his preceptes and walke in hys wayes.
Then God gaue hym the sacrament of circumsicion and called that hys
couenaunte, which thynge notwithstōdynge was not the very couenaunt in
dede although yt were so called. But was only a sygne, token, sacrament,
or memoryall of the couenaunte that was betwene God and hym, whiche
myght expounde our matter, yf men had eyes to see. After that God
promysed him a sone whē hys wyfe was past chylde bearynge and he also
very olde. Neuerthelesse he doubted not of Goddes worde. But surely
beleued, that he which promysed it was able to perfourme it. And that
was recounted vnto hym for ryghtuousnes. This Abraham ded bothe eate hys
bodye ād drynke hys blode (through faythe) belevynge verely that Christ
shulde take our nature and sprynge oute of hys seede (as touchynge his
fleshe) and also that he shulde suffer deathe to redeme vs. And as
Christ testifyeth, [Sidenote: Ioan. 8.] he hartely desyred to see the
day of Christ. And he sawe it and reioysed. He sawe yt in faythe ād had
the day of christ, that is to say, all those thynges that shulde chaunce
hym, playnly revelated vnto hym, albeit he were deade many hundred yeres
before yt were actually fulfylled ād reuelated vnto the worlde. And by
that fayth was he saued, and yet neuer ded eate hys fleshe with hys
teth, nor neuer beleued that breade shulde be hys bodye and wyne hys
bloode. And therfore syth he was also saued without that fayth, and the
same faythe shall saue vs which saued hym, I thynke that we shall also
be saued yf we eate hym spiritually (as he ded) although we neuer
beleued that the breade ys hys bodye. Furthermore that mercyfull
[Sidenote: Moses.]Moses (which brought the chyldern of Israell out of
Egypte in to the wyldernes) obtayned of God by prayers, both manna from
heauen to feade hys people, also water out of the stone to refresh and
comforte them. This māna and water were even the same thynge vnto thē
that the breade and wyne ys to vs. For as S. Austyn saythe: [Sidenote:
Aug. de uite agē darum.] _Quicunque in manna Christum intellexerunt
eumdem quem nos cibum spiritualem manducauerunt. Quicunque autem de
manna solam saturitatem quesiuerunt manducabant et mortui sunt. Sic
etiam eundem potum: petra enim erat Christus._

That is to say, as many as in that manna vnderstoode Christ, ded eate
that same spirytuall meate that we do, but as many as sought onely to
fyll their bellyes of that māna (the fathers of the unfaythful) dyd eate
and are dead. And lykewyse the same drynke, for the stone was Christ.
Here maye you gather of S. Austyn, that the manna was vnto them, as the
breade ys to vs, and lykewyse that the water was to them, as the wyne ys
to vs, whiche anone shall apeare more playnly. s. Austyn sayth further.
[Sidenote: Aug. super Ioā. tract. 26.] _Manducauit & Moyses manna
manducauit & Phinees, manducauerunt ibi multi qui deo placuerunt &
mortui non sunt. Quare quia uisibilem cibum spiritualiter intellexerunt,
spiritualiter esurierunt, spiritualiter gustauerunt, ut spiritualiter
satiarentur, omnes eandem escam spiritualem māducauerunt, & omnes eundem
potum spiritualem biberunt, spiritualem utique eandem nā corporalem
alterā (quia illi manna, nos aliud) spiritualem uero eandem quam nos. Vt
omnes eundem potum spiritualem biberunt aliud illi, aliud nos: sed spem
uisibili quod tamen hoc idem significaret uirtute spirituali. Quomodo
eundem potum biberant (inquit Apostolus) de spirituali sequenti petra:
petra autem erat Christus._ That ys to saye, Moses also dede eat manna,
and Aaron, ād Phinees, ded eate of yt, which plesed God and are not
deade. Wherfore? Because they understode the visyble meate spiritually.
They were spiritually an hongred, they tasted yt spiritually, that they
myght spiritually be replenyshed. They ded all eate the same spyrytuall
meate and all drāke the same spyrytuall drynke. Euen the same spyrituall
meate albeit an other bodely meate, for they ded eate manna, and we eat
an other thyng, but they ded eate the same spirituall which we doo. And
they all ded drynke the same spirituall drynke. They dranke one thynge,
and we an other: But that was in the outwarde apparence, which
neuerthelesse ded sygnyfye the same thynge spiritually. Nowe dranke they
the same drynke. They (sayth Thapostle) drāke of the spirytuall stone
folowynge them, and that stone was Christ. And therunto Bede added these
wordes. _Videte autem fide manente signa uariata._ That is to saye.
Beholde that the sygnes are altered, and yet the faythe abydeth one.
[Sidenote: Beda super. 1. Cor. 10.] Of these places you may playnely
perceyue not onely that yt is non artycle necessary to be beleued vnder
payne of dampnacyō, seynge the olde Fathers neuer beleued yt. And yet
ded eate Christ in fayth bothe before they had the manna, and with no
lesse frute whan the manna was ceased. And albeit the māna was to them
as the sacrament ys to vs, and they eate even the same spirytuall meate
that we do, yet were they neuer so madde as to beleue that the manna was
chaunged in to Christes owne naturall body. But vnderstode yt
spirytually, that as the outwarde man ded eate the materyall manna which
comforted the bodye, so ded the inwarde man through fayth, eate the
bodye of Christ, belevynge that as that manna came downe from heavē and
conforted their bodyes, so shulde their savyoure Christe which was
promysed thē of God the Father, come downe from heauē and strēgthē their
soules in euerlastynge lyfe, redeamynge them from their synne by his
death and resurrectyon. And lyke wyse do we eate Christe in fayth both
before we come to the sacrament, ād more expresly through the sacrament,
and with no lesse frute after we haue receyued the sacrament, and neade
no more to make yt hys naturall bodye, thē the manna was, but myght
moche better vnderstonde yt spirytuallye, that as the outwarde mā dothe
eate the materyall breade which cōforteth the bodye, so doth the inwarde
mā through faythe eate the bodye of Christe, belevynge that as the
breade ys broken, so was Christes bodye broken on the crosse for our
synnes which cōforteth our soules vnto lyfe euerlastynge. And as that
faythe ded saue thē without belevynge that the manna was altered into
hys bodye, even so dothe this faythe saue vs, although we beleue not
that the substaunce of breade ys turned in to his naturall bodye. For
the same fayth shall saue vs which, saved them. And we are bounde to
beleue no more vnder payne of dampnacyon, thē they were bounde to
beleue. They beleued in God the Father almyghty maker of heaven and
earth, and all that ys in them. [Sidenote: Gene. 1.] They ded beleve
that Christe was the sōne of God. They ded beleue that he shuld take our
nature of a virgyn. [Sidenote: Psalm. 2.] They beleued that he shulde
suffer the death [Sidenote: Esay. 7.] for our delyuerāce, which thynge
was [Sidenote: Actes. 3.] sygnyfied in all the sacryfyces, and besydes
that testyfyed in euery Prophete. For [Sidenote: Actes. 2.] there was
verely not one Prophete, but he spake of that poynte: [Sidenote: Psal.
15.] They beleued that hys soule shuld not be lefte in hell, but that he
shulde aryse from death and reynge euerlastyngly with his Father.

And to be shorte, there is no poynte in oure Crede, but that they
beleued yt, as well as we do, and those artycles are onely necessarye
vnto saluacyon. For them, am I bounde to beleue, and am dampned without
excuse yf I beleue them not. But the other poyntes contayned in
scripture although they be vndoubted verytees, yet may I be saued
without them. As be it in case that I neuer harde of them, I canot
vnderstande them nor comprehende them, or yf that I heare them, yet by
the reason of another texte mysconstrue thē, as the Bohemes do the
wordes of Christe in the .6. chapiter of Iohan. All these thynges I saye
may be done without any Ieoperdye of dampnacyō. In every texte ys but
onely one veryte, for which it was spoken, ād yet some textes there be
which of catolycke doctours are expounded in vi. or, vij. sondry
fashyons. Therefore if we beleue the artycles of our crede, in the
others ys no parell, so that we haue a probable reason to dyssent from
them. But now to retourne to our purpose. Yf we wyll examyne the
autorytees of S. Austyn and Beda before alleged, we shall espye that
besyde the probacyon of this forsayde proposicyon, they open the
mysterye of all our matter to them that haue eyes to see. For, S. Austyn
sayth, that we and the olde fathers do dyffer as touchynge the bodely
meate, for they ded eate manna, and we breade, but albeit yt varyed in
the outwarde apperaunce, yet neuerthelesse spirytually yt ded sygnyfye
one thynge. For both the māna ād breade sygnyfyed Christe. And so both
they and we do eate one spirytuall meate, that ys to saye, we bothe eate
the thynge which sygnifyeth and representeth vnto vs the very one
spirituall meate of out soules, which is Christe.

And beda doth playnely call both the māna and the breade sygnes, sayēge.
Beholde that the sygnes are altered and yet the fayth abydeth one. Now
yf they be sygnes, than they do sygnyfye and are not the very thyng yt
selfe which they do sygnyfye. For the sygne is a thynge dyuerse from the
thynge yt selfe which it doth sygnyfye and represent. As the ale polees
are not the ale yt selfe which they do sygnyfy or represēt. Here thou
wylt obiecte agaynste me, that yf this fayth be suffycyent, what nedeth
the institucyō of a sacramēt? I answere, that sacramētes are instituted
for. iij, causes: The fyrste ys assygned of S. Austyn, which sayth on
this maner. [Sidenote: Aug. cōtra Faustum. Li. 19. ca. 11.] _In nullum
autem nomen religionis, seu uerū, seu falsum, coagulari homines possunt,
nisi signaculorum seu sacramentorum uisibilium cōsortio colligantur,
quorum sacramentorum uis inenarrabiliter ualet plurimum, & ideo
contempta sacrilegos facit. impie quippe cōtemnitur sine qua persici nō
potest pietas._ That ys to saye: mē cā not be ioyned in to any kynde of
relygyō whether yt be treue or false, excepte they be knytte in
felowshyppe by some vysyble tokēs or sacramētes, the power of which
sacramentes ys of suche efficacyte, that cā not be expressed. And
therfor yt maketh them that dyspyse yt to be abhorred, for it is
wyckednes to despyse that thynge without which godlynes can not be
brought to passe. Thus yt apereth that necessyte ys the fyrst cause. For
there can no congregacyon be severed out of the multytude of men, but
they muste nedes haue a sygne, tokē, sacramēt, or commō badge, by the
which they may knowe eche other. And there is no defferēce betwene a
sygne or a badge ād a sacrament, but that the sacrament sygnyfyeth an
holy thynge, and a sygne or a badge dothe sygnyfye a worldly thyng.
[Sidenote: Augustī ad Marcellinū.] As S. Austē sayeth. Sygnes when they
are referred to holy thynges are called sacramētes. The seconde cause of
their instytucyōys, that they may be a meane to brynge vs vnto hys
fayth, & to enprēte yt the deper in vs, for yt doth customably the more
move a man to beleue, when he perceyueth the thynge expressed to dyuerse
sēses at ones. As yf I promyse a mā to mete hym at aday appoynted, he
wyll sōwhat trust my worde, but yet he trusteth not so moche vnto it, as
yf I ded both promyse hym with my worde and also clappe handes with hym,
or holde vp my fynger, for he counteth that this promyse ys stronge ād
more faythfull then ys the bare worde, because yt moveth mo senses. For
the worde doth but onely certyfye the thynge vnto a mā by the sence of
hearynge; but whē with my promyse immedyatly after I holde vp my fynger,
then do I not onely certyfye hym by the sense of hearynge: But also by
hys syght, he perceyueth that that facte confyrmeth my worde. And in the
clappynge of handes he perceyueth both by hys sight ād fealynge, besyde
the worde, that I wyll fulfyll my promyse. And lykewyse yt ys in this
sacramente, Christ promysed them, that he wolde geue hys bodye to be
slayne for their synnes. And for to establyshe the fayth of this promyse
in them, he ded instytute the sacrament which he called hys bodye, to
thentēt that the very name yt selfe myght put them in remembraunce what
was mēt by yt, he brake the breade before them, sygnyfyenge vnto them
outwardly euen the same thynge, that he by his wordes hadde before
protested And euen as hys wordes hadde enformed thē by their hearynge,
that he entended so to do: so the breakynge of that breade enformed
their eye syght that he wolde fulfyll hys promyse. Then he dede
dystrybute yt amonge them to enprynte the matter more depely in them,
sygnyfyenge therby, that even as that breade was devyded amonge them, so
shuld hys bodye and frute of hys passyon be dystrybuted vnto as many as
beleued hys wordes. Fynally he caused them to eate yt, that nothynge
shuld be lackynge to cōfyrme that necessarye poynte of fayth in them,
sygnyfienge therby, that as verely as they felte that breade within
them, so sure shuld they be of hys bodye through fayth. And that euen as
that breade doth nouryshe the bodye, so doth the fayth in hys bodye
breakynge nouryshe the soule vnto euerlastying lyfe. Thus ded our
mercyfull savyour (which knoweth our fraylte ād weakenes) to establyshe
ād strengthē their fayth in hys bodye breakynge ād bloode shedynge,
which is our shoteāker and laste refuge, without which we shulde all
peryshe. The thyrde cause of this institucyon and profyte that cōmeth of
yt ys this. They that haue receyued these blessed tydynges and worde of
health, do loue to publyshe thys felycyte vnto other men. And to geue
thankes before the face of the congregacyon vnto their bounteous
benefactoure, and as moche as in them is, to drawe all people to the
praysynge of God with them, which thynge though yt be partely done by
the prechynge of Godes worde ād frutefull exhortcyons, yet doth that
vysyble token & sacramente (yf a man vnderstāde what ys mēt therby) more
effectuously worke in them both fayth and thankesgeuynge, thē doth the
bare worde: But yf a man wote not what yt meaneth, ād seketh healthe in
the sacrament and outwarde sygne, thē may he well be lykened vnto a
fonde felowe, which when he ys very drye, & an honest man shewe hym an
ale pole, and tell hym that there is good ale ynough, wold go ād sucke
the ale pole, trustynge to get drynke out of yt, and so to quench hys
thurste. Now a wyse man wyll tell hym that he playeth the foole. For the
ale pole doth but sygnyfye that there ys good ale in the howse, where
the ale pole stādeth, ād wyll tell hym that he must go nere the howse,
ād there he shall fynde the drynke, ād not stāde suckynge the ale pole
in vayne. For yt shall not ease him, but rather make him more drye. For
the ale pole doth sygnyfye good ale: yet the ale pole yt selfe ys no
good ale, neyther ys there any good ale in the ale pole. And lykewyse yt
ys in all sacramentes. For yf we vnderstande not what they meane, ād
seke health in the outwarde sygne: thē we sucke the ale pole ād laboure
in vayne. But yf we do vnderstāde the meanynge of thē, thā shal we seake
what they sygnyfye, and go to the thynge sygnyfyed, and there shall we
fynde vndoubted health. As to our purpose, in this Sacrament wherof we
speake, we muste note what yt sygnyfyeth, ād there shall we fynde our
redēpcyon. It sygnyfyeth that Christes bodye was broken vpon the crosse
to redeame vs from the thraldome of the deuyll, ād that his blode was
shedde for vs to washe away our synnes. Therfore we muste ronne thyther
yf we wyll be eased. For yf we thynke to haue our synnes forgeven, for
eatynge of the sacrament, or for seynge the sacrament ones a day, or for
prayenge vnto yt: then surely we sucke the ale pole. And by thys you may
perceyue what profytte commeth of these sacramentes the which eyther
haue no sygnyfycacyons put vnto them, or els when their sygnyfycacyons
are loste and forgotten. For then no doubt they are not commended of
God, but are rather abhomynable. For whan we knowe not what they meane,
then seake we health in the outwarde dede, and so are iniuryous vnto
Christe and hys bloode. As by example, the sacryfyces of the Iewes were
well allowed and accepted of God as longe as they vsed them a ryght and
vnderstoode by thē the death of Christe, the sheadynge of hys blood, ād
that holy oblacyō offred on the crosse ones for euer. But when they
begane to forget this sygnyfycacyon and sought their healthe and
ryghtuousnes in the bodely worke and in the sacryfyce yt selfe, then
were they abhomynable in the syght of God, and then he cryed out of them
bothe by the Prophete Dauid and Esaye: And lykewyse yt is with our
sacramentes. Let vs therfore seke vp the sygnyficacyōs, & go to the very
thyng which the sacramēt ys set to presēt vnto vs. And there shall we
fynd such frutefull foode as shall neuer fayle vs, but cōforte our
soules into lyfe euerlastynge.

Now wyll I in order answere to master Mores boke, and as I fynde occasyō
geuen me, I shall indeuoure my selfe to supplye that thynge which lacked
in the fyrste treatyse. And I trust I shall shewe suche lyght that all
men whose eyes the Prynce of thys worlde hath not blynded, shall
perceyue the truthe of the scripture and glorye of Christe. And where as
in my fyrste treatyse the truthe was set forthe with all symplycyte, and
nothynge armed agaynste the assaultes of sophysters, that haue I somwhat
redressed in this boke, ād haue brought bones fytte for their teth,
which yf they be to busy, may chaunce to choke them.

    Thus endeth my lytle treatyse that I wrote vnto my frynde, beynge
    sufficyent for hys instructyon.

            Here begynneth the preface of Master Mores boke.

[Sidenote: Master. More.] In my moste hartye wyse I recommende me vn to
you, & sende you by thys brynger the wrytynge agayne whyche I receyued
from you. Wherof I haue bene offered a cople of copyes mo, in the meane
whyle, as late as ye wote well yt was.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Deare bretherne consyder these wordes & prepare you
fo the crosse that Christe shall laye vpon you, as ye haue ofte bene
counselled. For even as whan the wolue [Sidenote: 1. Pet. 2.] howleth
the shepe hadde neade to gather [Sidenote: Luc. 22.] them selues to
their shepharde, to be delyuered from the assaulte of the blodye beaste,
lykewyse hadde you neade to flye vnto the shepharde of your soules
Christe Iesus, and to sell your cootes and bye hys spirituall sworde
[Sidenote: Ephe. 6.] (whiche is the worde of God) to defende and delyuer
you in thys present necessyte. For now is the tyme that Christ tolde vs
of, [Sidenote: Mat. 10.] Math. 10. that he was come (by hys worde) to
sette varyaunce betwene the sonne and hys father, betwene the doughter
and her mother, betwene the doughter in lawe & her mother in lawe,
[Sidenote: Mich. 3.] and that a mans owne housholde shalbe hys enemyes.
But be not dysmayed nor thynke it no wonder, for Christ chose .12. and
one of them betrayed hys master. [Sidenote: Ioan. 6.] And we that are
hys dyscyples may loke for no better than he hadde hym selfe: [Sidenote:
Mat. 10.] For the scoler is not a boue hys master.

Saynt Paul protesteth that he was in [Sidenote: 2. Cor. 11.] parell
amonge the false bretherne, and surely I suppose that we are in no lesse
Ieopardye. For yf it be so that hys mastershype receyved one copye and
hadde acople of copyes mo offered in the meanewhyle, then may ye be sure
that there are many false bretherne which pretende to haue knowlege, and
in dede be but pyke thākes, prouydynge for their belye. Prepare ye
therfore clokes, for the wether wexeth clowdye, and rayne is lyke to
folowe. I meane not false excuses and forswerynge of your selfes: but
that ye loke substancyally vpon Goddes worde, that you may be able to
answere their sotle obectyons. And rather chose māfully to dye for
Christe and hys worde, than cowardly to denye hym, for this vayne and
transytory lyfe, consyderyng that they haue no further power but ouer
this corruptible bodye, which yf they put it not to deathe, muste yet at
the length peryshe of yt selfe. [Sidenote: 2. Cor. 10.] But I truste the
Lorde shall not suffer you to be tēpted a boue that you may beare, but
accordynge to the spirite that he shall poure vpon you, shall he also
sende you the scourge, ād make hym that hath receyued more of the
spyryte, to suffer more, ād hym that receyueth lesse therof, to suffer
accordynge to hys talent. I thought it necessarye fyrst to admonyshe you
of thys matter, and now I wyll recyte more of master Mores boke.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Whereby men may see how greadely these newe named
bretherne wryte it out, and secretely spreade it a brode.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ The name is of great antiquite, althoughe you lyste
to iest. For they were called bretherne before our Byshoppes were called
Lordes, ād had the name gyuē thē by Christe sayenge, Mat. xxiij. All ye
are bretherne. And Luc. xxij. Cōfyrme thy bretherne. And the name was
cōtynued by the Apostles, & is a name that norysheth loue ād amyte. And
very gladde I am to heare of their greadye affectyon in wrytynge out the
worde of God, for by that I do perceyue the prophesye of Amos [Sidenote:
Amos. ] to haue place, which sayth in the person of God. I wyll sende
hōger ād thurste in to the earth, not honger for meate nor thurste for
drynke. But for to heare the worde of God. Now begynneth the kyngdome of
heuē to suffer vyolēce: [Sidenote: Mat. 11.] Now rōne the poore
Publicanes whiche knowelege them selfes synners, to the worde of God,
puttynge both goodes and bodye in [Sidenote: Luc. 18.] Ieoperdye for the
soule health. And though our Byshopes do calle it heresye, and all them
heretyques that honger after yt, yet do we knowe that it is the Gospell
of the leuynge God, for the health and saluacyon of all that beleue.
[Sidenote: Rom. 1.] And as for the name doth nothynge offende vs, though
they call it heresy a thousande tymes.[Sidenote: Act. 24.] For saynte
Paule testyfyeth that the Pharysees and Prestes whyche were counted the
very churche in hys tyme, ded so call it, and therfore it forseth not
though they, rulyng in their rowmes, vse the same names.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Which yonge man I here say hathe latelye made dyuers
other thynges that yet ronne in hoker moker so close amonge the
bretherne that there cometh no copyes abrode.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ I answere, that surely I can not spynne, and I
thynke no man more hateth to be ydle than I do. Wherfor in suche thynges
as I am able to do, I shalbe dylygent as longe as God lendeth me my
lyfe. And if ye thynke I be to busye, you may rydde me the sooner, for
euen as the shepe is in the bochers hādes ready bounde & loketh but euen
for the grace of the bocher when he shall shedde hys blode: Euen so am I
bounde at the Byshoppes pleasures, euer lokynge for the day of my
deathe. In so moche that playne worde was sent me, that the chaunceloure
of London sayde, it shulde coste me the best bloode in my body, which I
wolde gladly were shedde tomorowe, yf so be it myght open the Kynges
graces eyes.

And verely I maruell that any thynge can ronne in hoker moker or be
hydde frō you. For seynge you myght haue suche store of copyes,
concernynge the thynge which I moste desyred to haue bene kepte secrete,
how shuld you than lacke a copye of those thynges wich I moste wolde
haue publyshed? And hereof ye maye be sure, I care not though you and
all the Byshoppes within England loke vpon all that euer I wrote, but
rather wolde be gladde that ye so ded. For yf there be any sparcle of
grace in your breastes, I trust it shulde be an occasyon somwhat to
kyndle it, that you may consyder and know your selfes, which is the
first poynte of wysdome.

❧ And wolde God for hys mercye [Sidenote: More.] (sayeth M. More) that
syth there can nothynge refrayne their studye, from devyse and
compassynge of euill ād vngracyous wrytynge, that they wolde ād coulde
keape it so secretely that neuer man shulde see it. But suche as are so
farre corrupted, as neuer wolde be cured of their canker.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ It is not possyble for hym that hath hys eyes and
seeth hys brother which lacketh syght in Ieoperdye of peryshynge at a
perellous pytte, but that he muste come to hym ād guyde hym, tyll he be
past that Ieoperdye, and at the least wyse, yf he can not come to hym,
yet wyll he call and crye vnto hym to cause hym chose the better waye,
excepte hys harte be cankered with the contagyon of suche hatred that he
can reioyse in hys neyghbours dystructyon. And euē so is it not possyble
for vs which haue receyued the knowelege of Goddes worde, but that we
muste crye and call to other, that they leaue the perellous patthes of
their owne folyshe fantasyes. [Sidenote: Deut. 12.] And do that onely to
the Lorde, that he commaundeth them, neyther addynge any thynge nor
dymynyshynge. And therfor vntyll we see some meanes founde, by the which
a reasonable reformacyon may be had on the one partye, and suffycyent
instructyon for the poore cōmons, I insure you, I neyther wyll nor can
cease to speake. For the worde of God boyleth in my bodye, lyke a
fervente fyre, & wyll neades haue an yssue and breake out, whā occasyon
is geuē.

But this hath bene offered you, is offered, and shall be offered.
Graunte that the worde of God, I meane the texte of scrypture, maye go
abrode in oure Englyshe tonge, as other nacyons haue it in their tōges,
and my brother Wyllyā Tyndall ād I haue done, & wyll promyse you to
wryte no more. Yf you wyll not graunte this condycyō, then wyll we be
doynge whyle we haue breathe, and shewe in fewe wordes that the
scripture doth in many: and so at the least saue some.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ But a lacke this wyll not be. For as S. Paule
sayeth, the contagyō of heresye creapeth ou lyke a cāker. For as the
cāker corrupteth the bodye forthere and forther, & tourneth the hole
partes in to the same deadly sycknes, so doth these heresyes crepe forth
amonge good symple soules, tyll at the laste it be almost past remedye.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Thys is a very true sayēge ād maketh well agaynst
hys owne purpose. For in dede thys contagyō begā to sprynge euē in S.
Paules tyme. In so moche that the Galathyans were in a maner wholy
seduced from hys doctryne. And he sayde to the Thessalonyans, [Sidenote:
1. The. 2.] the mystery of iniquyte euen now begynneth to worke.
[Sidenote: 1. Ioā. 4.] And saynt Iohn testyfyeth that there were all
readye many Antichrystes rysen in hys dayes. And also Paule prophesyed
what shulde folowe after hys tyme. [Sidenote: Act. 20.] Actes. xx.
sayenge: Take ye hede to your selues and to all the flocke, ouer whyche
the holye Gost hath put you overseers, to feade the congregacyon of God
whyche he purchased wyth hys owne bloode. For I knowe thys well, that
after my departynge shall enter in greuouse wolues amonge you, which
shall not spare the flocke. And euen of your selues shall aryse men,
speakynge perverse thynges, to drawe dyscyples after them, and therfore
watche, & ce. Thys canker then began to sprede in the congregacyon, and
ded full sore noye the bodye, in so moche that within .iiij. C. yeare
there were very many sectes scatered in euerye coste. Notwithstandynge
there were faythfull fathers that dylygently subdued thē wyth the swerde
of Goddes worde. [Sidenote: Siluest.] But surely sens Siluester receyued
suche possessyons, hath the canker so crepte in the churche, that it
hath almoste lefte neuer a founde member. And as Cistercensis wryteth in
the .viij. boke, that day that he receyued revennues, was a voyce harde
in the ayre cryeng ouer the courte which sayde, Thys daye is venome shed
in to the churche of God. Before that tyme there was no Byshope greadye
to take a cure. For it was no honoure & profytte as it is now, but onely
a carefull charge which was lyke to cost hym his lyfe at one tyme or
other. And therfore no man wolde take it, but he that bare suche a loue
and zele to God and his flocke, that he coulde be content to shedde hys
bloode for them. But after that it was made so honorable and profytable,
they that were worste bothe in lernynge and leuynge, moste laboured for
it. For they that ware vertuous wolde [Sidenote: Mat. 7.] not entangle
them selues with the vayne pryde of thys worlde, ād weare .iij.
[Sidenote: Mar. 15.] Crownes of golde, where Christe ded weare one of
thorne. [Sidenote: Ioā. 19.] And in conclusyon it came so farre, that
who so euer wolde geue moste money for it or beste coulde flatter the
Prynce (which he knewe well all good mē to abhorre) had the prehemynence
and gotte the best Byshopryke, and then in steade of Goddes worde, they
publyshed their owne commaundemētes, and made lawes to haue all vnder
them, and made men beleue they coulde not erre what so euer they ded or
sayde, ād euē as in the rowines ād stede of Moses, Aarō, Eliazer, Iosue,
Calib, and other faythfull folke, came Herode, Annas, Caiphas, Pylate
and Iudas, which put Christ to death: So now in the steade of Christe,
Peter, Paule, Iames, ād Iohn, and the faythfull folowers of Christe, we
haue the Pope, Cardynalles, Archebyshoppes, Byshoppes, and proude
prelates, with their proctoure the malycyous mynyster of their master
the Deuyll, which not withstondynge transforme thē selues in to a
lykenes, [Sidenote: 1. Cor. 11.] as though they were the mynysters of
ryghtuousnes, whose ende shalbe acordyng to their workes. So that the
bodye is cākered longe agone, ād now are lefte but certayne small
mēbres, which God of hys puyssante power hath reserued vncorrupted. And
because they see that they can not be cankered as their owne fleshe is,
for pure anger they burne them, leaste yf they cōtynued there myght
seame some deformyte in their owne cankered carcase, by the comparynge
of these whole membres to their scabbed body.

[Sidenote: More.] ¶ Techeth in a fewe leaues shortely all the poyson
that Wyclefe, Ecolāpadius, Tyndall, & Zwynglius haue taught in all their
bokes before, cōcernynge the blessed Sacramente of the aulter: not
onelye affyrmynge it to be verye breade styll (as Luther doth) but also
(as these other beastes do) sayeth it is nothynge els. And after the
same syr Thomas More sayeth. These dregges hath he dronken of Wyclefe,
Ecolāpadius, Tyndall, and Zwynglius, and so hath he all that he argueth
here besyde, whych .iiij. what maner folke they be, is metely well
perceyued and knowen, and God hath in parte, wyth hys open vengeaunce

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Luther is not the prycke that I ronne at, but the
scrypture of God. I do neyther affyrme nor denye any thynge, because
Luther so sayeth but be cause the scrypture of God doth so conclude and
determe. I take not Luther for soche an autoure that I thynke he cānot
erre, but I thynke verely that he both may erre and doth erre in
certayne poyntes, although not in suche as concerne saluacyon and
dampnacyō. For in thē (blessed be God) all these whome ye call heretykes
do agre ryght well. And lykewyse I do not alowe thys thynge because
Wyclefe, Decolampadius, Tyndall, and Zwinglius so saye, but because I
see them in that place more purely expounde the scrypture, and that the
processe of the texte doth more fauoure their sentence.

And where you saye that I affyrme yt to be breade styll as Luther doth,
the same I saye agayne, not be cause Luther so sayeth, but because I can
proue my wordes true by scrypture, reason of nature, and doctours. Paule
calleth it breade saynge: [Sidenote: 1. Cor. 10.] The breade which we
breake, is it not the felowshyppe of the bodye of Christe: For we though
we be manye, are yet one bodye and one breade: as manye as are pertakers
of one breade. And agayne he sayeth. [Sidenote: 1. Cor. 11.] As often as
ye eate of this breade, or drynke of this cuppe, you shall shewe the
Lordes death vntyll he come. Also Luke calleth it breade in the actes
sayenge: [Sidenote: Act. 2.] they contynued in the felowshyp of the
Apostles and in breakynge of breade, & in prayer. [Sidenote: Luc. 22.]
Also Christe called the cuppe, the frute of vyne, sayenge. I shall not
from hence forthe drynke of the frute of the vyne, vntyll I drynke that
a newe in the kyngdome of my Father.

