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Title: A manual of face brick construction
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A manual of face brick construction" ***
CONSTRUCTION ***



Transcriber Note

Emphasis is displayed as _Italics_ and =Bold=. Whole and fractional
parts of numbers as 123-4/5.


[Illustration: A Manual of Face Brick Construction]

[Illustration: Doorway of Face Brick Cottage, Chicago. Designed by
J. Scheller]



                             A MANUAL

                          _of_ FACE BRICK

                           CONSTRUCTION


                            +=========+
                        +===+ A·F·B·A +===+
                        | USE FACE BRICK  |
                        +==+ --it Pays +==+
                           +===========+



                  American Face Brick Association

                     110 SOUTH DEARBORN STREET

                              CHICAGO


          Copyright 1920 by John H. Black for A. F. B. A.



Table of Contents


  Modern Brickmaking                                       7

  Pre-eminent Merits of Face Brick                         9

  Types of Face Brick Wall                                15

  Putting in Foundations                                  17

  Solid Face Brick Construction                           18

  Face Brick on Hollow Tile Construction                  25

  Face Brick Veneer Construction                          26

  Special Uses of Face Brick                              29

  Brick Bonds                                             33

  Mortar Joints                                           35

  Increasing Fire Protection                              37

  Face Brick House Designs                                40

  Useful Tables and Suggestions                          104

  Problems in Estimating Quantities                      107

  Glossary of Usual Terms in Bricklaying                 110

  Index and List of Illustrations                        112

  Members of Association                                 114



[Illustration: THE ANCIENT AND HONORABLE ART OF BUILDING]


No man has more reason to feel pride and satisfaction in his art
than the builder. From the time when men wove together branches of
trees or piled up loose stones and mud for shelter to the present
day, when they erect huge heaven-soaring structures of steel to
house a multitude, the builder has played a most important part in
the progress and development of human civilization.


Fundamentals of Building

The old Roman authority on architecture, Vitruvius, long ago
laid down the three fundamentals of all good building, viz.,
_firmness_, _utility_, and _charm_. In working for firmness (strength,
durability) and for utility (serviceableness, convenience),
the builder, we might say, is an engineer; in seeking to give
charm (attractiveness, beauty) to his work, he is an artist. In
other words, the builder always has before him structural and
artistic problems which, aside from his wit in planning the inner
conveniences and serviceableness of the house, depend largely
upon the material he chooses to work in. To what extent does this
material meet the structural requirements of strength, permanence,
durability, and to what extent the artistic requirements of
attractiveness, charm, beauty, are the main issues.


Aim of This Book

This book is meant not only to show how perfectly brick, as a
building material, meets all of these requirements, but to serve
as a Manual for the master carpenter builder in offering various
designs and plans of face brick houses, and in pointing out the
practical methods of constructing either the solid brick, hollow
tile, or veneered wall.

In fact, the book in many ways will be of use to the mason who will
doubtless find in it helpful suggestions on the application of his
craft to the problems of building.

Before giving briefly the reasons for the use of face brick, a word
about the history of brick and its manufacture may be of interest.



THE STORY OF BRICK


The manufacture and use of brick go back to the remotest antiquity,
far beyond the earliest recorded history, which is supposed to be
about 3,800 B. C, the date of a clay tablet assigned to the age
of Sargon of Akkad, founder of the Chaldean dynasty, fully two
thousand years before the time of Abraham.


Babylonian Origin

Naturally the use of brick originated where clay, of which they
are made, was abundant; and there is every reason to believe
that the brick industry had its beginning in the broad alluvial
valley of the Euphrates which is the traditional cradle of human
civilization. At any rate, according to one authority, good
brick have been taken from excavations in old Babylonia, dating
back to 4,500 B. C, as good as the day they were made. And the
same authority adds that brickmaking was doubtless practiced ten
thousand years ago. It was Nature that gave the hint, for the
sun hardened the mud along the river bank and cracked it into
irregular pieces which the native could utilize, after shaping
them to the desired size, for piling up in the walls of his crude
hut. It was an easy step in advance to shape the mud beforehand
while soft and lay it out in the sun to bake. This produced
what we call adobe brick, afterwards greatly improved by mixing
chopped reeds or straw with the soft mud before baking. It will
be remembered how the Egyptian Pharaoh embittered the slavery of
the children of Israel by compelling them to find their own straw
for the brick they were required to make. At a very early date
the dwellers in the Euphrates valley learned to burn brick, as
indicated by the biblical story of the Tower of Babel; and by the
time of Nebuchadnezzar, the great Babylonian king (604-562 B. C),
not only were well-burned brick made and used extensively, but
colored enamels were successfully applied for decorative effects.
Considerable remains of this ancient brickwork are still found,
although for many centuries the ruined cities of the Mesopotamian
plain were used as sources of building material for the more modern
cities which have since come into being.


Spread of the Craft in Antiquity

From the Euphrates, brickcraft spread eastward to Persia, India,
and China, and westward to Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The Romans, who
were the great builders of ancient times, made very extensive use
of brick in their immense building operations, wherever good clay
could be found. From the numerous monuments of Roman brickwork that
still remain, the brick are seen to be of an excellent hard-burned
quality, and generally of a large, flat, thin rectangular or
triangular form.


Brickwork in the Middle Ages

When the nations of Europe took form out of the ruins of the Roman
Empire, they inherited among other arts that of making brick,
and subsequently carried it to a higher state of development,
especially in countries such as Northern Italy, Southern France,
the Netherlands, and Northern Germany, where the absence of good
building stone gave a natural impulse to brickmaking. In the great
Gothic epoch of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, brick
enjoyed a wide vogue and was freely and effectively used in the
best types of building such as city halls, great churches, palaces,
and mansions of the wealthy.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Man returning after carrying the bricks.

Figs. 7, 9, 11, 13. Digging and mixing the clay or mud.

Fig. 16. Fetching water from tank (h).

Figs. 3, 6. Taskmasters.

Figs. 4, 5. Men carrying bricks.

Figs. 8, 14. Making bricks with a wooden mold, d, k.

At e the bricks (tobi) are said to be made at Thebes.

Foreign captives employed in making bricks at Thebes.

From Wilkinson's _Ancient Manners and Customs of the Egyptians_]

[Illustration: Brickwork in old Persian Tomb at Ardebil]


In England

The use of brick in England began with the Romans in the early
centuries of our era, but native brickmaking does not appear
until well after the days of Magna Charta. In Henry VIII's time,
English brickmaking, probably under Flemish influence, was greatly
developed. But it was not until the days of Queen Anne and the
Georges, in the eighteenth century, that brick building reached its
greatest vogue, so much so that brick nearly drove out all other
materials. This period accounts for those fine old country houses
so representative of substantial comfort and dignity, scattered
throughout England, which delight the eye of the traveler today.
And ever since that time English builders have maintained a fine
sense of the architectural values in sound and beautiful brickwork,
as may be seen in many splendid examples of modern construction.


The Use of Brick in America

In America, aside from the adobe construction which the Spanish
found in Mexico and Peru, the first brick were brought over from
England or Holland. The native industry, however, had an early
start in the seventeenth century, so that the Colonial times saw
many fine specimens of brick building from New England to Virginia.

In the nineteenth century, up to about 1880, there was no general
attempt to use brick to the best advantage. For the most part the
brick building of that period was confined to the use of common
brick for ordinary construction or for backing stone-faced walls.
From that date, however, to the present, a growing taste has
demanded and secured artistic effects in the brick wall by the
use of specially manufactured face brick which, in a bewildering
variety of beautiful color tones and textures, have been
sympathetically and artistically treated by our leading architects,
as may be seen all over our country.



MODERN BRICK MAKING


It is a long cry from the primitive method of mixing and molding
brick by hand and drying them in the sun, to the modern technical
methods and power machinery used by the American manufacturer.
Determined by the kind of material, whether surface clay, fire
clay or shale, and the kind of brick wanted, there are three chief
methods of manufacture, slop-mold, wire-cut, and dry-press.

By the first method, the clay, in a soft condition, is pressed by
the machine into molds which have been flushed with water--hence
the term slop-mold--or sprinkled with sand, in which case the brick
are called sand-mold. By the second method, the clay or shale is
ground and tempered into the consistency of a stiff mud which is
forced by an auger machine through a die, in the form of a stiff
mud ribbon, having the cross section of a brick. This stiff mud
ribbon is carried by a belt to a steel table under a series of
piano wires strung on a frame which is revolved by the machine at
proper intervals, cutting the clay ribbon into the desired sizes.
These stiff mud machines will turn out as many as 100,000 face
brick a day, and in some common brick plants they are built for
a 250,000 to 300,000 daily output. The dry-press method reduces
the clay to a fine granular form which is then, in nearly a dry
condition, forced under immense pressure into the proper sized
molds.

The brick as they come from the machines are known as "green" and
require, except in the case of the best dry-press brick, a certain
period of drying before being set in the kilns where, for from five
to ten days, depending on the quality of the ware and the general
conditions, they are subjected to a process of burning before they
are ready to be built into the wall.


Burning the Brick

This process of burning passes through three main stages which
require very skillful attention on the part of the burner. First,
the water chemically combined with the material must be driven
off; then the various impurities of the clay must be burnt out or
oxidized; and finally, the ware, except in case of fire clays, must
be brought to the point of incipient vitrification. Throughout the
whole process there is danger of distortion or discoloration in
the ware unless the fires are skilfully handled. Properly done,
the brick come out of the kiln in their beautiful, natural colors,
due to the constitution of the clay or the various metallic oxides
contained in it. To enhance these effects, different clays are
sometimes mixed in going through the machines, certain ores may
be added to modify the color, the brick surfaces may be scored in
various ways, or the ware may be set in the kiln so as to avoid or
get the flash of the fire. So that when you specify a fine face
brick, you are getting a product which Nature has taken long to
create and to which man has devoted his best scientific knowledge
and inventive art.

[Illustration: The Philadelphia Carpenters used Brick Two Centuries
Ago]


A Wide Choice Offered

The American manufacturer of face brick has far outstripped the
rest of the world in the wide range of color tones and textures
he offers. So that the prospective builder has before him the
possibility of giving to the exterior wall surface an enduring
color scheme of monochrome uniformity or polychrome blending, as
his taste may dictate. The whole sweep of color, in smooth or
rough textures, is at his command from the pure, severe tones of
pearl grays or creams, through buff, golden, and bronze tints to a
descending scale of reds, down to purples, maroons, and even gun
metal blacks. Thus, instead of building for your client a house of
a dull, insubstantial, unattractive appearance, you can, by the use
of face brick, build a substantial, enduring house that presents to
the eye a veritable symphony in color, at once a satisfaction to
yourself as well as to him, and a cause of appreciative remark by
his neighbors or the casual passersby. It will always stand to the
credit of your art as a builder.


Growing Demand for Brick Houses

You represent the best work that can be done in your community.
People come to you when they want to build because they know
you as an able designer and one capable not only of giving them
sound advice but of carrying the work through to a successful
termination. Why then confine yourself to one type of building such
as frame or stucco?

More and more people are going to ask you about a brick house, and
for very good reasons which we intend shortly to give you. Why not
tell them you can build a brick house as easily as you can one of
frame or stucco; and what is more, why not tell them the fact,
viz., that it is a better house in every way, safer, more enduring,
more comfortable, more attractive, and in the end more economical!

[Illustration: Face Brick Residence, Canton, Ohio. James Buehl,
Architect]


Enlarge Your Field as a Builder

You will thus greatly enlarge your field of action, increase your
profits, and gain a much higher standing in the community as an
all-around builder. If you hesitate about taking up building in
brick, it is doubtless because you share the common erroneous
belief that it costs your client too much, or because you think it
outside of your building practice, presenting difficulties you do
not care to face. But we are very sure that a careful reading of
this Manual will convince you of the pre-eminent value of the face
brick house for your client, and of your complete competence to
build it for him.


What You Owe to the Community

Then we want you to read this Manual because, as a citizen, you owe
something to the community in which you live. And as a builder you
can discharge that obligation in no better way than in building
more enduring and more beautiful houses, as you can by building in
brick. By doing so, your dividends will be not only in material
rewards but in a higher standing among your fellow citizens. You
owe it to yourself to make the most of your noble craft and thus
take the place in the community to which it entitles you.



PRE-EMINENT MERITS OF FACE BRICK


The material you put into the walls of a house should, as Vitruvius
said, always have structural and artistic merit. Face brick have
both in a striking measure, and in consequence can show the
strongest economic and personal reasons why they should be used.


Structural Merits of Face Brick

Structurally, bricks are a material easy to handle and when laid
in the wall endure the heaviest pressures and strains. Hardened
and matured in fire, they resist the ravages of flame. Examine the
scene of any conflagration for evidence. Nor will they corrode or
decay with the passing of time, as remains of ancient brickwork
abundantly prove.


Artistic Merits of Face Brick

Artistically considered, face brick excel all other materials. Even
a well-burned, selected common brick, with proper bond treatment
and mortar color, may be made attractive, but the endless variety
of color tones and textures found in face brick give to the
artistic sense of the builder an unlimited choice. This variety
is such that the most diverse tastes may be met in uniform shades
or, preferably, in blended tones of the most delicate and charming
effects. No other building material can approach face brick in the
possibility of color schemes for the wall surface, either within or
without--and the colors last, for they are an integral part of the
enduring brick.

[Illustration: Glimpse of an Attractive Chicago Face Brick Cottage]

[Illustration: Face Brick Residence, Chicago. L. J. Batchelder,
Architect]


Effect of Bond and Mortar Joint

But this is not all there is to be said on the artistic side by
any means. The structural necessity of bonding the brick makes
possible any number of beautiful bond and pattern effects, as
illustrated on pages 33-35; and the kind of mortar joint, struck,
cut flush, tooled, or raked (Fig. 57), properly toned with a color
to harmonize with the brick, produces the most charming results
which, in sunshine or shadow, give ever varying artistic effects.

In the beauty of brickwork, you have a great opportunity to arouse
and hold the interest of your possible clients. On that basis alone
you can make a strong appeal in offering your services.


Economic Merits

But perhaps the strongest appeal you can make is based on what
naturally grows out of the strength and beauty of good brickwork,
and that is real economy. But don't be deceived by the superficial
error of initial cost. A $4.00 pair of shoes are cheaper than a
$5.00 pair, it is true, but if the $5.00 pair fit better, look
better, and wear twice as long, the $4.00 pair are dearer, and
you would lose not only in money but in personal satisfaction by
getting them. Real economy would lead you to buy the $5.00 pair.

[Illustration: Face Brick Bungalow, North Evanston, Ill. Robert E.
Seyfarth, Architect]


The Importance of Building a Home

Much more is this principle true in building a house. It is a very
important undertaking for every man, for it involves considerable
outlay of money and intimately concerns his comfort and welfare
for a long period of years. A man rarely builds more than one
house in his life-time, so that it is a serious matter to make
a mistake,--he will always regret it. In other words, when he
builds, he wants to avoid fooling himself, as he does, if he builds
wrong; he wants to build right at the very start. This is what he
certainly can do by building with brick. For out of the structural
strength and artistic beauty of brick he gains advantages that make
it the most economical investment in the end.


Upkeep or Maintenance

Take the items as they come, in their effect upon the value of
the house. First, there is upkeep. So far as brick enter into the
construction of a house, it requires practically no maintenance.
You do not have to patch, repair, or paint a brick wall,--it wears.
It is as sound in twenty-five years as the day it was built, and
even more attractive. Figure up the paint bill for a frame house in
ten years, then add the various little repairs necessitated by the
shrinking, cracking, and decaying of wood exposed to the weather,
and you have a neat little bill of upkeep, for the frame house,
which is exactly nothing for brick.


Depreciation

Next consider depreciation which is a separate item from
maintenance or upkeep, and is practically nil in the case of the
brick house. Appraisal engineers have estimated it, for the brick
house, at only one per cent a year, beginning after the first
five years. And the one per cent in reality should apply only to
such portions of the building as are subject to wear, as finished
floors, plumbing, hardware, roofs, and the like. Approximately 60
per cent of a well built brick house does not depreciate at all
through a long period of years. On the other hand, a frame house,
according to the same authorities, begins to depreciate from the
day it is finished at from 2 to 3 per cent annually. At the lowest
estimate of 2 per cent a $6,500 frame house would depreciate $130
a year or $1,300 in ten years. A similar house of brick, worth let
us say $7,000, would depreciate, allowing the full one per cent,
$70 a year from the fifth year on, or $350 in ten years. That is,
when you add to the $350 depreciation the $500 excess cost of the
brick house, the resulting $850 is still less by $450 than the
depreciation alone on the frame house. The wear and tear of time do
not allow us to get away from these facts.

[Illustration: Face Brick Bank Building, Detroit. Geo. M. Lindsey
Co., Architects]


Saving on Insurance Rates

Furthermore, there is the matter of fire insurance, not a large
one, but growing in the course of years to an appreciable sum. The
reason for better insurance rates on the brick house is one that
makes the strongest appeal to a man, and that is, safety from the
fear and fact of fire, protection for himself and family from a
justly dreaded misfortune. Acting on this reason, the insurance
company will put from 19 to 37 per cent higher rate on a frame or
stucco than on a brick house. Besides, you can carry 20 per cent
less insurance on the more substantial structure.


Comfort and Health

Again the builder must consider the question of comfort and health.
An 8-inch furred brick wall will require less coal to keep the
house warm than in case of frame. This saving, however, is not
nearly as important as uniform comfort which, especially in winter,
has a vital bearing on the health and welfare of the family, more
particularly as it affects very young or delicate children and
old people, or even the strong who may, for the time being, be
indisposed. The man who builds a good brick house saves on his coal
and doctor bills.

[Illustration: Face Brick Bungalow, Chicago, Ill. J. R. Stone,
Architect]

[Illustration: Face Brick Public Library, Coatsville, Ind. Graham &
Hill, Architects]


Economic Value of Beauty

But if the brick house, because of its structural merits, is more
economical on the score of upkeep, depreciation, insurance rate,
comfort and health, it has a money value because of its artistic
appearance. The substantial and attractive appearance of a face
brick house makes the same appeal to everybody else as it did to
the owner when he built it, so that if he desires, he can borrow
more money on it, or if he must, can sell or rent it to better
advantage. Beauty has a real economic value.


Sentimental Value an Asset

Finally, there is a sentimental value in owning the better house
which can't be put in terms of money but is, nevertheless, real
in terms of personal satisfaction. Every man feels a certain
justifiable pride in his home if he knows that others admire it.
This exerts an unconscious influence on him and raises his sense
of self-respect. Besides, as a good citizen, a man should make his
home as attractive as possible, not simply in the way of doing his
share to improve his neighborhood, but as showing what he and his
family stand for before the community, the soundest and best things.