Furthermore nature doth teche you that both the breade and wyne contynue
in their nature. For the breade mouldeth yf it be kepte longe, yea, and
wormes breede in it. And the poore mouse wyll ronne away with it, and
desyre none other meate to her dyner, whiche are euydēt ynough that
there remayneth breade. Also the wyne yf it were reserued wolde wexe
sower, as they confesse thē selues, and therfore they howsell the laye
people but wyth one kynde onely, because the wyne can not contynue nor
be reserued, to haue readye at hande when neade were. And surely as yf
there remayned no breade it coulde not moulde nor wexe full of wormes:
Euē so yf there remayned no wyne, it coulde not wexe sower, and therfore
it is but false doctryne, that our Prelates so lōge haue publyshed.
Fynallye that there remayneth breade myght be proued by the auctoryte of
many doctours, which call it breade and wyne, as Christ and hys Apostles
ded. And thoughe some sophysters wolde wreste their sayenges and
expounde them after their fantasye, yet shall I alledge thē one doctoure
(which was also Pope of Rome) that maketh so playne wyth vs that they
shalbe compelled with shame to holde their tonges. For Pope Gelasius
wryteth on this maner. _Certe sacramenta quæ sumimus corporis et
sanguinis Christi diuinæ res sunt & propterea per illa, participes facti
sumus diuinæ naturæ, & tamen non desinit esse substantia uel panis &
uini, sed permanēt in suæ proprietati naturæ. Et certe imago &
similitudo corporis & sanguinis Christi in actione misteriorum
celebrantur._ That is to saye, surely the sacramentes of the bodye and
bloode of Christe, are a godly thynge, and therfore through them are we
made partakers of the Godly nature. And yet doth it not cease to be the
substaunce, or nature of breade and wyne, but they contynue in the
propertye of their owne nature. And surely the Image and symylytude of
the bodye and bloode of Christe, are celebrated in the acte of the
mysteryes. Thys I am sure was the olde doctryne which they cā not
avoyde. And therfor wyth the scrypture, nature, ād fathers, I wyll
conclude that there remayneth the substaunce, and nature, of breade and

[Sidenote: More.] And where ye saye that we affyrme it to be nothynge
els, I dare saye that ye vntrulye reporte of vs all. And here after I
wyll shewe you what it is more then breade. And where ye saye that it is
meately well knowen what maner of folke they be, and that GOD hath in
parte wyth hys open vengeaunce declared.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ I answere that Master Wyclefe was noted whyle he
was lyuynge, [Sidenote: Wiclefe.] to be a man not onely of moste famous
doctryne, but also of a very syncere lyfe and conversacyon.
Neuerthelesse to declare your malycyous myndes and vengeable hartes (as
men saye) xv. yeares after he was buryed, you toke hym vp and brente
hym, whiche facte declared your furye, although he felte no fyre.
[Sidenote: Mat. 10.] But blessed be GOD whiche hath geuen suche
tyrauntes no further power, but over thys corruptyble bodye. For the
soule ye can not bynde nor burne, [Sidenote: Mal. 2.] but God maye
blesse where you curse, and curse where you blesse.

[Sidenote: Ecolampadius.] ¶ And as for Oecolampadius, that notable
learned man, hys moste aduersaryes haue euer commended hys conversacyon
and Godlye lyfe, which when God has appoynted hys tyme, gaue place vnto
nature (as euery man muste) and dyed of a canker.

[Sidenote: Tyndal.] And Tyndall I truste lyueth, well contente with
suche a poore Apostles lyfe, as GOD gaue hys sone Christe, and hys
faythfull mynysters in thys worlde, whiche is not sure of so many mytes,
as ye be yearly of poundes, although I am sure that for hys learnynge
and Iudgement in scripture, he were more worthye to be promoted, then
all the Byshoppes in Englande. I receyued a letter from hym, whiche was
wrytten sens Chrystmas, wherin amonge other matters he wryteth thus. I
calle GOD to recorde agaynst the daye we shall appere before our Lorde
Iesus to geue a rekonynge of our doynges, that I neuer altered one
syllable of Godes worde agaynste my conscyēce, nor wolde do this daye,
yf all that is in earth, whether it be honoure, pleasure, or ryches,
myght be geuen me. Morover I take GOD to recorde to my conscience, that
I desyre of GOD to my selfe in this wurlde no more then that without
whiche I can not keape hys lawes, & ce. Iudge Christen reader whether
these wordes be not spokē of a faythfull clere innocent harte. And as
for hys behauyoure is suche, that I am sure no man can reproue hym of
any synne, howbeit no man is innocent before God which beholdeth the

[Sidenote: Zwynglius.] Fynallye Zwinglius was a man of suche learnynge
and grauyte (besyde eloquence) that I thynke no man in Christendome
myght haue compared with hym, notwithstondynge he was slayne in battayle
in defendynge hys cytye, and cōmōwelth, agaynste the assaulte of wycked
enemyes, whiche cause was moste ryghtuouse.

And yf hys mastershyp meane, that that was the vēgeaunce of God, and
declared hym to be an euyll parson because he was slayne: I maye say
nay, and shewe euydēt examples of the contrarye. For somtyme God geueth
the vyctorye agaynst them that haue moste ryghtuouse cause, as it is
evydent in the boke of Iudicum, [Sidenote: Iudi. 20.] where all the
chylderne of Israell were gathered together to punyshe the shamefull
sodometrye of the trybe of Beniamyn, whyche were in nōbre but .25.
thousande. And the Israelytes were .CCCC. thousāde fyghtynge men, whiche
came in to Silo, and asked of God who shulde be their capytayne agaynst
Beniamyn. And they beynge but .xxv. thousāde slewe of the other
Israelytes .12. thousande in one day: Thē fledde the chylderne of
Israell vnto the Lorde in Silo, and made greate lamentacyon before hym
euen vntyll nyght. And asked hym counsell sayenge. Shall we go any more
to fyght agaynste the trybe of Beniamyn oure brotherne or not? God sayde
vnto them yes, go vp and fyght agaynste them. Then went they the nexte
day and faught agaynste them, and there were slayne agayne of the
Israelites .18. thousande men: Then came they backe agayne vnto the
house of God, and sate downe and wepte before the Lorde, and fasted that
daye vntyll euen, and asked hym agayne whether they shulde anye more
fyght agaynste theyr bretherne or not. God sayde vnto them yes, to morow
I wyll delyuer thē in to your hādes. And the nexte day was the trybe of
Bēiamyn vtterly dystroyed, sauynge .600. men which hydde themselues in
the wyldernes. Here yt is evydent that the chylderne of Israell loste
the vyctorye twyse, and yet not withstondynge had a iuste cause, and
faught at Godds commaundement. Besydes that, Iudas Machabeus, was
slayne, in a ryghtuouse cause, as yt is manyfest in the fyrst boke of
the Machabees. [Sidenote: Machabe. 9.] And therfore yt can be no evydent
argument of the vēgeaunce of God, that he was slayne in battayle in a
ryghtuouse cause, and therfore me thynketh that this manne ys to
malaperte so bluntly to enter in to Goddes Iudgement, ād geue sentence
in that matter before he be called to counsell. Thus haue I suffycyētly
touched hys preface, for those poyntes that he afterwarde towched more
largely haue I wyllyngly passed, because I shall towche them earnestly
hereafter. Nowe lette vs see what he proueth.

[Sidenote: Master More.] ❧ It ys a greate wonder to see vpon how lyght
and sleyght occasyons, he ys fallen vnto these abhomynable heresyes. For
he denyeth not nor can not say nay, but that our sauyour sayde hym
selfe, my fleshe ys verely meate and my bloode ys verely drynke. He
denyeth not also that Christ hym selfe at his last souper, takynge the
breade in to hys blessed handes, after that he had blessed yt sayde vnto
hys discyples. Take you thys and eate yt, thys is my bodye, that shall
be geuen for you. And lykewyse gaue them the chalyce after hys blessynge
and consecracyon, and sayde vnto them, thys ys the chalyce of my bloode
of the newe testament, whyche shalbe shedde out for manye, do ye thys in
remembraunce of me.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ It is a greate wonder to see howe ygnoraunte their
proctoure ys, in the playne textes of scrypture. For yf he had any
iudgement at all he myght well perceyue that when Christe spake these
wordes, my fleshe ys verely meate and my bloode ys verely drynke, he
spake nothynge of the sacramēte. For yt was not instytuted vntyll hys
laste souper. And these wordes were spoken to the Iewes longe before,
and ment them not of the carnall eatynge or drynkynge of hys bodye or
bloode, but of the spirytuall eatynge, which is done by faythe and not
wyth tothe, ād bellye. Wherof Saynt Austen sayeth vpon thys Gospell of
Iohan, why preparest thou other tothe or bellye? beleue and thou haste
eaten hym. So that Christes wordes must here be vnderstonde spirytually.
And that he calleth hys fleshe verymeate, is because that as meate by
the eatynge of yt & digestynge yt in our body dothe strengthen these
corruptyble membres, so lykewyse doth Christes fleshe (by the beleuynge
that yt taketh our synne vpon yt selfe and suffered the death to delyuer
vs) strengthen our immortall soule. And lykewyse as drynke when yt is
dronken, doth comforte and quycken our frayle nature, So lykewyse both
Christes bloode by the drynkynge of yt in to the bowells of our soule,
that ys by the belevynge and remembrynge that yt ys shedde for our
synnes, comforte and quycken our soule vnto euerlastynge lyfe. And thys
is the eatynge and drynkynge that he speaketh of in that place. And that
yt is so you may perceyue by the texte folowynge which sayeth. He that
eateth my bodye & drynketh my bloode dwelleth in me and I in hym, which
ys not possyble to be vnderstonde of the Sacrament. For it is false to
saye, that he that eateth the Sacrament of hys bodye and drynketh the
sacrament of hys bloode, dwelleth in Christe and Christe in hym. For
some man receyueth yt vnto hys condempnacyō. And thus doth .S. Austen
expounde yt sayenge. _Hoc est enim Christum manducare, in illo manere, &
illum manentem in se habere._ Thys is the very eatynge of Christe, to
dwell in hym, and to haue hym dwellynge in vs. So that who so euer
dwelleth in Christ (that ys to saye) beleueth that he is sent of God to
saue vs from our synnes doth verely eate ād drynke hys bodye and bloode,
although he neuer receyued the sacrament. Thys ys the spirytuall eatynge
necessarye for all that shalbe saued. For there ys no man that cōmeth to
God without this eatynge of Christ, that is the beleuynge in hym. And so
I denye not but that Christ speaketh these wordes, but surelye he ment
spyrytually. As S. Austen declareth, ād as the place playnely proueth.

And as towchynge the other wordes [Sidenote: Mat. 26.] that Christe
spake vnto hys dyscyples at hys laste souper, I denye not but that he
sayde so, but that he so steshely mēt as ye falsely fayne, I vtterly
denye. For I saye that hys wordes were then also spyrite and lyfe, and
were spyritually to be vnderstonde. And that he called yt hys bodye,
[Sidenote: Ioan. 6.] for a certayne propertye, euen as he called hym
selfe [Sidenote: Ioan. 15.] a very vyne, and hys dyscyples very vyne
braunches, and as he called hym selfe a dore: [Sidenote: Ioan. 10.] not
that he was so in dede, but for certayne propertyes in the symylytudes.
[Sidenote: Gen. 35.] As a man for some propertye sayeth of hys
neyghbours horsse, this horsse is myne vp and downe, meanynge that yt is
in euery thynge so lyke. [Sidenote: Gen. 32.] And lyke as Iacob buylded
an aulter and called yt the God of Israel, and as Iacob called the place
where he wrasteled with the Angell, the face of God, and as the pascall
lambe was called the passynge bye of the Lorde. [Sidenote: Ezech. 5.]
And as a broken potsherde was called Hierusalem, not for that they were
so in dede, but for certayne symylytudes in the propertyes, and that the
very name yt selfe myght put men in remembraunce what ys ment by the
thynge, as I suffycyently declared in my fyrste treatyse.

[Sidenote: More.] He muste neades confesse, that they that beleue that
yt ys the very bodye and hys very bloode in dede, haue the playne wordes
of our sauyoure hym selfe vpon their syde, for the grounde and
foundacyon of their faythe.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ That is very true, and so haue they the very wordes
of God, whiche saye a broken potsherde ys Hierusalem, and that Christe
is a stone, and that Christe is a vyne and a dore. And yet yf they shuld
beleue or thynke that he were in dede any of these thynges, they were
neuerthelesse deceyued. For though he so sayde, yet I saye hys wordes
were spirituall ād spiritually to be vnderstonde.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ And where you saye that I flye from the faythe of
playne and open scryptures, and for the allegorye destroye the true
sence of the letter.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ I answere that some textes of scripture are onelye
to be vnderstonde after the letter: As when Paule sayeth, Christ
[Sidenote: Rom. 4.] dyed for our synnes & rose agayne for ourre
iustificacyō. And some textes are onely to be vnderstonde spirytually or
in the way of an allegory: As whē Paule sayth, [Sidenote: 1. Cor. x.]
Christe was the stone. And when Christe sayeth hym selfe. [Sidenote:
Johā. xv.] I am a very vyne. [Sidenote: Johan. x.] I ā the doore. And
some must be vnderstōde both lytterallye, and spirytuallye: As when God
sayde, out of Egypte called I my sonne, [Sidenote: Ozee. 11.] whyche
although it were lytterallye fulfylled in the chylderne of Israel when
he brought them out of Egypte with greate power and wōders, yet was yt
also mente ād veryfyed in Christ hym selfe, [Sidenote: Math. 2.] hys
very spyrytuall sonne, which was called out of Egygte after the death of
Herode. And agayne yt is very spiritually fulfylled in vs whyche through
Christes bloode are delyuered from the Egypte of synne, and from the
power of Pharao the devyll. And I say that this texte of scripture, this
is my bodye, ys onely spirytually to be vnderstonde, ād not lytterallye.
And that doth S. Austen also confyrme, which wryteth vnto Adamantus and
sayeth. These sentences of scripture, Christ was the stone, the bloode
ys the soule, and thys is my bodye, are fyguratyuelye to be vnderstonde
(that is to say) spiritually, or by the way of ā allegorye, & thus haue
I. S. Austē whollye vpon my syde, whiche thynge shall yet hereafter more
playnely appere.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Nowe hys example of hys brydgromes rynge I very well
alowe. For I take the blessed sacramēt to be left with vs for a very
token and a memoryall of Christe in dede. But I say that the whole
substaūce of the same token & memoryall, is hys owne blessed bodye. And
so I saye that Christe hathe lefte vs a better token then this man wolde
haue vs take yt for. And therin he fareth lyke a mā, to whō a brydgrome
had delyuered a goodly golde rynge with a ryche Rubye therin, to delyuer
to hys bryde for a token. And then he wolde lyke a false shrewe, keape a
waye that golden rynge and geue the bryde in steade thereof, a proper
rynge of aryshe, and tell her that the brydgrome wolde sende her no
better. Or els lyke one that when the brydgrome hadde geuen soche a
rynge of golde to hys bryde for a tokē, wyll tell her playne, ād make
her beleue, that the rynge were but coper or brasse, to mynyshe the
brydgromes thanke.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ I am ryght gladde that ye admytte myne exāple, ād
graūte that the sacramēt is lefte to be a very tokē and memoryall of
Christe in dede. But where you saye, that the whole substaunce of the
same token ād memoryall is hys owne blessed bodye, that is sooner sayde
than proued. And where you saye that we fare lyke a false shrewe that
wolde keape the golde rynge from the bryde, and geue her a rynge of a
ryshe, or tell her that her golde rynge were coper or brasse, to mynyshe
the brydgromes thāke. I answere that we deny not but that the ryng ys
most fyne golde, and is sette wyth as ryche Rubyes as can be gotten. For
that rynge (I meane the Sacrament) ys not onely a moste perfecte token
and a memoryall of the brydegromes benefyttes ād vnfayned fauoure on hys
partye, but yt is also on the other partye a thankes geuynge for the
gracyous gyftes which she vndoubtedly knowlege her selfe to haue
receyued. For as verely as that breade ys broken amōge thē, so verely
was Christes bodye broken for their synnes. And as verely as they
receyue that breade in to their bellye through eatynge yt, so verelye do
they receyue the frute of hys death in to their soules by beleuynge in
hym. And therfor they assemble to that souper, not for the valoure of
the breade, wyne, or meate, that ys there eate, but for the intent to
geue hym thankes commonly a monge them all, for hys inestymable goodnes.
But to procede vnto our purpose, yf a man wolde come vnto the bryde, and
tell her that thys goodly golde rynge were her owne brydgrome, both
fleshe bloode ād bones (as you do) then I thynke yf she haue anye wytte,
she myght answere hym, that he mocked, and the more he sayde yt, the
lesse she myght beleue hym, and saye that yf that were her owne
brydgrome, what shulde she thē neade any remēbraunce of hym, or why
shulde he geue it her for a remembraunce. For a remembraunce
presupposeth the thynge to be absent, and therfore yf thys be a
remembraunce of hym, than can he not here be present.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ I meruell therfore moche, that he is not a frayde,
to affyrme that these wordes of Christe, of hys bodye and of hys bloode,
muste neades be vnderstonde by waye of a symylytude or an allegorye, as
the wordes be of the vyne and the doore. Nowe this he knoweth well, that
though some wordes spokē by the mouthe of Christe be to be vnderstonde
onely by waye of a symylytude or an allegorye, yet foloweth it not
thervpon, that euery lyke worde of Christe in other places was non other
but an allegorye, for suche was the shyfte and cauyllacyon that the
wycked Arryans vsed which toke from Christes parson hys omnypotent

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ I graunte that the Arryans erred, for as Master
More sayeth, though in some place a worde betakē fyguratyuely, it
foloweth not therfor that in euery other place, it shulde lykewyse be
takē. But one questyō muste I aske hys mastershyppe, how doth he knowe
that there is any worde or texte in scripture that muste be takē
fyguratyuely, that is by the waye of a symylytude, or as he calleth yt a
necessarye allegory? I thynke (though some mē may assygne other good
causes ād euydences) that the fyrst knowelege ys by other textes of
scrypture. For yf other textes be cōferred vnto yt, and wyll not stonde
with the litterall sence, then I thynke yt muste neades be taken
spirytually or fyguratyuelye, as there are infynyte textes in scripture.
Now when I see that .S. Thomas whiche felte Christes woundes ād put hys
fynger in hys syde, called hym hys Lorde and God, and that no texte in
scrypture repugneth vnto the same, but that they may well stonde
together, me thynketh yt were foly to affirme that this word, God, in
that texte shulde be taken fyguratyuely or by waye of an allegorye: But
nowe in our matter the processe of scripture wyll not stonde with the
lytterall sence, as shall here after appeare. And therfor necessyte
compellethe vs to expounde yt fyguratyuelye, as doth also S. Austen and
other holy doctours, as hereafter shall playnely appeare.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ If euery man that can fynde out a newe fonde
fantasye vpon a text of holy scrypture, may haue his owne mynd takē, and
hys owne exposicyon beleued agaynste the exposycyons of the olde
connynge doctours and sayntes, then may you surely see that none artycle
of the Christen fayth, can stonde and endure longe. And then he
alleageth .s. Hierome, which sayth, that yf the exposycion of other
interpretours, and the consent of the common catholycke churche, were of
no more strēgth but that euery mā myght be beleued that coulde brynge
some textes of scrypture for hym, expounded as it pleaseth hym selfe,
then coulde I (sayth this holy mā) brynge vpe a newe secte also, and
saye by scrypture, that no man were a true Christen man, nor a membre of
the churche, that keapeth two cootes. And in good fayth (sayth master
More) yf that waye were alowed I were able my selfe to fynde out fyftene
newe sectes in one fore none.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Saynte Peter sayeth that the scripture is not
expounded after the appetyte of any pryuate parson, but euē as yt was
geuen by the spyrite of God, and not by mānes wyll: so muste yt be
declared by the same spiryte. And therfore I wyll not that any mā shalbe
beleued, by bryngynge hys owne mynde and fantasye. But yf he wyll be
beleued, let hym brynge eyther an other playne texte, which shall
expounde the fyrste, or els at the leaste he muste brynge suche a
manyfest sentence, as wyll stonde wyth the processe of the scripture.
Whye was Saynt Hierome alowed agaynst the determynacyon of the counsell
of Meldeley, syth he was alone, and they a greate multytude, but onely
because he brought euydent scrypture, which at the tyme of their
sentence, none of them remembred ād yet when yt was brought, they coulde
not auoyde yt. And lykewyse excepte I brynge euydent scripture which
they all shall expounde as I do, I desyre not to be beleued. And where
master More sayeth, that in good fayth he were able to fynde out fyftene
newe sectes in one fore none, he may thanke GOD that he hathe suche a
pregnaunte wytte: But yet I truste he shulde not fynde one (yf there
were any parell of dāpnacyō therin) but that we wolde with a playne
texte confute yt, which he shulde not be able to avoyde.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ And ouer this, the very cyrcumstaunces of the places
in the Gospell in which our sauyour speaketh of that sacramente, may
well make open the defference of hys speache in this matter, and of all
the other, and that as he spake all those but in an allegorye, so spake
he this, playnely meanynge that he spake of hys very bodye and hys very
bloode, besyde all allegoryes. For when our Lorde sayde, he was a very
vyne, and when he sayd he was the dore, there was none that harde hym,
that any thynge merueled therof. And whye: For because they perceyued
well, that he ment not that he was a materyall vyne in dede, nor a dore
neyther: But when he sayde that hys fleshe was very meate, and hys
bloode very drynke, and that they shulde not be saued but yf they ded
eate hys fleshe and drynke hys bloode, then were they all in suche a
wonder therof, that they coulde not abyde. And wherfor, but because they
perceyued well by hys wordes and hys maner of circumstaunces, that
Chryste spake of hys very fleshe and hys very bloode in dede.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ It is openly knowen and confessed amonge all
learned men, that in the [Sidenote: Ioan. 6.] .6. chapytre of Ioan,
Christe spake not one worde concernynge the sacrament of hys bodye and
bloode (which at that tyme was not yet instytuted) but all that he there
spake was of the spyrytuall eatynge ād drynkynge of hys bodye, and
bloode, as I haue towched before. And the circumstaunces of this place
do in dede proue that they were fleshly mynded, and vnderstoode not the
spirytuall wordes of our sauyoure Christ, and therfor wondered and
mourmured. In so moche that Christe sayde vnto them, doth this offende
you: What wyll ye say then whē ye shall see the sone of man ascendynge
thyther where he was before: Thē (addeth S. Austen) you shall knowe that
he ment not to geue hys fleshe to eate with your teth: for he shall
ascende whole. And Christ addeth, it is the spirite that quyckeneth, the
fleshe profyteth nothynge, the wordes that I speake, are spirite ād
lyfe: that is to say, sayeth S. Austen, are spirytually to be
vnderstonde. And where Christ sayeth, that the fleshe profyteth nothynge
(meanynge of hys owne fleshe, as S. Austē sayeth) he meaneth that it
profyteth not, as they vnderstoode hym, that is to saye, it profyteth
not, if it were eatē. But it doth moche profyte to be slayne, that
through it and the shedynge of hys blode, the wrath of God our Father is
pacyfyed, ād our synnes forgeuen. And where his mastershyp sayeth that
the people perceyued well what he ment, and therfor wōdered so sore ād
coulde not abyde, because they perceyued well by hys wordes ād maner of
cyrcumstaunces what hys meanynge was. I wyll say as I ded before, that
they vnderstoode hym not. Nowe here he wyll saye vnto me, if it be but
your naye and my yea, then I wolde thynke to be beleued as soone as you,
and surelye that were but reason. Not withstondynge (thankes be to God)
I am able to brynge in auctoryte to Iudge betwene vs bothe, whose
Iudgemēt I truste hys mastershyp wyll admytte. Thys autoure is .S.
Austen which sayeth. [Sidenote: Augusti in sermo ad infan.] _Discipuli
enim eius qui cum sequebantur expauerunt & exhorruerunt sermonem non
intelligentes._ That is to saye, his dyscyples whiche folowed hym, were
a stoyned, and abhorred hys wordes, ād vnderstoode thē not. And because
your mastershype shall not thynke that he over schotte hym selfe, and
spake he wyste not what, we shall alledge hym sayenge the same wordes in
an other place. [Sidenote: Aug. 54.] _Cum diceret. Nisi quis
manducauerit carnem .& c. Illi non intelligentes dixerunt ad inuicē.
Durus est hic sermo, quis potest eum audire?_ That is, when Christ
sayde, excepte a man eate my fleshe and drynke my bloode, he shall haue
no lyfe in hym, they because they vnderstoode hym not, sayde to eche
other, this is an harde sayenge, who can heare hym? Thus I truste you
wyll geue place (although not to me) yet at the leaste vnto Saynte
Austen, and receyue the truth whiche is so playnelye proved.

And where hys mastershyp alleageth this texte for the Sacramente, that
excepte they ded eate hys fleshe and drynke hys blode they coulde not be
saued, yt seameth that he is fallen in to the erroure of Pope Innocēt,
which lykewyse vnderstōdynge this texte vpon the Sacrament (as master
More doth) caused yonge chylderne and infantes to receyue the Sacrament,
as though they had all bene dampned which dyed and had not receyued it.
And of thys Carnall mynde were many mo Byshoppes a greate whyle (as are
now the Bohemes, whome he after dysprayseth, and yet expoundeth the
texte as they do) but afterward they loked more spirytually vpō the
matter and confessed their ignoraunce, as I truste master More wyll. But
now wyll I shew you .S. Austens mynde vpō this texte, which shall helpe
for the exposycyon of all thys matter. [Sidenote: Augustinus libro 3 de
doctrina christiana.] S. Austen in the thyrde boke de doctrina
christiana the .16. chapytre, teachynge how we shall knowe the tropes,
fygures, allegoryes, and phrases of the scrypture sayeth. _Si aūt
flagitium aut facinus iubere uidetur, figurata locutio est. Nisi
manducaueritis (inqt) carnem filij hominis et biberitis eius sanguinē,
non habebitis uitam in uobis. Facinus uel flagitium uidetur iubere.
Figura est ergo precipiens passionis dominicæ esse comunicandū et
suauiter atque utiliter in memoria recondendum, quod pro nobis caro eius
crucifixa & uulnerata sit._ That is to saye: when so euer the scrypture
or Christe seameth to commaunde any fowle or wycked thynge, than muste
that texte be taken fyguratyuelye, and that it is a phrase, allegorye,
and maner of speakynge, ād muste be vnderstonde spyrytually and not
after the letter. Excepte (sayeth Christ) ye eate the fleshe of the
sonne of man and drynke hys bloode ye shall haue no lyfe in you. He
seameth (sayeth S. Austen) to cōmaunde a fowle and a wycked thynge. It
ys therfore a fygure, commaundyng vs to be partakers of hys passyon, and
swetely ād profytablye to prynte in our mynde that hys fleshe was
crucyfyed and wounded for vs. This truth (thankes be to God) doth S.
Austen declare vnto vs, which thynge besyde the openyng of thys texte
agaynst master Mores mynd, doth playnely shew what he thought in the
holye wordes of Christes souper. For syth he called yt a fowle and
wycked thynge to eate hys fleshe, than may you soone perceyue, that he
thought yt ys fowle and as wycked a thynge to eate hys bodye, seynge hys
bodye ys fleshe, and then consequently yt shall folowe, that eyther thys
worde eate (where Christe sayde take thys and eate yt) muste be taken
spirytually, or els that thys sayēge of Christe, thys is my body, muste
be fyguratyuely spoken, but this worde, eate, ys taken after the letter
(for they ded in dede eate the breade) therfore yt muste neades folowe,
that thys sentēce (thys is my bodye) muste be fyguratyuely spoken. Or
els ys .S. Austen not to be approued in thys place, which thynge our
Byshoppes I thynke, wyll not saye naye.

Besydes that .S. Austen sayeth. [Sidenote: Augustinus in sermone ad
infantes.] _Quando loquebatur dominus noster Iesus Christus de corpore
suo, nisi (inquit) quis manducauerit carnem meam et biberit sanguinè
meum, non habebit in se uitam. Caro enim mea uere est cibus, & sanguis
meus uere est potus. Intellectus spiritualis credentem saluum facit,
quia littera occidit, spiritus est qui uiuificat._ That is to saye: when
our Lorde Iesus Christe spake of hys bodye, excepte (sayeth he) a man
eate my fleshe and drynke my bloode, he shall haue no lyfe in hym selfe,
for my fleshe is verye meate, and my bloode is very drynke. The
spyrytuall vnderstondynge saueth hym that beleueth, for the letter
kylleth, but the spirite quyckeneth. Here may you playnlye perceyue,
that thys texte muste onely be taken spyrituallye. For he sayeth, that
to take it after the letter it kylleth and profyteth nothynge at all, &
therfor I wonder that we haue bene ledde so longe in this grosse

[Sidenote: Orig. in leuiti. homi .7.] This sayenge doth that famous
clarke Origene, confyrme sayēg. _Agnosce, figuræ sunt que in uoluminibus
Domini scriptæ sunt: & ideo tanquā spirituales & non tanquam carnales,
examinate & intelligite quæ dicuntur. Si enim secundum litteram sequaris
hoc ipsum quod dictum est, Nisi manducaueritis carnē &c. Occidit hæc
littera._ That is to saye: Marke that they are fygures which are wrytē
in the scrypture of God. And therfore examyne them as spyrytuall men and
not as Carnall, ād vnderstonde those thynges that are spoken. For if
thou folowe after the letter, this thynge that is spokē: excepte ye eate
the fleshe of the sone of man and drynke hys bloode, you cā haue no lyfe
in you, this letter kylleth. Alas deare bretherne why shulde any mā be
offended with thys doctryne, seynge it is approued so playnelye, by
suche auncyent and holy Fathers.

[Sidenote: Augusti sermo circa sacraferia pasche.] Agayne .S. Austē
sayeth. _Qui manducat carnem meā & bibit meum sanguinem in memanet & ego
in illo. Hoc est ergo manducare illā escam & illū bibere potum, in
Christo manere & illum manentē in se habere, ac per hoc qui non manet in
Christo & in quo non manet Christus proculdubio non manducat eius carnem
nec bibit sanguinē, etiā si tanterei sacramentum ad iudicium sibi
manducet & bibit._ That is to saye, he that eateth my fleshe and
drynketh my bloode, abydeth in me, and I in hym. This is therfore the
eatynge of that meate and drynkynge of that bloode, to abyde in Christe
and haue hym abydynge in vs. And therfor he that abydeth not in Christe,
and in whome Christe abydeth not, without doubte he eateth not Christes
fleshe nor drynketh not hys bloode, although he eate and drynke that
sacramēt of so greate a thynge vnto hys dampnacyon. And euē the same
wordes [Sidenote: Idē Beda super Cor. 10.] hath Bede vpon the Corynthyās
1. Corin. 10. Thys one place is suffycyent for to proue my purpose
though he sayde not one worde more. For here he doth playnelye
determyne, that he whiche abydeth not in Christe: that is to saye: he
that is wycked or vnfaythfull, doth not eate hys fleshe nor drynke hys
bloode, although he eate and drynke the Sacramēt of so greate a thynge.
And so muste it neades folowe, that the Sacramente is not the verye
naturall bodye of Christ. For then the vnfaythfull shulde eate hys
fleshe, seynge he eateth the Sacrament of hys bodye. But that doth S.
Austen denye, wherfor it muste neades folowe, that it is but onely a
token of a remembraunce, ād a sygne of hys bodye breakynge, and a
representacyon of hys passyon, [Sidenote: Rom. 5.] that we myght keape
hys facte in memorye, and geve hym thankes for hys tender loue and
kyndenes, whiche when we were hys enemyes toke vpon hym to suffer moste
vyle death, to reconcyle vs vnto his Father, and make vs hys frendes.
Thys sayenge hath S. Austen in a nother place also, [Sidenote: Augusti
deciuita: dei lib. 21.] where he wryteth on this maner. _Qui non in me
manet, & in quo ego non maneo, non se dicat aut existimet māducare
corpus meum, aut bibere sanguinem meum. [Sidenote: capi. 25.] Non itaq;
maneat in Christo qui non sunt eius membra: non sunt autem membra
Christi qui se faciunt membra meritricis._ That is to saye, he that
abydeth not in me, and in whome I abyde not, let hym not saye or thynke
that he eateth my bodye or drynketh my bloode. They abyde not in Christe
which are not hys mēbers. And they are not hys membres whiche make them
selues the membres of an harlote. And these are also the verye wordes of
Bede. Here is it playne proued agayne by the auctoryte of S. Austen and
Bede, [Sidenote: Beda super. 1. Cor. 6.] that the wycked and vnfaythfull
(whiche are not the membres of Christe) do not eate hys bodye nor drynke
hys bloode, and yet they do eate the Sacramēt as well as the other.
Wherfore you muste neades, graunte, that the Sacramēt is not the
naturall bodye of Christ but a fygure, tokē, or memoryall therof. Now
good Christē people counte not thys new learnynge which is confyrmed by
suche olde doctoures and faythfull fathers.

Now were thys ynough for a Christē man that loued no contencyon. But
because there are so manye sophysters in the worlde whiche care not what
they saye, so they holde not their peace, I muste neades sette some
bulwarke by this holy doctoure, to helpe to defende hym, for els they
wyll shortelye ouer rone hym (as they do me) ād make hym an heretyck
also. Therfore I wyll alleage hys master saynt Ambrose. Saynte Ambrose
sayeth [Sidenote: Ambrosi de sacra.] _Non iste panis qui uadit in corpus
a nobis tā anxie queritur, sed panis uitæ æterne que anime nostre
substanciam fulscit, qui autem discordat a Christo non manducat carnem
eius, nec bibit sanguinem eius, & si tante rei sacramentum iudicium sue
perdicionis accipit._ That is, this breade that goeth in to the bodye ys
not so gredelye sought of vs, but the breade of euerlastynge lyfe which
vpholdeth the substaunce of our soule. For he that dyscordeth from
Christ, doth not eate hys fleshe, nor drynke hys bloode, although he
receyue the sacramente of so greate a thynge vnto hys dampnacyon and
destruccyon. Furthermore, the greate clarke Prosper confyrmeth the same,
sayenge. [Sidenote: Prosper in libro sentenciarum.] _Qui discordat a
Christo nec carnem Christi manducat, nec sanguinem bibit, etiam si tantæ
rei sacramentum ad iudicium sue presumptionis quotidie indifferenter
accipiat._ That is, he that dyscordeth from Christ, doth neyther eate
hys fleshe, nor drynke hys bloode, although he receyueth indyfferently
euery daye the sacrament of so greate a thynge vnto the condempnacyon of
hys presumpcyon. And these are also the very wordes of Bede [Sidenote:
Idē Beda super 1. Cor. 11.] vpō the xi. Chapiter of the fyrste Epystle
to the Corynthyans.

Now you may see, that it ys not saynt Austens mynde onely, but also the
sayēge of many mo. And therfore I truste you wyll be good vnto hym. And
yf ye cōdempne not these holye Fathers, then am I wrongfullye punyshed.
But, yf you condempne them, then muste poore Iohan Fryth be contente to
beare the burthen wyth them.

 The mynde & exposiciō of the olde doctours upon the wordes of Christes

[Sidenote: More.] And where master More sayeth, that yf Chryste had not
ment after the playne litterall sense, that both the hearers at that
tyme, and the expositours sens, and all Christen people besyde thys
xv.c. yeare wolde not haue taken onelye the litterall sens beynge so
straunge and mervelous that yt myght seame impossyble, ād declyne from
the letter for allegoryes in all suche other thynges, beynge (as he
sayeth) and as in dede they be, so manye farre in nombre mo.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ As towchynge the hearers they were deceyued and
vunderstoode hym not (I meane as manye as toke hys wordes fleslye as you
do). And they had their answere of Christe (when they mourmured) that
hys wordes were spyrite and lyfe: that is (as S. Austen sayeth)
spirytually to be vnderstonde & not fleslye, as ys before declared. And
as for the exposytours, I thynke he hath not one of the olde fathers for
hym, but certen newe felowes: as Dominicus, S. Thomas, Occam, ād suche
other which haue made the Pope a God. And as I haue shewed S. Austen
maketh full for vs, and so do all the olde fathers. As Oecolompadius
hath well declared in hys boke. _Quid ueteres senserint de sacramento
eucharistiæ._ And some of their sayenges I shall alleage a none. And
where you saye that all Christen people haue so beleued this .1500.
yeares, that is very false. For there ys no doubte, but that the people
thought as holye Saynt Austen and other faythful fathers taught thē.
Which as I sayde, make with vs. Notwithstondynge in dede syth oure
prelates haue bene made lordes and haue sette vp their lawes and decrees
contrarye to the prerogatyue of all Prynces, and lyke moste subtle
traytours, haue made all men beleue that they may make lawes & bynde
mens cōscyences to obeye them: and that theyr lawes are Gods lawes,
blyndynge the peoples eyes wyth two or thre textes wrongfully wrested,
to avaunce their pryde, where they ought to obeye Kynges & Princes & be
subiect to their lawes, as Christ & hys Apostles were euē vnto the
death. Syth that tyme I say, they haue made mē beleue what they lyst, &
make artycles of the faythe at their pleasure. One artycle must be that
they be the church, ād cā not erre. And this ys the grounde of all their
doctryne. But the truth of this artycle ys now suffycyently knowē. For
yf quene Katheryne be Kynge Hēryes wyfe, thē they do erre, & yf she be
not, they haue thē erred. It is nowe become an artycle of our fayth that
the Pope of Rome must be the hede of the churche ād the vycar of
Christe: & that by Gods lawe. It is an artycle of our fayth, that what
soeuer he byndeth in earth, is boūde in heauē, in so moche that yf he
curse wrōgfully, yet yt must be feared, ād infynite suche other which
are not in our crede, but blessed be god that hath geuē some lyght in to
oure Prynces harte. For he hath lately put forth a boke called the
glasse of truth, which proueth many of these artycles very folysh
fātasyes, ād that euē by theyr owne doctours, and so I truste you shall
be proued in this poynt of the sacramēt. For though it be an artycle of
our fayth, yt is none artycle of our Crede in the .xij. artycles, whiche
are suffycyent for our saluacyon. And therfore we may thynke that you
lye without all Ieoperdye of dampnacyon.

Neuerthelesse seynge hys mastershyp sayeth that all make for hym, & I
say cleane contrarye, that allthe olde fathers make agaynste hym, it
were necessarye that one of vs shulde proue hys purpose. But in dede in
this poynte he wolde loke to haue the vātage of me. For he thynketh that
mē wyll sooner beleue him which is a greate mā, thē me which am but a
poore mā, ād that therfor I had more neade to proue my parte true, thē
he to proue hys. Well, I am content, and therfor geue eare dere reader
and iudge betwene vs.

[Sidenote: Tertullianus libro. 2. cōtra Marcionem. Tertullianus libro 4.
cōtra Marcionem.] First I wyll begynne with Tertulyan, because he is of
moste antiquyte. Tertullyan sayeth. _Ipse (Christus) nec panem
reprobauit quod ipsum corpus suum representat._ That is to saye: Christ
hym selfe ded not reproue or discōmēde breade which doth represent hys
bodye. For the vnderstōdynge of thys place, you must know that there was
an heretyke called Marcyō, which ded reproue creatures, & sayde that all
maner of creatures were euell. This thynge doth Tertullyā improue by the
sacramēt & sayeth. Christ ded not reproue or dyscōmende breade the which
doth represēt his bodye: as though he shulde say, yf Christ had counted
the breade euell, then wolde he not haue lefte yt for a sacrament to
represent hys bodye, meanynge that it is a sacramente, sygne, token, and
memoryall of hys bodye, and not the body ytselfe. And that this is hys
mynde, doth playnly appeare in his fourth boke, where he sayeth.
_Christus acceptū panē et distributū discipulis, corpus suū illud fecit:
hoc est corpus meū dicēdo, id est figura corporis mei. Figura autē non
fuisset, nisi ueritatis e ēt corpus. Vacua res quod est phātasma,
figuram capere non posset._

That ys to saye: Christe takynge breade and dystrybutynge vnto hys
discyples made yt hys bodye, sayēge. This ys my body. But thys breade
coulde not haue bene a figure of yt, excepte Christ had had a true
bodye. For a vayne thynge or a fantasye can take no fygure. For the
vnderstondynge of this place, you muste marke that this heretycke Marcyō
agaynst whome thys auctoure wryteth, ded holde opynyon that Christ had
no naturall bodye, but onelye a fantastycall bodye, ād this opynyon doth
thys doctoure improue by the sacrament of the aulter sayenge. The
sacrament ys a fygure of hys bodye: ergo Christ had a true bodye, ād not
a fantastycall bodye: For a vayne thynge or fantasye can take no fygure.
Loo, here doth this olde father which was longe before .S. Austen or .S.
Hierome, expounde these wordes of Christe. This is my bodye: that is to
saye, a fygure of my bodye. Therfor ye are to blame to call it new
lernynge. Nowe because they shall not of temeraryous presumpcyon reiecte
this olde father, I shall establyshe hys wordes by S. Austen, which
commendeth Christes meruelous pacyence for sufferynge so lōge that
traytour Iudas, as though he had bene a good man, and yet was not
ignorāt of hys wycked thoughtes. [Sidenote: Augusti.] _Adhibuit (inquit)
ad cōuiuium in quo corporis & sanguinis sui figura discipulis
commendauit ac tradidit._ That is to saye: [Sidenote: in prefa. Psalm.
3.] he admytted hym sayeth S. Austē vnto the mandye wherin he dede be
take and delyuer vnto the dyscyples the fygure of hys bodye and bloode.
Here doth thys holye father .S. Austē call yt the fygure of hys body.
And I am sure there is no mā so chyldyshe, but that he knoweth that the
fygure of Christe ys not Christe hym selfe, the fygure of .S. Peter ys
not saynt Peter hym selfe. And yet we do neuerthelesse commōly call
those fygures by the name of the thynge that they do represente. As I
maye saye when I see the fygure of .S. Peter, thys ys S. Peter to whome
Christe delyuered the keyes of the kyngdome of heauē. And yet he were a
foole that wolde thynke that fygure to be S. Peter hym selfe. For yt is
onelye a representacyon of hym. Besydes that S. Austen sayeth.
[Sidenote: Augusti in prefa. Psalm. 98.] _Non hoc corpus quod uidetis
estis manducaturi, nec bibituri illum sanguinem quem effusuri sunt qui
me crucifigent. Sacramentum aliquod uobis commendaui, spiritualiter
intellectum uiuificat nos, caro autem non prodest quicquam._ That ys to
saye: you shall not eate thys bodye that you see, nor drynke that bloode
which they that crucyfye me shall shedde out. I haue geuen a certayne
sacramente vnto you, yf yt be spirytually vnderstonde, yt quyckeneth
you: but the fleshe profyteth nothynge. What thynges can be more
playnely spoken?

Furdermore S. Austen sayeth. _Sepe ita loquimur ut Pascha appropinquante
crastinam uel perendinam Domini passionem dicamus: cum ille ante tam
multos annes passus sit, nec omnino nisi semel illa passio facta sit.
Nempe ipso die dominico dicimus bodie dominus resurrexit cum ex quo
surrexit tot anni transierunt. Quare nemo tam ineptus est, ut nos ita
loquentes arguat esse mentitos, quia istos dies secundum illorum quibus
hæc gesta sunt similitudinem nuncupamus: ut dicatur ipse dies qui non
sit ipse, sed reuolucio ne temporum similes eius: & dicatur illo die
fieri propter sacramenti celebrationem, quod non illo die, sed iam olim
factum est. Nonne semel immolatus est Christus in seipso? & tamen in
sacramento non solum per amnuas Paschæ solennitates, sed omni die pro
popuslis immola tur: nec utique mentitur qui interrogatus, responderit
eum immolari. Si enim sacramenta quandam similitudinem earum rerum
quarum sunt sacramenta non haberent, omnino sacramenta non essent. Ex
hac autem similitudine plerumque etiam ipsarum rerum nomina accipiunt.
Sicut ergo secundum quendam modum sacramētum corporis CHRISTI corpus
CHRISTI est. Et sacramentum sanguinis CHRISTI sanguis CHRISTI est, ita
sacramenta fidei fides est, Nihil est autem aliud ud credere, quam fidem
habere, ac per hoc respondetur fidem habere propter fidei sacramenta. Et
conuertere se ad Deum propter conuersionis sacramentum. Quia & ipsa
responsio pertinet ad celebrationem sacramenti. Sicut de ipso baptismo
Apostolus dicit. Consepulti (inquit) sumus Christo per baptismum in
mortem, Non ait sepulturam significauimus, sed prorsus ait, consepulti
sumus. Sacramentum ergo tantæ rei non nisi eiusdem rei uocabulo

That is to saye: We often vse to saye, when Easter draweth nyghe, that
to morow or the nexte day is the Lordes passyō, ād yet yt is many yeares
sens he suffered, and that passyon was neuer done but ones. And vpon
that sondaye we saye, thys daye the Lorde ded ryse agayne, and yet yt ys
many yeares sens he rose. Now ys there no man so folyshe to reproue vs
as lyers for so sayenge, because we name these dayes after the
symylytude of those in which these thynges were done, so that yt is
called the same daye, which is not the verye same, but by the reuolucyon
of tyme lyke it. And yt is named to be done the same daye through the
celebracyon of the sacramēt (through kepynge the memoryall of the thynge
ones done) which ys not done that daye, but was done lōge before. Was
not Christe ones crucyfyed in hys owne parson? ād yet in a mysterye
(which is the remembraunce of hys very passyon) he ys crucyfyed for the
people not onely euery feaste of Easter, but euery daye. Neyther doth he
lye which (whē he is asked) answereth that he is crucyfyed. For yf the
sacramentes, had not certayne symylytudes of those thynges wherof they
are sacramentes, then shulde they be no sacramentes at all. And for thys
symylytude for the most parte they take the names of the very thynges,
and therfore after a certayne maner the sacramente of Christes bodye ys
Christes bodye, & the sacramēte of Christes bloode, is christes bloode,
so the sacramēt of faythe, is fayth. For yt ys nō other thyng to beleue,
thē to haue fayth, & therfore whē a mā āswereth that the infante
beleueth which hath not the affecte of fayth, he answereth that yt hath
faythe for the sacramēt of fayth: And that yt turneth yt selfe to GOD,
for the sacrament of conuersyon. For the answere yt selfe perteyneth
vnto the mynystrynge of the sacrament. As the Apostle wryteth of
Baptyme: we are buryed (sayeth he) wyth Christ through Baptyme vnto
death. He sayeth not, we sygnyfye buryenge, but vtterlye sayeth, we are
buryed. He called therfore the sacrament of so greate a thynge euen wyth
the propre name of the verye thynge it selfe. & ce. If a man wolde
avoyde contencyon and loke soberly vpon those wordes of Saynte Austen,
he shall soone perceyue the mysterye of thys matter. For euē as the
nexte good frydaye shalbe called the daye of Christes passyon: and yet
he shall not suffer death a gayne vpon that daye, for he dyed but ones
and is nowe immortall, euē so is the Sacrament called Christes bodye.
And as that daye is not the verye daye that he dyed vpon, but onelye a
remembraunce therof: So the Sacrament is not hys very naturall bodye,
but onelye a remembraunce of hys bodye breakynge and bloode sheadynge.
And lykewyse, as the nexte Easter daye shall be called the daye of hys
resurrectyon, not that it is the very same daye that Christe ded ryse
in, but a remembraunce of the same: Euen so the Sacrament is called hys
bodye: not that it is hys bodye in dede, but onely a remembraunce of the
same. And furdermore, euē as the Preste doth offer hym, that is to saye,
crucyfye hym at Masse, euē so is the sacramēt hys bodye. But the Masse
doth but onely represent hys passyon. And so doth the Sacrament
represent hys bodye. And yet though the Masse dothe but represent his
crucyfyēge, we maye trulye saye he is crucyfyed, euen so though the
Sacrament do but sygnyfye or represent hys bodye, yet may we trulye saye
that it is hys bodye. Why so? verely (sayeth he) for the sacramentes
haue a certayne symylytude of those thynges wherof they are sacramentes.
And for thys symylytude for the moste parte, they take the names of the
verye thynges. Blessed be God which hathe so clearelye dyscussed this
matter by thys faythfull Father. Notwithstondynge he doth yet expresse
it more playnelye sayēg: After a certayne maner the sacrament of
Christes bodye is Christes bodye. Beholde deare bretherne he sayeth,
after a certayne maner the sacramēt is Christes bodye. And by that you
maye soone knowe that he neuer mēte that it shulde be hys verye naturall
bodye in dede, but onelye a token and memoryall to keape in memorye the
death of hys bodye, and so to nouryshe our fayth. Besydes that, hys
symylytude which he after allegeth of Baptyme, doth througlye expoūde
this matter, for (sayeth he) the Apostle sayeth not, we sygnyfye
buryenge: but he sayeth, we are buryed, & yet in dede the Baptyme doth
but sygnyfye it. And therevpon .S. Austen addeth, that he called the
sacrament of so greate a thynge euen with the name of the verye thynge
it selfe. And lykewyse it is in our sacrament. Fynallye to be shorte, I
wyll passe ouer many places which I haue gathered out of this holye
father, and wyll towche but this one more. Saynte Austē sayeth.
[Sidenote: Augusti cōtr. adamantū.] _Non enim Dominus dubitauit dicere,
Hoc est corpus meum, cum daret signum corporis sui. Et in eoden capite
exponit. Sic est enim sanguis anima, quomodo petra erat Christus, nec
tamen petra (ait) significabat Christū, sed ait petra erat Christus._
That is to saye: The lorde doubted not to saye, this is my bodye, whē he
gaue a sygne of hys bodye. And after in the same chapyter he expoundeth
it. For trulye so the bloode is the soule, as Christe was the stone. And
yet the Apostle sayeth not, the stone ded sygnyfye Christ, but he sayeth
the stone was Christ.

Here S. Austen sayeth playnelye, that Christe called the sygne of hys
bodye, his bodye, and in this chapyter doth compare these thre textes of
scrypture, this is my bodye, the bloode is the soule, and Christe was
the stone: And declareth them to be one phrase, and to be expounded
after one fashyō. Now is there no mā so madde, as to saye, that Christe
was a naturall stone (excepte he be a naturall foole) whose Judgemēt we
neade not greately to regarde. Therefore we may well cōclude that the
sacrament is not his naturall bodye, but is called his bodye, for a
symylytude that it hath, wherin it sygnyfyeth & representeth his bodye.
And that the sacramēt of so greate a thynge is called euē with the name
of the very thynge it selfe. As s. Austē sayde. Thys were prove ynough
to conclude that all the olde Fathers ded holde the same opynyon, for
who wolde ones surmyse (seynge we haue. S. Austen so playne for vs which
is the cheafest amonge thē all) who wolde ones surmyse I say, that they
dyssented in thys greate matter frō the other faythfull fathers, or they
from hym? Neuerthelesse I dare not lett hym stōde post alone, leaste ye
dyspyse hym. And therfore I wyll shewe you the mynde of certayne other
also: and fyrste of hys master Saynt Ambrose.

[Sidenote: Ambrosi super illud mortē domini annuncia.] S. Ambrose
wrytynge vpon the Epystle of Paule to the Corynthyans in the .xi.
Chapter sayeth. _Quia enim morte Domini liberati sumus, huius rei in
edēdo & potādo, carnem & sanguinem qui pro nobis oblata sunt,
significamus._ That is to saye: because we be delyuered by the death of
the Lorde, in eatynge and drynkynge of thys thynge, meanynge of the
Sacrament, we sygnyfye the fleshe and bloode which were offered for vs.
Here doth S. Ambrose saye ynough, yf men were not sophysters, but wolde
be content with reason. For he sayeth that in eatynge and drynkynge the
Sacramēt of Christes bodye, we sygnyfye or represent the fleshe and
bloode of our sauyoure Iesus. Notwithstondynge be cause you are so
slyppery, we shall bynde you a lytle better by thys mās wordes.

[Sidenote: Ambrosi de sacra.] S. Ambrose sayeth. _Sed forte dices
speciem sanguinis non uideo, sed habet similitudinem. Sicut enim mortis
similitudinem sumpsisti, ita etiam similitudinem preciosi sanguinis
bibis._ That is to saye. But perauenture thou wylte saye, I see no
apperaunce of bloode, but it hathe a symylytude. For euē as thou haste
taken the symylytude of death, euen so thou drynkest the symylytude of
the precyous bloode. Here maye ye see by the conferrynge of these two
Sacramentes, what .S. Ambrose iudged of it. For he sayeth, euen as thou
haste taken a symylytude of hys death in the sacramēt of baptyme, so
doste thou drynke a symylytude of hys precyouse bloode in the Sacrament
of the Aulter. And yet as S. Austen sayde before, the Apostle sayeth,
not we sygnyfye buryenge, but sayeth, we are buryed. And lykewyse here
Christe sayde, not this sygnyfyeth my bodye, but this is my bodye,
callynge the Sacrament, a sygne, token, and memoryall of so greate a
thynge, euen with the name of the verye thynge it selfe. Thus doth S.
Ambrose choke our sophysters.

Neuerthelesse I wyll alleage one place more out of Ambrose, where he
sayeth. [Sidenote: Ambrosi lib .3. de sacramē.] _Dicit sacerdos fac
nobis hanc oblationē scriptam rationabilem, quod est figura corporis
Domini nostri Iesu Christi._ That is: the Preste sayeth, make vs this
oblacyon acceptable. & ce. For it is a fygure of the bodye of our Lorde
Iesus Chryst. Here he calleth it playnelye a fygure of Christes bodye,
which thynge you can not avoyde. Therfore geue prayse vnto God and lette
hys trouth sprede, which is so playnelye testyfyed, by these holye
Fathers. Now lette vs see what S. Hierome sayeth.

[Sidenote: Hieronimus super eccle.] Saynte Hierome wrytynge vpon
Ecclesiastes sayeth on this maner. _Caro Domini uerus cibus est, &
sanguis eius uerus potus est, hoc solum habemus in presenti sæculo
bonum, si uescamur carne eius cruoreque potemur, nō solum in misterio,
sed etiam in scripturarum lectione, uerus enim cibus est & potus, qui ex
uerbo Dei sumitur scientia scripturarum._ That is to saye: the fleshe of
the lorde is verye meate, and his bloode verye drynke. This is onelye
the pleasure or profytte that we haue in this worlde, that we maye eate
hys fleshe and drynke his bloode, not onely in a mysterye, but also in
the readynge of scryptures. For it is very meate and drynke, which is
taken out of Godes worde, by the knowelege of scryptures. Here maye ye
see S. Hieroms mynde in fewe wordes. For fyrste he sayeth that we eate
hys fleshe and drynke hys bloode in a mysterye, whiche is the sacrament
of hys remembraunce, and memoryall of his passyon. And after he addeth,
that we eate his fleshe ād drynke hys bloode in the readynge ād
knowelege of scriptures, ād calleth that very meate ād very drynke. And
yet I am sure ye are not so grosse, as to thynke that the letters whiche
you reade are tourned in to naturall fleshe ād blode. And lykewyse it is
not necessarye that the breade shulde be tourned in to hys bodye, no
more than the letters in scrypture are tourned in to his fleshe. And
neuerthelesse through faythe we may as well eate hys bodye in receyuynge
of the sacrament, as eate hys fleshe in readynge of the letters of the
scrypture. Besydes that S. Hierome calleth the vnsterstōdynge of the
scripture verye meate and very drynke: whiche you muste neades
vnderstonde in a mysterye and spyrituall sense. For it is no materyall
meate nor drynke that is receyued with the mouth and teth, but it is
spyrytuall meate and drynke, and is so called for a symylytude and
propertye: because that as meate and drynke counforte the bodye and
outwarde man, so doth the readynge and knowelege of scrypture conforte
the soule and inwarde man. And lykewyse it is of Christes bodye, whiche
is called verye meate and verye drynke, whiche you muste neades
vnderstonde in a mysterye or spyrytuall sense (as Saynte Hierome called
it) for hys bodye is no materyall meate nor drynke that is receyued with
the mouth or teth: But it is spyrytuall meate and drynke, and so called
for a symilytude and propertye, because that as meate and drynke
conforte the bodye, so doth the fayth in hys bodye breakynge & bloode
sheadynge refreshe the soule vnto lyfe euerlastynge. We vse it
customablye in our daylye speache to saye, when a chylde setteth all hys
mynde and delyght vpō sporte and playe: It is meate and drynke to thys
chylde to playe. And also we saye by a man that loueth well hawkynge and
huntynge: It is meate and drynke to thys man to hawke and hunte. Where
no man doubteth, but it is a fyguratyue speache. And therfore I wonder
that they are so blynde in thys one poynte of Christes bodye. And can
not also take the wordes fyguratyuelye, as these olde doctours ded.
[Sidenote: Hieronimus super Matheum.] Agayne S. Hierome sayeth.
_Postquam mysticum pascha fuerat impletum & agni carnes cum apostolis
comederat, assumit panem qui confortat cor hominis, & ad uerū paschæ
transgreditur sacramentum, quomodo in prefiguratione eius Melchisedech
uinum & panem proferens fecerat, ipse quoq; ueritatem corporis
repræsentaret._ That is to saye: after the mystycall Easter lābe
fullfylled, and that Christe had eaten the lambes fleshe with the
Apostles, he toke breade which conforteth the harte of man, and passeth
to the true sacramēt of the Easter lambe: that as Melchisedech brought
forthe breade and wyne fygurynge hym, so myght he lykewyse represent the
truth of hys bodye. Here doth S. Hierome speake after the maner that
Tertullyā ded before: that Christe with breade and wyne ded represent
the truth of hys bodye. For excepte he had had a true bodye, he coulde
not leaue a fygure of it nor represent it vnto vs. For a vayne thynge or
fantasye can haue no fygure, nor can not be represented. As by example.
How shulde a mā make a fygure of hys dreame or represent it vnto our
memorye? But Christ hath lefte vs a fygure and representacyon of hys
bodye in breade and wyne: therfore it foloweth that he had a true bodye.
And that this was .S. Hieroms mynde doth manefestly appeare by the
wordes of Bede, which doth more copyouslye sette out this sayenge of
Hierome. [Sidenote: Beda super Luc.] For he wryteth on this maner.
_Finitis paschæ ueteris solennijs que in commemorationē antiquæ de
ægypto liberationis agebantur, transit ad nouū quod in suæ redemptionis
memoriā ecclesia frequētare desiderat, ut uidelicet pro carne agni uel
sanguine suo, carnis sanguinisq; sacramentum in panis ac uini figura
substituens, ipsum se esse monstraret cui iurauit Dominus. Tu es
sacerdos in æternum secundum ordinem Melchisedech. Frangit autem ipse
panem quem porrigit, ut ostendat corporis sui fractionem non sine sua
sponte futuram. Similiter & calicem postquam cœna uit dedit eis. Quia
ergo panis carnē cōfirmat, uinum uero sanguinē operatur in carne, hic ad
corpus Christi mystice, illud refertur ad sanguinem._ That is to saye.
After the solempnyte of the olde Easter lambe was fynyshed, which was
obserued in the remēbraunce of the olde delyueraūce out of Egypte, he
goth vnto the newe which the churche gladlye obserueth in the
remēbraunce of hys redempcyon, that he in the steade of the fleshe and
bloode of the lambe, myght instytute and ordeyne the sacramēt of hys
fleshe and bloode in the fygure of breade and wyne, and so declare hym
selfe to be the same vnto whome the Lorde sware, thou arte a perpetuall
Preste after the order of Melchisedech. And he hym selfe brake the
breade which he gaue, to shewe that the breakynge of hys bodye shulde
not be done without hys owne wyll. And lykewyse he gaue them the cuppe
after he had supped. And because breade doth confyrme or strengthen the
fleshe, and wyne worketh bloode in the fleshe, therfore is the breade
mystycallye referred vnto the bodye of Christe, and the wyne referred
vnto hys bloode.

Here maye you note, fyrste that as the lambe was a remembraunce of theyr
delyueraunce out of Egipte (and yet the lābe delyuered them not) so is
the sacrament a remembraunce of our redemptyon, and yet the sacrament
redeamed vs not. Besydes that he sayeth, that Christ in the steade of
the fleshe and bloode of the lambe, ded instytute the sacrament of hys
fleshe and bloode in fygure of breade and wyne.

Marke well, he sayeth not that in the steade of lambes fleshe and bloode
he ded instytute hys owne fleshe and bloode, but sayeth that he ded
instytute the sacrament of hys fleshe and bloode. What thynge is a
sacrament? Verelye it is the sygne of an holye thynge, and there is no
dyference betwene a sygne and a sacrament, but that the sygne is
referred vnto a worldlye thynge, and a Sacrament vnto a spyrytuall or
holye thynge.

[Sidenote: Ad Marcellum.] As Saynte Austen sayeth. _Signa cum ad res
diuinas pertinent, sacramenta appellantur._ That is to saye: sygnes when
they partayne vnto godlye thynges are called sacramentes.

Therfore when Bede sayeth, that they ded instytute the Sacrament of hys
fleshe and bloode in the fygure of breade and wyne, it is as moche to
saye (by Saynte Austens dyffynycyon) as that he ded instytute the fygure
of hys holye fleshe and bloode in the fygure of breade and wyne, that is
to saye: that breade and wyne shulde be the fygure and sygne
representynge hys most blessed holye fleshe and bloode vnto vs, for a
perpetuall remēbraunce. And afterwarde he declared the propertye for
whiche the breade is called the bodye ād the wyne the bloode: savynge he
speaketh not so darkelye as I now do, but playnelye sayeth that the
breade is mystycallye referred vnto the bodye of Christe: because that
as breade doth strēgthē the fleshe, so Christes bodye which is fygured
by the breade, doth strēgthen the soule through fayth in hys death. And
so doth he clearlye proue my purpose.

[Sidenote: Crisost. super Matth.] Now lette vs see what Chrisostome
sayeth, whiche shall descrybe vs the fayth of the olde Grecyans, who had
not loste the true fayth, howsoeuer the wordle go now adayes.
Chrisostome sayeth in thys maner. _Si enim mortuus Iesus nō est cuius
signum & simbolū hoc sacrificū est? uides quantum ei studium fuerit ut
semper memoria teneamus pro nobis ipsum mortuum fuisse._ That is to
saye: Yf Iesus haue not dyed, whose memoryall and sygne is this
sacryfyce? Thou seest what dylygence he gaue that we shulde cōtynuallye
keape in memorye that he dyed for vs. Here you maye see that Chrisostome
calleth the sacramet _symbolum et signum_: That is to saye, a memoryall
and sygne of Christ, and that it was instytute to keape hys death in
perpetuall remembraunce. But of one thynge thou muste be ware or els
thou arte deceyued, he calleth it also a sacryfyce, and there thou muste
wyselye vnderstonde hym. [Sidenote: Sacryfyce.] For yf it were the
sacryfyce of Christes bodye, then muste Christes bodye be slayne agayne,
which thynge God forbyd. And therfore thou muste vnderstōde hym whē he
calleth it a sacryfyce, that he meaneth it to be a remēbraunce of that
holye sacryfyce, where Christes bodye was offered on the crosse ones for
all. For he can be sacryfyced no more, seynge he is immortall.
Notwithstondynge our Prelates wyll here note me of presumptiō, that I
dare be so bolde to expounde hys mynde on this fashyon. For in dede they
take hym otherwyse, and thynke that it is a verye sacryfyce. And
therfore I wyll brynge one other texte, where Chrisostome shall expounde
hym selfe. Chrisostome sayeth: [Sidenote: Crisost. ad Hebre. hom. 17.]
_Nonne per singulos dies offerrimus? offerrimus qdem, sed ad
recordationem mortis eius facientes. Hoc autem sacrificium (sicut
pontifex) sed id ipsum semper facimus: imo recordationē sacrificij._
That is to saye: do we not daylye offer or do sacryfyce: yes suerlye.
But we do it for the remembraunce of hys death, for this sacryfyce is as
an example of that we offer, not an other sacryfyce (as the Byshopp in
the olde lawe ded) but euer the same: yea rather a remembraunce of the
sacryfyce. Fyrste he sayeth that they daylye do sacryfyce, but it is in
remembraunce of Christes death. Then he sayeth that the sacryfyce is an
example of that. Thyrdlye he sayeth, that they offer not an other
sacryfyce (that is to saye an oxe or a gotte) as the Byshoppes of the
olde lawe, but euer the same.