Taking it all in all, you can tell your clients that in building
a face brick house, they get more completely than in case of any
other material the structural values of permanence, fire-safety,
comfort and health, and the artistic value of beauty, out of
which follow a real economy and a genuine personal satisfaction.
What, then, are the facts about the real economy of a face brick
house? To begin with, we frankly admit and, in fact, assert that
such a house costs more than the less substantial frame or stucco
house,--as it ought, because it is worth more. It wears better,
it looks better, it sells and rents better. You can never get
something for nothing. You have to pay for it. But what we can show
from actual figures is that the face brick house at the start costs
only a little more than the frame or stucco house and in the end,
when all the bills are paid, costs much less. It is a question of
initial and final cost. Let us first look at the initial cost.


The Test of Figures

The accompanying table gives the results of actual figures
obtained during the past ten years from all parts of our country
by face brick manufacturers. As the prices of material have
changed greatly, during the period in question, the percentages
of difference will prove to be the only instructive figures, and
are calculated on the total costs of the houses. The bids for
1919 we have in our files for reference and we are ready to show
them to any interested person. As frame construction is generally
the lowest, we take it as the base of comparison and give the
percentage in excess over frame for (1) a solid, 8-inch brick wall,
or face brick on common brick backing; (2) a brick veneer wall,
or face brick in place of clapboards or shingles on frame; (3) a
face brick on hollow tile wall, 8 inches thick; and (4) a stucco on
frame wall.

A moderate sized 7-room dwelling is used as a typical example
and is the same in every respect, except the exterior wall
construction. First class face brick are used and the solid wall is
furred.

Table of Percentage Differences

                      1       2         3        4
  _Year_  _Frame_  _Brick_ _Veneer_   _Tile_  _Stucco_
   ----    -----    -----   ------    -----    ------
   1910     0.0%     9.1%     6.9%    10.7%     2.9%
   1913     0.0%     8.1%     5.9%    .....     4.0%
   1915     0.0%     6.9%     4.9%    .....     1.6%
   1919     0.0%     5.1%     4.4%     6.5%     0.1%

[Illustration: Face Brick Store Front, Birmingham, Ala. W. M. C.
Weston, Architect]

These figures represent from nine to twenty-two bids in each
case, on which the average is given. Different contractors in
the same place and different parts of the country sometimes
show considerable divergence, but in view of the wide territory
from which these bids have been gathered and the time covered,
the averages may be taken as indicative of about the constant
percentage of difference in initial cost.


The Face Brick House Saves Money

It should be noted, in the case of the 8-inch solid brick wall and
the brick on tile wall, that they are both over two inches thicker
than the frame or stucco wall. But taking the 8-inch face brick
solid, or hollow tile, wall as a fair comparison with frame and
stucco, you can readily calculate what you really save by paying
a little more at the start for the more substantial construction.
Reverting to the economies of the face brick house you will find
that the maintenance and depreciation items alone on the frame
construction will, in a very few years, entirely wipe out the 5 or
6 per cent excess initial cost of the brick, to say nothing of all
the other items that go to make your face brick home all the time
an investment of a permanent and remunerative value.

Thus, a $7,000 frame house would mean, figuring excess cost at 6
per cent, a $7,420 face brick house. Depreciation at the lowest
estimate of 2 per cent annually on the frame in five years would be
$700; add to this a repainting bill of $250 and you have a total
of $950. For the five years under consideration there would be no
depreciation at all to be calculated on the brick house, but a
repainting bill of about 385 for doors, windows, and outside trim
would have to be charged up. This means that the difference of
3865 between frame and brick upkeep or maintenance covers, in five
years, more than twice the $420 excess initial cost of the brick.
You may well suggest to your client that to be penny wise and pound
foolish in building a home looks like an inexcusable folly. As you
are his trusted adviser in all such important matters, you can not
avoid your obligation of giving him the advice best suited to his
interests.

[Illustration: Face Brick Primary School, Highland Park. Holmes &
Flynn, Architects]


Lumber Enters into the Problem

Please note in the figures of the table the decided tendency toward
a diminished difference of percentages. The probable explanation
is the rising price of lumber which has, from all accounts, by no
means reached its crest, and which is forced by the tremendous
demand now being made for that material in the world markets.
Lumber is one of those staples of such wide and varied use that it
is well to consider seriously its conservation, both in guarding
its supply and in maintaining a reasonable price. We are all
interested, for everybody at one time or another uses some form of
lumber.

[Illustration: Face Brick Store Front, St. Louis, Mo. Preston J.
Bradshaw, Architect]


Need of Saving Lumber

However wide and varied the normal use of lumber may be, it is at
the present time, due to the conditions in which the great war has
left us, subject to abnormally excessive demands and will be for a
period of years to come. When you consider that even in fireproof
homes built of concrete, stone, or brick, lumber bears from 20 to
25 per cent of the cost of the building, and that now 80 per cent
of the houses in the United States are built entirely of wood,
you can easily guess why so much used to be said, even in pre-war
times, about the disappearance of our forests and the advancing
prices of lumber.


The Wastes of War

But picture what the war has done, and its inevitable effect upon
the demand for lumber. According to a comprehensive report on the
_Direct and Indirect Costs of the War_ recently issued (November,
1919) by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the
direct cost to the warring nations amounts to 186 billions,
of which the property loss on land was thirty billions and on
sea seven billions. To this must be added forty-five billions
as loss of production. That is, not only were vast amounts of
property destroyed, but the normal supply was greatly lowered.
Take the matter of houses alone, not only were great numbers of
them destroyed in the warring zones, but neither could they be
replaced, nor could the new houses be built which were normally
required by the community. Fortunately for us in America the war
destroyed no property, but for a period of two years it prevented
normal building to the extent of hundreds of thousands of houses.
As a consequence, in Europe all the waste places must be rebuilt
and, in both Europe and America, new houses in great numbers must
be erected to catch up with normal requirements. There is a house
famine the world over.

[Illustration: Attractive Small Face Brick House, Buffalo, N. Y.
Thos. A. Fisher, Designer]


The Lumber Burden of America

Where is all the needed lumber so lavishly used in building to come
from? The average normal supply would not be sufficient and the
supply cannot be increased for a period of years simply because
Russia, which normally supplies 50 per cent of the lumber for the
European markets, has fallen into such industrial chaos, and needs
so much material for her own reconstruction that, according to
one authority, she will not be able to export lumber again before
1922 or 1923. In consequence, the burden of supplying lumber to
the world market at the present time will fall upon America. The
effect upon prices, as well as upon quality of product, will be
inevitable. The excessive demand will not only compel injurious
denudation of our forest lands, but will more and more force the
cutting of inferior timber.


How to Save Lumber

In view of such conditions there is urgent need of conserving our
lumber supply by every available means, the simplest and most
direct of which is to confine lumber strictly to its legitimate
uses or, at any rate, not use it where more fitting materials are
at hand. Take the abnormal demand pressure off lumber in every
possible way, and we reduce the danger of a lumber famine that
threatens us for some years to come. Thus, lumber should not be
used in the exterior walls of a house, where it is exposed to the
vicissitudes of the weather or to the trial of fire, especially
when building material such as brick, which is nearly as cheap, and
considering its durability and fire-safety, far more economical, is
everywhere in evidence.

Lumber has its very legitimate and varied uses, but among them is
not outside work where wind and rain and frost and fire search
out its weaknesses. In view of its very nature and the great
variety of its proper uses, it should never displace the exterior
masonry wall, which in stone, tile, or brick makes the most secure
and enduring structure. If the 80 per cent of building in this
country, now done of frame, were put into brick, or other durable
and fire-resistive materials, it would result in a great economic
national gain, people would have better and more substantial
houses, and the lumber which everybody needs would be conserved for
the legitimate uses to which it is admirably adapted.



TYPES OF FACE BRICK WALL


There are three possible ways of using face brick in building a
wall, determined by the backing up material employed, each of which
will be given special attention in the following pages.

[Sidenote: Solid Brick]

First, there is the solid brick wall, consisting of face brick with
a common brick backing. Of the strength, permanence, and structural
value of this construction there can be no question. Objection is
sometimes made to its cost but, in view of the facts we give later,
this objection loses its force and proves to be a claim of actual
economy. The only other objection heard is that of the dampness
of the wall. This comes from one or both of two causes, pervious
mortar joints, or sweating due to condensation of interior moisture
on the cooled wall. Either condition may be completely overcome by
furring the interior wall surface, a method recommended in this
Manual, and provided for in the plans offered. The furring provides
an air space that insulates against dampness and cold. With this
furring, the other methods, sometimes employed, of mixing so-called
waterproofing material with the mortar or of using colorless liquid
waterproofing on the surface of the brickwork are not necessary.
Even the furring, in certain climatic conditions as proved out by
local experience and practice, is not needed. But in any case,
it must always be seen that all the exterior joints of the wall,
especially the head or vertical joints, are solidly filled with
mortar. The possibility of efflorescence, which occasionally
appears on the surface of the brick when the outside of the
wall has been subjected to excessive moisture, may be prevented
to a great extent by avoiding such ledges and projections in
construction as permit the soaking of water into the surface of the
brick work. See Glossary, page 110.

[Sidenote: Hollow Tile Backing]

Secondly, the face brick wall may be built by using hollow tile
in place of common brick for backing. This wall, like that of
solid brick, being all of burnt clay, has the advantage of being
fire-resistive, although insurance rates are not always as
favorable because, in case of fire, the salvage is not as large
as with the solid wall. Some builders prefer this type of wall,
claiming that it is less expensive to build and that the hollow
dead air spaces act as a heat insulation, giving a drier and warmer
wall. On these points we have no means of forming a definite, final
opinion. Your best plan would be to consult both the common brick
and hollow tile people so as to form a judgment of your own on the
subject. Either wall is sound construction and will give you entire
satisfaction.

[Sidenote: Face Brick Veneer]

The third type of wall, known as veneer, is simply the application
of face brick to the wooden framing of a frame house, in place of
the clapboards or shingles. Although, as a substantial or a fire
restrictive wall this type is not equal to solid brick or hollow
tile, it has its friends among builders, largely on the score of
local custom, familiarity, speed of construction, and cost. What
it has to recommend it is the fact that in outer appearance and
value it is a brick house, and in reality a big step in the right
direction. But whichever type of wall you build, it is the face
brick that gives to it character, distinction, class, all of which
means not only deep personal satisfaction to the owner, but real
money in higher rental or sales value, far in excess of the initial
cost of the face brick over poorer and less attractive material.

[Illustration: Face Brick Bungalow, Atlanta, Ga. Leila Ross
Wilburn, Architect]

[Sidenote: Weakness of Frame]

Take the frame wall. Where it is exposed to the weather, it
shrinks, decays, and depreciates, requiring repeated paintings
and repairs. Now substitute, at an added cost of only 4 or 5 per
cent, a fine face brick for the drop siding and at once there
is practically cut out painting, repairs, and depreciation. The
brick veneer has surrounded the house with a solid, monolithic,
permanent, windproof, shell of fireproof material, so that in
consequence the owner has on the exterior, to all intents and
purposes, the strength and beauty of a face brick house. Besides
his own personal satisfaction, he has added many times more than
4 or 5 per cent to the market value of his property. Or, suppose
your client has an old frame house that is built on a good plan,
but outwardly grown dilapidated in appearance and hard to rent or
sell. Induce him to veneer it with an attractive face brick, as we
explain on a later page, and for every dollar he puts in he will
get two out.

[Sidenote: Weakness of Stucco]

Then take hollow tile wall construction and compare the value of
it finished with stucco or with face brick. The face brick will
cost from 2 to 3 per cent more on the cost of the house, but
what will it give the owner in wear, appearance, and solidity of
construction! If you stucco hollow tile the interior face of the
wall in most cases must be furred. If you use face brick, not
only additional solidity and strength are added to the wall but
if, as we recommend throughout this Manual, an air space is left
between brick and tile, the inside furring is not needed. Besides,
stucco is apt to stain, crack, or, in damp climates with freezing
weather, peel off in spots, presenting an unsightly appearance.
You can assure your client, who is debating between stucco and
face brick, that years of usage will prove the brick surface to be
both in artistic appearance and actual economy by far the better
investment. It costs a little more at the start, but is worth much
more in the end.

[Sidenote: Value of Looks]

Or, it may be that your client concludes to build a thoroughly good
solid brick wall, but wants to save 3 to 4 per cent on the total
cost of the house by using common brick throughout. This will be
a good wall, no doubt, but how will it look! Common brick are not
made with an eye to external appearance; their great merit lies
in solid structural value. Occasionally a well-burned selected
common brick, made of a clay that burns to a good color may be
found and used, with proper care of bond and mortar joint, for
facing purposes; but as a rule, the method of manufacturing common
brick, and the structural uses for which they are intended do not
contribute to the attractiveness of the wall surface. Hence, the
natural development of the great face brick industry which adds to
the solid structural merits of brick the invaluable merit of looks.

And how much do looks have to do with both the sentimental and
commercial value of a house! What does the good wife think of the
looks of the house she lives in? What do the neighbors think of
it? And to be purely practical, what does the prospective renter
or buyer think of it? You know that when a man wishes to sell his
house, he cleans up the yard, repairs the fence, patches up the
holes, and paints the house from top to bottom because he knows
the value of looks. He knows that his restoring the house to its
pristine glory attracts the purchaser, helps to persuade him, and
secures a far better price of sale.

Cleanliness, looks, beauty, have a very real value in dollars and
cents. The same principle applies to a face brick finish of the
wall surface. Face brick are made with more care, are handled
and shipped with more care, and laid with more care, just for
the purpose of producing a more attractive wall. When you use
face brick for your clients, you give them the last word in wall
construction, which is at once, as no other material, strong,
enduring, comfortable, fire-safe, economical, and beautiful.

[Illustration: Start of Veneering over Frame Note footing below and
wall ties above]

[Illustration: Veneering above Kitchen Roof Note angle irons and
work at windows]



PUTTING IN FOUNDATIONS


The following data have been compiled and the drawings made by Mr.
George W. Repp, a Chicago architect, and are based on the most
widely followed building practice.

There is no intention of trying to inform the master mason or
the master carpenter about his craft with which he is perfectly
familiar, but to show the master carpenter builder the best methods
of handling the brick problems that may confront him in solid
brick, hollow tile, and veneer wall construction. A glossary of
technical terms will be found at the close of this volume.

[Sidenote: Footings]

Whatever type of construction is chosen, solid brick, hollow
tile, or veneer, it should rest upon a solid brick foundation.
In the majority of cases, where soil conditions are favorable,
the brick foundation walls of moderate sized houses do not need a
footing except at points bearing concentrated loads. Naturally,
the excavation should be carried down to good solid earth, free
from loose, spongy soil or filled-in ground which might later
permit sufficient unequal settlement to result in serious cracks
throughout the wall of the house. Where conditions seem to require
a footing, it may be either of brick laid in good cement mortar
(Fig. 1) or of concrete as shown in our working drawings, and
should be strengthened at points of special bearing stress. Which
footing is chosen will depend largely on convenience of getting
local material and labor. The bottom of the foundation wall or
footing must always be below frost line which, of course, varies in
different sections of the country; and this rule applies as well to
all brickwork outside of the foundation wall proper.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Brick Footing]

[Sidenote: Drains or Drainage]

Where the conditions of soil require, porous tile with open joints
should be laid around the base of the foundation wall, not above
the level of the basement floor nor below the bottom of the wall or
footing, and slightly pitched to a point where it may be connected
with the sewer or some natural outlet. Where this tile is laid in
loose sandy Soil, the open joints should be wrapped with building
paper to prevent the sand from clogging the drain. In heavy clay
soil, the tile should be covered to the depth of about a foot with
crushed stone to prevent packing of clay around the tile.

[Sidenote: The Wall]

Foundation walls, technically speaking, are those walls below
the grade line of the building that support the super-structure.
Similar walls around areas are termed retaining walls and are not
properly a part of the foundation. The thickness of foundation,
as well as other walls for different structures, is usually
established by ordinance in cities and towns; but, where there are
no ordinances on the subject, a brick foundation wall of 12 inches,
for two-story buildings, or one of 8 inches, for small one-story
buildings, conforms to good practice.

[Sidenote: The Bond]

The foundation wall should be built of a hard-burned common brick,
and laid in Common Bond (See Fig. 47), with a good cement-lime
mortar, starting at the bottom with a header course. As the
headers, which serve as transverse bond, are not long enough to
extend through the entire thickness of the 12-inch, as they do
through the 8-inch wall, the header courses in the 12-inch wall
very naturally cannot be on the same level at the front and back
of the wall. In the bottom course, the header row is laid inside
and the stretcher row outside, while in the next course above the
position is reversed, and so on wherever the bonding header courses
come.

[Sidenote: Laying the Brick]

The first course of brick is well bedded in mortar on the footing
or the solid ground, as the case may be. At the corners and at
proper intervals along the wall where necessary, a few brick,
four or five courses high, are laid up in the advance to serve as
leads or starting points for the bond and supports for the line
which guides the mason to the proper level and alignment of the
brick. The mortar is well spread with the trowel along the top of
the brick course, and the brick to be laid is firmly pressed down
on this mortar bed next the lead. The mortar thus squeezed out of
the joint is cut off by the trowel and scraped on the head of the
next brick to be laid which is then pressed on the mortar bed and
shoved against the brick just laid, so as to squeeze mortar into
the bottom of the vertical or head joint which is then thoroughly
filled from the top by slushing with mortar. The stretcher courses
for structural reasons should be well slushed with mortar between
the front and back rows or tiers of brick, laid to break joint.

As the work progresses, the joints on the inside face of the
basement wall should be neatly struck, while the outside joints
should be cut flush for receiving a waterproof coating. The inside
joints are struck by running the point of the trowel, held firmly
at an angle, along the upper or lower edge of the brick, thus
making a smooth beveled joint (See Fig. 57).

The wall should be widened where indicated on any plan to serve
as a foundation for the fireplace, and should be built hollow to
provide for an ash pit. Where other chimneys occur, the wall at
their base should be corbeled out to serve as a support for them.

[Sidenote: Scaffolding]

After the wall has risen four or five feet, scaffolding is erected
to carry on the upper portion. The scaffolding, necessary for
the usual house, or other small building, consists of a series
of rigid horses or trestles, approximately 5'-0" wide and 5'-0"
high, on which are placed a half-dozen 2" × 10" planks laid close.
The joists for the floor above may be used for this planking and
then lifted into place when the wall is ready to receive them,
thus effecting a saving in labor. Care should be taken to keep
the horses several inches away from the inside face of the wall,
lest the jarring caused by bricks and mortar being deposited on
the scaffold may push the green wall out of plumb. The scaffolding
for the foundation wall may be dispensed with, if it is found more
convenient to lay the upper portion of the wall from the outside.