Marke thys poynte: For though it seame at the fyrste syght to make wyth
them, yet doth yt make so derectelye agaynste them, that they shall
neuer be able to avoyde it. Chrisostome sayeth, they do not offer an
other sacryfyce as the Bysshoppes ded, but euer the same. They offer
other breade and wyne thys daye, then they ded yesterdaye: they shall
saye an other Masse to morowe, then they ded this daye.

Now yf thys breade and wyne or the Masse be a sacryfyce, then do they
offer an other sacryfyce, as well as the Byshoppes of the olde Lawe. For
thys sacryfyce ded sygnyfye that Christe shulde come and shedde hys
bloode, as well as the breade, wyne, and Masse, do represent that he
hath done it in dede. And therfore yf it be a sacryfyce, then do they
offer an other sacryfyce, representynge hys passyon, as well as the
Byshoppe of the olde Lawe. But that doth Chrisostome denye, and sayeth
that they offer euerye daye the same. What same? Verelye euen the same
that was done and sacryfyced when Christe shedde hys bloode. In thys
sacryfyce is Christe euerye daye bounde and buffetted, and ledde from
Anna to Cayphas: he is brought to Pylate and condempned; he is scourged
ād crowned with thorne, and nayled on the crosse, and hys harte opened
with a spere, and so sheadeth hys bloode for our redempcyon. Why
Chrisostome, and do you the selfe same sacryfyce euerye daye? Yea
verelye. Then why doth Saynte Paule saye to the Romaynes [Sidenote: Rom.
6.] in the syxte Chapter: that Christe is rysen from death, and dyeth no
more? Yf he dye no more, how do you daylye crucyfye hym? For sothe Paule
sayeth trouthe.

For we do it not actuallye in dede, but onelye in a mysterye. And yet we
saye, that we do sacryfyce hym, and that thys is hys sacryfyce, for the
celebracyon of the Sacrament and memorye of the passyon whiche we keape:
and for thys cause it hath the name of the thynge that it doth
represente and sygnyfye. And therfore, as Saynte Austen declareth a fore
ad Bonifacium, [Sidenote: Augustinus ad Bonifacium.] I expounde my mynde
by a rethorycall correctyon and saye, _Imo recordationem sacrificij_.
That is to saye: Yea rather the remembraunce, and fygure of the

Graunde mercyes good Chrisostome, now do I perceyue the pyth of thys
matter: euen as the Masse is the verye death and passyon of Christe, so
is it a sacryfyce. Now it doth but onelye represente the verye death and
passyon of Christe, therfore it doth folowe that the Masse in verye dede
doth but onely represente a sacryfyce. And yet not withstandynge manye
tymes it is called a sacryfyce of holye doctours, and hathe the name of
the verye same thynge that it doth represent ād sygnyfye. And euen so we
maye saye of this sacrament, that as the Masse is the verye sacryfyce
and passyon of Christ, so is the sacrament hys verye bodye and sacryfyce
that is offered. Nowe the Masse doth but onely represent and sygnyfye
the passyon: so the sacrament doth but onelye represent and sygnyfye the
bodye and very sacryfyce ones offred for euer. Notwithstondynge manye
tymes the Masse is called the bodye and a sacryfyce. And hath the name
of the verye same thynge that it doth represent and sygnyfye.

[Sidenote: Crisostome.] Furthermore Chrisostome sayeth. _Ipse quos;
bibitex eo, ne auditis uerbis illis dicerēt. Quid igitur sanguinem
bibimus & carnem commedimus? ac ideo perturbarentur, nam & quando prius
de his uerba fecit, etiam uerbis ipsius offendabantur. Ne igitur tunc id
quoque accideret, primus ipse hoc fecit, ut ad communionem misteriorum
induceret intrepidam._ That ys to saye: he also dranke of yt, leaste
when they harde hys wordes, they shulde saye: why do we than drynke
bloode and eate fleshe? and so shulde be troubled. For when he spake
before of those thynges, they were offended wyth hys wordes. And because
that shulde not now also chaunce, he hym selfe dranke fyrst of yt, that
he myght cause thē to come without feare to the partakynge of those
mysteryes. Here Chrisostome noteth that Christe dranke of yt, to drawe
them from the grosse vnderstōdynge of hys wordes, and by hys drynkynge
to testyfye vnto them, that yt was not hys naturall fleshe in dede, but
onely memoryalles and representacyons of hys bodye and bloode. And
therfore he calleth them mysteryes: that is to saye sacramentes. For in
thys place a sacramente ād a mysterye ys all one thynge.
Notwithstondynge some tyme thys worde mysterye ys more common ād large
in signyfyenge then this worde sacrament. And I haue shewed you before,
that a sacrament ys the sygne of an holy thynge, and not the thynge it
selfe that yt representeth: albeit somtyme yt beare the name of the
verye thynge yt selfe. As the Image of .S. Peter ys not saynt Peter hym
selfe, and yet yt beareth hys name.

Chrisostome sayeth. _Caro non prodest quicquam: hoc est, secundum
spiritum uerba mea audienda sunt. Qui secundum carnem audit, nihil
lucratur, nihil utilitatis accipit. Quid est autem carnaliter
intelligere: simpliciter ut res dicuntur, neque aliud quippiam
excogitare. Misteria omnia interioribus oculis consideranda, hoc est
spiritualiter._ That is to saye. The fleshe profyteth nothynge, that is:
my wordes muste be vnderstonde after the spiryte, he that vnderstondeth
them after the fleshe wynneth nothynge, nor taketh no profytte. What
meaneth this, to vnderstonde after the fleshe or carnallye? Verelye to
take the thynges symplye as they are spoken, and to thynke none other
thynge. All mysteryes or sacramentes muste be consydered with the
inwarde eyes, that is to saye: spyrytuallye.

And after he expoundeth hym selfe on this maner. _Interiores autem oculi
ut panem uiderint, creaturas transuolant, & non de illo pane a pistore
cocto cogitant: sed de eo qui dixit se panem uitæ, qui per mysticum
panem significatur._ That is to saye. The inwarde eyes as soone as they
see the breade, they passe ouer the creatures, ād thynke not of that
breade which is baken of the baker, but of hym that called hym selfe the
breade of lyfe, which is sygnyfyed by the mystycall or sacramētall
breade. Wolde you haue hym saye any more? he telleth you playne, that
Christe which ys the very breade of lyfe, ys sygnyfyed by this
sacramentall breade. And that is the thynge which our Byshoppes so
fleshlye denye now adayes, which thynge yet you maye see, the olde
Fathers cōclude with one assente. Notwythstōdynge yet I wyll alleage mo
olde doctours, so that from hence forthe they maye be a shamed to call
yt newe learnynge. Fulgentius sayeth. [Sidenote: Fulgentius 2. libro de
fide.] _In illis enim carnalibus (tèpore legis) uictunis, significacio
suit carnis Christi quam pro pctis nostris & ipse sine pctō fuerat
oblaturus, & sanguinis quem erat effusurus in remissionè peccarorum
nostrorum. In isto autè sacrificio gratiarum actio atq; cōmemoracio est
carnis Christi quam pro nobis obtulit, & sanguinis quē pro nobis idē
Deus effudit._ That is to saye. In these carnall sacrifyces in the tyme
of the lawe, was a sygnyficacyon of the fleshe of Christe, which he
without synne, shuld offer for our synnes, ād of the bloode which he
shulde shedde out in remyssyon of our synnes. But this sacryfyce is a
thankes geuynge ād remembraūce of the fleshe of Christe which he offered
for vs, and of the bloode which the same God shedde for vs. Fyrste note
that he calleth yt a sacryfyce, which notwithstōdyng is but a remēbraūce
of that sacryfyce offered on the crosse ones for all: Thā he playnely
calleth yt a thankes geuynge, and remembraunce of Christes very fleshe
and bloode: and so concludeth with vs. Neuerthelesse because sophysters
wolde soone thynke to avoyde thys place, I wyll alleage one other
sayenge of the same autoure which they shall neuer be able to avoyde.

[Sidenote: Fulgen.] ¶ Fulgentius sayeth, as Haymo testyfyeth. _Hic calix
nouum testamentum est, id est, hic calix quem uobis trado, nouum
testamentum significat._ That is to saye. Thys cuppe or chalyce is the
newe testament: That is: thys cuppe or chalyce which I delyuer you doth
sygnyfye the newe testament. In this place he doth playnelye shewe hys
mynde, which cā not be avoyded. For euen as the cuppe is the newe
testament, so ys the breade the bodye. Nowe the cuppe dothe but sygnyfy
the new testament. And therfore I may conclude, that the breade doth but
sygnyfye the bodye.

[Sidenote: Eusebius.] Eusebius sayeth. _Quia corpus assumptum ablaturus
erat ex oculis nostris & syderibus allaturus, necessarium erat ut uobis
in hac die sacramentum corporis & sanguinis consecraret, ut coleretur
iugiter per mysterium quod semel offerebatur in precium._ That is to
saye: Because he wolde take awaye out of our eyes the bodye that he
toke, and carye yt in to heauen, it was necessarye that in thys tyme he
shulde consecrate to vs the sacramēte of hys bodye ād bloode: that that
which was ones offered for the pryce of our redemptyon, myght
contynuallye be honoured through the mysterye.

[Sidenote: Consecrate.] To consecrate a thynge, is to applye it vnto an
holye vse. Here you maye see that he calleth yt the sacrament of hys
bodye and bloode, which bodye is caryed vp into heauen. And also he
calleth it a mysterye, which is ynough for them that wyll see.

[Sidenote: Druthmarius.] Also Druthmarius expoundeth these wordes, thys
is my bodye on this maner: _Hoc est corpus meum in mysterio._ That is to
saye: thys is my bodye in a mysterye. I thynke you knowe what a mysterye
meaneth. Christe is crucyfyed euery daye in a mysterye: that is to saye:
euery daye hys death ys represented by the sacramentes of remembraunce.
The Masse is Christes passyon in a mysterye: that is to saye: the Masse
doth represente hys passyon and keapeth yt in our memorye. The breade ys
Christes bodye in a mysterye: that is to saye: it representeth hys body
that was broken for vs, and keapeth yt in our remēbraunce.

You haue harde already the mynde of the doctours, how the sacrament ys
Christes bodye. And now I shall shewe you how the sacrament ys our
bodye, which doth not a lytle healpe to the vnderstōdynge of these
wordes whych are in controversye. The sacramēt of the Aulter ys our
bodye as well as it is Christes bodye. And euē as it is our bodye, so yt
is Christes. But there is no man that cā saye that it is our naturall
bodye in dede, but onely a fygure, sygne, memoryall, or represētacyon of
our bodye: Wherfore yt must also folowe, that it is but onely a fygure,
sygne, memoryall or represētaciō of Christes bodye. The fyrste parte of
this argument maye thus be proued. [Sidenote: Augustino in sermone ad
infantes.] S. Austen wrytynge in a sermon sayeth on this maner. _Corpus
ergo Christi si uultis intelligere, apostolum audite dicentem. Vos estis
corpus christi & mēbra .1. Cor. 12. Si ergo estis corpus christi &
membra, mysteriū uestrumque in mensa Domini positū est, mysteriū Domini
accipitis, ad id quod estis. Amē respōdetis et respōdēdo subscribitis._
That is to saye: Yf you wyll vnderstōde the bodye of Christe, here the
Apostle which sayeth. We are the bodye of Christe and mēbres .1. Cor.
12. Therfore yf ye be the bodye of Christe and membres, your mysterye is
put vpon the Lordes table, ye receyue the mysterye of the Lorde, vnto
that you are you answer Amē. And in answerynge subscrybe vnto yt. Here
you maye see that the sacramēt ys also our body, ād yet is not our
naturall body, but onely our body in a mysterye, that is to saye: a
fygure sygne, memoryall, or represētacyō of our body. For as the breade
ys made of many graynes or cornes, so we (though we be manye) are one
breade ād one bodye. And for this propertye and symylitude it is called
our bodye, and beareth the name of the verye thynge which yt doth
represēt & sygnyfy. Agayne s. Austē sayth. [Sidenote: Augusti in ser. de
sacra feria Pasche.] _Quia Christus passy est pro nobis, cŏmēdauit nobis
in isto sacramēto corpus & sanguinem suum, quod etiam fecit & nos ipsos.
Nam & nos ipsius corpus facti sumus, & per misericordiā ipsius quod
accipimus nos sumus. Et postea dicit. Iam in nomine Christi tanquam ad
calicem Domini uenistis, ibi nos estis in mensa & ibi uos estis in
calice._ That is, because Christ hath suffered for vs, he hath betakē
vnto vs in thys sacramēt hys bodye and bloode, which he hath also made
euen our selfes. For we also are made hys bodye, and by his mercye we
are euē the same thynge that we receyue. And after he sayeth. Now in the
name of Christe ye are come, as a man wolde saye, to the chalyce of the
Lorde: there are ye vpon the table, and there are ye in the chalyce.
Here you maye see, that the sacrament is our bodye. And yet yt is not
our naturall bodye, but onelye in a mysterye, as it is before sayde.

[Sidenote: Augusti de sacra feria pasche.] Furthermore S. Austen sayeth.
_Hunc itaq; cibŭ & potū societatē uult intelligi corporis & mēbrorū
suorū quod est sācta ecclesia in predestinatis & uocatis & iustificatis
& glorificatis sanctis & fidelibus eius. Huius rei sacramentum alicubi
quotidie, alicubi certis interuallis dierum in dominico preparatur, & de
mensa Domini sumitur, quibusdà ad uitam, quibusdam ad exitium. Res uero
ipsa cuius est sacramentum, est omni homini ad uitam, nulli ad exitium,
quicumque eius particeps fuerit._ That is to saye: he wyll that this
meate and drynke shulde be vnderstōde to be the felowshyp of hys bodye
and membres, which ys the holy churche in hys predestynate and called
and iustyfyed and gloryfyed sayntes and faythfull. The sacrament of thys
thynge ys prepared in some place daylye, and in some place at certayne
appoynted dayes, as vpon the sondaye. And yt is receyued at the table of
the Lorde, of some vnto lyfe, and of some vnto destruccyō. But the
thynge yt selfe whose sacrament thys ys, is receyued of all men vnto
lyfe, and of no mā vnto destruccyon, whosoeuer is partaker of yt. Here
doth S. Austen fyrste saye, that this sacrament ys the felowshyppe of
his bodye and membres which are we. And yet is not our naturall bodye,
as ys before sayde. And then he sayeth, that the sacrament of thys
thynge ys receyued of some vnto lyfe and saluacyon, and of some vnto
death and dampnacyon. For both faythfull and vnfaythfull maye receyue
the sacramēt. And after he sayeth, that the thynge yt selfe whose
sacrament yt ys, is receyued of all men vnto lyfe, and of no man vnto
destruccyon, who so euer ys partaker of yt. And of thys sayenge yt muste
neades folowe, that onely the faythfull eate Christes bodye, and the
vnfaythfull eate hym not. For he is receyued of no mā vnto destruccyon.
And of thys yt muste also folowe that the sacrament ys not Christes
bodye in dede, but onelye in a mysterye. For yf the sacrament were hys
naturall bodye, then shulde yt folowe, that the vnfaythfull shulde
receyue hys bodye. Which is contrarye to the mynde of saynt Austen, and
agaynst all truth. Thus haue we suffycyentlye proued the fyrste parte of
our argumēte, that the sacrament is our bodye, as well as yt is
Christes. And nowe wyll I proue the secōde parte more playnely (although
yt be ynough declared already, to them that haue eares) that euen as yt
is our bodye so it is Christes.

Fyrste you shall vnderstonde that in the wyne, which ys called Christes
bloode, is admyxed water, which doth sygnyfye the people that are
redeamed with hys bloode: so that the heade which is Christe, ys not
without hys bodye which is the faythfull people, nor the bodye without
hys heade. Now yf the wyne when it is consecrated, be tourned bodelye in
to Christes bloode, then is it also necessarye that the water which is
admyxed be bodelye tourned in to the bloode of the faythfull people. For
where as is one cōsecracion muste folowe one operacyō. And where as is
lyke reason, there muste folowe lyke mysterye. But what so euer is
sygnyfyed by the water as cōcernynge the faythfull people, is taken
spirytually. Therfore whatsoever is spokē of the bloode in the wyne,
muste also neades be taken spyrytuallye. This reason is not myne, but it
is made by one Bartrame [Sidenote: Bartrame.] vpō a .700. yeares sens,
when this matter was fyrste in dysputacyon. Whervpō at the instaunce of
greate Charles the Emperoure, he made a boke professynge euen the same
thynge that I do, and proueth by the olde doctours & faythfull fathers,
that the sacrament is Christes bodye in a mysterye, that is to saye: a
sygne, figure, or memoryall of hys bodye, whiche was broken for vs, and
not hys naturall bodye. And therfore that doctryne is newe which
otherwyse teacheth, and not myne, which is not myne, but the doctryne of
Christe and of the olde fathers of Christes churche, tyll Antichriste
began to sytte and reigne in the temple of God.

[Sidenote: Cyprianus ad Cecilium.] Besydes that Cypriane sayeth, that
the people is ānexed in the sacramēt through the myxture of water.
Therfor I mervell moche that they are so cōtēcyous ād wyll not see, that
as the water is the people, so the wyne ys Christes bloode, that is to
saye: in a mysterye, because yt represēteth Christes bloode, as the
water doth the people. Furthermore Eusebius sayth. [Sidenote: Eusebius.]
_Dū in sacramētis uino aqua miscetur, Christo fidelis populus
incorporatur & iūgitur & quadā ei copula perfecta charitatis unitur._
That is to saye: whyles in the sacrament water is admyxte with the wyne,
the faythfull people is incorporate ād Ioyned with Christ, ād is made
one with him, with a certayne knotte of perfecte charyte. Now where he
sayeth, that we are Ioyned ād incorporated with Christe, what fondnes
were it to cōtēde, syth we are there onelye in a mysterye, ād not
naturallye. To cōtēde I say with suche pertynacyte that his naturall
bodye must be there: ād not rather that he is Ioyned with vs, as we are
Ioyned with hym, ād both in a mysterye, by the knotte of perfecte
charyte. [Sidenote: More.] ❧ The yōge man perceyueth well ynough that an
allegory vsed in some place is not a cause suffycyēt to leaue the proper
sygnyfycacyōs of Godes worde in euery other place ād seke an allegorye,
ād forsake the playne cōmō sence. For he cōfesseth that he wold not so
do saue for necessyte: because (as he sayeth) that the cōmon lytterall
sence is impossyble. For the thynge he sayeth that is mente therbye can
not be true. That is to saye: that the verye bodye of Christe can be in
the sacrament, because the sacrament ys in many dyuerse places at ones,
and was at the maundye: that is to wete, in the handes of Christe ād in
everye of hys Apostles mouthes. And at that tyme yt was not gloryfyed.
And thē he sayeth that Christes bodye not beynge gloryfyed, could no
more be in two places at ones than hys owne cā. And yet he goth after
furder, ād sayeth, no more yt can whan yt is gloryfyed also. And that he
proueth by the sayenge of S. Austen whose wordes be, that the body with
the which Christ arose muste be in one place. &c.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Hetherto hath master More reasoned reasonablye: but
now he begynneth to declyne from the dygnyte of dyuynyte into the dyrty
dregges of vayne sophystry. For where I saye that I muste of necessyte
seake an allegorye, because the lytterall sence is impossyble and can
not be true, meanynge that it can not stonde with the processe of holy
scrypture, but that other textes do of necessyte constrayne me to
cōstrue yt spyrytuallye. There catcheth he thys worde, can, and thys
worde impossyble, and wolde make men beleue that I mente, yt coulde not
be true because reason can not reache yt, but thynketh it impossyble.
And there he triūpheth before the vyctorye, and wolde knowe what artycle
of our fayth I coulde assygne, in which reason shall not dryue awaye the
strengthe of my proue, and make me leaue the lytterall sence wherin my
profe shulde stonde, and sende me to seake an allegorye that myght
stonde wyth reason, and dryue awaye the fayth. But now deare bretherne,
seynge I speake not of the impossybylyte of reason, but of the
impossybylyte to stōde with other textes of scripture, ye maye see that
this royall reasō is not worth a ryshe. Then wolde he fayne knowe the
place where S. Austen so sayeth, which thyng although, yt were harde for
me to tell, syth I haue not hys bokes to loke for it, yet I thanke God
my memorye is not so bad, but I can shewe hym where he shall fynde yt.
And because I thynke that he is more accustomed to the Popes lawes then
to S. Austens workes, syth he is become the prelates proctoure and
patrone: I saye he shall not fayle but fynde it in his lawes de
consecracione. And where as he wolde wreste the wordes of S. Austē,
which sayeth that the bodye in which Christ arose muste neades be in one
place: sayēge, that he myght meane not that hys body myght not be in
dyuerse places at ones, but that yt muste be in one place, that is to
saye: in some one place or other. He speaketh (sayth master More)
nothynge of the sacrament, nor sayeth not that his bodye with which he
rose muste nedes be in one place, & that it cā by no possybylyte be in
any mo. Thys seameth to some a goodly glose, ād yet yt shall proue but a
vayne evasyon. For yf a mā wolde saye that the Kynges graces body muste
be in one place, and then a nother wolde expounde that (notwithstondynge
hys wordes) hys graces bodye myght be in two places at ones, I thynke
men myght soone Iudge that he delyted to delaye, ād myght saye, what
neade he to determyne, that he muste be in one place excepte he thought
in dede, that he myght be in no mo but onely one; And though mē myght so
argue vpō other mens wordes, yet of saynte Austēs wordes thys must
neades folowe, for he bryngeth them in (as God wolde) by a contrarye
antithesis sayenge. [Sidenote: Ad Hieronimū.] _Corpus in quo resurrexit
in uno loco esse oportet, ueritas autem eius ubique diffusa est._ That
is to saye: hys bodye wherin he rose must be in one place, but hys truth
ys dyspersed in all places. Where he playnelye concludeth by the
contrarye antithesis, that as hys truth ys dyspersed in all places, so
muste hys bodye neades be in one place onelye. As by example, yf a mā
shulde saye. The Kynges graces bodye muste neades be in one place, but
hys power is through out hys Realme. Where no man doubteth, but that in
sayenge one place, he meaneth one place onelye: And therfore though in
some place that worde, muste, doth not sygnyfye suche a necessyte as
excludeth all possybylyte, yet in this place yt doth so sygnyfye, as the
contrarye antithesis doth evydently expresse.

And where ye saye, that he speaketh no thynge of the sacrament, I wolde
ye shulde stycke styll to that sayenge. For this is playne, that he
speaketh of hys naturall bodye. And therfore yf he speake not of the
sacrament, then haue you cōcluded that the sacramēte is not hys naturall
bodye: the contrarye wherof you wolde haue men beleue. Thus haue I
shewed evydence, bothe where he shall fynde the wordes of S. Austen and
also that I haue ryght alleaged them.

Notwytstondynge syth he maketh so moche of hys paynted sheth, I shall
alleage hym more auctorytes that Christes naturall bodye is in one place
onely. Which thynge proued doth vtterly conclude that the sacrament ys
not hys naturall bodye, but onelye a memoryall representynge the same.
And fyrste let vs see S. Austēs mynde.

[Sidenote: August. ad Dardanium.] S. Austen wrytynge vnto Dardanius doth
playnly proue that the naturall body of Christe muste neades be in one
place onelye, and also that hys soule can be but in one place at ones.
The occasyon of hys Epystle is this: Dardanius ded wryte vnto S. Austen
for the exposycyon of those wordes that Christe spake vnto the thefe
sayenge: This daye shalt thou be with me in paradyse: & wyste not how he
shulde vnderstonde yt, whether Christe mēte that the thefe shulde be in
paradyse with Christes soule, or with hys bodye, or with hys Godhed.
Thervpon S. Austen wryteth that as towchynge Christes bodye, that daye
it was in the sepulchre. And sayeth that it was not paradyse, although
it were in a gardē that he was buryed. For Christe (he sayeth) mēt of a
place of Ioye. And that was not (sayeth S. Austen) in hys sepulchre. And
as for Christes soule, yt was that daye in hell. And no mā wyll saye,
that paradyse was there. Wherfore (sayeth Austen) the texte muste neades
be vnderstonde, that Christ spake yt of hys godhed. Now marke thys
argumēt of S. Austen, and ye shall see my purpose playnelye proued. For
seynge he expoundeth thys texte vpō Christes Godhed, because hys māhod
as towchynge the body was in the graue, and as towchynge hys soule was
in hell: you may soone perceyue that Austē thought, that whyls hys body
was in the graue, yt was not in paradyse also: & because hys soule was
in hell, yt coulde not be in paradyse also. And therfor he verefyeth the
texte vpon hys dyuynyte. For yf he had thought that Christes bodye or
soule myght haue bene in dyuerse places at ones, he wolde not haue
sayde, that the texte must neades be vnderstōde of his dyuynyte, but it
myght full well, yea and moche better haue bene vnderstōde of hys
manhode. Marke well thys texte whiche doth determyne the doubt of this
matter. Notwithstondynge the faythfull Father leaueth not the matter on
thys fashyō, but also taketh a waye soche fonde ymagynacyons as wolde
cause mē to surmyse, that Christes bodye shulde be in mo places at ones
then one. For he sayeth. _Cauendum est ne ita diuinitatem astruamus
hominis ut ueritatem auferamus corporis. Non est autem consequens ut
quod in deo est, ita sit ubiq;. Nam & de nobis ueracißime scriptura
dicit, quod in illo uiuimus, mouemur & sumus. Nec tamē sicut ille, ubiq;
sumus, sed aliter homo ille in Deo, quam & aliter deus in illo homine,
proprio quodam & singulari modo. Vna enim persona deus & homo est, et
utrumq; est unus Christus Iesus, ubiq; per id quod deus est, in celo aūt
per id quod homo._ That is to saye: we muste beware that we do not so
affyrme the dyuynyte of the man, that we take awaye the truth of hys
bodye. For it foloweth not that the thynge whiche is in God, shulde be
in euery place as God is. For the scrypture doth trulye testyfye vnto
vs, that we lyue, moue, and be in hym. And yet are we not in everye
place as he is. Howbeit, that man is otherwyse in God, and God otherwyse
in that man by a certayne peculyer and synguler waye. For God and man is
one parson, and bothe of them one Christe Iesu, whiche is in euery place
in that he is God, and in heauen, in that he is man. Here Austen doth
saye, that yf we shulde graunte Christe to be in all places as towchynge
hys manhode, we shulde take a waye the truth of hys bodye. For though
hys manhode be in God and God in hys manhode, yet it foloweth not, that
it shulde be in everye place, as God is. And after he concludeth, that
as towchynge hys Godhed he is in euery place, and as towchynge hys
manhode, he is in heauē. What neade he to make these wordes and
antithesis, but because he thought verelye that though hys Godhed were
in euery place, yet his māhode was in heauen onelye.

[Sidenote: Augustinus ibidē.] But yet thys holye doctoure goth furder
(so that they maye be ashamed of their parte) and sayeth. _Secundū
hominē namq; in terra erat, non in cœlo (ubi nunc est) quādo dicebat,
nemo ascendet in cœlum nisi qui descendit de cœlo, filius hominis qui
est in cœlo._ That is to saye; as towchynge hys manhod he was in the
earth and not in heauen (where he now is) when he sayde, no man
ascendeth into heauē but he that descended from heauen, the sone of man
whiche is in heaven. Now I truste ye wyll be content and let the truth
spreade. For I am sure it is not possyble for you to avoyde it, for he
sayeth, that as towchynge hys manhod he was in the earth and not in
heauē, whē he spake those wordes: and so proueth that he was not in mo
places at ones then onelye one place. For els yf S. Austen had thought
that he coulde haue bene in mo places at ones then one wyth hys bodye,
then myght he not haue sayde, that he was in earth and not in heauen.
For then a mā myght soone haue deinded hym and haue sayde. Austen you
can not tell, for he maye be in euery place. But they that so thynke
after Austens mynde, do take awaye the truthe of hys naturall bodye, and
make it a very fantastycall bodye: from the which heresye God delyuer
hys faythfull. Besydes thys S. Austen doth saye. _Christum Dominum
nostrum unigenitum DEI suium equalem patri, eundemq; hominis filium quo
maior est pater, & ubiq; totum presentem esse non dubites tanquam DEVM,
& in eodem templo DEI esse uerum DEVM, & in aliena parte cœli propter
corporis modum._ That is to saye: Doubt not but that Christe our Lorde
the onlye begottē sonne of God equall to the Father, and the same beynge
the sonne of mā wherin the father is greater, is whole present in all
places as to towchynge hys Godhed, and dwelleth in the same temple of
God as God, ād in some place of heauen, for the condycyon of hys very
bodye. Here is it euydent by .S. Austēs wordes, that as towchynge hys
Godhed he is in all places. And as towchynge hys manhod, he is onelye in
heauen: yea and not that onelye, but that he beynge in heauen as
towchynge the measure, nature, condycyon, and qualyte of hys naturall
bodye, is onelye in one certayne place in heauen, and not in many places
at ones. Thus moche is proued out of Saynte Austen.

This truth is not onelye proued by S Austens auctoryte, but also by the
noble clarke Fulgentius, which wryteth on this maner. _Vnus idemq; homo
localis ex homine, qui est Deus immensus ex patre, unus idemq; secundum
humanam substantiam absens cœlo cum esset in terra, et derelinquens
terram cū ascendisset in cœlum. Secundum diuinam uero immensamq;
substantiam, nec cœlum dimittens cum de cœlo descendit, nec terram
deserens, cum ad cœlum ascendit. Quod ipsius Domini certisisimo sermone
potest cognosci, qui ut localem ostenderet suam humanitatem, dicit
discipulis suis: Ascendo ad patrem meum & patrem uestrum, Deum meun &
Deum uestrum. De Lazaro quoq; cum dixisset, Lazarus mortuus est,
adiunxit dicens, & gaudeo propter uos (ut credatis) quoniam non eram ibi
immensitatem uero suæ diuinitatis ostendens discipulis dicit: Ecce ego
uobiscum sum usq; ad consummationen sæculi. Quomodo autem ascendit in
cœlum nisi quia localis & uerus est homo, aut quomode adest fidelibus
suis, nisi quia idem inmensus & uerus Deus est._ That is to saye. The
same one man is locall (that is to saye: conteyned in one place) as
towchynge hys manhod, whiche is also God vnmesurable from the Father.
The same one man as towchynge the substaunce of hys manhod, was absent
frō heauen, whē he was in earth, and forsakynge the earth, when he
ascended in to heauē, but as towchynge hys Godly ād vnmeasurable
substaunce he neyther forsoke heauen whē he descēded frō heauen, nor
forsoke the earth, whē he ascēded vnto heauē, which may be knowē by the
moste sure worde of the Lorde, whiche to shewe hys humanyte to be locall
(that is to saye: contayned in one place onelye) ded saye vnto hys
dyscyples. I ascēde vnto my Father and your Father, my God and your God.
Of Lazarus also when he sayde, Lazarus is ded, he sayde further. I am
gladde for your sake (that you may beleue) for that I was not there. And
agayne, shewynge the vnmeasurablenes of hys Godhed, he sayde vnto hys
discyples. Beholde, I am with you vnto the worldes ende, how ded he
ascende in to heauen, but because he is locall and a verye mā? Or howe
is he present vnto hys faythfull, but because he is vnmeasurable and
verye God? Here maye you conclude by the auctoryte of thys doctoure
also, that Christes bodye is onelye in one place at ones. For he sayeth,
that Christ as towchynge hys manhod is locall: that is to saye:
contayned in one place onelye. And that he proueth by the scrypture euen
of Christes owne wordes. Now yf thys be true (as my conscyence doth
testyfye, how so euer other men shall Iudge) then muste it neades folowe
that this naturall bodye can not be in the sacrament. And the auctorite,
I am sure no man can avoyde, yt is so playne.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Now as for hys naturall reasons be not worthye the
reasonynge. For fyrste that the bodye of Christe vngloryfyed coulde no
more be in two places at ones then hys owne can, because he is a
naturall bodye, as he is. I wyll not examyne no comparyson betwene their
two bodyes: but yf Christe wolde tell me that he wolde eche of both
their bodyes to be in fyftene places at ones, I wolde beleue hym, and
wolde neuer aske hym whether he wolde fyrste gloryfye them or not. But I
am sure gloryfyed or vngloryfyed, yf he sayde it, he is able to do it.
For the matter is not impossyble to God.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Truthe it is that yf Christe so sayde and in so
sayenge so mente, there is no doubte, but he were able so to do. But
that he in dede so grosselye mēt, ye shall neuer proue. And in dede yf
he had so mēte that hys owne naturall bodye shulde haue contynued in the
sacrament which is the meate of the soule through faythe, and not of the
bodye by eatynge it, and maye as well be eaten through fayth, although
it remayne in heauen, as yf it were here present to our mouthes: yf (I
saye) he had so mente, then wolde he neuer haue geuen vs suche
scriptures as he ded. For I saye that thys grosse ymagynacyon may not
stonde with the processe of the scrypture which is receyued, as it shall
appeare by certayne textes.

Fyrste where our sauyoure sayeth: the fleshe profyteth nothynge. The
wayght of those wordes doth compell vs to vnderstonde our matter
spyrytuallye. For by thys shorte sentence we are no lesse plucked from
the carnall eatynge, then was Nichodemus that he shulde not ones dreame
of the carnall regeneracyon, whē Christe sayde vnto hym: that whatsoeuer
thynge was of the fleshe was fleshe. For this is a playne conclusyon,
that whē Christe sayde the fleshe profyteth nothynge, he ment it euē of
hys owne fleshe, that it coulde not profyte (as they vnderstode hym) to
be eaten with the teth. Albeyt it doth moche profyte to be slayne for
our redemptyon, & eaten through fayth. Which thyng we may do although
hys naturall fleshe be not in the sacrament. For I maye as well beleue
in hym though he be in heauen, as yf he were in earth and in the
sacrament, and before myne eyes. And that Christe spake these wordes of
hys owne bodye, it is playne by S. Austens wordes wrytynge vpon the same
place. [Sidenote: Augustitract. su. 6. Joan.] And therfore he sayeth,
that they muste be vnderstonde spyrytuallye, and addeth: yf thou
vnderstonde them spyrytuallye, they are spyryte and lyfe. And though
thou vnderstonde them carnallye, yet neuerthelesse they are spyryte and
lyfe: But vnto thē, they are not spyryte and lyfe, which vnderstondest
not spyrytuallye those thynges that I haue spoken.

[Sidenote: Athanasius. 3. li. qui dix. verb.] Also Athanasius sayeth.
_Spiritus est qui uiuificat, caro non prodest quicquà: uerba que ego
locutus sum, spiritus sunt & uita. Nam & hoc loco utrumque de seipso
dicit carnem & spiritum, & spiritum ab eo quod est secundum carnem
distinxit, ut non solum uisibile, sed etiam inuisibile quod in ipso erat
credentes discant, quod & ea que dicit non sunt carnalia sed
spiritualia. Quod enim comedentibus suffecisset corpus, ut totius mundi
alimonia fiat? Sed ea propter meminit ascensus filii hominis in cœlum ut
illos a corporali cogitacione auelleret, & post hac discant carnem dictā
cibum cœlestem superne uenientem & spiritualem alimoniam quam ipse det,
nā quæ locutus sum (inquit) uobis spiritus sunt & uita._ That is to
saye: it is the spyryte that quyckeneth, the fleshe profyteth nothynge.
The wordes which I speake vnto you, are spiryte and lyfe. For in this
place also he meaneth both of hys owne fleshe and his owne spyryte, and
he deuyded the spiryte from the fleshe: that they myght knowe through
faythe not onelye the vysyble parte, but also the invysyble parte that
was in hym, and also that the wordes which he spake were not carnall,
but spirytuall. For what bodye shulde haue suffysed to haue bene the
meate of all the worlde? And euen therfore ded he make mencyon of the
ascensyon of the sonne of man in to heauen, that he myght wythdrawe them
from the bodelye ymagynacyon, that they myght hereafter learne, that the
fleshe was called heauēly meate which cōmeth frō a boue, & spirytuall
meate which he wolde geue. For (sayeth Christe) the wordes that I haue
spokē vnto you, are spiryte & lyfe. Here you maye see that Christe spake
yt of his owne fleshe, & playnely that yt ded nothynge profyte as
infideles ded vnderstonde hym: For els yt geueth lyfe, as yt is receyued
of the faythfull in a mystery. [Sidenote: Bartrame.] For as Bartrame
sayeth, in this mysterye of the bodye and bloode, is a spirytuall
operacyon which geueth lyfe. Without the which operacyon those mysteryes
do no thynge profytte, for surelye (sayth he) they may feade the bodye,
but the soule they can not feade.

Besydes that the scrypture sayeth, that that entreth in by the mouth
doth not defyle a man, for as Christe sayeth, it is caste forthe in to
the drawght. And by the same reason it foloweth that it doth not
sāctyfye or make a man holye. But the sacrament entreth in by the mouth:
therfore yt doth folowe that (of it selfe) it doth not sāctyfye or make
holye any mā. And of this texte shulde folowe two incōueniences, yf the
sacramēte were the naturall bodye of Christ. Fyrste it shulde folowe
that the body of Christ shulde not sāctyfye the faythfull because it
ētreth in by the mouth. And agayne yt shulde folowe, that the bodye of
Christe shulde be caste out in to the drawght, whych thynge is
abhominable. Wherfore yt muste neades folowe, that the sacramēt cā not
be his naturall bodye.

Furthermore Christ wolde not suffer that devoute womā which of loue
sought hym at hys sepulchre, to touche his naturall bodye, because she
lacked a poynte of faythe, & ded not counte hym to be equall with hys
father. And moche more yt shall folowe that the wycked which haue no
faythe nor loue towardes hym, shall not be suffered to eate hys fleshe
with their teth, & swallowe yt in to their vncleane bodyes: for that
were moche more then to touche hym. And yet notwithstandynge they
receyue and eate the sacrament. Whervpon yt shulde folowe yf the
sacrament were hys naturall bodye, that they shulde in dede eate hys
bodye. Which thynge may be recoūted a blasphemye agaynste God. Moreouer
Christe sayeth, he that eateth my fleshe ād drynketh my blood dwelleth
in me & I in hym: Now we knowe ryght well that the wycked do eate the
sacrament, ād yet neyther dwell in Christe, nor Christ in thē. Wherfore
yt muste folowe that the sacramēt is not the very fleshe of Christe. And
surelye I can not excuse thē of blasphemye which so dyrectlye do cōtrary
Christes wordes. Howe can you avoyde these textes which Christ speaketh
vnto hys dyscyples sayēge. Yet a lytel whyle am I with you. And then I
departe to hym that sente me. [Sidenote: Ioan. 6.] And agayne it is
expedyent for you that I departe. For excepte that I departe, that
counforter shall not come vnto you. [Sidenote: Ioan. 6.] And agayne he
sayeth. I forsake the worlde [Sidenote: Ioan. 6.] and go to my Father.
And to be shorte, he sayeth, [Sidenote: Mat. 25.] poore mē ye shall euer
haue with you, [Sidenote: Mar. 14.] but me shall you not euer haue. Now
we knowe ryght well that hys Godhed is in all places, [Sidenote: Ioan.
12.] and that as towchynge hys Godhed he forsoke not the worlde, when he
ascended vnto hys Father. Wherfore it muste neades folowe that he fors
oke yt as towchynge hys fleshe and manhode. And therto agreeth the
exposycyons of Saynte Austen, and Fulgentius before alleaged, yea and
all other olde faythfull Fathers. Now yf he haue forsaken the worlde as
towchynge the presence of hys naturall fleshe and māhode (as all
doctours defyne) then mente he not that hys naturall fleshe shulde be
presente in the sacrament, to be eaten with our tethe. And therfore
though Christe so tell you, yet muste you take hym as he meaneth, or els
you be begyled. For yf ye thynke that GOD both maye and wyll fulfyll and
veryfye all thynges accordynge to the letter as he speaketh them, I maye
call you an obedyent man, as Saynte BARNARD doth hys Monke Adam. And
maye saye (as he doth) that yf that be the ryght waye, so symplye to
receyue all thynge, we maye put out the texte of scrypture which warneth
vs to be wyse as serpētes. For the texte folowynge is suffycyent, which
byddeth vs to be symple as doves.

Why doth your mastershyppe graunte a necessarye allegorye, whē Paule
sayeth, CHRISTE is a stone, or when Christ sayeth, that he is a dore?
The scrypture sayeth he is both twayne. And syth God so sayth, he is
able so to make it. And therfore by your reason we shall neade none
allegorye in all scrypture, & thē he that is moste symple ād folyshe,
may be counted moste faythfull. And so shall we neade no faythfull
Fathers to expounde the texte, but it shalbe moste meryte, to beleue the
letter. This I denye not, but that God coulde haue done yt, yf he had so
entēded, when he spake the wordes: But nowe the scrypture stondynge as
it doth, I thynke he can not do it. As by exāple. I thynke that God by
the bloode of hys sone Christe myght haue saued all men, both faythfull
and vnfaythfull, yf he had so intēded, ād that yt had so pleased hym.
But nowe the scrypture stōdynge as it doth, I saye he can not do yt, and
that it is impossyble for hym. For then he myght make hys sone a lyer
which sayeth, [Sidenote: Ioan. 3.] he that beleueth not is dampned. And
agayne, he that beleueth not shall not see lyfe, but the wrathe of God
abydeth vpon hym. And euen as it is impossyble to stonde with the
processe of scriptures (wherin God hath declared hys wyll) that the
vnfaythfull shulde be saued, although God myght haue done it at the
fyrst yf he had so wolde. Lykewyse it is impossyble the scryptures
stondynge as they do, that the naturall bodye of Christ shulde be
presente to our teth in the sacrament. And as for our faythe, yt neadeth
not to haue hym presente in the breade. For I maye as well eate hym ād
drynke hym through faythe, that is to saye: beleue in hym, as though he
were as presente in the sacramēte, as he was hangynge vpon the crosse.

And because you saye, that my naturall reasons be not worth the
reasonynge, I wyll alleage you some mo, to see what you can saye to
them. Fyrste euery sacrament is the sygne of an holye thynge: but the
sacramente of the aulter is a sacramēt (as all faythfull men confesse)
ergo it muste folowe that the sacrament of the aulter is the sygne of an
holye thynge. Nowe yf it be the sygne of an holye thynge, then it is not
the holye thynge yt selfe which yt doth sygnyfye & represent. Why shulde
we then feare, to call that breade a fygure, that is to saye: a
sacrament of that holye bodye of our Lorde and Sauyoure.

Besydes that I wolde knowe of what necessyte or profyte hys fleshe muste
be present in the sacrament. For the presence of hys fleshe can no more
profyte vs, thē doth the remembraunce of hys bodye, but this
remembraunce maye as well be done by the sacrament, as though hys bodye
were present. And therfore syth God and nature make nought in vayne, it
foloweth consequentlye, that his naturall fleshe is not there, but
onelye a memoryall therof.

Furthermore, the ende and fynall cause of a thynge is euer better then
those thynges which are prouyded for the ende (as the house is better
than the lyme, stone, & tymber, which are prouyded for the howse) but
the ende and fynall cause of the sacramente is the remembraunce of
Christes bodye: and thervpō yt muste folowe that yf the sacramente be
hys naturall bodye, that the remembraunce of Christes bodye shulde be
better then hys bodye it selfe. Whiche thynge is to be abhorred of all
faythfull men.

It were fondnes to fayne that the soule ded otherwyse eate then do the
Angelles in heauē, and their meate is onelye the Ioye and delectacyon
that they haue of God and of hys glorye; And euen so doth the soule
which is here vpon the earth eate through faythe the bodye of Christe
which is in heauen. For it delyteth & reioyseth whyles yt vnderstōdeth
through faythe, that Christ hath takē our synnes vpō hym and pacyfyed
the Fathers wrath. Neyther yt is necessarye, that for that or for thys
cause, that his fleshe shulde be present. For a man maye as well loue ād
reioyse in the thynge which is from hym and not present, as though yt
were presēt by hym of that maner.

More ouer, the breade is Christes bodye, euen as the breakynge of the
breade is the death of hys bodye. Nowe the breakynge of breade at the
maundye is not the verye death of Christes bodye, but onelye a
representacyon of the same (albeit the mynde through faythe doeth
spirytuallye beholde hys verye death) and euen lyke wyse that naturall
breade is not the verye bodye of our Lorde, but onely a sacramēt, sygne,
memoryall, or representacyō of the same, albeit through the admonycyō
therof, the mynde through fayth, doth spirytually beholde the verye
body. And surely yf a man be faythfull, the spirite of God worketh in
his harte very swetelye at his communyon.

Fynallye, it was not laufull to eate or drynke the bloode not onelye of
man, but also of a brute beaste, and the Apostles them selues moued by
the rule of charyte, ded instytute that men shulde abstayne from bloode,
somewhat fauourynge the infyrmyte of the Iewes. Now yf the Apostles had
taught (as ye do) that in the sacrament hys verye fleshe and bloode is
eaten and dronken with the teth and mouthe of faythfull and vnfaythfull,
what coulde haue bene a greater occasyō to haue excluded the Iewes frō
Christes fayth euen at ones? Thynke you that the Apostles wolde not haue
bene to srupulous to haue dronken hys very bloode, seynge it was so
playne agaynst Moses lawe, yf they had vnderstonde hym so grosselye as
ye do? [Sidenote: Act .10.] Peter had a clothe sente downe from heauen,
in whiche were all maner of beastes forbydden by the lawe, and was
commaunded to fle and eate thē. And he answered, God forbyd, for I neuer
eate any vncleane thynge, meanynge therbye that he neuer eate any thynge
forbyddē by the lawe. Wherof it muste neades folowe, that eyther he
neuer receyued the sacrament (whiche is playne false) or els that he
more spyrytuallye vnderstode the wordes of Christes maundye then ye
falselye fayne. For it was playnelye forbydden by the lawe, to eate or
drynke any maner of bloode. [Sidenote: obiectyō.] And I knowe but one
reason, that they haue which they counte as insoluble: how be it by
Goddes grace we shall soone avoyde it. Their reason is this. Paule
sayeth, he that eateth and drynketh this sacrament vnworthelye, shalbe
gyltye of the bodye and bloode of the Lorde. Now saye they, how shulde
they be gyltye of the Lordes bodye ād bloode whiche receyue it
vnworthelye, excepte it were the verye bodye and bloode of the Lorde.

[Sidenote: Solutiō.] This argument I saye, is verye weake and slender.
For I can shewe manye examples by the whiche it may be dyssolued. For he
that dyspyseth the Kynges seale or Letters offendeth agaynste hys owne
parson, and yet the Letters or Seale is not hys owne parson. He that
vyolentlye plucketh downe hys graces Armes, or breaketh hys brode Seale
wyth a furyouse mynde or wyth vyolence, commytteth treason agaynste hys
owne parson. And yet hys Armes and brode Seale are not hys owne parsō.
He that clyppyth the Kynges coyne, commytteth treason agaynste the
Kynges parson and the common wealth: and yet the money is neyther hys
graces parson nor the common wealth. And therfore your argument is but
weake and slēder. For euē as a man doth offende agaynste the Prynces
parson by dyspysinge his Armes, Seale, or Letters, so doth a mā offende
agaynste Christes bodye and bloode, by abvsynge the sacrament of hys
bodye and bloode, although he be not there present, as the Kynges parsō
is not presente in hys Armes, Seale, or Letters.

Besydes that S. Paule sayeth, that euerye man whiche prayeth or
preacheth with covered heade shameth hys heade, & hys head is Christe;
shall we therfore Imagen that Christe is naturallye in euerye mās heade,
as your argument cōcludeth? Forsoth that were a preatye fantasye.
Fynally S. Austen sayeth, that he doth no lesse synne whiche neglygētlye
heareth the wordes of God, thē doth the other which vnworthelye
receyueth the sacrament of Christes bodye and bloode. Nowe yf this be
true, then is your reason not worth a ry she, for Christes naturall
bodye is not in the worde whiche is preached, as all men knowe. And yet
he synneth no lesse that neglygentlye heareth it, then doth he that
vnworthelye receyueth the sacramēt. And thus you see their insoluble
argument easelye dyssolued.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ But now muste thys yonge man consyder agayne that he
hym selfe confesseth, that the cause for which hym selfe sayeth, that
Christe in so sayenge ded so meane, is because that yf he shulde haue
mēt so, yt was impossyble to God to brynge hys meanynge a bought: that
is to saye, that Christes bodye myght be in two places at ones. And
therfore but yf he proue that thynge impossyble for God to do, els he
confesseth that God not onelye sayde it but also mente it in dede. And
yet ouer thys, yf Christ had neuer sayde it, yet doubt I nothynge, but
he is able to do it, or els were there somwhat that he coulde not do;
And then were God not almyghtye.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Here Master More wolde myre me with his sophystrye,
ād wyth wyles wolde wynne hys spores. For as he before ded discant on
these wordes, can, and impossyble, and wolde haue made mē beleue that I
mente it coulde not be, because it coulde not be by reason, and that I
mente it was impossyble, because reason coulde not reache it: So now he
dysputeth with lyke maner of sophystycacyon, concludynge that I confesse
that it is impossyble and cā not be, because that yf God shulde so haue
mente, it was impossyble for God to brynge hys meanynge a bought. Deare
bretherne, thys bablynge is suffycyentlye discussed alreadye. For I
mente not that it was impossyble for God to brynge it aboute, yf he had
so mēte, but I mente that it is impossyble to stonde with the processe
of the scrypture whiche we haue receyued. And I saye more ouer, that
though it was possyble for God to haue done it (yf it had pleased hym)
yet now, the scrypture thus stondynge, it is impossyble for hym to do
it. For then he muste make hys sone a lyer. And I saye, that yf he had
so ment as the letter stondeth, that he wolde then haue geuen vs other
scrypture, and wolde not haue sayde that he muste departe to hym that
sente hym, with other textes as are before rehearsed.

And where master More sayeth, that yf there were somwhat that he coulde
not do, than were God not almyghtye. I saye it is ashame for our
Prelates that they haue gottō suche an ignoraunte proctoure to defende
them. And I am sure that they thēselues coulde haue sayde moche better.
For els how shulde they enstructe other and leade them in the ryght
waye, yf they themselues were so rude and vnlearned? Shulde they not
knowe what thys meaneth, that God is almyghtye, whych is a peace of the
fyrste artycle of our Crede? Then how shulde their shepe haue any sure
syght? More thynketh that God is called almyghtye, because he can do all
thynges. And then in dede it shulde folowe that he were not almyghtye.
For all thynges he can not do, he cā not saue the vnfaythfull, he can
not restore vyrgynyte ones vyolated, sayeth S. Thomas and also (as I
remember) S. Hierome wrytynge of vyrgynyte vnto Paula and Eustochium: he
can not synne sayeth Dunce: he can not denye hym selfe sayeth .S. Paule.
[Sidenote: 2. Tim.] Now yf thys mans learnynge were alowed, thē myght
not God be almyghtye, because there is sumwhat that he cā not do. But
they that are a customed with scrypture, do knowe that he is called
almyghtye, not because he can do all thynge: but because there is no
superyour power aboue hym, but that he maye do all that he wyll: and all
that hys pleasure is to do that maye he brynge to passe. And no power is
able to resyste hym. But he hath no pleasure nor wyll to make hys sone
alyer nor to make hys scripture false, and in dede he maye not do it.
And yet notwithstondynge he abydeth almyghtye. For he may do all thynge
that he wyll.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Then master More as towchynge the reason of
repungnaunce sayeth, that many thynges may seame repungnaunte both to
hym and me, which thynges God seeth how to make them stonde together
well ynough, and addeth such blynde reasons of repungnaunce as induceth
manye men in to a greate erroure: some ascrybynge all thynge vnto
destenye without any power of mans fre wyll at all. And some genynge all
to mans owne wyll. And haue no fore syght at all to the provydēce of
God, and all because the poore blynde reason of man can not see so
farre, as to perceyue how Goddes prescyence and mans fre wyll can stonde
together, but seame clerelye to be repungnaunte.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ As for hys dygressyon of mans fre wyll, I wyll not
greatlye wrestle with hym. But thys one thynge I maye saye, [Sidenote:
Ioan. 8.] that yf the sone of God delyuer vs, then are we verye free.
[Sidenote: 2. Cor. 3.] And where the spyryte of God is, there is
fredome. I meane not fredome to do what you wyll; but fredome [Sidenote:
Rom. 6.] frō synne, that we maye be the saruaūtes of ryghtuousnes. But
yf we haue not the spyryte of Christe, then wyll I saye with S. Austen,
[Sidenote: Augustinus de spiritu & litera.] that our fre wyll is
wretched, and can do nought but synne. And as towchynge suche textes of
repugnaunce, yf they be so dyffuse that mans reason (which is the lyght
of hys vnderstōdyng) can not attayne to set them together, then were you
beste to make thē none artycles of our faythe. For I thynke as manye as
are necessarye vnto our salvacyon, are conteyned in the Crede, which I
thynke euery mā beleueth: I beseche you laye no bygger burthen vpon vs
then those faythfull Fathers ded, which thought that suffycyent. And
then I am sure, we shulde haue fewer heretykes. For I neuer harde of
heretycke that euer helde agaynste any artycle of our Crede, but all
that ye dyffame by thys name, are onelye put to death, because they saye
that we are not bounde to beleue euerye poynte that the lawes and
tyrannye of the cleargye alowe and maynteyne, which thynge how true it
is (blessed be God) is meatelye well knowen alreadye. For els had I and
many mo bene deade before thys daye.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ I wote well that many good folke haue vsed in thys
matter manye frutefull examples. As of one face beholden in dyuerse
glasses, and in euerye peace of one glasse broken in to twentye, ād of
one worde comynge whole to an hundreth eares at ones: and the syght of
one lytle eye presently beholdynge an whole greate contrye at ones, with
a thousande suche meruelles mo: suche as those that see thē daylye done
(and therfore meruell not at thē) shall yet neuer be able, no not this
yonge man hym selfe, to geue suche a reason by what meane they maye be
done, but that he maye haue suche repugnaunce layde agaynste it, that he
shalbe fayne in conclusyon (for the chefe and moste euydent reason) to
saye, that the cause of all those thynges, is because God that hath so
caused them to be done, is almyghtye of hym selfe, and maye do what hym

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ As towchynge the examples that master More doth
here alleage, I maye soone make answere vnto them. For they that are
lyke our matter, make cleane agaynste hym, and the other can not make
for hym. The glasse I graunte is a good example. For euen as the glasse
dothe represent the verye face of man, so doth this sacrament represent
the verye bodye and bloode of Christe. And lyke as euery peace of the
glasse doth represent that one face, so doth euery peace of that
sacrament represent that one bodye of Christe. But euerye mā knoweth
ryght well, that thoughe the glasse represent my face, yet the
substaunce of the glasse is not my verye face, neyther is my very face
in the glasse. And euen so though the sacrament do represent the bodye
of Christe, yet the substaunce of the sacrament is not hys verye bodye
(no more then the glasse is my face) neyther is hys verye bodye in the
sacrament, no more thē my verye face is in the glasse. And thus this
example maketh well for vs. And for that one worde commynge whole to an
hūdreth eares, I saye that worde is but a sounde ād a qualyte & not a
substaunce, and therfore yt is nothynge to our purpose, and can not be
lykened to Christes bodye which is a substaunce. And as concernynge the
syght of the lytle eye, I say that though the eye dyscrye and see an
whole contrye, yet is not that whole contrye in the eye: but as the
contrye is knowen by the syght of the eye (though the contrye be not in
it) so is the death of Christe and his bodye breakynge and bloode
sheadynge knowen by the sacrament, though hys naturall bodye be not in
it. And thus hys exāples make nothyng with hym, but rather moche
agaynste hym. And where he sayeth that the yonge mā hym selfe cā geue no
reasō, by what meane they may be done: I maye saye vnto hys
mastershyppe, that whan I was seauen yeare yonger then I am thys day, I
wolde haue bene ashamed yf I coulde not haue geuen an evydent reason at
the Austēs in Oxforde before the whole vnyuersyte. And albeit I now
wochesaue not to spende laboure and paper abought Aristotles doctryne,
yet haue I so moche towched hys examples, that he may be werye of them.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Also I cā not see why it shulde be more repugnaunt
that one bodye maye be by the power of God in two places at ones, then
that two bodyes maye be together in one place at ones. And that poynte I
thynke thys yonge man denyeth not.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ The beynge of our bodye in two places at ones is
agaynste nature, and scrypture cā not allow it. But that two bodyes
shulde be in one place seameth more reasonable. For I haue good
experyence that though my bodye can not be in two places at ones (both
in the tower and where I wolde haue it besyde) yet blessed be god in
this one place, I am not without cōpanye. But yf master More meane that
in one proper & severall place, maye be two bodyes at ones, that I wyll
denye, tyll he haue laysure to proue it. And yet at the length I am
sure, hys proue shall not be worth a podynge prycke. For I am sure it
muste be, _Ratione porositatis ut in igne & ferro: nam penetracionem
dimensionum nunquam probabit._ And then he is as nyghe as he was before.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Now hys laste reason wyth which he proueth yt
impossyble for the bodye of christe to be in two places at ones, is
this: You can (sayeth he) shewe no reason whye he shulde be in many
places at ones & not in all. But in all places he can not be: Wherfore
we muste cōclude that he can not be in many places at ones. This is a
mervelous cōcluded argumente. I am sure that euery chylde may soone see
that this consequent can neuer folowe vpō these two premysses of thys

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ When I made thys reason & compyled my tretyse I had
no regarde to the cavyllacyons of sotle sophysters. For I thought no
sophysters shulde haue medled wyth that meate. But neuerthelesse syth
now I perceyue that they pryncipallye are porynge vpon yt, seakynge some
praye to sette their teth a warke, in this boke I haue samwhat prouyded
for thē, and haue brought suche harde bones, that yf they be to busye,
maye chaunce to choke thē. And yet is not the argumēt so feable as he
fayneth. For the fyrst part (if he lyst to cōsyder the sēce & mynde, &
be not to curyous) where I say that they cā shewe no reasō why he shulde
be in many places & not in all, is thus to be vnderstōd of wyse mē, that
the very reasō & cause that he shulde be in many places must be, because
the body is so ānexed with the godhed, that yt is in euery place as the
Godhed is. Thys I saye, muste be the cause and reason of hys beynge in
many places. And neyther you nor no man els cā iustely asygne any other.
Now of this maior or fyrste proposycyon thus vnderstonde doth the
conclusyon folowe dyrectlye. For yf this shulde be the cause (as they
muste neades graūte) and thys cause proued false by scrypture: then
muste they neades graunte that the thynge whiche so foloweth of this
cause, muste neades be false. And so is my purpose proued, and they
concluded. As by example. The Astronomers saye: that the naturall course
of the sonne is from the Weste to the Easte. Nowe yf a man shulde aske
them what ys then the cause that we see hym daylye take the contrary
course, from the East to the Weste agaynste hys nature: they answere.
Because the heyghest spere (whose course is from the Easte to the Weste)
wyth hys swyfte movynge doth vyolently drawe the inferyoure speres with
hym. This is the cause that they alleage, and no man can asygne any
other. And now syth I can proue thys sense false by scrypture (for
scrypture sayth that the spere is fastened Heb. viij and S. Austen
expoundynge that texte improueth the Astronomers which affyrme that it
moueth) they muste neades graunte that the thynge which foloweth of this
cause muste neades be false. And so we maye conclude agaynste them all,
that the naturall course of the sonne is not from the Weste to the East
(as the Astronomers saye) but contrarye from the Easte to the Weste. And
lykewyse syth the cause that Christes bodye shulde be in many places, is
asygned of learned men to be, because hys bodye is so annexed with the
Godhed (which is in euerye place) that it is also in all places with it,
and no man can asygne any other. And this cause is proued false by
scrypture. For when the women sought Christ at hys graue, an Angell gaue
the answere that he was not there. [Sidenote: Mar. 14.] But yf hys bodye
had bene in euery place, then had the Angell lyed. [Sidenote: Luc. 16.]
Also Christ sayde vnto hys dyscyples of Lazarus which dyed at Bathania.
[Sidenote: Ioan. 11.] Lazarus ys deade. And I am gladde for your sakes
(that you maye beleue) because I was not there. Now yf hys body were in
euery place as is the Godhed, then Christ sayde not trulye, when he
sayde he was not there. Therfore syth (as I sayde) this is the cause
asygned, and yet proued false by scrypture, they muste neades graunte,
that the thynge which foloweth of this cause, muste also neades be
false. And so we maye conclude agaynste them all, that Christes bodye is
in one place onely. And now you maye see how my consequent folowe the