[Sidenote: Waterproofing]

All brick foundation walls should be water-proofed on the outside
except in gravelly, sandy, or very dry soil. In case there is
danger of moisture rising in the wall by capillary attraction, the
top of the footing should be water-proofed, before starting the
walls, by a course of slate well bedded in mortar or by a strip of
composition roofing. In wet locations, it would be well to carry
the waterproofing under the basement floor also. For waterproofing
the foundation walls, in slightly wet soils where the drainage is
fair, a coating of one-half inch cement plaster may be applied to
the outside surface of the brick as the wall is carried up. This
plaster should be composed of one part Portland cement and two
parts clean, sharp sand. The possibility of settlement cracking
this cement coating makes it undesirable for use in heavy soils
such as wet clay, or in low-lying land where the subsoil is likely
to be wet. In such conditions, a coating of asphalt applied
while boiling hot, thoroughly covering the brickwork, is very
satisfactory. A less expensive though excellent waterproofing,
which we suggest in our specifications, is made of three parts
of tar and one of pitch. Tar alone is sometimes used, but is not
recommended as it becomes brittle and is subject to cracks, similar
to cement. Except in dry, warm weather, it is well to prepare
the wall for the waterproofing by sizing or priming it with hot
creosote, to overcome any dampness that might prevent the asphalt
or tar-pitch from taking proper hold.

[Illustration: Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Types of Exterior Basement Walls]



SOLID FACE BRICK CONSTRUCTION


[Sidenote: Thickness of the Wall]

Where ordinances do not govern, the thickness of brick walls
above the foundation may be 8 inches (two brick thick) for one or
two-story small houses, except in the case of an unusually high
gable where the first story wall should be 12 inches (three brick
thick).

[Sidenote: Water Table]

At the grade line the face brick is started, sometimes with a
rowlock course or a soldier course, set either flush with the outer
surface of the foundation wall or, as usual, slightly projected,
in which case it is known as the water table. On the other hand,
the entire base or lower portion of the building from the grade to
the first floor sometimes extends as a water table beyond the wall
above. Figs. 2-7 show various ways of treating this portion of the
wall which add to the interest of the brickwork.

The method of laying the face brick is substantially the same as
that for the foundation wall except that much greater care must be
taken with the bond and mortar joints on the surface of the wall.
A description of various bonds and patterns will be found on pages
33-35.

[Sidenote: Building]

The method of bonding the face brick to the common brick backing
follows the usual method Bonding means of headers every five or
six courses, the headers in other than Common Bond, not used for
bond, being cut in half. In the widely used Stretcher Bond where
no headers occur except at corners, three methods of bonding may
be employed. First, but only in case of walls 12 inches or more
thick, the back corners of the face brick may be clipped so that
the backing brick fit diagonally into the notches thus provided
(Fig. 8). This sort of concealed bond is weak and should be avoided.

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Concealed Bond]

[Illustration: Fig. 9. Metal Wall Ties]

Secondly, the face brick may be tied to the backing by laying
metal strips or wires, supplied by any material dealer, in the bed
joints of face and backing brick (Fig. 9). Although this method is
frequently used and in a way answers the purpose, we do not regard
it as the simplest and best.

We recommend the third method which is a natural bond, thoroughly
workmanlike and sound. Every sixth or seventh course, pairs of
headers are laid with a tight buttered, and hence invisible, joint
alternating with the stretchers. As the joint between the headers
is hardly seen, the two headers give the appearance of a stretcher,
so that the effect of the Running or Stretcher Bond is maintained
(See Fig. 31).

[Sidenote: Backing]

The face brick are laid up five or six courses in advance of the
backing and the joints on the face of the wall are finished (See
Fig. 57) as the work progresses. On outside exposed surfaces, the
struck joint should be avoided, and particular care should be
taken in seeing that all head or vertical joints are thoroughly
filled with mortar from bottom to top. Each face course should be
started so as to care for the bond or pattern chosen, as well as
for the transverse structural bond. The backing is then laid in
the usual way, always, so far as possible, breaking joint with
the face brick. No attempt, except where strength is specially
demanded, should be made to slush the thin space between the front
and back tiers of brick, as this space helps to make the wall drier
and warmer. Wherever the common brick backing is to be exposed,
the joints must be neatly struck as in the basement wall. At the
close of the day's work, face and backing should be brought to
approximately the same level and covered to protect the work from
the weather.

[Sidenote: Treatment of Joints]

The brickwork should be stopped at the point where the first floor
joists are to rest upon it, and care should be taken to have the
top course perfectly level, so that the joists may be set without
wedging or blocking. The joists set by the carpenter should have,
at intervals of approximately six feet, wrought iron joist anchors
solidly spiked to them, and extending into the wall. Great care
should be exercised in placing these anchors as near the bottom of
the joists as possible in order to lessen the strain on the brick
wall, in case a fire causes the joists to drop.

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Correct Joist Anchor]

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Bad Joist Anchor]

For the same reason, the ends of all the joists, with or without
anchors, should be beveled so that, in like conditions, the
joists will readily fall out without injury to the wall. Fig. 10
illustrates the correct method of attaching the anchor to the
joist. The dotted lines show how the joist would drop without
damaging the wall. Fig. 11 shows the destructive effect caused by
the anchor being placed at the top of the joist. The importance of
these points cannot be emphasized too much as walls have had to
be rebuilt which by proper framing construction would have stood
intact. After the joists are placed, the brickwork is continued up
between, and leaving a small "breathing" space around, them. The
same method of joisting is followed at the upper floors.

[Illustration: Fig. 12. and Fig. 13. True Corbeling Between Joists]

If the lower part of a wall is thicker by a brick than the upper
part, it should be carried up its full thickness nearly to the
top of the joists Fire Stops where ft is stepped back to the
inside face of the upper part, thus forming with the plastering
a fire stop at the top of the joists, while a projection of a
quarter brick length should always be provided as a fire stop at
the bottom of the joists, as shown in Fig. 12. If the wall is the
same thickness throughout, the brickwork should be corbeled out
between the joists two inches, the full height of the joists,
to form a fire stop as in Fig. 13. The object of the fire stop
is to block all possible passage of fire from the space between
the joists to that between the furring strips on the wall, or
the reverse. Without these fire stops, a fire originating in the
floor could communicate with the furring space on the wall above,
or originating in the furring space could communicate with the
floor. With the stops, the fire is confined to certain spaces and
is retarded instead of spreading. These corbels also serve the
wholesome purpose of checking vermin of all kinds from passage
through the floor and wall spaces.

[Sidenote: Ceiling Lath]

Figs. 12 and 13 also show the proper way of placing the lath at
the corner of the ceiling so as to take full advantage of the fire
stops. The ceiling lath, usually placed first, should be started
far enough away from the side walls so that when the side wall
lath is placed tight, as it ought to be, against the underside
of the floor joist, there will be space enough for the plaster
to push through and form a key touching the bottom brick of the
corbel. As the corbel by construction is necessarily the distance
of a mortar joint above the bottom of the joists, the openings are
thus completely sealed by the plaster key. In cheap speculative
buildings, these fire stops are too often omitted or a pretext for
them is resorted to by projecting only one brick at the top or
bottom of the joists. This, however, is as good as no fire stop at
all. Figs. 14 and 15 show the lath as they ought not to be placed
and also how false corbeling leaves the passages really unstopped,
thus defeating altogether the purpose of fire stops.

[Illustration: Fig. 14 Fig. 15

False Corbeling Between Joists]

Masonry walls that are to be furred, sometimes have, as the work
progresses, common wood laths laid in the joints of the brickwork
on the inside face of the wall, about every seventh course, except
over chimneys. The lath should be staggered so as to avoid two
vertical lath joints in succession. These serve as nail holds for
the furring strips as explained on page 24.

[Sidenote: Laying a 2-inch Wall]

Where local requirements demand a 12-inch wall, the method of
construction is the same as in the 8-inch wall, except that two
rows or tiers of backing brick, instead of one, are carried up
to the advanced level of the face brick, leaving the thin spaces
between the tiers of brick open as the best way of securing a
warmer and drier wall. Of course, in the case of piers and points
in the wall that carry heavy loads, all interior joints should be
well slushed with mortar for evident structural reasons.

[Sidenote: Roof Plate Anchor]

Before the top of the wall is reached, the anchors for bolting
down the roof plate should be placed and the brickwork carried up
around them (Fig. 16). They should be made of half-inch bolts at
least 12 inches long, with a tee or washer at the bottom and a nut
and washer at the top, and should be set approximately every 6 feet
along the wall. After the carpenter has placed the roof plate and
before it is bolted down, the mason should bed with cement mortar
under it.

[Sidenote: Nogging]

When the wall is finally carried to the top and the roof rafters
set, but before the roof boarding is in place, the mason should
fill in between the roof rafters with one tier of brick as shown
in Fig. 16. This is called nogging. Its purpose is to block
effectually the openings between the roof rafters and prevent the
wind from entering the walls and attic. This adds greatly to the
comfort of the house in cold weather. In warm climates nogging will
be found unnecessary.

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Rafters and Roof Plate]


The Chimney

While the chimney may be made one of the most charming and
effective elements of the house design, its structural and
practical necessities are its most striking features.

The proper construction, size, and height of chimneys are of the
utmost importance both for the successful working of the heating
system and for the prevention of fires. The chimney may, though
it need not be, a point of danger to the safety of the home. A
little intelligent care in its construction will prove to be the
best insurance. As a first precaution, all wood framing of floor
and roof must be kept at least 2 inches away from the chimney and
no other woodwork of any kind be projected into the brickwork
surrounding the flues.

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Chimney Height]

Chimneys should be tightly built of solid brick, have no openings
except those required for the connection of the heating apparatus,
and should always extend at least one foot above the highest point
of the roof. In some cases, depending on local surroundings, it may
be desirable to carry them somewhat higher. Those terminating below
the level of the roof usually have poor draft because the wind,
sweeping across or against the roof, may form eddies that drive
down the chimney or check the natural rise of the smoke (Fig. 17).

[Sidenote: Flue Lining]

The flues of chimneys should not start from the bottom of the
foundation but only about a foot below the first smoke pipe
openings, and should be lined with terra cotta flue lining their
entire height. Care should be taken in setting flue linings to be
sure that the joints are well cemented and, at the same time, that
all spaces between the lining and brickwork are tightly filled with
mortar. Any openings in the joints of the tile lining, or even of
the brickwork, not only check the draft but are a fire menace.
Cement plaster should not be substituted for the flue lining as
it is likely to crack and fall off, thus leaving the flue in a
dangerous condition. However, where flue linings are not available,
a strong smooth cement plaster may be used, in which case the
chimney wall should be at least 8 inches thick.

Modern heating plants necessitate accurate construction of
chimneys, and most manufacturers of heating apparatus nowadays
recommend the area and height of the flue necessary for their
installations. The following table will prove useful in considering
the question of heating plant or fireplace, by showing the
dimensions of flue linings to be ordered when the required area is
ascertained.

Table of Commercial Flue Linings

  _Outside Dimensions_   _Actual Inside Area_

    8-1/2" × 8-1/2"         52 sq. in.
    8-1/2" × 13   "         80  "   "
    13   " × 13   "        126  "   "
    13   " × 18   "        169  "   "
    18   " × 18   "        240  "   "

[Illustration: Fig. 18. Chimney Withes]

[Sidenote: Offsets]

Where two or more flues are contained in one chimney, they should
always be separated by a brick partition 4 inches thick, called a
withe, and bonded to the outside brickwork as shown in Fig. 18.
Chimneys should run as straight as possible from bottom to top, in
order to secure better draft and facilitate cleaning. If, however,
offsets are necessary from one story to another, they should be
very gradual, never less than at an angle of 30° from the vertical.
If abrupt offsets occur in flues, soot will soon be deposited,
choking the flue and making cleaning almost impossible (Fig. 19).
Care should be taken while the chimney is building that the bottom
does not become filled with mortar or brick bats. At the bottom of
the furnace flue in the basement, an iron cleanout door should be
provided as a convenience for removing soot.

Chimneys erected on the interior of a building are apt to be more
efficient because the warm air surrounding them facilitates the
draft, while those located on the exterior naturally are somewhat
affected by the cool air on the outside.

[Illustration: Fig. 19. Chimney Offset]

[Illustration: Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Outside Angle Corners]


Angles, Bays, and Corners

All the houses represented in this book are designed without any
obtuse or acute angled corners. If, however, you wish to erect a
brick building with an angular corner or bay, specially shaped
face brick for the purpose, called splay or octagon brick, may be
obtained from the dealers or manufacturers. If for any reason these
special shapes are not easily available, the angle may be formed
by the use of standard size brick. The method shown in Fig. 20 is
used only on cheap work and should be discouraged, for it leaves
ledges for the lodgment of snow and dirt, decreases the thickness
of the wall, and besides is rather unsightly. The better method, as
shown in Fig. 21, also has the objection of forming ledges for the
lodgment of snow and dirt, but it makes a wall of full thickness,
and has been used by some architects in a very artistic manner. The
best method of all, for treating these corners, is shown in Fig.
22. Standard bricks are used with the minimum amount of cutting.
Fig. 23 shows a method of laying brick at an acute angled corner.
It is simple to lay up, there is little cutting of brick, and it
presents a better looking corner than one with a sharp angle.

[Illustration: Fig. 22. Obtuse Angle Turns]

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Acute Angle Turns]

[Illustration: Fig. 24 The Solid Brick Wall]


Openings

Window sills in brick buildings should be of brick or stone.
Cement, unless pre-cast, is not well adapted for the purpose. Brick
window sills are preferable to stone for, besides adding a charming
touch to the building, they are inexpensive since they are of the
same material as the wall and placed by the same workmen who lay up
the wall, thus obviating the necessity of additional labor to place
the heavy stone. Brick for sills should be laid on edge and pitched
approximately at an incline of 1 inch in 6 to shed the water. They
should also project at least an inch beyond the face of the wall to
form a drip, and be laid in rich cement mortar composed of equal
parts of cement and sand, with joints well filled and finished with
a hard smooth surface. Door sills may be of wood, brick, or stone.
In case of a stone sill, it should be exactly the height of either
two or three courses of brick.

[Sidenote: Window Frames]

The window frames are set by the carpenter on top of the sill in
a thin bed of mortar. When they are leveled, plumbed, and braced,
the brickwork is carried up around the jambs or weight boxes, as
shown in Fig. 24, always making certain that the corner or jamb of
the brick opening is perfectly plumb. Great care should be taken
to fill solid with mortar the spaces between the brickwork and the
window frame, to stop the wind.

Stock Window Sizes

  _Double Hung Sash, 1-3/8" Thick_

   _Glass Size,                                  _Masonry
       D. S._   _Lights[A]_    _Sash Size_        Opening_

    16" × 16"       2        1'- 8" × 3'- 2"    2'-0" × 3'- 6"
    16" × 26"       2        1'- 8" × 4'-10"    2'-0" × 5'- 2"
    22" × 20"       2        2'- 2" × 3'-10"    2'-6" × 4'- 2"
    28" × 26"       2        2'- 8" × 4'-10"    3'-0" × 5'- 2"
    30" × 24"       2        2'-10" × 4'- 6"    3'-2" × 4'-10"
    30" × 26"       2        2'-10" × 4'-10"    3'-2" × 5'- 2"
    34" × 16"       2        3'- 2" × 3'- 2"    3'-6" × 3'- 6"
    34" × 20"       2        3'- 2" × 3'-10"    3'-6" × 4'- 2"
    34" × 26"       2        3'- 2" × 4'-10"    3'-6" × 5'- 2"
    40" × 26"       2        3'- 8" × 4'-10"    4'-0" × 5'- 2"
    42" × 26"       2        3'-10" × 4'-10"    4'-2" × 5'- 2"
    52" × 26"       2        4'- 8" × 4'-10"    5'-0" × 5'- 2"

  _Basement Sash, 1-3/8" Thick_

    20" × 14"       2        2'- 0" × 1'- 5"    2'-4" × 1'- 9"
    30" × 14"       3        2'-10" × 1'- 5"    3'-2" × 1'- 9"
    42" × 14"       3        3'-10" × 1'- 5"    4'-2" × 1'- 9"

  _Casement Sash, 1-3/8" or 1-3/4" Thick_

    20" × 24"       4        2'- 0" × 2'- 5"    2'-4" × 2'- 9"[B]
    20" × 36"       6        2'- 0" × 3'- 5"    2'-4" × 3'- 9"[B]
    20" × 42"       6        2'- 0" × 3'-11"    2'-4" × 4'- 3"[B]
    20" × 48"       8        2'- 0" × 4'- 5"    2'-4" × 4'- 9"[B]
    20" × 56"       8        2'- 0" × 5'- 1"    2'-4" × 5'- 5"[B]

[Footnote A: If divided lights are wanted, a special order will be
necessary, the total glass size remaining the same.]

[Footnote B: These heights are for outswinging casements; for
inswinging casements, add 3/8" to the height of the dimensions
given.]

Stock Door Sizes[C]

  _Exterior Doors 1-3/8" or 1-3/4" Thick_

    2'-8" × 6'-8"
    2'-8" × 7'-0"
    3'-0" × 6'-8"
    3'-0" × 7'-0"

[Footnote C: Openings will be 4" wider and 2-3/4" higher than
dimensions given.]

[Sidenote: Stock Sizes]

Brick linear dimensions should, wherever possible, be calculated
so as to reduce cutting of brick to a minimum, especially where
openings, bays, chimneys, and the like are concerned. Our plans
are drawn with this in view; and to facilitate readily obtaining
sash and exterior door sizes, we would suggest that contractors, so
far as possible, use stock dimensions taken from the accompanying
tables which cover the vast majority of requirements. For each
mullion between grouped, double-hung windows allow 6 inches, and
between casement windows 2 inches. The stock window frames, which
are essentially the same as those used in frame construction,
require no more labor to set and brace than in case of frame walls.
All that is necessary is to box them in to make a housing for the
sash weights. After the brickwork is laid around the frame, a staff
bead or brick mold is nailed to its outside face, fitting snugly up
to the brickwork, adding if so desired a scribing bead.

Should local stock frames vary slightly from the dimensions
given, or if a scribing bead is used in addition to the regular
staff mold, the brickwork can easily be laid so as to take up the
difference. In case the masonry opening is finished before the
frames arrive on the job, great care should be taken to have them
built the exact size of the frame ordered, always taking into
consideration the 1 inch to 6 inches slope of the sill, and the
scribing bead if used.

[Illustration: Fig. 25  Fig. 26  Fig. 27  Fig. 28  Fig. 29]


Opening Supports

[Sidenote: Lintels and Arches]

[Sidenote: Relieving Arches]

The brickwork over all openings may be supported, either by a steel
or wood lintel, or by a brick arch. Either the full thickness of
the wall or the face brick only may be carried on a steel lintel or
an arch. Lintels are rarely used in combination with semi-circular
arches. When a steel lintel or an arch supports the face brick, the
backing usually rests on a wooden lintel, set higher than the arch
or else concealed by the frame. There should be a brick relieving
arch above wooden lintels, spanning more than 3 feet, bearing on
the wall beyond the ends of the lintel, so that the brickwork will
not be weakened should the lintel be destroyed by fire (Fig. 28).
The space between arch and lintel is filled with brick after the
arch is built. Seasoned brickwork will support itself over the
smaller spans.