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ For he can no further cōclude, but that we can shewe
no reason whye he shulde be in many places at ones. What had he wone by
that: Myght he thā conclude thervpon, that he coulde not be in manye
places at ones? As though yt were not possyble for God to make hys bodye
in two places at ones, but yf we were able to tell how, and why, and
wherbye, and shewe the reason.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ How farre I cā conclude is shewed immedyatly
before. For though of the bare wordes as ye toke them, it was harde to
conclude any thynge, yet haue I nowe declared them, and so farre
concluded, that you can not avoyde them. And where he sayeth that though
they can shewe no reason, yet I had wonne nought by it, I thynke he
wolde be angrye yf I shulde so answere. But surely they are in good
case, for yt is ynough for them to saye, thus it is, and neade neuer to
shewe any cause or reason whye they so saye. For they are the churche
and can not erre: so that yf they teache contrarye thynges, yet all is
good ynough. And when they see that no man can make the scryptures to
agre wyth their doctryne, then they saye, that their doctryne is true
ynough, but no mā can vnderstōnde the scrypture. And though the
scrypture seame neuer so repugnaunte both to them ād vs, yet God seeth
well ynough (saye they) how to sette thē together, and it is possyble
for God to make it agree, though they can not tell how. But thys
doctryne hath longe ynough deceyued vs. For mē haue seane to lōge wyth
your spectacles, yet now (thankes be to God) they begynne to see with
their owne eyes. And as towchyng how thys matter was possyble to God and
how it is not possyble, is suffycyently declared before to all them that
lyste to loke.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Howbeit as for me (though I be not bounde to yt) I
am cōtēt yet to proue, that God maye make the body of Christ to be in
all places at ones. And because thys yōge mā coupleth that proposycyō
with the other: so wyll I do also. And I wyll proue therfore that God cā
make hys bodye be bothe in many places at ones, & in all places at ones,
by that he is almyghtye, and therfore can do all thynge.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Now ys the good man in hys olde dreame agayne, and
thynketh that God is called almyghtye, because he can do all thynges.
And then in dede yt shulde folowe that he were not almyghtye. For all
thynges he can not do, he can not saue the vnfaythfull, he can not
restore virgynyte ones vyolated, he cā not synne, he cā not denye hym
selfe. Yf thys mās lernynge were alowed, thā myght not god be called
almyghty, because there is somwhat that he can not do. But they that are
accustomed with scrypture, do knowe that he is called almyghtye, not
because he can not do all thynges, but because there is no superyour
power aboue hym, but that he may do all that he wyll, and all that hys
pleasure is, maye he brynge to passe. But he hath no wyll nor pleasure,
to make his sone a lyer, & to make hys scrypture false and yet
notwitstondynge he abydeth almyghtye and may do what he wyll. And euē as
it is impossyble to stonde with the processe of the scryptures (wherin
God hath declaeed hys wyll) that the unfaythfull shulde be saued
(although at the fyrst god myght haue done it, yf he had so wolde)
lykewyse it is impossyble the scryptures stōdynge as they do, that the
naturall bodye of Christ, shulde be present to our teth in the sacramēt.
And as for our fayth, yt neadeth not to haue hym present in the breade.
For I may as well eate hym and drynke hym through fayth (that is to say,
beleue in hym) though he contynue styll in heauen, as though he were as
present in the sacramēt, as he was hangynge on the crosse. But yet hys
mastershype hath lefte one thynge vnproued, and that is euen the pyth of
hys purpose. For though he had proued (as he hath not) that God by hys
almyghtynes myght make Christes bodye in many places, and in all places,
& in the sacrament, yet he forgotte to proue that God hath so done. And
therfore albeyt I dyd graūte hym (as I wyll not) that he myght so do,
yet therof it doth not folow, that he hath so done in dede. For god maye
do manye thynges whiche he doth not. And therfore hys argument doth not
proue hys purpose. Now yf he do but thynke that God hath so done, I am
well pleased ād wyll not put hym to the payne to proue it. For anone ye
shall see hym so intaungled in bryars, that he shall not wete where to
be come.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ But yet this yonge man goeth aboute to proue thys
poynte by scrypture. For excepte we graunte hym that poynte to be true,
he sayeth that els we make the Angell a lyer that sayde, he is not here,
ād also that els we make as though Christes bodye in hys assensyon ded
not go vp in the cloude in to heauē from earth, but onelye hyd hym selfe
in the cloude, and playeth boo pyppe and taryed beneth styll. Here in
the ende he forgetteth hym selfe so fowle, that whan he was a yonge
sophyster he wolde I dare say, haue bene full sore ashamed so to haue
oversene hym selfe at Oxforde at a pervyse. For ye wote well that thynge
whiche he sayeth, and whiche he muste therfore proue, is that the bodye
of Christ cā not be in euerye place at ones by no meane that God coulde
make. And the textes that he bryngeth in for the proue, saye no further
but that he was not in all places at ones.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ There are two thynges dysputed betwene master More
and me: the one is whether God cā make the bodye of Christe in manye
places, and in the sacramente. And therto hys mastershyppe sayeth yea.
For God is almyghtye and maye do all thynges. And I saye naye, and
affyrme that God is not called almyghtye because he maye do all thynges,
but because he maye do all that he wyll. And I saye that he wyll not
make hys sonne a lyer, nor hys scrypture false, and that he can not do
it, and yet abydeth almyghtye. The other thynge is thys, whether he haue
done it or not. For albeyt I ded graunte hym that it were possyble, yet
is he neuer the nere excepte he eyther can proue that he hath done it in
dede, or els thynke that God hath so done. For as I sayde God can do
manye thynges which he doth not. And the controversye of thys doubte is
dyssolued by the Aungell and scrypture whiche (as master More graunteth
hym selfe) proueth that he was not in all places at ones, And therof it
foloweth, that God hath not done it, although it be possyble. And so is
hys mastershyppe at a poynte. For yf I shulde graunte it neuer so
possyble, yet yf scrypture proue that it be not so in dede, then is he
neuer the nere hys purpose, but moche the further from it. And thys is
euen it that I sayde before: that it was not possyble to stonde with the
processe of the scrypture which we haue receyued. And now hys
mastershyppe hath graunted it hym selfe, which you maye be sure he wolde
not do yf he coulde otherwyse avoyde it. And here you maye see howe sore
I haue overseane my selfe.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ God forbyd that any man shulde be the more prone and
readye to beleue thys yonge man in thys greate matter, because he sayeth
in the begynnynge that he wyll brynge all men to a concorde and a
quyetnes of conscyence. For he bryngeth men to the worste kynde of
quyetnes that maye be deuysed, when he telleth vs as he doth, that euery
man in thys matter, maye with out parell beleue which waye he lyste.
Euery man maye in euerye matter without any counsell, soone set hym
selfe at reste, yf he lyste to take that waye and to beleue as he lyste
hym selfe, ād care not how. But ād yf that waye had bene sure, Saynte
Paule wolde neuer haue shewed that manye were in parell of sycknes and
death also, for lacke of dyscernynge reuerentlye the bodye of our Lorde
in that Sacramente, when they came to receyue hym.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ When Christe shulde departe thys worlde and go to
hys Father, [Sidenote: Ioan. 15.] he gaue hys dyscyples a commaundement
that they shulde loue eche other, sayenge by thys shall all men knowe,
that ye are my dyscyples, yf ye loue eche other, as I haue loued you.
Thys rule of charyte wolde I not haue broken, which notwithstondynge is
often in Ieopardye a monge faythfull folke. This thynge consydered, I
thought it necessarye to advertyse both partyes to saue thys rule of
charyte, and proued in the fyrste chapter of my treatyse, that it was
none artycle of the fayth necessarye to be beleued vnder payne of
dampnacyon, and therfore that they were to blame that wolde be
contencyous for the matter. For syth it is none artycle of the fayth,
they may lawfullye dyssente without all Ieoperdye: and neade not to
breake the rule of charyte, but rather to receyue eche other lyke weake

This I saye I proued in the fyrste chapter agaynste which master More
maketh no busynes, and improueth it not. Wherbye you maye soone gather
that it is very true. For els syth hys mastershyppe so laboureth in
these other poyntes, he wolde not haue lefte that vntowched you maye be
sure. Thys is the concorde that I wolde brynge them vnto. And as
towchynge quyetnes of conscyence, I haue knowen manye that haue sore
bene combrede wyth it. And amōge all, a certayne master of arte which
dyed in Oxforth, confessed vpon hys death bedde, that he had wepte
lyenge in hys bedde an hundreth nyghtes wythin one yeare space, because
he coulde not beleue it. Now yf he had knowen that it had bene no
necessarye artycle, what cōforte and quyetnes shulde it haue bene vnto
hym. Furthermore, euerye man can not so quyet hymselfe, as master More
Imageneth. For there are manye that thynke them selfes no smalle foles,
which whan they haue receyued some folyshe superstycyon, eyther by their
owne Imagynacyon, or by belevynge their gossepes gospell ād olde wyfes
tales, by and bye thynke the cōtrarye to be deadly synne, and vtterly
forbydden by Chrystes gospell. As by example, I knowe an house of
relygyon, wherin is a parson that thynketh it deadly synne to go ouer
astrawe yf it lye acrosse. And yf there be vpon the pauemente any
paynted pycture, or any Image grauen vpon a deade mans graue, he wyll
not treade vpon it, although he shulde go a forelonge a bowte. What is
thys but vayne superstycyon wherewith the conscyence is combred and
corrupted? May not thys be weded out wyth the worde of God, shewynge hym
that it is none artycle of the fayth so to thynke, & then to tell hym
that it is not forboden by the scrypture, ād that it is no synne? Now
albeyt hys conscyence be so cankered that the ruste wyll not be rubbed
out: yet wyth Godes grace, some other whome he hath infected with the
same, maye come agayne to Godes worde and be cured full well, whiche
shulde neuer haue bene able to quyete them selfes. And lykewyse there
are some whiche beleue as your superstycyous hartes haue informed them,
and these can not quyete thēselues, because they beleue that you haue
featched your doctryne out of scrypture. But when it is proued to them,
and they themselues perceyue that scrypture sayeth not so, then can they
be contente to thynke the contrarye, ād Iudge it no synne at all. And as
towchynge S. Paule, surelye ye take hym wronge. For I wyll shewe you
what processe he taketh, and how he is to be vnderstonde. But because it
is not possyble to fynyshe it in fewe wordes, I shall deferre it vnto
the bokes ende, and then I shall declare hym at large.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ And what a fashyon is thys, to saye that we maye
beleue yf we lyste, that there is the verye bodye of our Lorde in dede,
and then to tell vs for a trouth, that suche a faythe is impossyble to
be true: for GOD hym selfe can neuer brynge it abought, to make hys
bodye to be there.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Yf a man take the bare wordes of Christe, and of
symplycyte be deceyued, and thynke that hys verye bodye be in the
sacramente present to their teth that eate it, I dare not saye that he
synneth therin, but wyll referre the matter vnto Godes Iudgement, and
yet without doubt, I dare saye he is deceyued. As by example, yf a man
deceyued by the litterall sence, wolde thynke that men shulde preache to
fysshes (as S. Fraunces ded) because Christe badde hys dyscyples go
preache to all creatures, yet wolde not I thynke that he synned therin.
But wyll referre hym vnto Goddes Iudgement. But yet I wene euerye woman
that hath anye wytte, wyll saye that he was deceyued.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ I am verye sure that the olde holye Doctours which
beleued Christes bodye and bloode to be there, and so taught other to
beleue, as by their bokes playnelye doth apere, yf they had thought
eyther that it coulde not be there or that it was not there in dede,
they wolde not for all the good in thys worlde haue wryten as they haue
done. For wolde those holye men (wene you) haue taught that men be
bounde to beleue, that the verye bodye and bloode of CHRISTE is there,
yf they them selfes thought that they were not bounde thervnto? Wolde
they make men honoure and worshyppe that thynge as the very bodye and
bloode of Christe whiche they thē selues thought were not it? Thys gere
is to chyldyshe to speake of.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ That the olde doctours and faythfull Fathers so
taught or thought as ye fayne of them, is verye false. For S. Austen as
I haue shewed, maketh whollye for vs. Besydes that, there is none of the
olde Fathers but they call it a sacramēte, a mysterye, and mystycall
meate, which is not eaten with toth or belye: but with eares and faythe.
And as towchynge the honoure and worshyppe done vnto it, I saye it is
playne Idolatrye. And I saye, that he falselye reporteth vpon the olde
holy Doctours. For they neuer taught men to worshyppe it, neyther can he
alleage one place in any of them all whiche wolde haue men to worshyppe
the sacramente. Peraduenture he maye alleage me certayne new felowes for
hys purpose, as Dunce, Dorbell, Durande, and suche draffe, whiche by
their doctryne haue deceyued the worlde wyth dampnable Idolatrye. But I
speake of the olde holye Fathers ād doctours, S. Austen, Ambrose,
Hierome, Cypriane, Cirille, Chrisostome, Fulgentius, and suche other:
These I saye, do not teache men to worshyppe it, and by that I dare
abyde. Of thys poynte I am so sure, that I wyll vse it for a contrarye
argument, that hys naturall bodye is not there presente. For yf the
holye Fathers before named had taken thys texte after the letter and not
onelye spyrytuallye, thē in their workes they wolde haue taught men to
worshyppe it, but they neuer taught mē to worshyppe thys sacrament,
therfore it foloweth they toke not the texte after the letter, but
onelye spyrytuallye. Now do I prouoke you to seake a proue of your
purpose. Neuer the lesse I wyll not denye, but that these holye Doctours
in dyuerse places, do call it hys bodye, as Christe and Paule do, and so
do we lykewyse: and saye also that this verye bodye is there eatē. But
yet we meane, that it is eaten with fayth (that is to saye by beleuynge
that hys bodye was broken for vs) ād haue his bodye more in memorye at
thys maundye thē the meate that we there eate. [Sidenote: Note.] And
therfore it hathe the name of hys bodye: because the name it selfe
shulde put vs in remēbraunce of hys bodye. And that hys bodye is there
chefelye eaten, euen more (through fayth) then the meate wyth the mouth.
And so are they also to be vnderstonde.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Yet one greate pleasure he doth vs, in that he
putteth vs all at lyberte, that we maye with out parell of dampnacyon
beleue as we ded before: that is to wete, that in the blessed sacramēt
the whole substaunce of the breade ād the wyne is transmuted ād chaunged
in to the verye bodye and bloode of Christe. For yf we maye wythout
parell of dampnacyon beleue thus, as hym selfe graunteth that we maye,
then graunteth he that we maye also without parell of dampnacyō beleue
that he hym selfe lyeth, where he sayeth, the trouth of that beleue is

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ The beleuynge of thys poynte, is of it selfe not
dampnable, as it is not dāpnable to thynke that Christe is a very stone
or a vyne, because the litterall sence so sayeth: or yf you beleue that
you ought to preache to fyshes and go Christen them another whyle, as ye
do belles. And I insure you, if there were no worse myschefe that ensued
of thys beleue, then it is in itselfe, I wolde neuer haue spoken
agaynste it. But now there foloweth vpon it dampnable Idolatrye. For
through the beleue that thys bodye is there, men fall downe and
worshyppe yt. And thynkynge to please God, do dampnable synne agaynste
hym. Thys I saye, is the cause that I so earnestlye wryte agaynste it,
to avoyde the Idolatrye that is cōmytted through it. Parte of the
germanes do thynke that hys naturall bodye is present in the sacramēt,
ād take the wordes fleshelye, as Martyn taught them. But none of them
worshyppe it, for that Martyn forbyddeth both in hys wordes ād workes,
and so (blessed be God) they auoyde that Ieoperdye, which thynge yf you
wyll also graunte, and publyshe but this one proposycyon, that it ought
not to be worshypped, I promyse you I wyll neuer wryte agaynste it. For
then is the Ieoperdye taken awaye, and then I am contēt that your
mastershyppe thynke I lye. But in the meane season I muste thynke that
ye fulfyll the worlde with dāpnable Idolatrye. And thus haue you also
answere vnto the conclusyon, which you alleage out of the kynges graces
boke. For I saye in your waye is no hurte, as longe as you do but onelye
beleue the bare wordes of the texte, as S. Fraunces ded, when he
preached to fyshes. But yf through the occasyon of those wordes, ye fall
in to the worshyppynge of it, then I saye that in your waye is vndoubted
dampnacyon. And so is there greate Ieoperdye in your waye, and none at
all in ours. For though he were there in dede, yet do not we synne yf we
worshyppe it not. For we are not commaunded to worshyppe the sacrament.
But yf he be not there, then do you dampnable Idolatrye.

                  ¶ The consecracyon of the Sacrament.

[Sidenote: More.] Now as for a nother quyetnes of euery mans
conscyencethys yonge man byddeth euerye man be bolde, whether the
blessed sacramēt be consecrate or vnconsecrate (for though he moste
specyallye speaketh of the wyne, yet he speaketh it of both) and byddeth
not care, but to take it for all that vnblessed as it is, because the
Preste (he sayeth) can not deceyue vs nor take from vs the profyte of
Christes instytucyon, whether he alter the wordes or leaue them all
vnsayde. Is not thys a wonderfull doctryne of thys yonge man. We knowe
well all, that the Preste can not hurte vs by hys oversyght or malyce,
yf there be no faulte vpō our owne partye, for that perfectyon that
lacketh vpon the Prestes parte, the great mercye of God as we truste of
hys owne goodnes supplyeth it. And therfore as holye Chrisostome sayeth,
no man can take harme but of hymselfe. But now yf we see the thynge
dysordered our owne selfe, by the Preste, and Christes instytucyon
broken, yf we than wetynglye receyue it vnblessed and vnconsecrated, and
care not whether Christes instytucyon be kepte and observed or no, but
reaken it is as good wythout it as with it, then make we our selfes
partakers of the faulte and lose the profyte of the sacrament, and
receyue it with dampnacyon: not for the Prestes faulte, but for our

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ I had thought that no Turke wolde haue wrested a
mannes wordes so vnfaythfullye. For he leaueth out all the pythe of my
matter, for my wordes are these. I wyll shewe you a meanes how ye shall
euer receyue it accordynge to Christes instytucyon, although the Prest
wolde withdrawe it from you. Fyrste ye neade to haue no respecte vnto
the Prestes wordes whiche mynystreth it. For yf ye remember for what
entent Christe ded instytute thys sacramente, and knowe that it was to
put vs in remembraunce of hys bodye breakynge and bloode sheadynge, that
we myght geue hym thankes for it, and be as sure of it through fayth
accordynge to his promyses, as we are sure of the breade by eatynge of
it: yf as I saye, ye remember thys thynge (for whiche intēte onelye the
Preste speaketh those wordes) then yf the Prest leaue out those wordes
or parte therof, he can not hurte you. For you haue already the effecte
and fynall purpose for the whiche he shulde speake them. And agayne yf
he shulde whollye altre thē, yet he can not deceyue you. For then ye be
sure that he is a lyer, and though you se the Preste brynge you the wyne
vnconsecrated, yet neuer stycke at that. For as surelye shall it
certyfye your conscyence and outwarde sences though he consecrate it not
(so thou consecrate it thy selfe: that is to saye, so thou knowe what is
ment therbye and geue hym thankes) as though he made a thousande
blessynges ouer it. And so I saye that it is euer consecrated in hys
harte that beleueth, though the Preste consecrate it not. And contrarye
wyse yf they consecrate it neuer so moche, and thy consecracyon be not
bye, it helpeth the not a ryshe. For excepte thou knowe what is ment
therby, and beleue, geuynge thākes for hys bodye breakynge and blood
sheadynge, it can not profytte them.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ Nowe where you saye, that yf we see the thynge
dysordered by the Preste, & Christes instytucyon broken, and wetynglye
receyue it, we make our selfes partakers of the cryme.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ I answere that yf the reformacyon therof laye in
our handes, then sayde you trouth, but syth thys is wryten to pryuate
parsones whiche maye not reforme this matter, and that the reformacyon
therof resteth onelye in the hande of your Prynce and Parlyamente (for
the erroure consysteth not in the mysorderynge of the matter by one
Preste onely, but rather of the doctryne of them all, sauynge suche as
God hath lyghtened) to these pryuate persons I saye that your doctryne
shulde soner be the occasyon of an insurreccyon (whiche we laboure to
eschewe) then anye quyetynge of them by Christes doctryne. And therfore
syth there is an other waye to the woode, sauynge all vpryght, we wyll
auoyde that parellous pathe. But when ye see Christes instytucyon broken
and the one kynde lefte out vnto the laye people, why are ye partaker

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ How be it as for hys beleue that taketh it no better
but for bare breade and wyne it maketh hym lytell matter consecrated or
not, sauynge that the better it is consecrated the more it is ever
noyous to hym that receyueth it, hauynge hys conscyence combred with
suche an execrable heresy, by which well apeareth that he putteth no
dyfferēce betwene the bodye of our lorde in the blessed sacramēt and the
comō breade that he eateth at his dyner. But rather he esteameth it
lesse. For the one yet I thynke or he begynne, yf he lacke a Prest, he
wyll blesse it hym selfe, as for the other he careth not, whether it be
blessed or not.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ What I reaken it more then breade and wyne I wyll
shewe you herafter in declarynge the mynde of S. Paule vpon thys
sacrament, and that in the conclusyō of thys boke. And in the meane
season I wyll saye no more but that he belyeth me. And as for their
blessynges and consecracyon profyte not me, excepte I consecrate it my
selfe with fayth in Christes bloode, and wyth geuynge hym prayse and
thankes for hys inestymable goodnes, whiche whē I was hys enemye
recōcyled me vnto hys Father by hys owne death. This consecracyon muste
I sette by, yf I wyl haue anye profyte of hys death which the sacrament
representeth vnto me. And yf I my selfe do thus consecrate it, then
shall I be sure of the frute of hys death. And I saye agayne, that as
the Prestes do now vse to consecrate it, it helpeth not the poore comons
of a ryshe. For their consecracyon shulde stonde in preachynge vnto them
the deathe of Christe whyche hath delyuered them out of the Egypte of
synne, and from the fyerye fornace of Pharao the devell.

And as for their waggynge of their fyngers over it, and sayenge syxe or
seauē wordes in Latyn, helpeth them nothynge at all. For how can they
beleue by the meanes of hys wordes, when they knowe not what he sayeth?
And as towchynge the daylye and commō breade that I eate at my dynner,
whether I haue a Preste or not, I blesse it with my harte (ād not with
my fyngers) and hartely geue God thankes for it. For yf I haue an
hundreth Prestes to blesse it, yet am not I excused therbye. For excepte
I blesse yt my selfe, yt profyteth me no more then yf it were vnblessed.
And I blesse yt my selfe, thā I care not what the Preste prate. For as
longe as I vnderstonde hym not, yt profyteth me nothyng. But in good
fayth I wene the Byshoppes and their proctoure wote not what a blessynge
meaneth. Therfore deare bretherne harken to me. To blesse God, is to
geue hym prayse ād thankes for hys benefyttes: [Sidenote: To blesse.] To
blesse a Kynge or a Prynce, is to thanke hym for hys kyndenes, and to
praye to God for hym, that he maye longe reygne to the laude of God and
wealth of hys commons. To blesse a mās neyghboure, is to praye for hym
and to do hym good. To blesse my breade or meate, is to geue God thankes
for it. To blesse my selfe, is to geue God thākes for the greate
benefyttes that I haue receyued of hym, and to praye God that of hys
infynyte goodes he wyll increase those gyftes that he hath geuen me, and
fynyshe hys worke which he hath begonne in me, vnto hys laude and
prayse. And as towchynge thys fleshe, to fulfyll hys wyll in it, and not
to spare yt, but scourge cutte ād burne it, onelye that it maye be to
hys honoure & glorye. Thys is the forme of blessynge, and not to wagge
two fyngers ouer them. But alacke, of this blessynge our Byshoppes be

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ But as for those that are good & faythfull folke,
and haue any grace or any sparcle of reason in their heades, wyll (I
verely thynke) neuer be so farre overseane, as in thys artycle (the
trouthe wherof God hath hym selfe testyfyed by as many opē myracles as
euer he testyfyed any one) to beleue thys yonge man vpon hys baren
reasons agaynste the faythe ād reasō both of all olde holy wryters ād
all good Christen people thys xv.C. yeares.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ As for the myracles, I mervell not at them, neyther
may they make me the sooner to beleue it. For Christe tolde vs before
[Sidenote: Mat. 24.] that suche delusyons shulde come, that yf it were
possyble, the very electe shulde be deceyued by them. [Sidenote: 2. Tes,
2.] And S. Paule exorteth vs to be ware of such sygnes ād wōders. And
therfore I do as Moses teacheth me [Sidenote: Deu. 13.] when I here of
suche a wonder, then strayght I loke vpon the doctryne that is annexed
wyth it. Yf it teache me to referre all the honoure to God and not to
creatures, and teache me nothynge but that wyll stonde with Goddes
worde, then wyll I saye, that it is of God. But yf it teache me suche
thynges as wyll not stonde with hys worde, then wyll I determyne that it
is done by the deuell, to delude the people with dampnable Idolatrye.
When Paule and Barnabas preached at Lystra [Sidenote: Acte. 24.] and had
done a myracle amonge them, the people ranne and wolde haue done
sacryfyce vnto them. But the Apostles ranne amonge them and tare their
clothes, cryenge vnto them, syrs what do you? We are euen corruptyble
men as ye are, and preache vnto you, that you shulde leaue thys vayne
superstycyon, ād worshyppe the leuynge God, which made heauē, earth, the
see, and all that is in thē et c. Here the Apostles refused suche honour
& worshyppe. And therfore I am sure they wolde not suffer their Images
to haue it. Now when I see a myracle done at any Image, and perceyue
that it bryngeth mē to the worshyppynge of it selfe, cōtrarye to the
facte and doctryne of the Apostles, whiche wolde not receyue it them
selues, I must neades conclude, that it is but a delusyon done by the
deuell to deceyue vs, ād to brynge the wrath of God vpon vs. Euē so I
saye of the sacramēt, syth the myracles that are don by it, do make mē
thynke otherwyse thē scripture wyll, ād cause mē to worshyppe it: I
doubte not but they are done by the deuell, to delude the peple. Thou
wylt perauēture say, that god wyll hym to abuse the sacrament of hys
bodye and bloode. Yes verelye, god wyll suffer yt, and doth suffer yt,
to see whether we wyll be faythfull and abyde by hys worde or not. And
mervell not therof, [Sidenote: Matt. 4.] for God suffered hym to take
vppe the verye naturall bodye of his sonne Christ and set hym vpon a
pynnacle of the temple. And after he toke hym vppe agayne, and ledde hym
to ā exceadynge moūtayne. And therfore thynke not but that he hath more
power over the sacramēt thē he had ouer christes owne bodye. And
therfore when they tell me, lo here is Christ: lo there is Christ (as
Christ prophecyed) lo, he is at thys aultre, lo, he is at that, I wyll
not beleue them.

Neuerthelesse yf I shulde graunte that all the myracles whiche were done
and ascrybed vnto the sacramente, were very true myracles and done of
God hym selfe (as I doubt not but some of thē be true) yet there vpon yt
doth not folowe that the Sacrament shulde be the verye naturall bodye of
Christe. For we haue evydent storyes that certayne persones haue bene
delyvered from bodelye dyseases through the sacrament of Baptyme. And
yet the water is not the holye Gost nor the very thynge yt selfe wherof
it is a sacramente. [Sidenote: Actes. 5.] The shadowe of Peter healed
many. And yet was not that shadowe Peters owne parson. [Sidenote: Actu.
19.] We reade also that napkyns and hande kerchers were caryed from
Paule vnto them that were sycke and possessed with vncleane spiretes and
they receyued their health. And yet it were neuerthelesse madnes, to
thynke that Paules bodye had bene actuallye or naturallye in those
thynges. And therfore thys is but a verye weake reason, to Iudge by the
myracles the presence of Christes bodye. And surelye you myght be
ashamed to make so slender reasons. For God maye worke myracles through
manye thynges which are not hys naturall bodye. And as towchynge the
olde doctoures whome you fayne to make wyth you, & the trouth of your
opynyon which you saye hath bene beleued of all good Christen people
this xv. C. yeares, is suffycyently declared before, and proued to be
but a poynte of your olde poetrye.

¶ Doctoure Barnes ded gracyouslye escape Master Mores handes.

[Sidenote: More.] And also Fryre Barnes, albeit that as ye wote well he
is in many other thynges a brother of thys yonge mās secte: yet in this
heresye he sore abhorreth hys heresye, or els he lyeth hym selfe. For at
hys laste beynge here he wrote a letter to me. Wherin he wryteth that I
laye that heresye wrōgfullye to hys charge. And sheweth hym selfe so
sore greved therwith that he sayeth, he wyll in my reproche make a boke
a gaynst me. Wherin he wyll professe and proteste hys faythe concernynge
this blessed sacramente. But in the meane season it well contenteth me,
that fryre Barnes beynge a man of more age, and more rype dyscrecyon,
and a doctoure of dyuynyte, and in those thynges better learned then
thys yonge man is, abhorreth thys yōge mannes heresye in thys poynte, as
well as he lyketh hym in many other.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ The more your mastershyppe prayseth Doctoure
Barnes, the worse men maye lyke your matter. For in many poyntes he doth
condempne your dampnable doctryne, as in hys boke appeareth. And
therfore yf suche credence must be geuē to hym, then moche the lesse
wyll be geuen to you. But peraduenture you wyll saye, that he is to be
beleued in this poynte, although he erre in other. Wherevnto I answere,
that yf you wyll consent vnto hym, I wolde be well apayed and wyll
promyse you to wryte no more in that matter. For in this we both agre,
that it ought not to be worshypped, yea and (blessed be God) all the
other whome you call heretyckes. And so both of vs do avoyde the
Idolatrye which you with so greate daunger do daylye cōmytte. And
therfor yf you folowe hys learnynge, then am I content that you dyssent
from me. For lette it not be worshypped, ād thynke as yow wyll, for then
is the parell paste. And syth we agre in thys poynte, doubte not but we
shall soone agre in the resydue, ād admytte eche other for faythfull
brothers. And where your mastershyppe sayeth, that he wrote you a letter
protestynge that you laye that heresye wrongfully to hys charge, I
thynke it was more wysdome for hym twyse to haue wryten to you, then
ones to haue come hym selfe ād tell you of it. For it was playnelye
tolde hym, that you had conspyred hys death, ād that notwithstondynge
hys saue conduyte, you were mynded to haue murthered hym. And for that
cause he was compelled both beynge here, to kepe hym selfe secretelye,
and also preuylye to departe the realme.

¶ And blessed be God you haue suffycyentlye publyshed your purpose in
your answere agaynste Wyllyan Tyndall, where you saye, that you myght
laufullye haue burnte hym. Here men maye see how percyallye you are
addycte to our prelates. And how prone ye were to fulfyll their
pleasures contrarye to our Prynces prerogatyue royall. And thākes be to
God which gaue you suche grace in the syght of our soveraygne, that he
shortelye withdrewe your power. For els it is to be feared that you
wolde further haue proceded agaynste hys graces prerogatyue, which
thynge whether yt be treason or not, let other men defyne. But thys I
dare saye, that it is prynted and publyshed to our Prynces greate
dyshonoure. For what learned man maye in tyme to come truste to hys
graces saue conduyte or come at hys graces instaunce or requeste, syth
not onelye the spirytualte (which of their professyon resyste hys
prerogatiue) but also a laye man promoted to suche preemynence by hys
graces goodnes, dare presume so to depresse hys prerogatyue and not
onelye to saye, but also to publyshe it in prente: that notwithstondynge
hys graces saue conduyte, they myght laufullye haue burnte hym.

But here he wolde saye vnto me as he dothe in hys boke, that he had
forfayted hys salue conduyte, ād therbye was fallē in to hys enemyes
handes. Where vnto I answere, that thys your sayenge is but a vayne
glose. For I my selfe ded reade the salue conduyte that came vnto him,
which had but onelye thys one condycyon annexed vnto it, that if he came
before the feaste of Christmas then nexte ensuynge, he shulde haue free
lyberte to departe at hys pleasure. And thys condycyon I knowe was
fulfylled. How shulde he than forfayte hys salue cōduyte? But master
More hath learned of hys masters our Prelates (whose proctoure he is) to
depresse our Prynces prerogatyue, that mē ought not to keape any promyse
with heretyckes. And so hys salue cōduyte coulde not saue hym. As though
the Kynges grace myght not admytte any man to go and come frelye into
hys graces realme, but that he muste haue leaue of our prelates. For els
they myght laye heresye agaynst the parson, and so sleye hym cōtrarye to
the Kynges salue cōduyte, which thynge all wyse men do knowe to be
preiudycyall to hys graces prerogatyue royall. And yet I am sure that of
all the tyme of hys beynge here, you can not accuse hym of one cryme,
albeit (vnto your shame) you saye that he had forfayted hys salue
conduyte. These wordes had be verye extreame and worthy to haue bene
loked vpon, although they had bene wryten by some presumptuous Prelate.
But that a laye man so hyghlye promoted by hys Prynce, shulde speake
them and also cause them openlye to be publyshed amonge hys graces
comons, to deyecte the estymacyon of hys royall power, doth in my mynde,
deserue correccyon. Notwithstondynge I leaue the iudgement and
determynacyon, vnto the dyscrecyō of hys graces honourable counsell.