[Sidenote: Steel Lintels]

For a steel lintel over a small opening, an angle is sufficient.
If the interior wall surface is also to be of face brick, the
lintel is made by placing two angles back to back, as the usual
wood lintel in such a place would be unsightly. For openings up
to 4 feet wide, a 4" × 3" or a 3" × 3" angle is sufficient; wider
openings up to 5 feet would require a 3" × 5" angle. Over larger
openings heavier sections of steel have to be used. Both steel and
wood lintels are usually made 8 inches longer than the width of the
opening.

[Sidenote: Brick Arches]

The brick arches generally employed in small buildings are flat,
segmental, or full semi-circular (Figs. 25-29). The segmental and
semi-circular arches are usually best built of rowlock courses,
their number depending upon the width of the opening. Flat brick
arches over two feet wide should be supported by steel, the brick
being usually set soldier fashion. As these brick are slightly
inclined from the vertical, their end edges should be clipped to
make the joints on the face of the arch come in a horizontal line,
as in Fig. 26. In Fig. 25, the appearance of the arch face is not
so workmanlike and neat because the brick have not been clipped
along the line of the middle joints. For either type of arch, the
brickwork both sides of the opening must be beveled in the form of
skewbacks, to serve as beds for receiving the thrust of the arch as
shown in the figures. If these arches are properly handled both as
to design and execution, they add greatly to the appearance of the
entire wall surface.


Various Methods of Furring

[Sidenote: Wood]

[Sidenote: Hollow Tile]

[Sidenote: Metal]

The inside of all exterior brick walls should be furred, except
in climatic conditions where it has proved unnecessary, in order
to form an air space between the brickwork and the plaster. This
furring may be of wood, hollow tile, or metal. The first, which
is ordinarily used, consists of 1" × 2" wooden strips placed
vertically on the wall and spaced 16 inches on center (Fig. 24).
The strips are either nailed to the lath which have been placed in
the joints of the brickwork by the mason, or attached by driving
the nails into the mortar joints. The carpenter, in placing the
strips, should wedge behind them where necessary to make them
plumb. The grounds and lath are placed directly on these strips.
Hollow tile furring is formed by splitting 3-inch or 4-inch "split
furring" tile, which have been scored in manufacturing for this
purpose, placing the webs against the brick wall, and anchoring
them by driving ten-penny nails into the mortar joints over every
third tile in every second course. The tile should be laid without
mortar so as not to make a solid connection which would transmit
moisture. This tile furring makes a good surface for interior
plastering. Metal furring is only used with metal lath and consists
of small steel rods or other stiffening members either placed
separately on the wall or as part of the metal lath.


Cleaning and Pointing

Not until after the plasterer has left the job should the face
brick be cleaned or washed down. This is done with a 5 per cent
muriatic acid solution or about one pint of acid to four gallons
of water. A stronger solution is likely to do injury. Apply with a
good scrubbing brush to remove all dirt and spattered mortar, and
then rinse with clean water. While washing the wall, defects in
joints should be pointed up.


The Hollow Brick Wall

A variation of solid brick construction is the so-called hollow
or vaulted wall in which the face and common brick are separated
by a two-inch air space and bonded together by metal ties laid in
the mortar joints at proper intervals. This type of wall has been
extensively used for many years, especially in the East.

[Illustration: Fig. 30. Hollow or Vaulted Brick Wall]

[Sidenote: For and Against]

Its friends claim that it is stiffer than a solid wall of the same
amount of brick; that it offers a better insulation, by reason of
the air space, against cold and dampness; and that therefore it
saves the necessity of furring and fire stops on the interior wall
surface. On the other hand, admitting the value of the air space
and the consequent saving of furring, objection is made that the
air space is apt to get filled with mortar and brick chips during
construction; that the metal ties, unless heavily galvanized or
dipped in asphaltum, rust out in a comparatively short time; and
that it is not as strong a bearing wall as the solid wall of the
same brick content. Mr. Arthur W. Joslin, a contractor and builder
of Boston, whose extensive practice gives his judgment weight,
says in summing up the pros and cons: "The 10-inch vaulted wall
is strong enough for ordinary dwellings, even though the ties do
rust out, unless it is built out of the poorest kind of brick with
very poor mortar. In my opinion, a vaulted wall, if properly built,
the vault not filled up with droppings, and provisions made for
ventilating from the inside, is an ideal wall for dwelling house
construction, but I would not recommend it for buildings for other
purposes where there would be more or less of a dead load coming on
the floors." On the matter of comparative costs, Mr. Joslin adds:
"It is cheaper to build an 8-inch solid than a 10-inch vaulted
wall, and slightly cheaper to build a 10-inch vaulted than a
12-inch solid wall."

The accompanying drawing shows a cross section of this type of
brick wall. Except in a few particulars, its construction does not
differ essentially from that of the solid brick wall as already
described.

A 12-inch brick foundation is wide enough for the 10-inch wall and
a 16-inch foundation for the 14-inch wall. The metal ties, heavily
galvanized or coated with asphaltum, should be placed about 18
inches apart at every fifth or sixth course and extend at least 2
inches into the mortar joints.

Fire stops are not needed, nor is furring, as the plaster may be
laid directly on the brick. In order to preserve the chief merit
of this type of brick wall, great care should be taken, during
construction, that the 2-inch air space be not allowed to fill up
with mortar and brick chips.



FACE BRICK ON HOLLOW TILE CONSTRUCTION



The local ordinances in some municipalities require thicker walls
with hollow tile construction than where common brick backing is
used, which affects the comparative cost of the buildings; but,
where the total thickness may be kept the same as for solid brick,
the cost is practically the same, with slight differences one way
or the other in different communities. The tile used for backing
may be either soft or hard burned, but never with an absorption
of over 12 per cent, and are scored variously so that there may
always be a good keying surface for plaster. These tile may be set
with the hollow spaces or cells running either horizontally or
vertically, as the case demands or the builder chooses.

[Sidenote: Construction]

Walls of this form of construction are built in much the same
manner as walls with common brick backing, except that it is always
desirable to use cement mortar with the tile to insure the needed
strength of bond. The face brick are first carried up four or five
courses and then the hollow tile units, of whatever thickness
chosen, are laid up behind the brick, leaving an inch space between
the tile and brick (Fig. 31). The tile are laid, with broken joint
as in running bond, in a half-inch mortar bed. When the tile width
is over 4 inches, the mortar should be spread only on the front and
back edges of the tile, leaving a hollow space in the center. In
the vertical joints only the front and back webs require mortar. If
vertical tile are used all the webs should be well mortared, while
the vertical joints are simply buttered.

Care must be taken that the space between the tile and brick does
not get filled up with mortar, for this would defeat its purpose
of serving as an insulation against moisture and cold. With this
one-inch space between brick and tile open, furring and lathing
are saved, as the plaster may be directly laid on the tile and the
necessity of fire stops avoided.

[Illustration: Fig. 31. Face Brick on Hollow Tile]

At window and door openings, in case 4" × 5" × 12" or 8" × 5" × 12"
horizontal tile are laid, either common brick or special half and
full closure tile (Figs. 31 and 59) should be used, in order to
close the openings at the end of the horizontal tile courses, thus
making around the frames good joints which should be tightly filled
with mortar. When the 12" × 12" tile are laid horizontal, those in
the window and door jambs need simply be set vertical to serve as
closures.

It will be found that an even number of tile does not always work
out with the length of the wall or pier, leaving a space of a few
inches. This space may be filled by cutting a tile or using pieces
of tile slabs.

[Sidenote: Tile Sizes]

For houses of the character presented in this Manual, tile either
4, 6, or 8 inches wide may be used, depending on local ordinance
or the choice of the owner. A 5-inch backing may be obtained by
simply laying the 4" × 5" × 12" tile on the 5-inch edge. Both 4-
and 8-inch widths are made 5" × 12" or 12" × 12" in height and
length. The 6-inch width generally comes 12" × 12" in height and
length, but may be obtained in the 5" × 12" size from certain
manufacturers, if so desired.

The 5" × 12" tile in either width are laid horizontal, while the
12" × 12" tile in either width may be laid vertical or horizontal.
Either method is satisfactory although, for heavy bearing walls,
some builders prefer the vertical method on the ground that it
gives a stronger bearing wall because the vertical webs directly
bear on each other. If laid vertical, the top course of tile should
be placed horizontal to give a good bed for the wall plate.

[Sidenote: Face Brick to Tile]

Four courses of standard size brick, provided a 3/8-inch mortar
joint is used, will equal in height two 5" × 12" tile, making every
fifth course a bonding course (Fig. 31). And five courses of
standard size brick, provided a 1/4-inch mortar joint is used, will
equal in height one 12" × 12" tile, or if 1/2-inch joints are used,
will equal in height 3 courses of 4" × 12" tile 5 inches wide,
making every sixth course a bonding course. If wider mortar joints
are desired, you can in the latter case make every fifth course a
bonding course by using 12" × 12" vertical tile which you can order
cut to any length required. But where either the 5" × 12" or the
12" × 12" tile are laid horizontal, the number of courses of face
brick and the size of mortar joints cannot be changed.

[Sidenote: Bonding]

The face brick are bonded to the tile backing (Fig. 31) precisely
in the same manner as previously explained for common brick, double
headers being used in case of Stretcher Bond and the headers,
wherever required, in other bonds (See page 18). But as this wall
is full 9 inches or more thick, the headers in the bonding courses
leave recesses one inch or more deep at intervals on the inside
face of the wall (Fig. 31). These if shallow, should be filled with
plaster, containing a large amount of fibre, before the regular
plastering is started; if deep, as when the 8-inch wide tile is
used for backing, a stretcher course of common brick or brick-size
hollow tile fills the space.

The chimney construction does not differ in any essential from
that used for the solid brick wall, but we strongly urge the use
of brick for the chimney, rather than tile or concrete blocks, as
affording more reliable protection for the flue.

The window sills, door sills, and lintels are the same as in solid
brick construction except that, preferably, instead of the wooden
lintel supporting the backing, the lintel be made of hollow tile
filled with cement and reinforced by one or more steel rods (Fig.
32). These tile lintels should be made on the ground by standing
the tile on end for filling. When the concrete is set, they are
ready to be lifted into place.

[Illustration: Hollow Tile and Steel Lintels]

[Sidenote: Laying Out]

The story heights should be figured so that an exact number of
whole tile may be used from the bottom of the joists on one floor
to the bottom of those on the next floor, always allowing one-half
inch for the bed joints. But where this is not possible, special
tile slabs one inch thick, which may be had from the dealer, should
be used to obtain the exact height required, so that an even and
solid bearing may be formed for the floor joists. The wall plates
for the roof construction are anchored in the same manner as in the
solid brick wall, except that anchors should be 20 inches long;
likewise, brick nogging should be placed between the roof rafters.

As in the case of the solid brick construction, when the plasterers
have gone, the face brick should be cleaned down and pointed where
necessary.



FACE BRICK VENEER CONSTRUCTION


[Sidenote: Advantages]

As already indicated, this type of wall construction is preferred
by some builders because it is somewhat less expensive than
solid brick or hollow tile and can be more quickly built. The
wooden frame may be completed and roofed before the brick
veneer is started on the outside. If constructed according to
our specifications, the veneered wall makes a much warmer and
more comfortable house than frame, not only because the veneer
wall is over 2 inches thicker than the frame, but because the
brick veneering forms a solid monolithic shell that steadies the
framework and is proof against the wind pressure that searches
out the cracks and crannies of the less substantial construction.
Furthermore, while the veneer house does not get the favored
insurance rates of the solid brick structure, it is, if provided
with a non-combustible roof, safe against adjacent fires; in fact,
from the exterior, presents the advantages of a solid face brick
house.

[Sidenote: Construction]

In this type of construction the studding is not placed at the face
of the foundation wall, but set at the back of the wall, allowing
sufficient space in front of the sheathing for the veneer of face
brick. The studs are then sheathed as for the usual frame building
and covered with building paper, held in place with 2" × 1" or 1"
× 5/8" furring strips, laid on vertically or horizontally over each
lap of paper and once between. The face brick, set one inch from
the sheathing, are laid up, so far as the outer bond is concerned,
in the same manner as for facing the solid masonry wall, and are
fastened to the framework by metal ties spaced horizontally about
on every stud and vertically every four or five courses (Fig. 33).

[Illustration: Fig. 33. Veneer Construction]

[Sidenote: Bonding Ties]

These ties are of two kinds, either corrugated metal strips with
one end nailed to the sheathing and the other laid in the bed
joints, or thirty-penny wire nails which must be spaced with the
studs into which they are driven through the sheathing, so as to
leave a projection sufficient to extend about one inch into the bed
joints of the brickwork.

The last method is recommended as the most substantial and
permanent, but care should be taken that the nails be driven with
a slant into the wood frame at a point somewhat above the brick so
that when tapped by a hammer they may be bent down to the level
of the joint (Fig. 34). If they are driven in at the exact level
of the brick, they will, when bent down, push the brick out of
alignment.

[Sidenote: Sills and Lintels]

Brick window sills with this type of construction are the same
as for the solid masonry wall, except that the inner ends of the
brick must be cut to fit against the sheathing. The window and
door frames are set in place as in frame construction. While the
brickwork over openings may be carried on arches, steel angles are
almost universally used for this purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Nail Wall Ties]

The brick porches should have the porch walls and piers of solid
brickwork faced on both sides, with bond pattern or ornamentation
following, in the main, the design of the house walls.

Chimney construction for the veneer house is the same as for the
brick house, except that care should be taken in setting outside
chimneys clear of the sheathing, so as not to cut into the frame
construction.


Veneering Old Frame Structures

[Sidenote: Old House Made New]

It often occurs that a frame house is not kept in repair and
depreciates to such an extent that the expenditure for necessary
painting and repairs to restore it would amount to an unwarranted
figure. Or, as in many cases, the frame house, though kept in fair
condition by dint of frequent painting and repairs, is decidedly
out of date, or lacks the "class" that surrounding buildings may
have. This often applies also to the old spotted and stained stucco
house. In either case, the owner suffers loss in the value of his
investment. There is a simple way, however, to recover this loss
and more than restore the value of his investment, and that is by
veneering the house with an attractive face brick. The framing of
the house is in all probability substantially sound, it is only
the exterior that is dilapidated and outclassed. By veneering his
house with a well-chosen face brick, laid in proper bond and mortar
joint, the owner at a comparatively small expenditure has got what
is to all intents and purposes a new house.

[Sidenote: Paying Investments]

In the first place, he has "painted" it once and for all with
beautiful colors that will never come off, and he has eliminated
all future paint and repair bills for the exterior where much of
his cost of upkeep for the old frame house came. In the second
place, he has a far more uniformly comfortable house with a
very appreciable reduction of his coal bills, due to the solid,
monolithic shell of brick covering the frame. Practical heating
engineers engaged in installing heating apparatus calculate that
in a moderate sized veneer house as compared with frame there is,
during an average winter in the North, a saving of approximately 8
per cent on the coal bill.

Finally, he would have, so far as the community is concerned, or a
possible future purchaser, an attractive modern face brick house,
of which he may be proud as a place of residence, or which would
be more profitable as a renting or selling property. The enhanced
value of his property would be far beyond his expenditure.

[Sidenote: Increasing Your Profits]

Many contractors could comfortably increase their profits and
keep busy through dull months by presenting the above facts to
the owner whose old frame or stucco house needs repairs. Instead
of giving him a staggering figure for repair work that is only
temporary, he could be shown how, by investing a little more,
he could greatly contribute to his personal satisfaction and
substantially increase the value of his property. Veneering an old
house, either frame or stucco, is no more difficult than veneering
a new structure and is accomplished in much the same manner.

[Sidenote: How It is Done]

An eight-inch concrete footing should be placed against the outside
of the existing foundation wall, extending from grade to below
frost line and resting on good solid soil. The brick veneer,
starting from this footing, is carried up with an inch air space
between it and the old siding (which is not removed) and tied by
driving thirty-penny nails through the siding or other finish into
the sheathing and studs (Fig. 35).

The usual steel lintels are used over window and door openings.
Where the veneer is to be carried over porches or other low
additions, the siding immediately above the roof should be removed
and a steel angle placed against the sheathing and securely
attached to the studs by lag screws, so that no weight of the
brickwork comes on the roof. See illustrations of work on page 16.

[Illustration: Fig. 35 Veneering old frame]

The brickwork is laid up to the door and window trim and a staff
bead molding, in the corner formed by the brick, securely nailed to
the old trim, making a tight joint (See Fig. 35). Similar mouldings
should be placed at the underside of roofs, porch ceilings, and
like places where the brick meets the old frame finish.


New Store Fronts

A very remunerative addition to his business may be made by the
builder in veneering old frame or stucco store buildings. All
that applies to the advantage of veneering the old frame house
especially applies here. An attractive store front is one of the
merchant's best advertisements. It indicates that he is prosperous,
and it draws customers who always prefer to deal with the
successful merchant, and where the surroundings are pleasant. Show
the merchant of your town the increased value of his property and
the increased profits of his business made possible by a beautiful
store front of face brick, and you will get more business yourself.


A New Face Brick Porch

[Sidenote: Method of Construction]

Sometimes the porch on a frame building is in need of a new floor,
railing, and steps. Instead of rebuilding the frame porch which
will need constant repair and painting, a new face brick porch
with either a brick or wooden floor could be built which would
not only end all repair bills but vastly improve the appearance
of the house. This may be accomplished very easily. Remove the
entire porch except the roof which should be held by temporary
supports. After excavating to the necessary depth, build a common
brick foundation to grade for the piers and wall of the porch. The
piers should be the same dimensions as the brick piers above, and
the connecting wall should be 8 inches thick. Above the grade this
8-inch wall should be finished with face brick on the outside,
while above the porch floor it should be face brick on both sides;
and, at the correct height, should have a coping of face brick
laid on edge. The piers should be carried up to the porch cornice
and may be finished with a course of brick on edge, projecting
slightly, to match the coping on the porch wall, or in any other
plain or ornamental fashion desired. Where the walls join the frame
building they should be anchored with nails driven into the wall
the same as already explained for brick veneer work.

While the cost of a new brick porch on an old house is moderate, it
adds greatly to the appearance of the house and thus appreciably
increases its market value.



SPECIAL USES OF FACE BRICK



The Glow of the Friendly Hearth

It is the dream of most people when planning a home to have a
real fireplace in which they may have a real fire of real logs,
around which to sit with family or friends during the long winter
evenings. Every home, even one built of frame or stucco, should be
provided with at least one real fireplace.