[Sidenote: More.] ❧ And as for that holy prayer that this devoute yōge
man (as a newe Christe teacheth all hys congregacyon to make at the
receyuynge of thys blessed sacrament) I wyll not geue the parynge of a
peare, though it were moche better thē it is, pullynge away the true
fayth (as he doth) frō the Sacrament. Howbeit hys prayer there is so
devysed, penned, and paynted with laysure and studye, that I truste
euery good Christen woman maketh a moche better prayer, at the tyme of
her howsell, by faythfull affectyō & by Gods good inspyracyō sodēlye.
Fryth is an vnmete master to teache vs what we shulde praye at the
receyuynge of the blessed sacrament, whē he wyll not knowlege it as it
is, but take Christes blessed body for no thynge but bare breade, & so
lytle esteame the receyuyng of the blessed sacramēt, that he forsyth
lytle whether it be blessed or not.

[Sidenote: Fryth.] ¶ Where he dyscommendeth my prayer & sayeth, that I
am an vnmete master to teache men to praye, seynge I take away the true
fayth from it, and sayeth that euery woman can make a better when she
receyueth the sacramente, I wolde to God that euery woman were so well
learned that they coulde teache vs both. And surely I intended not to
prescrybe to all men that prayer onely, but hoped to healpe the
ygnoraunt, that they myght eyther speake those wordes, or els (takynge
occasyon of them) to saye some other, to the laude and prayse of God.
And as for your fayth (which you call the true fayth) must I neades
improue. For it wyll not stōde with the true texte of scrypture, as it
playnelye appeareth. But to the fayth in Christes bloode I exhorte all
men, and teach them to eate hys bodye with fayth (& not with teeth)
which is by hauynge hys death in cōtynuall remembraunce, and digestynge
it in to the bowels of the soule. And because you so sore improue my
prayer, to cōclude my answere agaynst you, I wyll rehearse yt agayne.
And lette all mē Iudge betwene vs. Blessed be thou most deare and
mercyfull Father, which of thy tender fauoure & benygnyte,
notwithstōdynge our greuous enormytees cōmytted agaynste thee,
vouchsauedst to sēde thyne owne deare sone, to suffre moste vyle death
for our redempcyon.

Blessed be thou Chryst Iesu our Lorde & sauyour, which of thyne
haboundāt pytye consyderynge our myserable estate, wyllyngly tokest vpon
the to haue thy moste innocent bodye broken & bloode shedde to pourge vs
and washe vs which are loadē with inyquyte. And to certyfye vs therof,
hast lefte vs not onely thy worde which maye enstructe our hartes; But
also a vysyble token to certyfye euen our outwarde sences of this greate
benefytte, that we shulde not doubte, but that the bodye and frute of
thy passyon are ours (through fayth) as surelye as the breade, which by
our sentes we knowe that we haue within vs. Blessed be also that spiryte
of veryte which is sente from God our father through our sauyour Christ
Iesu, to lyghten our darcke ignoraunce, and leade vs through fayth in to
the knoweleage of hym which is all veryte. Strength we beseche the our
frayle nature, and encreace our faythe: that we maye prayse God our
moste mercyfull Father, and Christe hys sonne our Sauyoure and redeamer.

       A comparyson betwene the Paschall Lambe, & our Sacrament.

Now we shall shortely expresse the pyth of our matter and borowe the
fygure of the paschall Lambe, which is in all poyntes lyke vnto it. That
the offerynge of the Paschall Lambe ded sygnyfye the offerynge of
Christes bodye, is playne by Paule which sayeth, [Sidenote: 1. Cor. 5.]
Christe our Paschall Lambe is offered vp for vs. When the chylderne of
Israell were very sadde and heauy for their sore oppressyon vnder the
power of Pharao (for the more myracles were shewed, the worse were they
handeled) God sente vnto them by Moyses, that euerye housholde shulde
kyll a Lambe to be a sacryfyce vnto GOD, and that they shulde eate hym
with their staues in their handes, theyr loynes gyrded, and showes vpon
their feete: euen as men that were goynge an hastye Iorneye. This Lambe
muste they eate hastelye and make a merye maundye. Now because they
shulde not saye, that they coulde not be merye for their oppressyon, and
what coulde the lābe helpe them: he added gladde tydynges vnto it and
sayde, This is the passynge bye of the Lorde. Whiche thys nyght shall
passe by you and slee all the fyrste begotten within the Londe of
Egypte, and shall delyuer you out of your bondage, & brynge you in to
the Londe that he hath promysed vnto your fathers. Marke the processe
and conveyaunce of thys matter, for euen lykewyse it is in our
sacrament. The apostles were sadde & heauye, partelye consyderynge the
bondage of synne wherwith they were oppressed, & partelye because he
tolde them that he muste departe frō thē, [Sidenote: Ioan. 16.] in whō
they ded put all their hope of their delyueraunce. Whyles they were in
thys heauynes, Christ thought to conforte them ād to geue them the seale
of theyr delyueraunce, and toke in hys hande breade, blessed and brake
it, and gaue it to hys dyscyples sayēge: This is my bodye which shalbe
geuē for you. For this nyght shall the power of Pharao the deuell be
dystroyed, and to morowe shall you be delyuered from the Egypte of
synne, and shall take your Iourneye towardes that heauenlye mansyon
which is prepared of God for all that loue hym. Now compare them

[Sidenote: 1.] The Paschall Lambe was instytute ād eaten the nyght
before the chylderne of Israell were in dede delyuered frō Egypte.
Lykewyse was the sacramēt instytute ād eaten the nyght before we were
delyuered from our synnes.

[Sidenote: 2.] The Paschall Lābe was a verye Lābe in dede. And so is the
sacrament very breade in dede.

[Sidenote: 3.] The Paschall Lābe was called the passynge bye of the
Lorde which dystroyed the power of Pharao ād delyuered them. The
sacrament is called the bodye of the Lorde which dystroyed the power of
the deuell and delyuered vs.

[Sidenote: 4.] As many as ded eate the Paschall Lābe in fayth, were very
merye and gaue God greate thankes. For they were sure the nexte day to
be delyuered out of Egypte. Lykewyse as many as ded eate thys sacramēte
in fayth, were merye and gaue God greate thankes, for they were sure the
nexte daye to be delyuered from their synne.

[Sidenote: 5.] They that ded not eate the Paschall Lambe in fayth,
coulde not be merye. For they were not sure of delyueraunce from the
powre of Pharao. They that ded not eate thys Sacramente in fayth, coulde
not be mery: For they were not sure of delyueraunce from the power of
the deuell.

[Sidenote: 6.] They that beleued the worde of the Lord ded more eate the
passyng bye of the Lorde which shulde delyuer thē, thē they ded the
Lambe. They that dede beleue the worde of the Lorde ded more eate the
bodye of the Lorde which shulde be geuen for their delyueraunce, then
they ded the breade. For that thynge doth a man moste eate that he moste
hath in memorye & moste revolueth in mynde: as appeareth by Christe Ioā.
4. I haue meate to eate that ye knowe not.

[Sidenote: 7.] They that beleued not the nexte daye to be delyuered from
Egypte, ded not eate the passynge bye of the Lord, although they eate
the Lambe. They that beleued not the nexte daye to be delyuered from
synne, ded not eate the bodye of the Lorde, although they eate the

[Sidenote: 8.] The chylderne of Israell were but ones delyuered from
Egypte, notwithstōdynge they ded euery yeare eate the Lambe, to keape
that facte in perpetuall remēbraunce: Euen so Christ bought ād redeamed
vs but ones for all, and was offered ād sacryfyced but ones for all,
though the sacramēt therof be daylye brokē amonge vs, to keape the
benefytte in contynuall memorye.

[Sidenote: 9.] As manye as ded eate the Paschall Lābe in faythe and
beleued Godes worde as towchynge theyr delyueraunce from Egypte, were as
sure of their delyueraunce through faythe, as they were sure of the Lābe
by eatynge it. As many as do eate this sacrament in fayth and beleue
Goddes worde as towchynge their delyueraunce from synne, are as sure of
their delyueraunce through fayth, as they are sure of the breade by
eatynge it.

[Sidenote: 10.] As many as ded eate of that Paschall Lambe ded magnyfye
their God, testyfyenge that he onely was the God almyghtye, ād they hys
people styckynge to hym, to be delyuered by hys power from all daunger.
As manye as do eate of thys sacrament do magnyfye their God, testyfyinge
that he onelye is the God almyghtye, and they hys people styckynge by
hym to be delyuered by hys power frō all daunger.

[Sidenote: 11.] When the Israelytes were delyuered from Egypte, they
eate neuerthelesse the Paschal Lambe whiche was styll called the
passynge bye (because it was the remēbraunce of the passynge bye of the
Lorde) and hartelye reioysed, offerynge hym sacryfyce and knowelegynge
with infynite thankes, that they were the felowshyppe of them that had
suche a mercyfull God. Now Christes electe are delyuered from synne,
they eate neuerthelesse the sacramēt which is styll called hys bodye
that ones dyed for their delyueraunce, and hartelye reioyse, offerynge
to hym the sacryfyce of prayse and knoweledge with infynite thākes, that
they are of the felowshyppe of them that haue suche a mercyfull God.

[Sidenote: 12.] The Paschall Lambe (after their delyueraunce beynge
yearlye eaten) brought as moche myrthe and Ioye vnto them that ded eate
it in fayth, as it ded to their fathers which felte Pharaoes furye, &
were not yet delyuered. For they knewe ryght well that excepte God of
hys mercye and wōderfull power had so delyuered them, they shulde also
them selfes haue bene bounde in the Londe of Egypte, and vnder that
wycked Prynce Pharao, of whiche bōdage they greatelye reioysed to be
rydde alreadye, and thanked God hyghly because they founde them selfes
in that plentuouse Londe whiche God prouyded for them. The sacramēt
which after our delyueraunce is yearlye and daylye eatē, bryngeth as
moche myrth and Ioye vnto vs that eate it in fayth, as it ded to the
Apostles which were not yet delyuered. For we knowe ryght well that
excepte God of hys mercye and through the bloode of his sonne had so
delyuered vs, we shulde also our selfes haue bene bounde in the Egypte
of synne vnder that wycked Prynce the deuell, of which bondage we
greatelye reioyse to be rydde alredye, and thanke God hyghlye because we
fynde our selues in the state of grace, and haue receyued throughe fayth
the fyrste frutes and taste of the spyryte, which testyfyeth vnto vs
that we are the chylderne of God.

This maundye of remembraunce was it that Paule receyued of the Lorde and
delyuered to the Corynthyans in the .xi. chaptre. For though he borowe
one propertye and symylytude of the sacramente in the .x. chapter, which
in my mynde maketh neyther with vs nor agaynste vs, albeit some thynke
that it maketh whole for the exposycyon of Christes wordes, [Sidenote:
1. Cor. 10.] thys is my bodye. But in my mynde they are deceyued. For
the occasyon whye Paule spake of it in the tenthe chapter, was thys.

The Corynthyans had knoweleage that all meates were indyfferent, and
whether it were offered to an Idoll or not, that the meate was not the
worse, ād that they myght laufullye eate of it, whether it were solde
them in the shambles or sette before them when they dyned or souped in
an vnfaythfull mannes house, askynge no questyons: excepte some man ded
tell thē that it was offerred to an Idoll, and then they shulde not eate
of it for offendynge hys conscyence that so tolde them (albeyt they were
els free and the thynge indyfferente) thys knoweledge because it was not
annexed wyth charyte, was the occasyon of greate offendynge.

For by reason therof they sate downe amonge the Gentyles at their
Feastes, where they ded eate in the honoure of their Idolles, and so ded
not onelye wounde the conscyēce of their weake bretherne, but also
cōmytted Idolatrye in dede. And therfore S. Paule sayde vnto them. My
deare beloued flee from worshyppynge of Idolles. I speake vnto them
whiche haue dyscrecyon. Iudge ye what I saye. Is not the cuppe of
blessynge which we blesse the felowshyppe of the bloode of Christe? Is
not the breade which we breake the felowshyppe of the bodye of Christe?
For we though we be manye are yet one breade and one bodye, in as moche
as we are partakers of one breade. Christ ded call hym selfe bread ād
the breade hys bodye. And there Paule calleth vs breade and the breade
our bodye. Now maye you not take Paule that he in this place shulde
dyrectelye expounde Christes mynde. And that the verye exposycyō of
Christes wordes, whē he sayde, thys is my bodye, shulde be that it was
the felowshyppe of his bodye, as some saye, whiche seakynge the keye in
thys place of Paule, locke them selfes so faste in, that they can fynde
no waye out. For Christe spake those wordes of hys owne bodye which
shulde be geuē for vs, but the felowshyppe of Christes bodye (or
congregacyon) was not geuen for vs. And so he mente not as Paule here
sayeth, but mēte hys owne bodye. For as Paule calleth the breade our
bodye for a certayne propertye, euen so doth Christe call it hys bodye
for certayne other propertyes. In that the breade was brokē, it was
Christes owne bodye, sygnyfyēge that as that breade was broken, so
shulde hys bodye be brokē for vs. In that it was dystrybuted vnto hys
dyscyples, it was hys owne bodye, sygnyfyēge that as verelye as that
breade was destrybuted vnto them, so verelye shulde the death of hys
bodye, and frute of hys passyon be dystrybuted to all faythfull folke.
In that the breade strengtheneth our bodyes, it is hys owne bodye,
sygnyfyenge that as our bodyes are strengthened and conforted by breade,
so are our soules by the fayth in hys bodye brekynge. And lykewyse of
the wyne in that it was so dystrybuted, conforteth vs and maketh vs
merye. Furthermore, the breade and wyne haue a nother propertye, for the
whiche it is called our bodye. For in that the breade is made one breade
of manye graynes or cornes, it is our bodye, sygnyfyenge that we though
we be manye, are made one breade, that is to saye: one bodye. And in
that the wyne is made one wyne of manye grapes, it is our bodye,
sygnyfyenge that though we are manye yet in Christe & through Christe we
are made one bodye and membres to eche other. But in thys thynge Paule
and Christe agre. For as Paule calleth the breade our bodye and vs the
breade, because of thys propertye that it is made one of manye: euen so
doth Christe call it hys bodye, because of the propertyes before
rehearsed. Furthermore in thys they agre, that as Paules wordes muste be
taken spyrytuallye, for I thynke there is no man so madde, as to Iudge
that the breade is our bodye in dede although in that propertye it
representeth our bodye: Euen so muste Christes wordes be vnderstonde
spyrytuallye, that in those propertyes it representeth hys verye bodye.
Now when we come together to receyue thys breade, then by the receyuynge
of it in the congregacyon, we do openlye testyfye that we all whiche
receyue it, are one bodye, professynge one God, one Fayth, & one
Baptyme, and that the bodye of Christe was brokē and hys bloode shedde
for remyssyon of our synnes. Now syth we so do, we maye not acompanye
nor sytte in the congregacyon or felowshyppe of thē that offer vnto
Idolles and eate before them. For as Paule sayeth, ye cā not drynke the
cuppe of the Lorde and the cuppe of the deuels: ye can not be partakers
of the table of the Lorde and of the table of the deuelles. I wolde not
that you shulde haue felowshyppe with deuelles. The heythen which
offerred vnto Idolles were the felowshyppe of deuelles, not because they
eate the deuelles bodye or drāke the deuelles bloode, but because they
beleued and put their confydence in the Idoll or devyll as in their God,
and all that were of that fayth had their ceremonyes, and gaue hartye
thankes to their God with that feaste which they kepte. They came to one
place and brought their meate before the Idoll and offered it. And with
their offerynge gaue vnto the devyll Godlye honoure. And then they sate
downe and eate the offerynge together, geuynge prayse and thākes vnto
their God, and were one bodye and one felowshyppe of the devell, which
they testyfy by eatynge of that offerynge before that Idoll. Now dothe
S. Paule reprehende the Corinthyans for bearynge the gentyles companye
in eatynge before the Idoll. For they knowe that the meate was lyke
other meate. And therfore thought them selues fre to eate it or leue it.
But they perceyued not that that congregacyō was the felowshyppe of
develles whiche were there gathered (not for the meate sake) but for to
thanke, and prayse the Idoll their God in whome they had their

And all that there assembled and ded there eate, and ded openlye
testyfye, that they all were one bodye, professynge one fayth in their
GOD that Idoll: So S. Paule ded sharpelye rebuke them, for because that
by their eatynge (in that place and felowshyppe) they testyfyed openlye,
that they were of the develes bodye, and reioysed in the Idoll their
God, in whome they had fayth and confydence. And therfor sayeth Paule,
that they cā not both drynke the cuppe of the Lorde, testyfyenge hym to
be their God in whome onelye they haue truste and affyaunce, ād the
cuppe of the devell, testyfyenge the Idoll to be their God and refuge.

Here you maye note that the meate and the eatynge of it in thys place
and felowshyppe, is more then the common meate ād eatynge in other
places. For els they myght lawfullye haue dronken the deuelles cuppe
with them the one daye, and the cuppe of the Lorde the nexte daye with
his dyscyples. What was it more? Merelye it was meate, whiche by the
eatynge of it in that place and felowshyppe, ded testyfye openlye vnto
all men, that he was their God whose cuppe they dranke, and before whome
they eate in that felowshyppe; and so in their eatynge they praysed and
honoured the Idoll. And therfore they that had their truste in the
leuynge God and in the bloode of hys sonne Christ, myght not eate with
them. And lykewyse it is in the sacrament, the breade and the eatynge of
it in the place and felowshyppe where it is receyued, is more then commō
breade. What is it more? Verelye it is breade which by the eatynge of it
in that place & felowshyppe, doth testyfye openlye vnto all men, that he
is our verye God whose cuppe we drynke, and before whome we eate in that
felowshyppe, and that we put all our affyaunce in hym and in the bloode
of hys sonne Christe Iesu, geuynge God all honoure ād infynyte thankes
for hys greate loue wherwith he loued vs, as it is testyfyed in the
bloode of hys sonne, which was shedde for our synnes. So that in this
place and felowshyppe maye no man eate nor drynke with vs, but he that
is of our fayth and knowleageth the same God that we do. As by example,
If a mā were well beloued amonge hys neyghboures (albeyt he haue some
enemyes) & were longe absent from hys fryndes in a straunge contrye:
when he were come home, hys neyghboures that loued hym wolde greatelye
reioyse, and peraduēture wolde bye a copon or a nother peace of meate to
geue hym hys welcome home, ād gette the to some honeste mans house or to
a taverne, and make good chere together, to testyfye opēlye that he is
welcome home, and that they all whiche are at that banket reioyse of hys
commyge home. Nowe I saye, that this banket is more then another meate,
for at thys banket hys enemyes maye be loth to come, because they can
not reioyse at hys comynge home, ād therfore can not make good chere
amonge thē, testyfyenge that he is welcome home; but rather abhorreth
the meate and drynke that is there eatē, because their harte doth not
fauoure the parson for whose sake it is prepared. Notwithstondynge yf a
capons legge were reserued for one of hys enemyes and afterwarde geuen
hym whā the banket were done, he myght laufullye eate it. For then it
were but bare meate, suche as he eateth at home. And lykewyse the
enemyes of Christe which beleue not that they haue remyssyō of synnes
throughe hys bloode sheadynge, can not reioyse of hys bodye breakynge.
And therfore can not make good chere amonge them, but yf any be reserued
after the maundye, he maye laufullye eate it, for it is but breade. And
hys louers that are there present do rather come thy der to geuehym hys
welcome home then for the meate, ād they more eate hys welcome home,
then the meate.

But yf anye of hys enemyes fortune to be there, they eate onelye the
meate, ād not hys welcome home. For they reioyse not at hys commynge
home. Lykewyse the faythfull that are there present, do rather come
thyther to reioyse in the fayth of hys bodye breakynge, then in
breakynge or eatynge of the breade or meate. But yf anye of the
vnfaythfull fortune to be there, they eate onelye the breade, and not
hys bodye breakynge. For they reioyse not at hys bodye breakynge. Here
peraduenture some wolde suppose that I were contrarye to my selfe. For
before I sayde, that it was more thē meate that was eaten at the
gentyles feastes, ād more thē meate that was eaten at my neyghbours
welcome home, and more then breade that is eaten at the receyuynge of
the sacrament of the bodye and bloode of Christe. And nowe I saye, that
yf a mans enemye be there, he eateth onelye the meate and not the
welcome home. And lykewyse the vnfaythfull eateth onelye breade and not
the bodye and bloode of Christe. How maye these wordes stonde together?
I answere, that they eate but onelye breade or meate that profyteth
them, but in dede they eate more to their hynderaunce, and euen theyr
owne dāpnacyon. For they that ded eate in the fellowshyppe of Gentyles,
ded but onelye eate the meate to their profytte, but in eatynge their
meate their facte ded opēlye testyfye, that they honoured that Idoll for
their GOD (although their harte were other-wyse) wherin they comytted
Idolatrye. [Sidenote: 1. Cor. 8.] And besydes that they wounded the
conscyences of their weake bretherne, and so synned agaynste God.

Besydes that, he that ēvyeth hys neyghboure and commeth to that banket,
eateth but onely the meate that profyteth hym: not withstondynge in hys
owne harte, he eateth the rancoure & malyce of hys mynde, to hys greate
greavaunce, whē he seeth them so reioyse. And of hys owne companyons
whiche are also these mannes enemyes, he doth purchace hym selfe hatred,
because with hys facte he testyfyeth that he loueth hym, although hys
harte be otherwyse, ād of God shalbe condempned. [Sidenote: 1. Joā. 3.]
For he that hateth hys brother, is a murtherer. Furthermore he that is
vnfaythfull and commeth to the maundye, eateth but onelye the breade
that profyteth hym, notwithstondynge he eateth besyde that hys owne
dampnacyon, because he beleueth not that the bodye of our sauyoure which
the sacrament representeth, is broken for hys synnes, and hys bloode
shedde, to washe them awaye. This I am compelled to do, to stoppe the
chaterynge mouthes of sophysters, albeit to them that be sober it had
bene ynough to haue sayde, they eate onelye breade, and not the bodye
breakynge & ce. For they ryght well vnderstonde it by the contrarye
antithesis, and knowe that I ment not by that (onelye) that he shulde
eate the breade and nothynge els but onelye breade: but that I ment by
this worde (onelye) that he shulde eate the breade without the bodye.
And so lykewyse in other examples. Thus haue we suffycyentlye declared
Paules mynde in the .x. Chapter.

[Sidenote: 1. Cor. 11.] In the .xi. chapter Paule maketh moche mencyon
of the maundye and dyscrybeth it to the vttermoste. Fyrste (he sayeth)
whē ye come together in one place, a man can not eate the Lordes souper.
For euerye mā begynneth afore to eate hys owne souper, and one is
houngrye and an other is drōken. Haue ye not howses to eate and drynke
in? Or els dyspyce ye the congregacyō of God and shame them that haue
not? What shall I saye vnto you? Shall I prayse you? In thys I prayse
you not. Paule ded instructe accordynge to Christes mynde, that the
Corinthyans shulde come together to eate the Lordes souper. Whiche lyeth
not so moche in the carnall eatynge as in the spyrytuall: and is
greately desyred to be eaten, not by the hounger of the bodye, but by
the hounger of the faythfull harte. Whiche is greadye to publyshe the
prayse of the Lorde and geue hym hartye thankes, and moue other to the
same, that of many, prayse myght be geuen vnto our moste mercyfull
Father, for the loue whiche he shewed vs in the bloode of hys owne moste
deare sonne Christe Iesu. Wherwith we are washed from our synnes, ād
surelye sealed vnto euerlastynge lyfe. With suche hounger ded Christe
eate the Paschall Lambe, sayēge to hys dyscyples: I haue inwardelye
desyred to eate this Easter Lambe with you before that I suffer.
[Sidenote: Luc. 22.] Christes inwarde desyre was not to fyll hys belye
with hys dyscyples, but he had a spyrytuall honger: bothe to prayse hys
Father with thē, for their bodely delyueraunce out of the lande of
Egypte: and specyallye to altre the Paschall Lambe & memorye of the
carnall delyueraunce, in to a maundye of myrth and thankes geuynge for
our spyrytuall delyueraunce out of the bondage of synne. In so moche
that when Christe knewe that it was hys Fathers wyll and pleasure, that
he shulde suffer for our synnes (wherin his honoure, glorye, & prayse,
shulde be publyshed) then was it a pleasure vnto hym to declare vnto hys
dyscyples that greate benefytte, vnto hys Fathers prayse and glorye: and
so ded instytute that we shulde come together and breake the breade in
the remembraunce of his bodye breakynge & bloode sheadynge: & that we
shulde eate it together reioysynge with eche other & declaryng his

Now were the Corynthyās fallē from this honger, & can not together to
thētent that Goddes prayse shulde be publyshed by thē in the myddes of
the cōgregacyon, but can to feade their fleshe & to make carnall chere.
In so moche that the ryche wolde haue meate ād drynke ynough, ād take
suche habundance that they wolde be drōke, ād so made it their owne
souper ād not the Lordes, as Paule sayeth, ād ded eate onelye the breade
& meate, ād not the bodye breakynge as I sayde before, ād the poore
which had not, (that is to saye that had no meate to eate) were shamed
ād hōgrye, and so coulde not reioyse ād prayse the Lorde: by the reason
that the delycate fare of the ryche was an occasyō for the poore to
lament their pouertye, ād thus the ryche ded neyther prayse God
themselfes, nor suffered the poore to do it, but were an occasyō to
hynder them.

They shulde haue brought their meate and drynke ād haue deuyded it with
their poore bretherne, that they myght haue bene mery together, and so
to haue geuē thē occasyō to be merye and reioyse in the Lorde with
thankes geuynge. But they had neyther luste to prayse God, nor to
confyrte their neyghboure. Their fayth was feable, ād their charyte
colde, ād had no regarde but to fyll their bodye ād feade their fleshe:
And so dyspysed the poore cōgregacyō of God, whome they shulde haue
honoured for the spyryte that was in thē and fauoure that God had shewed
indyfferētlye vnto thē in the bloode of hys sonne Christe. When Paule
perceyued that they were thus fleshlye mynded and had no mynde vnto that
spyrytuall maundye whiche chefelye shulde there be aduertysed, he
reproueth thē sore, rehersynge the wordes of Christe. That which I gaue
vnto you I receyued of the lorde. For the lorde Iesus the same nyght in
the which he was betrayed toke breade and thanked and brake it and
sayde: take ye and eate ye, this is my bodye which is broken for you,
this do ye in the remembraunce of me. After the same maner he toke the
cuppe whē souper was done sayenge: this cuppe is the newe testament in
my bloode, this do ye as ofte as ye drynke it in the remembraunce of me.
For as ofte as ye shall eate thys breade and drynke thys cuppe, ye shall
shewe the Lordes death, tyll he come. As though he shulde saye, ye
Corynthyans are moche to blame which at this souper seake the foode of
your fleshe. For it was instytute of Christe, not for the intent to
nouryshe the belye, but to strenght the harte and soule in God. And by
this you maye knowe that Christe so mente: For he calleth it his bodye
whiche is geuen for you, so that the name it selfe myght testyfye vnto
you, that in this souper you shulde more eate his bodye which is geuē
for you (by digestynge that in to the bowelles of your soule) then the
breade, which by the breakynge and the dystrybutynge of it, doth
represent his bodye breakynge ād the dystrybutynge therof vnto all that
are faythfull. And that he so meaneth is evydēte by the wordes
folowynge, which saye, thys do in the remembraunce of me: and lykewyse
of the cuppe. And fynallye concludynge of both, Paule sayeth, as often
as ye shall eate thys breade and drynke thys cuppe (in thys place and
felowshyppe) ye shall shewe the Lordes death vntyll he come, praysynge
the Lorde for the deathe of hys sonne, and exhortynge other to do the
same, reioysynge in hym with infynyte thākes. And therfore ye are to
blame which seake onelye to feade the bellye with that thynge, which was
onelye instytute to feade the soule. And thervpon yt foloweth.

Wherfore whosoeuer doth eate of this breade or drynke of thys cuppe
vnworthelye, is gyltye of the bodye and bloode of the Lorde. He eateth
thys breade vnworthelye, which regardeth not the purpose for the which
Christe ded instytute it: which commeth not to it with spyrytuall
honger, to eate through fayth hys verye bodye, which the breade
representeth by the breakynge and dystrybutynge of yt: whiche commeth
not with a merye harte geuynge God hartye thankes for their delyueraunce
from synne: whiche do not moche more eate in their harte the death of
hys bodye, thē they do the breade with their mouth. Now syth the
Corynthyans ded onelye seake their bealy and fleshe, ād forgatte Goddes
honoure and prayse (for which it was instytute, that thankes shulde be
geuen by the remembraunce of hys bodye breakynge for vs) they eate it to
Goddes dyshonoure and to their neyghbours hynderaunce, and to their owne
cōdempnacyon, and so for lacke of fayth were gyltye of Christes bodye
which (by fayth) they shulde there chefelye haue eaten to their soules
health. And therfore it foloweth.

¶ Lette a man therfore examyne hym selfe, & so lette hym eate of the
breade, and drynke of the cuppe.

Thys provynge or examynynge of a mans selue, is fyrste to thynke with
hym selfe with what luste ād desyre he commeth vnto the maundye ād wyll
eate that breade: whether he be sure that he is the chylde of God and in
the fayth of Christe: and whether hys cōscyence do beare hym wytnes that
Christes bodye was broken for hym: and whether the luste that he hath to
prayse God ād thāke hym with a faythfull harte in the myddes of the
bretherne, do dryue hym thytherwarde. Or els whether he do it for the
meates sake or to keape the custome: For then were it better that he
were awaye. For he that eateth or drynketh vnworthely, eateth ād
drynketh hys owne dampnacyon, because he maketh no dyfference of the
Lordes bodye. That is, as is sayde before, he that regardeth not the
purpose for which it was instytute, and putteth no dyfference betwene
thys eatynge and other eatynge, for other eatynge doth onelye serue the
bellye, but thys eatynge was instytute and ordeyned, to serue the soule
and inwarde man. And therfore he that abvseth it to the fleshe, eateth
ād drynketh hys owne dampnacyon. And he commeth vnworthelye to the
maundye where the sacrament of Christes bodye is eaten: yea, where the
bodye of the Lorde is eatē, not carnallye with the teth and bellye, but
spyrytually with the harte ād faythe. Upon thys foloweth the texte that
master More alleageth and wresteth for hys purpose.

For thys cause manye are weake and sycke amonge you, and manye sleape.
Yf we had trulye Iudged our selues, we shulde not haue bene Iudged. When
we are Iudged of the Lorde, we are chastened because we shulde not be
dampned with the worlde. Wherfore my bretherne, whē ye come together to
eate, tarye one for another. Yf any man hunger, lette hym eate at home,
that ye come not together vnto condempnacyon.

For thys cause (that is) for lacke of good examenynge of our selues (as
is before towched) manye are weake and speke in the fayth, and manye
sleape, and haue loste their fayth in Christes bloode, for lacke of
remembraunce of thys bodye breakynge and bloode sheadynge: Yea and not
that onelye, but manye were weake and sycke euen stryken with bodely
dyseases for abvsynge the sacrament of hys bodye, eatynge the breade
with their teth ād not hys bodye with their mynde, and peraduenture some
slayne for it by the stroke of God, which yf they had trulye iudged and
examyned them selues for what intēt they came thyther, and why it was
instytuted, shulde not haue bene so Iudged ād chastened of the Lorde.
For the Lorde doth chasten, to brynge vs vnto repentaunce, & to mortyfye
the rebellyous membres, that we maye remember hym. Here ye maye shortely
perceyue the mynde of Paule.


¶ An Epytome and shorte rehearsall of all thys boke, shewynge in what
poyntes Fryth dyssenteth from our Prelates.

Now to be shorte, in these iij. poyntes Fryth dyssenteth from oure
Prelates ād from master More, which taketh vpon hym to be their
proctoure. Our Prelates beleue that in the sacrament remayneth no
breade, but that it is tourned in to the naturall bodye of Christ both
fleshe bloode & bones. Fryth sayeth, that it is none artycle of our
Crede: and therfore lette them beleue yt that wyll. And he thynketh that
there remayneth breade styll. And that he proueth. iii. maner of wayes.
Fyrste by the scripture of Paule, [Sidenote: 1. Cor. 10.] which calleth
it breade sayenge: the breade which we breake, is it not the felowshyppe
of the bodye of Christe? For we though we be manye, are yet one bodye
and one breade, as manye as are partakers of one breade. And agayne he
sayeth, [Sidenote: 1. Cor. 11.] as often as ye eate of thys breade or
drynke of this cuppe, you shall shewe the Lordes death vntyll he come.
And Luke calleth it breade sayenge. [Sidenote: Actes. 2.] They contynued
in the felowshyppe of the Apostles, and in the breakynge of the breade
and prayer. [Sidenote: Mat. 26.] Also Christe called the cuppe the frute
of the vyne, sayenge. [Sidenote: Mar. 14. Luc. 22.] I shall not frō
hence forwarde drynke of the frute of the vyne vntyll I drynke that newe
in the Kyngdome of my Father.

Furthermore nature doth teache you that both the breade and wyne
contynue in their nature. For the breade mouldeth yf it be kepte lōge,
yea and wormes breade in it. And the poore mouse wyll ronne awaye with
it and eate it, which are evydence ynough that there remayneth breade.
Also the wyne yf it were reserued, wolde waxe sower, as they confesse
them selues. And therfore they howfell the laye people but with one
kynde onelye: because the wyne can not contynue nor be reserued to haue
readye at hande, when neade were. And surelye as yf there remayned no
breade, it coulde not moulde nor waxe full of wormes: euē so yf there
remayned no wyne, it coulde not waxe sower. And therfore it is but false
doctryne that our Prelates so lōge haue taught & publyshed.

Fynallye that there remayneth breade, myght be proued by auctoryte of
manye doctoures which call yt breade ād wyne, euen as Christe and hys
Apostles ded. And though some sophysters wolde wreste their sayenge, and
expounde thē after their owne fantasye, yet shall I alleage thē one
doctoure which was Pope, that maketh so playne with vs that they shall
neuer be able to avoyde hym.

[Sidenote: Gelasius in concilio Ro.] For Pope Gelasius wryteth on thys
maner. _Certe sacramenta que sumimus corporis et sanguinis Christi,
diuinæ res sunt, propter quod et per eadem diuine efficimur cōsortes
naturæ. Et tamen nō desinit esse substantia uel natura panis et uini,
sed permanet in suæ proprietate nature. Et certe imago et similitudo
corporis et sāguinis Christi in actione misteriorum celebrantur._ That
is to saye: surelye the sacrament of the bodye and bloode of Christe
which we receyue, are a Godly thynge, and therfore through thē are we
made partakers of the godly nature. And yet doth it not cease to be the
substance or nature of breade and wyne, but they cōtynue in the properte
of their owne nature. And surelye the Image and symylytude of the bodye
and bloode are celebrated in the acte of the mysteryes. Thys I am sure,
that no man cā avoyde it, nor so wreste it, but that all men shall soone
espye hys folye, and therfore I maye conclude that there remayneth the
substaunce and nature of breade and wyne.

The seconde poynte wherin Fryth dyssenteth from our Prelates and their

The Prelates beleue that hys very fleshe is present to the teth of them
that eate the Sacramēte, and that the wycked eate hys verye bodye. Fryth
sayeth that it is none artycle of our Crede, and therfore he reakeneth
that he is in no Ieoperdye though he beleue it not. And he thynketh that
hys fleshe is not presente vnto the teth of thē that receyue the
Sacramente. For hys fleshe is onelye in one place at ones. And that he
proueth both by the auctoryte of Saynte Austen ad Dardanum, and also by
the auctoryte of Fulgentius ad Thrasauandum libro. 20. as before
appeareth in the boke. And Fryth sayeth that the wycked eate not hys
verye fleshe, although they receyue the Sacramente. And that he proueth
by the scrypture, doctours, and good reason, grounded vpon the

[Sidenote: Ioan. 6.] The scrypture is thys, he that eateth Christes
bodye hath euerlastynge lyfe, ergo then the wycked eate not hys bodye.
Agayne the scrypture sayeth, he that eateth Christes fleshe ād drynketh
hys bloode abydeth in Christe and Christ in him: but the wycked abyde
not in Christe nor Christe in them, ergo the wycked eate not hys fleshe
nor drynke hys bloode.

[Sidenote: Augustin ser. desacra fe. Pasche.] This maye also be cōfyrmed
by good auctoryte. For saynte Austen sayeth, he that abydeth not in
Christe ād in whome Christe abydeth not, without doubte he eateth not
hys fleshe nor drynketh hys bloode, although he eate and drynke the
Sacramente of so greate a thynge vnto hys dampnacyon.

[Sidenote: Beda.] And euē the same wordes hathe Bede vpon the tenth
chapter of the fyrste Epystle to the Corynthyans.

[Sidenote: Augusti de ciuitate Dei in libro. 21. cap. 25.] Agayne S.
Austen sayeth, he that abydeth not in me ād in whome I abyde not, let
hym not saye nor thynke, that he eateth my bodye or drynketh my bloode.
And euen the same wordes hath Bede vpon the syxte Chapter of the fyrste
Epystle to the Corynthyans. And euen the same sentence hath Ambrose, and
Prosper, & Bede vpon the xi. chapter of the fyrste Epystle to the

Fynallye thys may be proued by good reasō grounded vpō the scrypture.
Christ wolde not suffer marye (though she loued hym well) to towche hym,
because she lacked one poynte of faythe, and ded not beleue that he was
equall with hys Father. And therfore by reason yt muste folowe, that he
wyll not suffer the wycked (which neyther haue good fayth nor loue
towardes hym) both to towche hym and eate hym in to their vncleane

Now syth thys is proued true that the wycked eate not hys bodye, it must
also therof neades folowe, that the sacramente is not hys naturall
bodye. For they do eate the sacramēte as all men knowe. Besydes that the
faythfull do not eate Christes bodye with their teth. And therfore it
muste folowe that the wycked do not eate it with their teth. The
antecedēt or fyrst parte of the reason is proued by the wordes of
Christe which sayeth, [Sidenote: Ioan. 6.] that the fleshe profyteth
nothynge at all, meanynge that it doth not profyte as they vnderstode
hym: that is to saye: yt profyteth nothynge to be eaten carnallye with
their teth and bellye, as they vnderstode hym. For els it profyteth
moche to be eaten spyrytuallye, that is to saye: to beleue that through
hys bodye breakynge ād bloode sheadynge our synnes are pourged. And thus
doth Origene, S. Austē, Bede, Chrisostome, ād Athanasius expounde it, as
appeareth in the boke before. And therfore Fryth sayeth, that onelye
faythfull men eate hys bodye: not with their teth and mouth, but with
their fayth ād harte, they dygeste it in to the bowelles of their soules
through beleuynge that it was broken on the crosse, to washe awaye their
synnes. And the wycked eate not hys bodye but onelye the breade and
their dampnacyon, because they eate him not spirytually, that is:
because they beleue not in hys bodye breakynge and bloode sheadynge.

¶ The thyrde poynte wherin Fryth dyssēteth frō your Prelates & their

The Prelates beleue that mē ought to worshyppe the Sacramēte, but Fryth
sayeth naye, and affyrmeth that it is Idolatrye to worshyppe it. And he
sayeth that Christ and hys Apostles taught vs not so to do: neyther ded
the holy fathers so teache vs. And Fryth sayth, that the autours of thys
worshyppynge are the chylderne of perdycyō which haue ouerwhelmed thys
worlde with synne. Neuerthelesse we muste receyue it reuerētlye, because
of the doctryne that it bryngeth vs. For it preacheth Christes death
vnto vs, & descrybeth it before our eyes, euē as a faythfull preacher by
the worde doth instyll yt in to vs by our eares and hearynge. And that
yt supplyeth the rowme of a preacher, is evydēt by the wordes of S.
Austen which sayeth. _Paulus quamuis portaret sarcinā corporis quod
aggrauat animā, potuit tamen significando predicare Dominū Iesum
Christum, aliter per linguā suam, aliter per epistolā, aliter per
sacramētū corporis Christi._ That is to saye: though Paule ded beare the
burthen of the bodye which doth honorate the soule, yet was he able in
sygnyfyenge to preache the Lorde Iesus Christe, one waye by hys tonge,
and another waye by a Ēpystle, & a nother waye by the Sacrament of
Christes bodye .&c. For as the people by vnderstondynge the sygnyfycacyō
of the wordes which he spake ded heare the gloryous gospell of God, & as
by the readynge of hys Epystle they vnderstode hys mynd, & receyued the
wordes of the soules health, so by the mynystracyon of the sacrament
they myght see with their eyes the thynge which they harde & red, & so
haue their sēces occupyed a boute the mystery, that they myght the more
earnestlye prynte it in their mynde. As by exāple: [Sidenote: Hier. 27.]
The prophete Ieremye beynge in Ierusalē in the tyme of Sedechias Kynge
of the Iewes, prophesyed ād preached vnto thē, that they shuld be takē
presoners of Nabugodonosar the Kyng of Babylō. And the Iewes were angrye
with hym & wolde not beleue hys wordes. And therfore he made a chayne or
fetter of woode ād put thē a boute hys necke, ād prophecyed agayne, ād
preached that they shulde be taken presoners ād ledde captyue in to
Babylon. And as hys wordes ded certyfye their eares that they shulde be
subdued, so the chayn ded represēt their captyuite euē before their
eyes, which thynge ded more vehementlye worke in them then the bare
wordes coulde do, ād euen so it is in the sacrament. For lykewyse as the
wordes ded instyll it in to our eares, that hys bodye was geuen for vs,
ād hys bloode shedde for the remyssyon of our synnes, euen so ded the
mynystracyon of the Sacrament expresse the same thynge vnto our syght
and dothe more effectuouslye moue vs, thē the bare wordes myght do, and
make vs more attentyue vnto the thynge, that we maye whollye geue
thankes vnto God ād prayse hym for hys boūteous benefyttes. And therfor
seynge it is as a preacher, expressynge vnto our syght the same thynge
that the wordes do to our eares, you muste receyue yt with reverence ād
sober behavyoure, aduertysynge the thynge that it representeth vnto you.
And euen the same honoure is due vnto it which is geuē vnto the
scrypture that is the worde of God. For vnto that must a man devoutlye
geue eare, ād reverentlye take the boke in hys hande: yea, & yf he kysse
the boke for the doctrynes sake that he learneth thereout, he is to be
commended. Neuerthelesse yf he shulde go sense hys boke, men myght well
thynke that he were verye chyldyshe. But yf he shulde knele downe and
praye to hys boke, then he ded cōmytte playne Idolatrye.

Consyder deare bretherne what I say, and avoyde thys Ieoperdye. Which
thynge avoyded, I care not as towchynge the presence of hys bodye,
though you beleue that hys naturall fleshe be there in dede, and not
onelye in a mystery, as I haue taught. For when the Ieoperdye is paste,
he were a foole that wolde be cōtencyous for a thynge, as longe as there
commeth no hurte therbye.

The Germaynes which beleue the presence of hys bodye, do not worshyppe
it, but playnly teache the contrarye, and in that poynte (thankes be to
God) all they whome you call heretyckes do agre full well. Onelye avoyde
thys Idolatrye, and I desyre no more.

                    The cōclusyon of thys Treatyse.

Nowe deare bretherne I beseche you for the mercye that ye loke for in
Christ Iesu, that you accepte thys worke with a syngle eye ād no
contencyous harte. For necessyte hath compelled me to wryte it, because
I was informed both of my Lorde of Wynchester ād other credyble parsons,
that I had by the meanes of my fyrst treatyse offended many mē. Which
thynge maye well be true: For it was to slender to enstructe all them
which haue sens seane it, albeit it were suffycyent for their vse to
whome it was fyrst delyuered. And therfore I thought it not onelye
expedyent but also necessarye, to enstructe them further in the truth,
that they myght see playne euydence of that thynge, wherin they were

By thys worke you shall espye their blasphemyes ād venemous tonges
wherwith they slaunder not one ly thē that publyshe the truthe, but euen
the truth yt selfe. They shame not to saye, that we affyrme yt to be
onelye breade, and nothynge els. And we saye not so: but we saye that
besyde the substaunce of breade, it is the Sacrament of Christes bodye
ād bloode. As the yvye hangynge before the taverne doore is more then
bare yvye. For besyde the substaunce of yvye, it is a sygne, and
sygnyfyeth that there is wyne to be solde. And thys sacrament sygnyfyeth
vnto vs, and poynteth out before our eyes, that as verely as that breade
is broken, so verelye was Christes bodye brokē for our synnes: And as
that breade is dystrybuted vnto vs, so is hys bodye and frute of hys
passyon dystrybuted vnto all hys faythfull. And as the breade comforteth
the bodye, so doth the fayth in Christes death comforte our soules. And
as surelye as we haue that breade and eate it with our mouth and teth,
and knowe by our sences that we haue it within vs, and are partakers
therof; no more neade we to doubte of hys bodye and bloode, but that
through fayth, we are as sure of thē, as we are sure of that breade. As
it is suffycyentlye declared in my boke.

Agayne you maye perceyue how wyckedly they reporte vs which affyrme that
we dyshonour it which geue yt the ryght honoure that it ought to haue.
And you do playnlye dyshonoure it, which geue vnto it the honoure that
is onelye due vnto God. We geue yt the same honoure that we geue vnto
the holye scrypture ād worde of God, because it expresseth vnto our
sences the death of our sauyoure, and doth more depely prynte it within
vs. And therfore we call it an holye sacrament, as we call Goddes worde,
holye scrypture. And we receyue thys sacrament with greate reuerence,
euen as we reuerentlye reade or heare preached the holye worde of God,
which conteyneth the healthe of our soules. And we graunte that hys
bodye is presente with the breade as it is with the worde, and wyth both
it is verelye receyued and eaten through faythe. But if we shulde knele
downe and praye vnto the holye scrypture, men myght cownte vs foles, and
myght lawfullye saye, that we do not honoure the scrypture by that
meanes but rather dyshonoure yt. For the ryght honoure of a thynge is,
to vse it for that intent that was instytute of God. And he that abvseth
it to any other purpose, doth in dede dyshonoure it. And lykewyse it is
in the sacrament which was instytute to keape in memorye the death of
Christe, which yf we do any other wyse honoure, then we do the holye
scrypture (vnto the which we maye in no wyse make our prayers). I saye
that then we shulde vtterlye dyshonoure it. Avoyde therfore thys poynte
of Idolatrye, and all ys safe.

Fynallye we saye that they speake well and faythfullye, which saye that
they go to the bodye and receyue the bodye of Christ, and that they
speake vyllenouslye and wyckedlye which saye that they onelye receyue
breade or the sygne of hys bodye. For in so sayenge they declare their
infydelyte. For the faythfull wyll reaken that he is euell reported of
and reputed for a traytoure and a nother Iudas, yf men shulde saye of
hym that he ded onelye receyue the sacrament, and not also the thynge
whiche the sacrament doth sygnyfye. For albeit he onelye eateth the
breade ād sacrament with hys mouth and teth: yet with hys harte and
fayth inwardlye, he eateth the verye thynge it selfe whiche the
sacrament outwardlye dothe represente.

And of thys sprynge the maner of speakynges that the olde fathers do
somtyme vse, which at the fyrste syght mought seame contrarye to our
sentence. But yf they be well pondered, it maye soone be seane, how they
shulde be taken. For manye tymes when they speake of the sacramente and
outwarde eatynge, they applye vnto the sacrament and outwarde eatynge,
the frute and condycyons of the inwarde eatynge and thynge it selfe,
because that in a faythfull man they are so Ioyntlye Ioyned, that the
one is neuer without the other. As by example. Marye is named the mother
of God, and yet she is not the mother of hys Godhed, by the which parte
onelye he is called God, but because she is hys mother, as towchynge hys
manhode, and the Godhed is so annexed with the manhode that they both
make but one parson, therfore is she called the mother of God, whiche in
dede yf it be wyselye weyed, shalbe founde to be abvsed speache.

And yet neuerthelesse it maye verye well be vsed, yf men vnderstonde
what is ment therbye, but yf through the vse of thys speache, men shulde
fall in to suche an erroure that they wolde affyrme our lady to be in
dede the mother of hys Godhed, then necessyte shulde compell vs to make
a dystynccyon betwene the nature of hys Godhed and the nature of hys
manhod, and so to expounde the matter vnto them, and brynge them home
agayne in to the ryght vnderstondynge. As we are now constrayned to do
in thys sacrament, because you mysconstrue the sayenges of the scrypture
ād Doctours. Which notwythstondynge (yf a man vnderstōde them) saye
verye well.

And manye soche maner of speaches are contayned in the scrypture: As
where Christ sayeth in, Iohā in the .iii. chap. There shall no man
ascende in to heauen, but he that dyscendeth from heauen, the sone of
man whiche is in heauen.

Thys texte doth saye that the sonne of man was then in heauen, when he
spake these wordes vnto Nicodemus here vpon earth, whiche thynge all
wyse men consente to be vnderstonde, _propter unitatem personæ_: That is
to saye: for the vnite of the parson. For albeit hys Godhed was in
euerye place at that tyme, yet was not hys manhod (by the whiche he was
called the sonne of man) in heauen at that tyme. And yet Christe sayde
that it was in heaven for the vnite of hys parson. For hys Godhed was in
heauen, and because the Godhed and manhode made one parson, therfore it
was ascrybed vnto the manhod which was onelye verefyed vpō the Godhed,
as [Sidenote: August.] S. Austen ad Dardanum doth delygentlye declare.

And lykewyse in the sacrament of baptyme, because the inwarde workynge
of the holye Goste is euer ānexed in the faythfull vnto the outwarde
ceremonye: therfore somtyme the frute of the inwarde baptyme is ascrybed
vnto the outwarde worke. And so the scrypture vseth to speake of the
outwarde baptyme as though it were the inwarde: that is to saye: the
spyryte of GOD. And therfore Saynte Paule sayeth that we are buryed wyth
Christe through baptyme.

And yet as Saynte Austen expoundeth it, the outwarde baptyme dothe but
[Sidenote: Augustinus ad Bonifacium.] sygnyfye thys buryall. And agayne
Paule sayeth, as manye as are baptysed haue put Christe vpon them. And
yet in dede our outwarde baptyme doth but sygnyfye, that we haue put
Christe vpon vs.

But by the inwarde baptyme (whiche is the water of lyfe and spiryte of
God) we haue in dede put hym vpon vs and lyue in hym and he in vs.
Whiche not withstondynge is verye false for all the outwarde baptyme, in
them that receyue it not in fayth. And vnto them it is but abare sygne,
wherof they gette no profytte, but dampnacyon.

And here you maye evydentlye perceyue, howe it is sometyme in scrypture
ascrybed vnto the outwarde worke and ceremonye, whiche is onelye true in
the inwarde veryte. And this place shall expounde all the olde doctours
whiche seame contrarye to our sentence. And therfore marke it well.

Thus haue you my mynde further vpon the sacrament of the bodye and
bloode of Christe. Wherin yf you reaken that I haue bene to lōge in
repetynge one thynge so often, I shall praye you of pardone. But surelye
me thought I coulde not be shorter. For the worlde is suche now adayes,
that some wolde heare and can not: and some do heare and wyll not. And
therfore I am compelled so often to repete that thynge whyche a wyse man
wolde vnderstonde wyth halue the wordes.

❧ Praye Christen reader that the wordes of GOD maye increace, and that
GOD maye be gloryfyed through my bondes. AMEN.

 The Artycles wherfore Iohan Fryth dyed, whiche he wrote in Newgate the
            .23. daye of Iune, the yeare of our Lorde .1533.

I doubt not deare bretherne, but that it doth some deale vexe you, to
see the one parte haue all the wordes, and frely to speake what they
lyste, and the other to be put to sylence, and not to be harde
indyfferently. But referre your matters to God, whiche shortelye shall
Iudge after a nother fashyon. But in the meane seasō, I shall rehearse
vnto you the artycles for which I am condempned.

❧ They examyned me but of two artycles whiche are these.

[Sidenote: 1. Article.] Fyrste whyther I thought there were any
Purgatorye to pourge the soule after thys present lyfe. And I sayde,
that I thought there was none. For man is made but of two partes, the
bodye and the soule. And the bodye is pourged by the crosse of Christe,
whiche he layeth vpon euery chylde that he receyueth: as afflyctyon,
worldlye opressyon, persecucyon, emprysonment & cet. and deathe
fynysheth synne. And the soule is pourged by the worde of God, which we
receyue through fayth, vnto the healthe and saluacyon bothe of bodye and

Now and yf I ded knowe any thyrde parte wherof we are made, I wolde also
gladly graunt the .3. purgatory, but seynge I knowe none suche, I must
denye the Popes purgatorye. Neuertheles I cownte neyther parte a
necessarye artycle of our faythe, necessaryly to be beleued vnder payne
of dampnacyon, whyther there be soche a purgatory or not.

[Sidenote: 2. article.] The seconde artycle was thys, whyther that I
thought, that the sacrament of the aulter was the bodye of Christe. And
I sayde yea, that I thought that it was bothe Christes bodye and also
our bodye, as Saynt Paule sayeth to the Corynthyans. i. Cori. 10.

In that it is made one breade of manye graynes it is our bodye,
sygnyfyenge that we though we be manye, are yet one bodye: lykewyse of
the wyne in that it is made one wyne of manye grapes.

And agayne in that it is broken, it is Christes bodye, sygnyfyenge that
hys bodye shulde be broken, that is to saye: suffer deathe, to redeame
vs from our iniquitees.

In that it was dystrybuted, it was Christes bodye, sygnyfyenge that as
verelye as that sacramēt is dystrybuted vnto vs, so verelye is Christes
bodye and the frute of hys passyō dystrybuted vnto all faythfull men.

In that it is receyued, it is Christes bodye, sygnyfyenge that as
verelye as the outwarde man receyueth the sacramente with hys tethe and
mouthe, so verelye dothe the inwarde mā, through faythe receyue Christes
bodye and frute of hys passyon, ād is as sure of it, as of the breade
that he eateth.

[Sidenote: Another questyō.] Well sayde they, do you not thynke that hys
verye naturall bodye, bothe fleshe and bloode is reallye contayned vnder
the sacrament, and there actuallye present, besyde all symylytudes?
[Sidenote: ¶ An answere.] No sayde I, I do not so thynke.
Notwithstondynge I wolde not that anye shulde counte that I make my
sayenge (whiche is the negatyue) anye artycle of the faythe. For euen as
I saye that you oughte not to make anye necessarye artycle of the faythe
of your parte (whiche is the affyrmatyue). So I saye agayne, that we
make none necessarye artycle of the faythe of oure parte, but leaue it
indyfferent for all men to Iudge therin, as GOD shall open hys harte,
and no syde to condempne or dyspyse the other, but to nouryshe in all
thynges brotherlye loue, and to beare others infyrmytees.

[Sidenote: S. Austens texte.] The texte of Saynt Austē which they there
aleaged agaynste me, was thys: that in the sacrament Christe was borne
in his owne handes. Whervnto I sayde: that S. Austen dothe full well
expounde hym selfe. For in a nother place he sayeth. _Ferebatur tanquā
in manibus suis._ That is, he was borne after a certayne maner, in hys
owne handes. And by that he sayeth after a certayne maner, ye maye soone
perceyue what he meaneth.

How be it yf. S. Austen had not thus expounded hym selfe, yet he sayeth
ad Bonifacium, that the sacrament of a thynge, hath a symylytude or
propertye of the thynge which it sygnyfyeth. And for that cause it hath
manye tymes the name of the verye thynge whiche it sygnyfyeth. And so he
sayeth that he bare hym selfe, because he bare the sacrament of hys
bodye and bloode, whiche ded so earnestlye expresse hym selfe, that
nothynge myght more do it. If you reade the place of S. Austen ad
Bonifacium, whiche I alleage in my laste boke, ye shall soone see them

[Sidenote: Chrisostomus.] A nother place they alleaged out of
Chrisostome, which at the fyrste blushe seameth to make well for them.
But yf it be well wayed, it maketh moche lesse for thē then they wene.
The wordes are these.

[Sidenote: Chrisostomes wordes.] Doste thou see breade and wyne: Do they
departe from thē into the draughte as other meates do? God forbydde. For
as in waxe when it cōmeth to the fyer, nothynge of the substaunce
remayneth nor aboundeth: so lykewyse thynke that the mysteryes are
consumed by the substaunce of the body.

These wordes I expounded, by the wordes of the same doctoure Saynt
Chrisostome, which in a nother homelye sayeth on thys maner. The inwarde
eyes as soone as they see the breade, they flye over all creatures ād
thynke not of the breade that is baken of the baker, but of the breade
of euerlastynge lyfe, which is sygnyfyed by the mystycall breade.

Now conferre these places together ād you shall perceyue, that the laste
expoundeth the fyrste clerely. Fyrste he sayeth, dost thou see breade
and wyne? I answere by the seconde, nay. For the inwarde eyes as soone
as they see the breade, thynke not of it, but of the thynge it selfe
that is sygnyfyed therby. And so he seeth it and seeth it not. He seeth
it with hys outwarde and carnall eyes, but hys inwarde eyes seeth it
not. That is to saye: regarde not the breade or thynke not vpon it. Euen
as we commonlye saye, when we playe a game necglygentlye (by my truthe I
see not what I do) meanynge that our myndes is not vpon that thynge
whiche we see with our outwarde eyes. And lykewyse we maye answere the
nexte parte, where he sayeth.

[Sidenote: The exposycyō of S. Chrisosto, texte.] Do they departe from
thē in to the draughte, as other meates do? Nay for sothe sayde I. For
other meates do onelye come to nouryshe the bodye, and to departe in to
the draught: But thys meate that I here receyue, is spyrytuall meate,
receyued with faythe, and nourysheth vs euerlastynglye bothe bodye and
soule, and neuer entereth into the draughte. And euen as before the
outwarde eyes do see the breade, and yet the inwarde eyes do not regarde
that or thynke vpon it: So lykewyse the outwarde man dygesteth the
breade, and casteth it in to the draughte. And yet the inwarde mā doth
not regarde that nor thynke vpō it: But thynketh vpon the thynge it
selfe that is sygnyfyed by that breade.

[Sidenote: The true meanynge of Chrisostomes wordes.] And therfore sayde
Chrysostome euen a lytle before the wordes whiche they here alleaged.
Lyfte vp your mynde and hartes (sayde he) whereby he monysheth vs, to
loke vpon and consyder those heauenly thynges, whiche are represented
and sygnyfyed by the breade and wyne, and not to marke the breade and
wyne in it selfe.

Here they wyll saye vnto me, that that is not Chrisostomes mynde. For by
hys example he playnlye sheweth that there remayneth no breade nor wyne.
That I denye. For the example in thys place proueth no more but that ye
shall not thynke vpon the breade and wyne, no more then yf they were not
there, but onelye vpon that thynge whiche is sygnyfyed by thē. And that
ye maye euydently perceyue by the wordes folowynge where he sayeth,
thynke that the mysteryes are consumed by the substaunce of the bodye.

[Sidenote: Soluciō] Now whyther Chrisostome thought that there remayned
breade or none, bothe wayes shall our purpose be proued. Fyrst yf he
thought there remayned styll breade and wyne, thē we haue our purpose.
Now yf he thought that the breade and wyne remayned not, but were
chaunged, thē are the breade and wyne neyther mysteryes nor sacramentes
of the bodye and bloode of Christe. For that that is not, cā neyther be
mysterye nor sacrament.

[Sidenote: Conclusyon.] Fynalle yf he spake of the outwarde apperaunce
of breade: then we knowe that that remayneth styll and is not consumed
by the substaunce of the bodye. And therfore he muste neades be
vnderstonde as I take hym.

I thynke many men wonder how I can dye in thys artycle, seynge that it
is no necessary artycle of our faythe, for I graunte that neyther parte
is an artycle necessary to be beleued vnder payne of dampnacyon, but
leaue it as a thynge indyfferent, to thynke therin as God shall instyll
in euery mans mynde, and that neyther parte condempne other for thys
matter, but receyue eche other in brotherly loue, reseruynge eche others
infyrmyte to God.

[Sidenote: Beholde the cause of my death.] The cause of my deathe is
thys, because I can not in conscyence abiure and swere, that our
Prelates opynyon of the Sacramente (that is) that the substaunce of
breade ād wyne is verely chaunged into the fleshe and bloode of our
sauyoure Iesus Christ is an vndoubted artycle of the faythe, necessarye
to be beleued vnder payne of dampnacyon.

[Sidenote: Note.] Now thoughe thys opynyon were in dede true (whiche
thynge they cā neyther proue true by scrypture nor doctours) yet coulde
I not in conscyence graunte that it shulde be an artycle of the faythe
necessarye to be beleued, etc. For there are many verytees, whiche yet
may be no soche artycles of our faythe. It is true that I laye in Irons
whan I wrote thys, howbeit I wolde not receyue thys truthe, for an
artycle of our fayth. For you may thynke the contrary without all
Ieoperdy of dampnacyon.

¶ The cause why I cā not beleue their opynyon of transmutacyon or
transubstanciacyon whether ye wyll, is thys.

[Sidenote: 1.] ❧ Fyrste because I thynke verely that it is false and can
neyther be proued by scrypture nor faythfull doctours, yf they be well

[Sidenote: 2.] The second cause is thys, because I wyll not bynde the
congregacyon of Christe by myne example to admytte any necessary artycle
bysyde our Crede, and specyally nonesuche as can not be proued true by
scrypture. And I say that the churche, as they call yt, can not compell
vs to receyue any soche artycles to be of necessyte vnder payne of

[Sidenote: 3.] The thyrde cause is, because I dare not be so
presumptuous in enterynge in to Goddes Iudgement, as to make the
Prelates in thys poynte a necessarye artycle of our faythe. For then I
shulde dampnably condempne all the Germaynes and Almaynes, with infynyte
moo, whiche in deade do not beleue nor thynke that the substaunce of
breade and wyne is chaunged in to the substaunce of Christes naturall
bodye. And surelye I can not be so folyshe hardy as to condempne soche
an infynyte nombre for our Prelates pleasures.

Thus all the Germaynes and Almaynes, bothe of Luthers syde and also of
Decolampadius, do wholye approue my matter. And surelye I thynke there
is no man that hathe a pure conscyence, but he wyll thynke that I dye
ryghtuouslye. For that thys transubstanciacion shulde be a necessary
artycle of the faythe, I thynke no man can saye yt with a good
conscyence, although yt were true in dede.


Per me Iohan Frythe.

❧ Be wyse as Serpentes, and innocent as Dooues.

 ● Transcriber’s Notes:
    ○ The original book's archaic spelling, abbreviations, and
      punctuation have been retained.
    ○ Text that was in italics is enclosed by underscores (_italics_).

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A boke made by John Fryth prysoner in the Tower of London: answerynge unto M. Mores letter, which he wrote agaynst the fyrste lytle treatyse that John Fryth made, concernynge the sacramente of the body and bloude of Christ" ***