And no matter what kind of a house a man may build, he won't find
anything else quite so good or appropriate for a fireplace as
brick. For having stood the test of flame in their making, they
defy the flame in their use. The feeling that the roaring fire on
the hearth beats harmlessly against the enduring brick, as the sea
beats in vain against a granite headland, gives a genuine sense
of security and satisfaction. Then the texture and color of the
brick make them at once adaptable to any type of room or scheme of
interior decoration the lady of the house may choose.

[Sidenote: Location]

The location of the fireplace in the room is of great importance
to its enjoyment. As it is the most ornamental feature of the
interior of the house, it should be given a prominent position, but
it should not be in the line of travel through the room, near the
entrance door, or where a cross draft sweeps it. The far end of the
room is one of the best locations; or better still, an ingle nook.
If placed on the broad side of a room, it is pretty sure to project
so far as to reduce the practicable width of-the room and force the
rug over the hearth. If placed on an outside wall, it is best not
to have large flanking windows, as one does not like to sit facing
too much light, especially where a strong sun is shining.

[Illustration: Fig. 36. Part Perspective of Fireplace]

Proper proportions of the fireplace opening and flue are among the
most essential features of fireplace construction. The larger the
opening, the larger the fire may be and the more air required or
taken from the room for proper combustion, provided the flue is
large enough to give sufficient draft. In the average home, the
actual inside area of flue should never be less than one-tenth of
the area of the fireplace opening. Each fireplace should have its
own individual flue carried full size to the top of the chimney
without connections of any kind from other sources. A low, broad
opening is preferred to a narrow, high one, and splayed sides are
best in any case, because better draft and radiation are thus
secured. A low, broad opening will catch the smoke better and
direct it up the chimney.

The following dimensions for fireplaces are considered good
practice:

Fireplace Openings

  _Width_   _Height_     _Depth_

   2'-8"     2'-4"        17" to 21"
   3'-0"     2'-4" to 6"  21"
   4'-0"     2'-8"        21" to 25"

Arched openings may be higher than indicated in the above
dimensions, as their average height may be taken as the top line of
the opening.

[Sidenote: Construction]

The ideal form of a fireplace would be a cone with all sides
tapering to the apex for the escape of smoke. Therefore, to
approach this ideal in practice, the sides of the fireplace are
splayed and the back curved forward as shown in Figs. 36 and 37.
This forward curve of the back throws the smoke from the fire
forward to a throat 4 inches wide, extending the full width of the
opening at the front and top of the fireplace, and at the same
time forms a shelf above for the deflection of down drafts in the
chimney. The rear wall of the fireplace should never be straight,
having the throat at the rear, as down drafts would be sure to blow
smoke and dust into the room.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. Cross Section of Fireplace]

[Sidenote: The Damper]

Always place a damper in the throat for regulation of the draft.
The damper should completely fill the throat. There are many
dampers on the market that also serve the purpose of a lintel for
the brickwork, giving a smooth surface for the exit of the smoke.
These patent combinations of damper and throat give a good draft,
prevent smoke, and deserve a more general use.

[Illustration: Fig. 38. Hearth With Brick on Edge]

Especial care should be taken in laying up the brickwork above and
around the damper. The joints should be well filled, and nowhere
should there be less than an 8-inch thickness of brickwork unless
protected by the flue lining.

[Sidenote: The Flue]

Immediately above the damper, the brickwork should be corbeled
in both ways to the size of the flue lining, which should always
be started on a line with the middle of the fireplace and run
vertically for one length. It then may be jogged over to the
location desired on the floor above. It should be started as low as
possible as this is the hottest part of the chimney.

The back and sides of the fireplace, as well as the back portion
of the hearth are usually built of fire brick. Certain kinds of
face brick are suitable for this purpose and have been used by
architects with very artistic results.

[Sidenote: The Hearth]

The hearth may be either of face brick or tile. If of brick, they
should be preferably smooth so as to facilitate cleaning. They
may be laid either on edge or flat in a variety of patterns. Two
examples of brick hearths are shown in Figs. 38 and 39, one with
the brick set on edge and the other with the brick laid flat. Tiles
may be of any size and laid in various patterns, and if suitable,
may be used also in the back portion of small hearths. The mortar
joints of the hearth should be thin and preferably of a fire clay
mortar, though pure cement mortar will answer the purpose. Wherever
possible, an opening and ash chute in the back hearth, with a pit
and iron cleanout door in the basement, should be installed.

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Hearth With Brick Flat]

Always build the fireplace in the rough first, leaving the brick
facing and hearth to be finished after the plasterer has completed
his work. The accompanying designs, A, B, and C, suggest various
methods of treatment.

[Illustration: Fireplace Design A]

[Illustration: Fireplace Design B]

[Illustration: Fireplace Design C]


Outside Ornamental Features

The possibilities of the use of brick for floors, walks, steps,
pergolas, gate posts, seats, and other places about the house and
garden are unlimited. For outside work it is a most permanent and
beautiful material which never cracks or decays requiring periodic
repairs or painting such as other materials do. It may always be
the same color and texture as the brickwork of the house, thereby
linking the house and garden together into one harmonious whole.

[Sidenote: Steps]

Brick steps, except where supported by the foundation wall, as
shown in our working drawings, should always be laid over a
concrete slab, reinforced, unless resting on solid, undisturbed
soil. The concrete slab is poured in the form of steps, to
correspond to the finished brick steps, but with proper allowance
for laying the brick flat or on edge in a cushion of sand, at the
option of the owner. Figs. 40-42 illustrate different pitches of
steps and methods of setting the brick. Great care should be taken
in the laying of brick steps, if they have to withstand severe
usage. The joints should all be filled with a rich cement mortar
composed of one part cement to two parts sand.

[Illustration: Fig. 40. Steps with End-set Treads]

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Steps with Flat-set Treads]

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Steps with Edge-set Treads]

[Sidenote: Walks and Floors]

Brick walks and floors, with the brick on edge or flat, are usually
laid on a filling of cinders or sand, but if subjected to hard use,
they should be placed on a bed of concrete the same as steps. Two
favorite patterns of edge set brick are shown in Figs. 55 and 56.
The brick may be laid flat in the same patterns, but the effect
is not quite so pleasing. The joints in the brick walk or floor
are usually filled with sand, swept into place with a broom so as
thoroughly to fill the joints, but they may be filled with cement
grouting if desired. The thin grouting is carefully poured into the
joints after the brick are laid, and all grouting that spills on
the surface of the brick cleaned off before it hardens. The borders
of the walk or floor may be made of brick set on edge or on end;
or, if preferred, of concrete, especially when the walk or floor is
placed on concrete. If it is desired to prevent grass and moss from
growing in sanded joints, mix salt with the sand before filling the
joints.

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Pergola Post]

[Sidenote: Pergolas]

For pergola posts, brick imparts a feeling of strength and
solidity, yet care must be taken not to make the posts too large,
as they will be entirely out of fit proportion to the light wooden
rafters and vines which they support. In most cases, a post 12
inches square will be about the right size. Foundations for these
posts should always extend below the frost line and be of brick
or concrete. A long, one half inch steel rod with nuts and large
washers at each end should be imbedded about 18 inches in this
foundation and extend beyond the top of the finished post. The
brickwork of the post above grade should be one brick thick, laid
in cement or cement-lime mortar giving a hollow space 4 inches
square in the center of the 12-inch post. As the work progresses
this space is filled with concrete around the rod, which, passing
through the center, binds the brickwork together in a solid,
reinforced mass (Fig. 43). The cap of the post may be either brick,
stone, or concrete placed when filling the interior. The wooden
girders of the pergola may now be bolted to the post by means of
the bolt projecting above the top.

If conditions or design demand a heavier post than 12 inches
square, as in Fig. 44, no steel rod reinforcing will be necessary
for stability.

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Large Porch or Pergola Post]

[Sidenote: Gate posts]

Gate posts are usually lower and heavier than pergola posts and
made stable enough to carry whatever weight the iron or wooden gate
may demand. Large driveway gates (Fig. 45) should have a steel
I-beam or angle placed in the center of the post and extending from
the bottom of the foundation to the top of the post. The anchors
for the support of the gates should be riveted to this steel beam
or angle so that no undue strain will be exerted on the brickwork.
The brickwork should always be laid in cement or cement-lime
mortar. If ornamental caps are desired, they should be of stone or
concrete. On large posts, it is desirable to lay brickwork in some
natural bond as this not only increases the rigidity of the post
but gives a beautiful effect.

[Sidenote: Garden Walls]

Long, straight garden walls under 4 feet in height may be built 8
inches thick; over 4 feet high they should be 12 inches thick. If
the walls are snort or reinforced at intervals with buttresses they
may be only 8 inches thick provided they are not carried up over 6
feet. A footing is not needed but the foundation of common brick
should extend below frost line. The wall should be finished on both
sides with face brick, laid with cement-lime mortar in a natural
bond, and should have a brick rowlock coping laid in rich cement
mortar. Fig. 45 gives an idea of a garden wall with soldier base
and rowlock coping.

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Face Brick Gate Post]



BRICK BONDS



Bond in brickwork is the overlapping of the brick one upon
the other, either along the length of the wall or through its
thickness, in order to bind them together into a secure structural
mass. It is true, mortar is used to cement the brick together into
a monolithic whole, but the real bond is the overlapping of the
brick which the mortar serves to maintain. Units are shifted back
and forth so that the vertical joints in two successive layers or
"courses" do not come into line; in other words, the brick are
laid so as to break joint, the whole forming a natural bond or a
structural unity giving strength to the wall.

The strength and rigidity of a wall due to this bonding are clearly
shown in Fig. 46. A concentrated load at any point on the wall is
thus distributed over a larger area as indicated by the dotted
arrows.

[Illustration: Fig. 46. Bonding Strength]

[Sidenote: Stretcher and Header]

In speaking of brick bond, two terms are constantly recurring,
viz., "stretcher" and "header." When a brick is laid lengthwise of
the wall, thus showing its long, narrow dimension or "face" on the
surface, it is called a stretcher. If its length extends back into
the wall, so that its short dimension shows on the surface, it is
called a header. The stretcher secures strength in the length of
the wall. The header serves to form the transverse bond, that is,
the strength of the wall through its thickness. When a brick is
broken, as the case may require, the fragment is called a "bat."
Bats are used either simply to fill in; or, as definite sized
pieces, cut and used to make the bond come out right, in which case
they are called "closures." While at certain points of the wall
bats may be necessary, they should be sparingly used and then only
according to the best practices of the craft.

[Sidenote: Design in Bonds]

In the old days, and indeed up to comparatively recent times,
brick bond was used only in a structural or natural way, that
is, to secure the strength of the wall as a solid mass; but
in the seventeenth century European builders began to see an
artistic possibility in the bond as it appeared on the surface.
They began to see the fine tracery of the mortar joint running
over the background of the brick, which could be varied into
attractive patterns by different arrangement of the brick bond.
As a consequence, there have been developed, in the main,
three different types of bond, Running or Stretcher, English,
and Flemish, which are used at the present day, with various
modifications, to secure attractive effects in pattern.

When, as compared with the past, the great variety of brick colors
and textures now offered is taken into consideration, it may be
realized what charming results may be secured in the wall surface
by the combination of brick patterns, colors, textures, and mortar
joints.

[Sidenote: Running]

The first and most obvious of these bonds is what is called Running
or Stretcher Bond. The wall surface is made up of stretcher courses
having at the corners a header which appears as a stretcher on
the return side. This bond has the merit of being very strong
longitudinally, but lacks transverse strength; consequently, it is
modified into what is called Common or American Bond by laying a
course of headers about every sixth course (Fig. 47). In order to
maintain the effect of the running bond, a special double header
bond is sometimes used as explained on page 19.

[Illustration: Fig. 47. Common or American Bond]

[Illustration: Fig. 48. English Bond]

This method of using headers as in Common or American Bond, in
order to secure transverse strength of wall, can be treated in a
way to produce very much more pleasing effects, as may be seen in
the English and Flemish Bonds.

[Sidenote: English or Dutch]

The English Bond is made up of alternating courses of stretchers
and headers (Fig. 48). This produces a very pleasing series of
Greek crosses and ripple lines up and down the surface of the wall,
and the English brickbuilders claim for it the great merit of
giving transverse strength to the wall. It however has a certain
monotony that has lead to a modification which greatly beautifies
it as a pattern, by breaking the joints of the successive stretcher
courses (Fig. 49). This is called English Cross or Dutch Bond and
results in a very attractive pattern in the wall of Greek crosses
running in diagonal lines. The Dutch Bond differs from the English
Bond only in the way the corners of the wall are treated.

[Illustration: Fig. 49. English Cross or Dutch Bond]

[Illustration: Fig. 50. Flemish Bond]

[Illustration: Fig. 51. Garden Wall Bond]

[Sidenote: Flemish]

The Flemish Bond (Fig. 50) secures its effect by laying each course
in alternate stretchers and headers, the header resting upon the
facile of the stretcher in successive courses. This produces a very
attractive pattern of inlaid Greek crosses and is a favorite among
builders because of its artistic effect. It also may be modified in
various ways by shifting the stretcher or header so as to produce
different pattern effects, thus the Garden Wall Bond so-called
(Fig. 51), is made by laying the courses with from two to four
stretchers alternating with a header.

Figs. 47-51, illustrating the above bonds, are all drawn to show
both exterior and interior corners of a wall, which is drawn as
a two-brick wall at the left end and a three-brick wall at the
right. The inside face of the three-brick wall in all cases is
bonded to the middle tier by Common Bond. The method of starting
the bond at the corner is clearly shown, whether by a quarter,
half, three-quarter, or whole brick, also how the brick are cut or
clipped, and how closures are used.

[Illustration: Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Diamond Bond Patterns]

[Sidenote: Face Brick Patterns]

With these three fundamental bonds--the Running or Stretcher,
the English, and the Flemish, innumerable other patterns may be
made by the simple device of shifting the stretcher or header in
successive courses back and forth, always breaking the joint, that
is, never permitting two successive vertical joints to lie in
the same line. To illustrate, we give examples of diamond-shaped
patterns in Figs. 52 and 53 which are secured by a modification
of the Garden Wall Bond. It is, however, only in case of large
wall surfaces that patterns of an elaborate character could be
recommended; ordinarily, the three bonds mentioned, with their
simple modifications, will cover all requirements of domestic
architecture. Simple patterns in brickwork may be made very
attractive. Any departure from simple bonds adds to the cost of the
bricklaying.

In addition to bonds proper and the patterns that may be woven
out of them, there are certain other pleasing ornamental effects
that may be secured in the wall surface by the arrangement of the
brick. Thus for a water table or a sill course, the header or the
stretcher may be set vertically. Treated in this way headers are
called "row-locks" and stretchers, "soldiers" (see Figs. 44 and
45). For dadoes and friezes or for paneling, especially on large
surfaces, patterns of a simple or ornate design may be used, as in
Figs. 52-56.

[Illustration: Fig. 54. Checkerboard Pattern]

[Illustration: Fig. 55. Basket Weave Pattern]

[Illustration: Fig. 56. Herringbone Pattern]



MORTAR JOINTS


[Sidenote: Great Importance]

In examining the bond in a brick wall, the eye naturally is first
attracted to the brick units as so many colored spots arranged in
different order so as to produce a certain pattern effect; but this
pattern effect in the brickwork depends very largely upon what
at first may be overlooked or disregarded, the mortar joint. The
mention of mortar suggests in the mind a very commonplace thing
which the workman mixes and carries in a hod to the bricklayer; but
it is concave one of the most important elements entering into the
beauty, as well as the strength, of a brick wall.

[Illustration: Fig. 57. Mortar Joints]

[Sidenote: Effect of Mortar Color]

When you consider that all the joints in brickwork, both vertical
or "head" joints, and horizontal or "bed" joints, are filled with
mortar weathered of one color or another, amounting on an average
to one-seventh of the wall, it is evident what a vital part they
play in the appearance of the entire wall surface. An artist will
tell you that this amount of color introduced into any surface will
greatly modify, by contrast or analogy, the general effect, so that
it is of the utmost importance, in selecting the sort of brick you
wish for your wall surface, that you also select the mortar joint.

[Sidenote: Three Elements Involved]

Three elements must be carefully considered in dealing with the
mortar joint: its color, its texture, and its size and kind. The
color of the mortar joint may be such as entirely to destroy the
beauty of the brick. On the other hand, if it is properly chosen,
it will bring out the fine shades and tones of the brick in such a
way as to enhance very greatly its natural beauty. Then, the mortar
joint has a certain texture which is produced either by finishing
it rough or smoothing it with the trowel or a tool made for that
purpose. This mere treatment of the surface of the mortar joint has
more to do with the appearance of the wall than one might at first
suppose. In addition to that, the size of the mortar joint, running
from a thin "buttered" joint up to an inch in width affects the
color relation of the whole surface; and the kind of joint, whether
cut flush, raked out, or tooled in various shapes, has a distinct
bearing on the whole effect (Fig. 57). In a word, do not neglect
the mortar joint, for it is one of the most important elements
that go to make up the beautiful fabric of the brick wall, in the
building of which there is deserved and required the exercise of a
fine discriminating taste.

All in all, what with the convenient units of stretcher and header,
each with its color and texture, you have a medium in the choice
of bond, mortar joint, and pattern for weaving the most charming
mosaic or tapestry effects into the wall surface, a possibility
offered by no other material than face brick.


Mortar Colors

Colored mortar joints may be produced in two ways, first, by the
use of a natural colored sand or ground granite or other stone, and
secondly, by the use of artificial mortar colors. Pure white joints
are obtained by using white sand or ground limestone or marble.
As the color of the mortar greatly affects the appearance of the
finished wall, much care should be given to the selection and
proper use of these colors, whether natural or artificial. As the
color of the finished mortar after it has set and dried is never
the same as that of the fresh mortar, experience is the only guide
for the proper preparation of the mortar. Someone has well said
that the right way to make mortar is to mix brains with it.

When artificial color is used, it should first be thoroughly mixed
with the dry sand. Never add this mixture to hot lime. But after
the slaked lime has thoroughly cooled, mix it with the colored
sand in batches in a separate box. If preferred, the color may be
made into a thick paste with water and then added directly to the
mortar. In either case, thorough mixing and uniform proportion of
quantities are essential. The more thorough the mixing and uniform
the proportions, the more permanent and uniform will be the color
and the less color required. Use the best colors obtainable on the
market, as cheap colors may ruin the appearance of the wall.

[Sidenote: Quantities]

As to quantity required, the exact amount of color varies greatly
with the exact shade of the color selected, the width of the mortar
joint, and the brand used. As a fair general estimate, it will take
approximately 75 pounds of coloring matter for every 1000 bricks
laid with 3/8 to 1/2-inch mortar joints. But it is always safest to
follow the directions of the manufacturer as to the kind of color
and the exact amount required.


Various Kinds of Mortar

[Sidenote: Materials]

Mortar, as the bonding material between brick, must be given
careful attention as the strength of the wall depends on its
quality. Mortar is composed of sand and either lime or cement, or
both. In all cases the materials should be the best. The cement
should pass the test of the American Society for Testing Materials.
The lime should be either fresh and well-burned lump lime, slaked
so as to produce a smooth, puttylike mass without lumps, or the
prepared hydrated kind found on the market. The sand should be
sharp, clean, and free from foreign matter, and screened through a
mesh of the size to secure the proper fineness. For wide joints,
the mortar needs, instead of sand, fine gravel of the size required
to give it sufficient body.

[Sidenote: Kinds of Mortar]

In large cities the building ordinances require certain mixtures of
mortar. For various mixtures see page 104. But where there are no
legal requirements, the contractor's own judgment and experience
should guide him in the selection of the proper mix, as each one
has certain qualities which recommend it. Portland cement mortar is
stiffer and harder to work than lime mortar, but should always be
used where permanence and strength are required, as in exposed or
heavy bearing situations, or in cold weather when the mortar must
set before it freezes. Lime mortar may do for the usual work, above
the grade in dry warm climates. It should not, however, be used
for basement walls, except possibly where the soil is extremely
dry, nor for piers or points in the wall that carry heavy loads.
It is smooth and works easily, so that more brick can be laid per
day than with cement mortar, but its use should be limited to the
proper situations. Cement-lime mortar has the combined qualities
of both cement mortar and lime mortar. It has both strength and
good working qualities, and costs less than cement mortar. It is
preferred by many to cement mortar; we recommend its use in proper
situations, throughout this Manual.

[Sidenote: Mixing Cement Mortar]

Cement mortar must be mixed and used immediately, as cement sets
very quickly. On this account, it should not be made in large
quantities and, once it has obtained a partial set, should never
be re-tempered. The cement and sand for cement mortar should be
thoroughly mixed while dry, by turning the material over three or
four times with a shovel, when sufficient water to make a plastic
mass should be added, turning again several times. It is always
desirable to add a small quantity of lime, when tempering the
cement mortar, in order to make it easier to work.

[Sidenote: Mixing Lime Mortar]

Lump lime should be slaked as soon as possible after delivery on
the job. If it is allowed to stand for any length of time, it
should be stored in an air-tight box; otherwise, it may become air
slaked, reducing mostly to powder and soft, crumbly lumps. The
fresh lime is always in hard lumps and should be free from cinders.
Lime is slaked in a mortar box by adding water to the lump lime.
On adding water the lime becomes very hot, gives off vapor, and
finally burst into a powder which gradually reduces to a paste
known as lime putty. The exact amount of water necessary varies
with different limes, but in all cases, the right proportions used
in slaking must be watched carefully. An excess of water will stop
the slaking process. If not enough water is used the lime will
"burn" and lose its strength. If left overnight, the mortar box
should be covered with planks.

When slaking is completed, the lime is reduced to what is called
"putty", which should be of uniform consistency throughout,
containing no unslaked lumps. The sand should now be added, the
exact amount depending upon the quality of mortar desired, and
thoroughly mixed with the putty, and then shoveled out on wooden
planks where it should remain for at least a week before using.

[Sidenote: Hydrated lime]

Hydrated lime is in powdered form and needs no other preparation
than the addition of water. Its quality is uniform and produces
satisfactory results, even when experienced labor cannot be
obtained, and may be used at once on the job. Its uniformity and
the facility it gives in handling the mortar make it preferable to
lump lime although it costs somewhat more.

The mixing of cement-lime mortar is very simple, as all that is
needed is to add the proper amount of cement to the lime mortar,
at the time it is tempered for use, and very thoroughly mix into a
consistent mass.

[Sidenote: Tempering Mortar]

Working the mortar and adding water to bring it to proper
consistency for actual use on the job is called tempering, a
process that should be continued until the mortar slides easily off
the trowel. All white spots, which are really small lumps of lime,
should be made to disappear; otherwise, these lumps will swell and
"pop" after the mortar is laid in the wall.



INCREASING FIRE PROTECTION


[Sidenote: Lessons from Europe]

The loss by fire which the people of this country suffer every
year, both in human lives and in property values, is appalling. The
loss of life, according to conservation estimates of the National
Board of Fire Underwriters amounts to 15,000 persons annually, and
the destruction of property approaches an average of a quarter of a
billion dollars every year. This certainly is a fearful tribute to
pay for our criminal negligence and mistaken economies.

We have recently been learning the science and art of war from
Europe to combat unjust aggression, but we have a much better
lesson to learn from the older country in our fight against the
ruthless fire fiend. Making all allowance for difference in the
purchasing value of money between Europe and America, it still
speaks ill for our good sense that we, over a hundred million
strong, besides enduring all the suffering involved, should allow
our National "ash heap" to cost us upwards of $2.00 a piece, when
the European countries manage to get through on a per capita cost
of from 11 to 49 cents. The Demon of Carelessness may account for
much of this inexcusable difference, but our mistaken sense of
economy, in using cheap, combustible types of construction, is
largely to blame.

[Sidenote: Individual Duty]

The cure for this disgraceful status in our fire losses should
not be left entirely to municipal ordinances and fire insurance
requirements, but should begin with every individual who builds a
home. He should make it his first concern to see that his house is
as completely protected from fire as possible, not only for the
safety of himself and family but also for that of the community in
which he lives and of which he should form a responsible part.

Therefore, brick as a building material makes the strongest sort of
appeal to your prospective clients because of its entire proofness
against fire.

Every brick you put into a house is fireproof, so that the more
brick you use, the more completely is the house free from the risk
of fire. But in situations where brick are not or cannot be used
in house construction, as much protection against fire as possible
should be secured.

[Sidenote: The Roof]

As the roof is always a very vulnerable part of the house, in case
of outside fires, it should be covered with a non-combustible or
fire-resisting material such as shingle tile, slate, asbestos,
or asphalt. This will not only reduce insurance rates but will
complete the house consistently with the permanent fireproof nature
of face brick wall construction.

Serious consideration should be given this point when planning a
house; for, by adopting a roof of this character, each individual
owner not only guards his own welfare but helps to reduce the
enormous annual fire loss in this country which rests as a burden
upon everyone.

[Sidenote: Wooden Shingles]

The wooden shingle roof is just so much tinder ready to be set
ablaze by an adjacent fire or a flying firebrand and in turn
throws off similar sparks which are carried by the wind, thus
communicating fire from one house to another.

[Sidenote: Fire Resistive Shingles]

Shingle tile, slate, and asbestos are the most fireproof as well
as the most expensive in the group of permanent roof coverings.
They are heavier than the wooden shingle and generally require
a stronger roof construction to support them. Each has artistic
qualities of its own in the way of permanent textures and colors
which recommend it. Asphalt shingles, while not fireproof, are
fire-resistive to a very great degree. They do not support
combustion, cannot be set afire by flying brands, and thus retard
the spread of fire. They are light in weight and can be placed
over the same roof construction as the wooden shingle. We strongly
recommend the use of any of the above mentioned roof materials in
connection with a face brick house.

[Sidenote: Costs]

As a general approximate estimate, we might say that a slate roof
of 3/16-inch commercial slate would increase the cost of the house
two per cent, as compared with the use of a wooden shingle roof.
Shingle tile would cost perhaps a little more than slate, while
asbestos shingle would come a little less. Asphalt would cost
no more than wooden shingles, perhaps not quite so much. But we
suggest your seeing the local dealer who will gladly furnish all
information on these different materials as to durability and exact
local cost.

[Sidenote: Fire Risks]

According to the figures of the National Board of Fire
Underwriters, the relation of outside to inside fires, for 1916 to
1918, is presented in the table given below. The figures for 1919
were not compiled at this writing but the ratios would doubtless
run about the same, and the lesson is obvious. If the 25 to 30 per
cent of fires started from without call for fire-safe exterior
construction, the 70 to 75 per cent of interior fires demand
special care against fire within. Much of the interior of a house
is of burnable material, and the matter becomes very serious when
it concerns the wooden floors and partitions which in case of fire
may be consumed, resulting in the total collapse of the interior.
These portions may be protected from the attack of fire by the use
of a first-class metal lath or even gypsum plaster board, as a base
for plastering, which would at least retard the fire from spreading
until it could be subdued and put under control.

[Sidenote: Protect Weak Parts]

Instead of protecting the entire interior by metal lath or gypsum
board the desired result may be obtained by using it in certain
places considered most hazardous. First of all, the frame bearing
partitions through the middle of the brick or tile house, which
are the main supports for the floors above, and ceilings under
inhabited floors, should be protected; and, in case of veneer
construction, similar treatment on the inside surface of exterior
walls would add greatly to the safety and value of the house.

As fires may originate in the ceiling over the heater and coal
bins, at chimney breasts, and around flues, metal lath or gypsum
board at these points would retard the spread of fire; and its use
around, but especially under, stairs would give a far safer exit
from the upper story of the house.

Having built a face brick house for your client, as the most
substantial and attractive construction to be had, protected on
the outside with a roof of permanent material, and on the inside
with fire-resistive material at the weakest points, you have given
him the best possible value for his money, in a structure at once
beautiful, enduring, economical, and safe against fire.

Outside and Inside Causes of Fire

                                                  _Outside
                                                   Causes
                   _All Causes_  _Outside Causes_  Percentage_

  1916   _Claims_     361,742         114,900       31.76%
         _Loss_     $208,705,340    56,684,837      22.36%

  1917   _Claims_     356,896          88,549       24.81%
         _Loss_     $231,628,000    61,971,156      26.75%

  1918   _Claims_     328,737         104,622       31.83%
         _Loss_     $283,103,101    79,947,935      28.24%



                                 A

                            COLLECTION

                               _of_

                          PRACTICAL PLANS

                         CAREFULLY STUDIED

                              TO MEET

                        MODERN REQUIREMENTS

[Illustration]



[Illustration: FACE BRICK HOUSE DESIGNS]


The thirty-one face brick houses here shown were designed for us
by Messrs. Dean & Dean, well-known architects of Chicago, who have
been especially successful in planning the small house. To get
the effect of various color-toned brick, we had the architects'
perspectives done in oil, and were fortunate enough to secure
for this purpose the skillful hand of Mr. Alfred Juergens, an
artist who has won an enviable reputation in this country for his
exquisite color work. While the reproductions, here presented,
cannot adequately give the effect of the originals, they fairly
represent the possibility of beautiful color effects in brickwork.

If you study the floor plans carefully, you will find them modern
in arrangement and conveniently planned so as to save steps for
the woman of the house. This economical interior arrangement
also effects an economy in cost of construction. The dimensions
of the rooms are shown, also the location of the furniture is
suggested, helping more than anything else to visualize the size
and proportions of the plans. The lighting outlets, switches, and
receptacles are indicated according to the table of symbols given
below.

[Sidenote: Working Drawings]

The full working drawings, done at a scale of one-quarter inch
to the foot, include floor plans, elevations, and all necessary
details. The elevations show the size and shape of all windows,
doors, cornices, porches, steps, chimneys, and the pitch of
all roofs. The plans give the size of all rooms and closets,
the location of all doors, windows, stairs, plumbing fixtures,
cabinets, lights and heating registers, and are fully dimensioned.
The details drawn to a larger scale include sections of all
interior trim, kitchen or pantry cabinets, and sections through the
exterior wall, giving story and window heights.

One of the special merits of these drawings is that three wall
sections are given for each house, showing the complete wall
construction for solid brick, face brick on hollow tile, and face
brick on wood studs.

This feature is valuable as the purchaser may build the house
according to the method of construction he wishes; he is also thus
put in a position to obtain figures each way to determine for
himself the costs of the different types of construction in his
locality.

[Sidenote: Specifications]

The specifications give full description of all materials and items
not usually shown on the plans. They are very clear and explicit,
so that there can be no possibility of misunderstanding. Such items
as kind and grade of lumber, interior finish and floor, and kind
of brick, are left for the individual to determine for himself, as
they are matters of personal preference. Different kinds of roofs
are specified, including tile, slate, asbestos, asphalt, and wooden
shingle. The owner may strike out from the specifications the ones
he does not wish.

[Sidenote: Quantity Survey]

The quantity survey is a complete bill of materials for the
brickwork, carpentry, and plastering work, with blank columns for
the use of the estimator in filling in his prices. This feature is
not only of great assistance to the contractor when estimating,
but assures the owner that competing contractors are figuring on
the same materials. This survey is compiled to list the materials
necessary for a house with walls of solid brick, giving at the same
time alternative quantities for walls of face brick on hollow tile,
and face brick on wood studs.

The quantity survey given is based upon a level lot so that if the
house is to be built upon a slope, certain changes will have to be
made in the quantities of face and common brick.

It must also be noted that the porch foundations are shown four
feet below grade, a depth meeting the average climatic conditions.
If the house, therefore, is to be constructed in a warm climate,
these foundations need not extend so deep. If in a very cold
climate, on the other hand, all foundations may have to be extended
to the customary depth for that locality. In either case, the
quantity of common brick should be adjusted.

[Illustration: SYMBOLS.]

[Sidenote: Reversal]

A very valuable feature of these plans and elevations is the fact
that each set is drawn in the reverse with a different exterior
design, so as to meet the requirements of any location you desire.
If, however, you prefer the plans of one set and the elevations
of the reverse, order the drawings that way. We will send both
elevations, so that for your convenience you can use the figures on
the original in place of the reversed figures on the reverse. You
thus have in the case of each house three choices, the original,
its complete reverse, and its partial reverse.

In locations where no public method of sewage disposal exists,
the owner will have to install a disposal system of his own. If
this is the case, let us know when ordering your plans, and we
will send you, without additional charge, details and description
of an inexpensive system of sewage disposal that will fill your
requirements. You will find this subject amply treated in Bulletin
No. 57 of the U. S. Department of Agriculture on "Water Supply,
Plumbing, and Sewage Disposal for Country Houses."

[Sidenote: Costs]

We could not venture to state the total cost of any of the houses
shown, as prices not only vary in different localities throughout
the country and fluctuate from time to time in the same locality,
but each prospective owner's taste would require different
materials for both exterior and interior finish, so that it would
be impossible to make any definite statement of cost hold good.

We are prepared to supply you with complete working drawings,
specifications, and quantity surveys of materials, for any house
you may desire, at an extremely low fee. In view of the fact that
these instruments are the work of architects of high standing
and long experience, the prices indicated in connection with
the designs are merely nominal. Additional copies of the plans,
specifications, and quantity surveys may be obtained at the
following prices: Plans $1.25, specifications $1.25, quantity
surveys 50 cents. Working drawings with bill of materials of
fireplaces shown on pages 30 and 31 will be sent for $1.00 each.

We shall be glad to be of any help we can on points that are not
clearly understood.

[Illustration]


[Illustration: Four Room House No. 41]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

An attractive exterior and a cozy interior characterize this house.
The living room, exposed on three sides, is light and airy. The
cozy corner, formed by the fireplace and stairs, looks out upon
the garden. There is a convenient coat closet off the living room
near the front entrance. The stairs to the basement are close to
the kitchen and have an entrance door at grade giving access to the
basement from outside.

The kitchen is large enough for dining purposes, frequently
convenient, and has a large porch and pantry.

The second floor is complete with two bedrooms and their closets, a
linen closet, and a bath.

Size 15'0" × 28'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 42.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $12.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Four Room House No. 42]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

It is seldom that a small house which comes within the limits of a
modest income is as complete as this attractive home. The living
room with its open stairway and fireplace, forming an ingle nook,
is very cheery.

A coat closet is convenient to the front entrance. The combination
kitchen and dining room is well-arranged and has a large pantry and
porch.

The two bedrooms on the second floor are exposed on two sides and
the closets have windows. The bathroom and linen closet complete
the plan.

Size 15'0" × 28'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 41.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $12.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Four Room House No. 43]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

An excellent house, reduced in size so that it represents a
moderate investment, yet completely fulfilling the requirements of
a small family. As one enters the living room he is greeted by the
attractive fireplace opposite. The open stairway at the end of the
living room gives exposure on that side so that the room is light
and airy. The coat closet is located on the stairs convenient to
the entrance. The kitchen is large enough for dining purposes,
and is connected with the living room by a good-sized pantry. The
basement stairs have an entrance at grade, thereby saving the cost
of outside stairs.

The two bedrooms on the second floor are good-sized, have large
closets, and exposure on two sides. One of the rooms has an
additional closet and there is a fine linen closet off the hall.

Size 19'0" × 26'6". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 44.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $12.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Four Room House No. 44]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A very cozy and convenient home for the family of moderate means.
The welcome of an open stairway is always pleasing and in this
house it serves a double purpose by adding to the apparent length
of the room. The kitchen is especially large for this small house
and may also be used, if desired, as a dining room. It is connected
with the living room through the pantry. Stairs lead to the
basement from this pantry with a landing and entrance at grade.
There are two rooms on the second floor well supplied with closets,
a bathroom, and a linen closet. There is no waste space anywhere
throughout the house, every square foot being put to use.

Size 19'0" × 26'6". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 43.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $12.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Four Room Bungalow No. 45]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

The convenience of a home with all the rooms on one floor is
appreciated not only by those who have dwelt in an apartment, but
by many others. This small bungalow is very compact and complete.
Notice how the bedroom group is secluded from the living quarter.
Both rooms have access to the bathroom and linen closet by a
private hall. The kitchen being small, saves many steps for the
housewife. It is supplemented by a good pantry in which is placed
the refrigerator, with an outside icing door. There is an excellent
rear porch large enough to be screened in and used, if desired,
either as a summer kitchen or dining room. The basement stairs are
within the house and have an outside entrance at grade.

Size 28'0" × 30'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 46.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $12.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Four Room Bungalow No. 46]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

An attractive little bungalow with hipped roof, suitable for a
small family, and very conveniently arranged.

The bedroom and bath are separated from the living room by a hall.
A linen closet at the end of the hall completes this part of the
house. The living room is of a good size and is connected with the
kitchen by a pantry in which is placed the refrigerator which is
iced from the porch. The basement stairs are within the house.

Size 28'0" × 30'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 45.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $12.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Five Room House No. 51]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A most livable home for a small family. The one large living room,
extending from front to rear of this house, makes it appropriate
for a location on the south side of the street or with an
attractive view to the rear. The kitchen has been combined with the
dining room but has the advantage of a door opening through the
pantry to one end of the living room which, on occasion, may be
used for large dinners, and convenient connection is also made with
the front hall.

On the second floor are a bath and three bedrooms with ample
closets.

Size 22'2" × 30'8". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 52.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $15.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Five Room House No. 52]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A cozy little home, substantial and comfortable. In this plan the
living room is larger than usually found in houses of this size,
arranged so that the far end, connected with the kitchen by a
pantry, may be used, if desired, for dining purposes. The kitchen
is of such dimensions and so arranged that it may be used regularly
as the dining room, a point readily appreciated by the woman
without help. The second floor contains three bedrooms, with the
customary closets, and a bath.

Size 22'2" × 30'8". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 51.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $15.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Five Room House No. 53]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A very conveniently arranged home. The roomy front porch, all of
brick, affords a delightfully cool spot for hot summer evenings.
Entrance is through a vestibule to a hall with an open stairway,
and a coat closet on the lower landing.

The living room has an attractive fireplace across the corner
of the room and wide openings to dining room and hall. There is
a large pantry and a good porch in connection with the kitchen.
The basement stairs have an entrance at grade, a point readily
appreciated in stormy weather. On the second floor there are two
very large bedrooms. The closet space is much larger than is found
in most houses.

Size 23'0" × 28'8" exclusive of pantry and porches. This design and
plan are the reverse of No. 54.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $15.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Five Room House No. 54]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A simple design with good proportions and roof lines, and an
excellent plan. The living and dining room are connected by a wide
cased opening, and the hall is practically a part of the living
room because of the large opening between them. There is a coat
closet adjacent to the vestibule, and a direct connection from
the hall to the kitchen and basement stairs. A large pantry is
connected with the kitchen and convenient to the dining room. The
entire second floor is devoted to two large bedrooms and a bath.
Note the dimensions of the bedrooms and the large closets, also the
extra closet in the main bedroom. There is a fine linen room off
the hall.

Size 23'0" × 28'8" not including pantry and porch. This design and
plan are the reverse of No. 53.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $15.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Five Room Bungalow No. 55]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

Simple in design, this bungalow requires nothing more than the
color and texture of face brick for its success. The arrangement of
the plan is excellent and all the rooms are large.

The bedrooms are placed on the corners to obtain light and air from
two directions, and have exceptionally large closets. In addition,
there are two closets off the hall. The dining and living rooms are
connected by a wide cased opening. There is a built-in sideboard
in the dining room and an attractive brick fireplace in the living
room. Connecting with the kitchen there is a fine pantry with an
outside window, a large rear porch and stairs to the basement
and attic. The basement stairs have an entrance at grade, very
convenient on washday, for garden use, for the removal of ashes,
etc.

Size 28'0" × 38'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 56.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $12.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Five Room Bungalow No. 56]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

Country or town, seashore or mountain, this bungalow is suitable
for all locations. Cleverly arranged, with fireplace, built-in
sideboard, and closets ample in size and number, this plan has
much to recommend it. The bedrooms and bath are grouped together
and separated from the main rooms of the house by a hall. The main
porch is enclosed for all-year-round use. There is a large attic
over the entire house.

Size 29'0" × 38'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 55.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $15.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Five Room Bungalow No. 57]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

The pleasing lines of the roof, combined with the color and texture
of the brickwork, make this design a success for either town or
country use. The porch is recessed under the main roof, an economy
in a small house. The living and dining rooms have a large cased
opening between them and there is a coat closet adjacent to the
entrance.

In the dining room there is a recess for a sideboard. The bedrooms
are exposed on two sides and have good closets. The bathroom,
placed between the bedrooms, is connected directly with them, an
arrangement preferred by many.

The kitchen is equipped with cabinets to take the place of the
pantry. The refrigerator is iced from outside.

Size 24'6" × 36'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 58.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $15.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Five Room Bungalow No. 58]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

The very simplicity of this attractive little bungalow makes a
strong appeal to some tastes. The recessed porch which may be
easily glazed in and used during the winter leads to the living
room. The living and dining room are practically one, due to the
large opening between them. The bedrooms have the convenience of
the bath placed between them. The kitchen has a fine back porch
from which the refrigerator may be iced. There are cabinets in the
kitchen in place of the usual pantry. Stairs lead from the kitchen
to the attic, which extends over the entire house.

Size 24'6" × 36'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 57.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $15.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Six Room House No. 61]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

One can easily imagine the comfort of a house like this. The
plan is cleverly arranged and complete. The hall, with its open
staircase and view across the living room to the fireplace beyond,
will charm the visitor and delight the owner. The passage from the
kitchen to the hall or to the basement stairs will be appreciated
by the housewife. As in its reverse, No. 62, the convenience of the
porch to the kitchen permits outside dining in pleasant weather.

The second floor contains three bedrooms, with closets, a bath,
and a large linen closet. All bedrooms are exposed on two sides,
thereby securing excellent cross draft.

Size 28'9" × 30'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 62.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $18.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Six Room House No. 62]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A very pleasing and convenient home for a small family. The low,
rakish effect of the roof sweeping down over the porch produces
a very charming exterior and should make this design a great
favorite. The porch exposed on three sides, affords an ideal summer
lounging place. As it covers a kitchen door it may be used in
pleasant weather as a dining porch also. The entrance hall opens
into the living room with a large cased opening. It has a good coat
closet, and connects with the kitchen and basement stairs. The
pantry between the kitchen and dining room is very convenient from
either room, and is considered by many as an ideal arrangement.
The bedrooms on the second floor are well arranged and have large
closets. Size 28'9" × 30'0". This design and plan are the reverse
of No. 61.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $18.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Six Room House No. 63]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

An attractive and substantial looking house, with a broad porch
suggestive of rest and quiet. The fireplace and open stairway
in the living room welcome the stranger and give a feeling of
cheerfulness to the home. The dining room and living room are
connected by a wide opening. The kitchen is small and conveniently
arranged and has a large rear porch. There is a pantry between the
kitchen and dining room from which one may go to the basement. The
basement stairs have the convenience of an entrance at grade.

The three bedrooms on the second floor are each provided with a
large closet. The bathroom is conveniently located at the head
of the stairs with a linen closet adjacent. The balcony over the
rear porch will be much appreciated as a convenience for domestic
purposes.

Size 24'0" × 28'8". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 64.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $18.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Seven Room House No. 64]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

Because of its convenient arrangement and economical shape, this
house should become a great favorite. In addition to the fine front
porch there is a good-sized porch in the rear, overlooking the
garden. The open stair at the end of the living room is attractive
and especial attention is called to the novel pantry arrangement by
which one may go to the side entrance or basement.

The second floor has three large bedrooms, each with ample closet
room, a bathroom, and a linen closet. Over the rear porch there is
a flat deck accessible from the rear bedroom and useful for airing
of bedding, beating rugs, etc.

Size 24'0" × 28'8". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 63.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $20.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Seven Room House No. 71]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A very popular plan in which the owner gets most for his money. The
combination entrance porch and sun parlor is a feature most desired
nowadays. The hall, with its open stair, window seat, and large
opening to the living room, gives a feeling of spaciousness and
welcome.

The kitchen is very conveniently arranged with cabinets, and is
connected with the dining room by the pantry. The refrigerator,
iced from outside, is placed in this pantry where it is convenient
to both kitchen and dining room. There is also a rear stairway from
the kitchen connecting with the main stairs midway to the second
floor.

The second floor has four corner bedrooms and one bath. Each room
has its closet, and there are two closets off the hall.

Size 28'8" × 34'8".

Full working drawing, specifications and bill of materials may be
had for $20.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Seven Room Bungalow No. 73]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A well-proportioned home of the bungalow type, with the advantage
of a commodious second story, having three large bed rooms.
This result is made possible by the graceful gambrel roof which
dominates the whole design, as it sweeps down over the enclosed
porch, and extends across the entire face of the house.

The large openings between the enclosed porch, living, dining and
breakfast room give the effect of openness to the house, while the
porch and breakfast room may be closed off by French doors. The den
is conveniently placed and has a closet so that it can be converted
into a bedroom.

The kitchen is compact and has a large porch and pantry arranged
so that the refrigerator may be iced from outside. The basement
stairs leading from the pantry have an entrance door at the grade,
thus obviating outside steps, so frequently filled with snow in
wintertime.

The size of the house, 24'8" × 51'0" makes it adaptable to a narrow
or a wide lot. This design and plan are the reverse of No. 74.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $20.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Seven Room House No. 74]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

The unusually graceful roof lines make this a most attractive house
and will appeal to the discriminating house owner. The first floor
is very well-arranged. The effect of the living and dining room and
the two porches thrown together is excellent. The den is a feature
desired by many, not alone for such use as office or library, but
for an emergency bedroom on the ground floor. The basement stairs
are within the house but open on the outside at the grade line,
serving the double purpose of outside and inside stairs.

There are three bedrooms with closets, a bathroom, and a storeroom
on the second floor.

Size 24'8" × 51'0", including porches. This design and plan are the
reverse of No. 73.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $20.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Seven Room Farm House No. 75]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

To those who admire the bungalow type for a home, this design,
which is especially meant for rural localities, should make a
strong appeal. Its low, horizontal lines immediately suggest
"hominess," enhanced by the winter scene in which it is depicted.
The first floor provides in two good-sized bedrooms accommodations
for the family, while there are two bedrooms with closets and a
bath on the second floor for farm help or guests. The house is of
the economical rectangular type and is so arranged that all the
rooms are large, light, and airy.

Although primarily designed for the farm, this house is quite
adaptable for town use.

Size 28'0" × 48'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 76.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $20.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Seven Room Farm House No. 76]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

In this charming house both the beautiful and practical have been
attained to a high degree. The porch is exposed on three sides
and is glazed in for winter use. The well-proportioned roof and
the half-timber gables instantly catch and hold the eye. The
first floor has been planned for the farmer and his family, while
the second floor is specially fitted for the farm help, being
complete with a separate bathroom. The stairway from the second
floor descends to a side entrance from which access is had to the
dining room. The living room is larger than found in most houses,
and has a large open fireplace at one end with a nook and seat
at the other. Especial attention is called to the arrangement of
the bedrooms on the first floor. The kitchen is large enough for
dining purposes, with a well-arranged pantry. There is a good-sized
storeroom in the unoccupied part of the second story.

Size 28'0" × 48'0". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 75.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $20.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Eight Room House No. 81]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A unique and rambling design with an excellent plan. The wide,
overhanging eaves and gentle slope of the roof give dignity as well
as charm to the house. The plan speaks for itself. It is open,
light and airy. The hall, pantry, and kitchen arrangement has been
very cleverly worked out. There are two stairs, one from the hall
and one from the pantry that meet on a common landing and continue
to the second floor. The side entrance, giving access to the
basement stairs and the first floor is very convenient, with closet
under stairway at entrance for general use.

The second floor has four bedrooms and two baths. One bathroom is
connected with one of the bedrooms and the other contains a shower
stall in addition to the tub, a feature worth considering. This
plan is especially adapted to a narrow lot, although it may be
turned in any direction desired.

The size is 24'9" × 47'0". This design and plan are the reverse of
No. 82.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $22.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Eight Room House No. 82]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

Stately and dignified, a splendid example of the modern American
home. The lines of the roof and fine proportion of the gables are
very effective from all angles. The plan is simple. The rooms of
the first floor are all open, giving a feeling of spaciousness.
The hall, large and light, with its open staircase, is at once
the keynote of the whole house, welcoming all who may enter. For
convenience, a rear stairway leads from the service pantry to a
landing over the side entrance where it joins the main staircase.
The kitchen is of a good size, not too large, and has a fine rear
porch. There is a closet under stairway at entrance, for general
use.

Of the two bathrooms on the second floor, one is directly connected
with one of the bedrooms. This arrangement meets the convenience of
the family as well as that of guests or boarders.

The size of the house is 24'9" × 47'0". This design and plan are
the reverse of No. 81.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $22.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Eight Room Farm House No. 83]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A good type of farm house fitting snugly into the landscape. As in
case of No. 84, it would also suit well as a country town boarding
house. The large living and dining room is connected with the
kitchen by a pantry. The six bedrooms may be used either for a
large family or, if desirable, the upper rooms might be set aside
for the help. Two baths, one on each floor, are necessary in an
arrangement of this kind. There are ample closets and linen space.
The porches are adequate.

Size 26'6" × 38'8". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 84.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $22.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Eight Room House No. 84]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

This commodious house may be used admirably for either a boarding
house in a country town, or a farm house when accommodation is
desired for the help. The living and dining room has been made
especially large on this account. There are four bedrooms with a
bath on the second floor. There are two bedrooms with bath on the
first floor. The rear porch is exceptionally large, being designed
for family use, while the front porch is for the boarders or the
help. There are both inside and outside stairs to the basement, a
very desirable convenience.

Size 26'6" × 38'8". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 83.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $22.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Nine Room House No. 92]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A striking house for a village street, and yet quite appropriate
for a country home. The porch, an outstanding feature of the modern
American home, is here partly enclosed, forming a sun parlor for
all-year-round use. From the reception hall with its open stairway
and hall seat, one obtains an attractive view, across the living
room, of the fireplace opposite. Likewise the vista from the
dining room to the sun parlor is quite as charming. The kitchen
is arranged with cabinets in addition to the pantry, and has the
convenient feature of a stairway leading up to a landing where it
meets the main stairs midway to the second floor.

The second floor arrangement is simple. The rooms are large and
the closets ample, without an inch of waste space. There are two
bedrooms with closets, and a bathroom on the third floor, not shown
on these plans.

The size of the house is 28'8" × 34'8" exclusive of porches and
pantry.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $22.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Nine Room Farm House No. 93]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A well-proportioned house with fine roof lines and charming
brickwork which should arouse admiration throughout the
country-side. It has been designed for the farmer and provides for
the help.

There are two bedrooms with separate entrance and bath on the first
floor, connected with the dining room. The living room, dining
room, and porch form a very convenient group. The kitchen has a
large pantry and a separate grade entrance on the basement stairs
inside the house, a decided convenience.

Four bedrooms, with a closet each, a bathroom, a linen room, and a
large storeroom, amply provide for the family.

Size 30'6" × 38'6". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 94.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $22.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Nine Room Farm House No. 94]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

A simple, dignified home, relying for its beauty upon its
proportions and the exquisite charm of the brickwork. It has been
designed with the farmer's needs in view. The living room, with its
low, open fireplace adjoins the dining room and both open directly
on the main porch. The kitchen, which is large and conveniently
arranged, may, on occasion, serve as a dining room for the family,
and is provided with a commodious pantry. The basement stairs are
inside the house, an appealing feature in cold or stormy weather.
Particular attention is called to the bedroom arrangement, which
provides two bedrooms on the first floor for the farm help,
complete with closets, bath, and linen room. There is an individual
entrance from outside and direct communication with the dining
room, a feature readily appreciated by the woman on the farm.

The second floor is devoted to the family sleeping rooms, with
exceptionally large closets and an ample storeroom. Size 30'6" ×
38'6". This design and plan are the reverse of No. 93.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $20.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.


[Illustration: Four Flat Building]

[Illustration: Floor Plan]

This building has been planned for a seventy-five foot lot, which,
together with its specially planned form, would give a maximum of
light and air. A party wall divides the building so that either
half, complete in itself, might be sold separately.

The hall, living, and dining rooms form a pleasant group.
Particular attention is called to the arrangement of the bedrooms,
which together with the bathroom, are isolated from the balance of
the house. An inside stairway leads to the basement from the first
floor. The rear porches which too often are quite unsightly on the
rear of the building, are here recessed between the bedroom wings,
a feature which also gives considerable protection to the porches
in the winter months. The second floor is the same as the first
except that there is an additional bedroom, 8'8" × 10'3" in each
flat, over the entrance vestibules.

Full working drawing, specifications, and bill of materials may be
had for $25.00 from The American Face Brick Association, 110 South
Dearborn Street, Chicago.



USEFUL TABLES AND SUGGESTIONS


Mortar Mixes for Laying 1,000 Brick, 1/8" Joint

  PROPORTIONS                   QUANTITIES

  _Cement Mortars_        _Cement_    _Lime_           _Sand_

     1     part cement   1-3/4 bbls.  1/4 bbl.       1/2 cu. yd.
     2     parts sand                 optional

     1     part cement   1-3/8 bbls.  1/4 bbl.       1/2 cu. yd.
     2-1/2 parts sand                 optional

     1     part cement   1/18 bbls.   1/4 bbl.       1/2 cu. yd.
     3     parts sand                 optional

  _Lump Lime Mortars_

     1     part lime                  7/8 bbl.       1/2 cu. yd.
     2     parts sand

     1     part lime                  3/4 bbl.       1/2 cu. yd.
     2-1/2 parts sand

     1     part lime                  5/8 bbl.       1/2 cu. yd.
     3     parts sand

  _Hydrated Lime Mortar_

     1     part lime                  3-1/2 sacks    1/2 cu. yd.
     2     parts sand

     1     part lime                  3     sacks    1/2 cu. yd.
     2-1/2 parts sand

     1     part lime                  2-1/2 sacks    1/2 cu. yd.
     3     parts sand

  _Cement-Lime Mortars_

     1     part cement                   1 sack
     1     part lime     1/2 bbl.      hydrated, or   1/2 cu. yd.
     6     parts sand                 1/4 bbl. lump
                                          lime

  _Grout for 3/16"-1/4" Joints_

     1     part cement   approx.                       approx.
     3     parts sand    3/4 bbl.                     1/3 cu. yd.


Mortar Mixes for Laying 1,000 Tile, 1/2" Joint

  _Size of Tile_    _Cement_      _Lime_       _Sand_

  4" × 5" × 12"     1-2/3 bbls.   1/4 bbl.     2/3 cu. yd.

  8" × 5" × 12"     3     bbls.   1/2 bbl.   1-1/3 cu. yd.

  4" × 12" × 12"    1-3/4 bbls.   1/4 bbl.     3/4 cu. yd.

  8" × 12" × 12"    4-1/4 bbls.   1/2 bbl.   1-3/4 cu. yd.


The above quantities are based on a 380 lb. barrel of Portland
cement; a 180 lb. barrel of lump lime, and a 50 lb. sack of
hydrated lime. Portland cement is sold by the bag or barrel. A bag
of Portland cement weighs approximately 94 pounds. Four bags make
one barrel of approximately 380 pounds. Lump lime is sold by the
bushel or barrel. A bushel of lump lime weighs approximately 75 to
85 pounds. A barrel of lump lime weighs approximately 180 pounds,
and equals 4 sacks of hydrated lime. Brick joints other than 3/8"
will require about 1/3 more or less mortar for each 1/8" difference.


Estimating Quantities of Face Brick

[Sidenote: Size of Brick]

The dimensions of the standard size face brick adopted by the
American Face Brick Association are 8" × 2-1/4" × 3-3/4"; but
sometimes, due to special conditions in the clay or the kiln burn,
these brick may slightly vary from the dimensions given. Besides,
there are other sizes of brick used, such as pavers, Romans, etc.,
so that the contractor should always ascertain the exact size
of the brick specified, whether standard size or not, and take
into consideration the width of mortar joint desired, in order to
calculate more accurately the number of bricks required for a given
wall area.

The following table gives the number of standard size brick per
square foot of wall surface, 4 inches or one brick thick, estimated
for different widths of mortar joint up to 3/4-inch:

TABLE 1

Number of Face Brick per Square Foot

  _Joint_         1/8"   1/4"   3/8"   1/2"   5/8"   3/4"
  _No. of Brick_  7-1/2   7     6-1/2  6-1/8  5-3/4  5-1/2

[Sidenote: General Rule]

The method employed in getting these numbers is very simple and
may be applied to any sized brick and joint whatsoever. Thus, take
the brick given in the accompanying illustration (Fig. 58) and let
us use, say, a 3/8" mortar joint. This makes a length of 8-1/4" +
3/8", or 8-5/8" and a height of 2-3/8" + 3/8" or 2-3/4". Hence,
the total area occupied in the wall by this brick, with its mortar
joint, is 8-5/8" × 2-3/4". You can work this out by tractions,
thus, 69/8 × 11/4 = 759/32; or by decimals, thus, 8.625 × 2. 75 =
23.72, the area of the brick and mortar joint in square inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 58. Brick and Mortar Joint]

In either case, to get the number of brick required per square foot
you, of course, divide into 144, the number of square inches in
a square foot. That is, 144 ÷ 759/32 = 144 × 32/759 = 4608/759 =
6-54/759 or about 6-1/15. Or divide 144 by 23.72 and you get 6.07,
which amounts to your previous figure. In estimating the whole
number of brick you need, use no fraction less than the eighth next
above the fraction obtained in your number for the square foot.
Thus in the present example, you will count on using 6-1/8 brick
for every square foot of wall area.

[Sidenote: Quantities for Various Bonds]

As Table 1 gives the quantities for standard size brick laid in
Running Bond, additional allowances must be made for the number of
brick when other bonds using headers are employed. The following
percentages are to be added to the number of brick required, as
calculated by the use of Table 1, when the face brick are laid in
the bonds indicated:

TABLE 2

Percentages Added for Various Bonds

  _Common_ (full header course
    every 5th course)               20%    (1/5)

  _Common_ (full header course
    every 6th course)              16-2/3% (1/6)

  _Common_ (full header course
    every 7th course)              14-1/3% (1/7)

  _English or English Cross_ (full
    headers every 6th course)      16-2/3% (1/6)

  _Flemish_ (full headers every 6th
    course)                         5-2/3% (1/18)

  _Double Header_ (two headers and
    a stretcher every 6th course)   8-1/3% (1/12)

  _Double Header_ (two headers and
    a stretcher every 5th course)    10%   (1/10)


For garden walls, porch walls, and other places where an 8-inch
wall is used, with face brick on both sides, no additional brick
are required for any type of bond.

For walks and floors where the brick are laid on edge, in any
pattern except diagonal ones, calculate as you would for the number
of face brick in a wall laid in running bond. For her- ring-bone
pattern or other diagonal work, an additional number of brick will
be required to compensate for the clipping of the ends of the brick
at the borders. The exact additional amount depends on the total
width of the walk or floor, as the wider the surface the smaller
will be the average wastage per square foot. Walks and floors where
the brick are laid flat require one-third less than the number
required where the brick are laid on edge.

Provided with these tables, it is a simple matter to calculate the
number of face brick required for every job.

Thus, estimate the total area of wall surface in square feet,
deduct all openings, except those 10 square feet or less, and
taking into consideration the mortar joint, multiply the result
by the number of brick per square foot as shown in Table 1. This
will give you the number required for Running Bond. For other bonds
simply add to the number of brick obtained for Running Bond the
percentages as given in Table 2. Soldier courses make no difference
in the count; nor do rowlock courses, if half brick only are used.
Although window sills laid rowlock fashion require additional
brick, these are amply provided for in the usual allowances for
wastage.

[Sidenote: Wastage]

If the workmen are careful to use bats for closures, instead of
breaking whole bricks, no waste need be figured. The area of the
small openings, not deducted in figuring quantities, and the
doubling of brick at the corners, will give a certain number of
extra brick; and, as it is the usual custom to order the brick to
the quarter-thousand next above the actual number figured, the
ordinary wastage on the job will be provided for.

If the number of square feet of face brick where there is no common
brick or tile backing, such as chimneys, porch walls, steps,
floors, etc., is kept separated from the number of square feet of
face brick with backing, then the latter number of square feet,
once obtained, may be used in figuring the number of common brick
or tile required for backing, thus saving the contractor time in
estimating.


Estimating Quantities of Common Brick

As the sizes of common brick, for all practical purposes,
approximate the size of the standard face brick, their quantity may
be calculated on the same basis. Thus, for a single thickness of
common brick backing, the number required will be practically the
same as that of the face brick laid in Running Bond. If, however,
two or more thicknesses of backing brick are used, the proper
deductions should be made for the thickness of the walls at the
corners.

Two thicknesses of common brick backing will, of course, take just
twice the number for one thickness, and so on. In a word, multiply
the number required for face brick by the number of thicknesses or
tiers of the common brick backing, always considering the turns at
the corners, as just indicated. Where other than Running Bond is
used in the facing brick, allowance should be made for the common
brick displaced by the bonding face brick. The deduction in the
number of common brick, it is evident, just equals the increased
number of face brick required for the bond selected.

In estimating quantities of common brick for fireplaces, figure the
portions projecting beyond the line of the wall, such as breast and
ash pit, as if solid, that is, the number of brick for the surface
multiplied by the number of tiers deep, and then deduct the number
of bricks displaced by all flues and openings, face brick facing,
and fire brick lining.


Estimating Quantities of Hollow Tile

Hollow tile for backing, as already indicated, may be obtained in
the following sizes:

Stock Tile Sizes

  4' ×  5" × 12" (turned, 5" × 4" × 12")
  4' × 12" × 12"
  6' × 12" × 12" (sometimes 6" × 5" × 12")
  8' ×  5" × 12"
  8' × 12" × 12"

[Illustration: Fig. 59. Stock Tile Units]

When ordering the 5" × 12" tile shapes, which are laid on the side,
the contractor should state that the usual allowance of 6-inch
and 9-inch length cuts be included for use in piers and other
narrow places, so as to reduce the cutting of tile on the job to
a minimum; also, enough half and full closures should be ordered
for use at window and door openings. See Fig. 59 and Hollow Tile
Problem on opposite page. When it comes to the case of the 12" ×
12" tile, it is an easy matter for bricklayers to split off one or
more cells to get the proper shapes for closures, but the usual
allowance of half-lengths should be ordered. Enough 1-inch tile
slabs should be included for use in leveling up the wall for joist
bearings.

Tile is calculated in terms of pieces, and to arrive at the number
required, use the same square feet dimensions you would for common
brick backing and multiply by the proper one of the following
coefficients:

Coefficients for Tile Quantities

  _Dimensions of
     Tile Face_    _Coefficient_

     4" × 12'           2.6
     5" × 12'           2.15
    12" × 12"           0.94

As the face brick is bonded to the tile backing by a double header
bonding course, as shown on page 25, the amount of tile will have
to be reduced accordingly. For instance, if 12" × 12" tile are
used, the bonding course occurs every sixth course and one-sixth of
the tile should be deducted, but at the same time, there must be
added brick-size hollow tile at the rate of 12 to every 20 square
feet of wall surface for use behind the stretchers in the bonding
courses.

Or, if 5" × 12" tile are used, the bonding course occurs every
fifth course and one-fifth of the tile should be deducted, and
brick-size hollow tile at the rate of 12 to every 16 square feet of
wall surface should be added for use behind the stretchers in the
bonding courses. When the backing is 8 inches thick, an additional
course of brick-size tile should be calculated behind every bonding
course. If the brick-size tile cannot be obtained in the local
market, an equal number of common brick will answer the purpose
just as well. Two to three per cent should be added to all tile
quantities calculated, to provide for waste.

In giving the following examples of estimating quantities it is not
meant to indicate that each wall of the house is necessarily to be
estimated by itself, but simply to show the way of estimating any
extent of wall. Except in very elaborate and diverse elevations,
the best way is to figure on the total surface of the four sides in
one operation. This is the more easily done as, generally speaking,
opposite sides of the house are of like area.



PROBLEMS IN ESTIMATING QUANTITIES


Brick Problem

_To find the number of standard size brick, face and common, laid
in a sixth course Common Bond with a 3/8-inch joint, for an 8-inch
gable wall, 25 feet wide and 18 feet high from grade to eaves and
thence to ridgepole 12 feet. The 12-inch basement wall is 7-1/2
feet high, 4% feet being below grade. There are 4 windows each
requiring an opening of 3'-6" × 5'-2" and 1 window requiring an
opening of 2'-6" × 4'-2". See window sizes page 22. The basement
windows being less than 10 square feet are disregarded._


Face Brick

  First find the area in sq. ft. for face brick:

  Rectangle of wall 18' × 25' =        450 sq. ft.
  Gable triangle 12' × 25' = 300 - 2 = 150 sq. ft.
  Total area                                  600 sq. ft.
  Deduct the 5 window openings, thus:
  4 × 3'-6" × 5'-2" =    72-1/3 sq. ft.
  1 × 2'-6" × 4'-2" =    10-5/12 sq. ft.
  Window openings to be deducted               83 sq. ft.
                                              ---
  =Total area to be covered with face brick=  517 sq. ft.
  By Table 1, it takes 6.5 standard
  size face brick per sq. ft. for Running
  Bond with a 3/8" joint.
  Hence, 517 × 6.5 =                                3,360
  Add 16-2/3% as per Table 2                          560
                                                    -----
  Number of face brick required                     3,920
  =Total of face brick to be ordered=               4,000


Common Brick

  The common brick backing takes the
  same number as face brick, except
  that we deduct the 16-2/3% added
  to the face brick quantity as per
  Table 2. Hence, the number of
  common brick for backing is 3,360 - 560 =         2,800
  As the wall from grade to first floor
  is three brick thick, the same as the
  foundation wall, it requires two tiers
  of common brick and, therefore, an
  additional tier must be figured in.
  Hence, 25' × 3' or 75 sq. ft. at 6.5 per sq. ft. =  488
  The 4'-6" of foundation wall, being
  three brick thick, gives us 25' × 4'-6"
  × 3 or 388 sq. ft. to figure on. Hence,
  common brick for foundation is 388 × 6.5 =        2,197
                                                    -----
  Total common brick required                       5,485
  =Total common brick to be ordered=                5,500


Hollow Tile Problem

_By referring to pages 25 and 26, it will be seen that four courses
of brick with a 3/8-inch joint equal in height two 5" × 12" tile,
so that, in our present example, if we wish to use the 3/8-inch
joint, we shall have to introduce our bonding course of brick every
fifth instead of every sixth course. This would also naturally
involve a slight change in the number of face brick required. That
is, instead of adding 16-2/3% or we should have to add 20% or
1/5 to the number required for Running Bond, in order to get the
right number for fifth course Common Bond and, in consequence, we
subtract 20% or one fifth from the backing tile wanted. With these
changes understood, our problem for a hollow tile backing for the
gable wall will work out as follows:_

If the hollow tile backing is started at grade, the tile and face
brick area will be the same. But as, in the present case, we start
the tile backing from the first floor, we subtract the area of the
wall from grade to first floor or 25' × 3' = 75', and get 517 - 75
or 442 sq. ft. to be backed with tile.

The closures for horizontal tile are figured separately. A full
and a half closure are respectively 12 and 6 inches in length and
amount to about one foot in height, and hence cover an area of 3/4
sq. ft. on each side or 1-1/2 sq. ft. on both sides of the opening.
As the height of our five window openings is approximately 25 feet,
we have 25 × 1-1/2 = 37-1/2 sq. ft. to be deducted from area of
regular tile surface, giving 442 - 37-1/2 or 404-1/2 sq. ft.

  As per coefficient table, page 106,
  we have 404.5 × 2.15 =                  870
  Deduct 1/5 of tile for brick bond       174
                                          ---
                                          696
  Add 3% for wastage or                    21
                                          ---
  =Total number of tile to be ordered=           717

  Requiring 4 closures, 2 full and 2
  half, for each foot of height (both
  sides), we need 25 × 4 or     100 closures
  Add 3% for wastage or           3
                                ---
  =Total number of closures needed=              103

  Order 52 of each size.

  Brick-size tile, 12 to every 16 sq. ft.
  needed. Hence, 442 ÷ 16 gives about
  28, and 12 × 28 =                       336
  Add 3% for wastage or                    10
                                          ---
  =Total brick-size tile to be ordered=          346


Estimating Labor Required

[Sidenote: Placing Brick and Tile]

The usual method of estimating the labor bill for brickwork or
tile is to reduce it to the amount per thousand brick or tile
placed, which not only covers the bricklayers' time, but the
mortar, the necessary labor for mixing it, and the labor tending
the bricklayers. This, of course, varies in different localities
and with the different kinds of brick or tile, mortar, and joints.
The contractor is urged to keep an accurate record of the number
of brick or tile laid per day, the amount of mortar of various
kinds used, and the number of bricklayers for which one laborer is
necessary, so that he may determine for himself, from the total,
the unit costs per thousand for placing brick or tile according to
different specifications.

It must be carefully noted that such items as arches, piers,
panels, special bond patterns, etc., require additional time for
execution, depending upon their nature. The contractor will have
to be guided by his own experiences in making allowances for the
additional labor necessary for this work.

[Sidenote: Building a Fireplace]

It is difficult to estimate the labor required for building a
fireplace, due to the variety of designs and the necessary amount
of cutting and fitting required. Therefore many masons estimate
this work at so much per fireplace or at a unit price per thousand
brick. It may be said that a bricklayer should lay the face of a
fireplace 5 to 6 feet wide and 4 to 5 feet high in ten hours, and
the fire brick lining in from 4 to 6 hours. It will take about 4
hours' time to lay the entire hearth. One-half hour of laborer's
time should be allowed for every hour of bricklayers' time.

[Sidenote: Cleaning Brickwork]

The cost of cleaning and pointing face brickwork will vary with the
kind of brick to be cleaned, as it is easier to clean brick with a
smooth surface than with a rough texture. An experienced man should
clean 95 to 100 smooth brick or 75 to 80 rough brick per hour.

[Sidenote: Waterproofing Foundation Walls]

For one-half inch plaster coating, composed of one part Portland
cement to two parts sand, 2 bags Portland cement and 4 cubic feet
of sand will be required to cover one square, that is, 100 sq. ft.
of wall surface, and it will require one-half hour of laborer's
time for mixing. An experienced workman and helper should cover
from 40 to 45 sq. ft. of surface per hour.

For a coating either of hot asphalt or of pitch, to be well applied
with a heavy mop, approximately 200 pounds of material and a half
day for two men will be required to cover 10 squares of wall
surface. About one gallon of creosote sizing would be required per
square, with only one-half to a quarter as much labor as for the
waterproofing.


Handling of Materials

The storage space for all materials should be convenient to the
building, and where the team can reach it so that rehandling may be
avoided.

[Sidenote: Face Brick]

When face brick are delivered on the job, they should be
immediately compared with the sample, previously selected, for
color, size, and quality, to prevent any misunderstanding later
when they are laid in the wall. If shipped by freight, they
should be examined before being unloaded from the car. Face brick
should be stacked in neat piles, laid either on edge, face up and
protected with straw, or on their sides in such a way as to protect
the faces. Laborers, in carrying face brick to the mason, should
place them face up for the convenience of handling.

[Sidenote: Common Brick and Tile]

Except on large jobs, common brick are not usually stacked. They
are dumped in a pile which makes it easier to wet them down
thoroughly as explained later. Hollow tile should be stacked in
neat piles to prevent undue breakage, each size and shape being
piled separately.

[Sidenote: Lime and Cement]

Lump lime should always be stored in a covered box to keep it
dry. This box should have a hinged opening on one side, at the
bottom, from which the lime may be conveniently removed. Lump lime
should be slaked at least a week before used to allow for thorough
hydration and cooling. Hydrated lime and cement should be carefully
protected from the weather by stacking the sacks on planks laid on
the ground and by a covering of planks and tarpaulin.

[Sidenote: Sand]

The sand pile should be located as near the mortar box as possible
for convenience in handling. In case the sand needs screening, an
the sand pile should be located at such a distance from the mortar
box that when the sand is thrown through the sieve, it will form a
pile adjacent to the mortar box.

[Sidenote: Wetting Common Brick]

All brick, especially the softer grades of common brick, should be
thoroughly wetted just before being placed in the wall, but not
made so wet as to cause sliding on the mortar. The object of this
wetting is to prevent the bricks from absorbing moisture from the
mortar which must be allowed to dry slowly so as to obtain a good
bond. If they are laid dry, the bricks will quickly take up a
large amount of water from the mortar, preventing proper setting
and adhesion. Water increases the weight of brick and consequently
the labor of handling, so that some workmen are inclined to lay
them dry. This should not be allowed except in freezing weather,
when the conditions require quicker setting. Good mortar bond is
essential to a good wall.


Work Done in Cold Weather

In latitudes where the winter temperature is prevailingly below
freezing, all material for mortar, including water, should be
heated. If this is done, the mortar will take its initial set
before it freezes and no damage will result. In extremely cold
weather, added precautions should be taken in case of footings by
protecting them with manure. The following suggestions will be
found useful for cold weather work.

When being laid the brick should be thoroughly dry; and if possible
warmed. No bricks with ice on them should be laid in the wall, and
cement or cement-lime mortar should be used to get quick setting.
For heating sand and gravel, a corrugated sheet metal culvert,
about 20 inches in diameter and about 10 feet long, may be used. A
wood fire is built in the ends of the pipe over which the sand and
gravel are piled. This easy and simple method will melt all frozen
lumps in the material and dry out the resulting moisture.

Where city water pressure is available, the water may be heated in
a coil attached to the main and large enough to have a fire built
in the center, a very simple and efficient method which any plumber
can easily install. Place a sheet-iron guard around the coil to
conserve the heat. This equipment proves very satisfactory, as it
warms the water as fast as it is drawn off through the hose. The
entire installation may be found on the market at a comparatively
small cost. Without such an arrangement the water may be heated in
an ordinary iron kettle over a wood fire. Water should never be
heated to the boiling point, as too high a temperature will injure
the setting properties of the mortar.

A temperature of about 165 degrees, or the same as generally
required for household uses, is best.

If the above conditions are met, brickwork may be continued
practically throughout the entire winter, except only so far as
the comfort of the workmen dictates. They will usually quit at
about 20 degrees above zero, depending somewhat upon other weather
conditions. If it is not too windy, they will work outside in a
lower temperature than when it is very windy. A shelter, however,
may very easily be constructed for the workmen by nailing a few 2"
× 4" scantlings upright to the scaffolding with another 2" × 4"
nailed along the top as a support for a tarpaulin. A salamander
behind this shelter will make it quite comfortable for the workmen
as well as help the mortar to set. As the use of wood in the
salamander makes a too intense and irregular heat, besides giving
off more or less smoke, coke is recommended. The amount of coke
required on an ordinary job is so small as to be almost negligible.

The wall at any one point should not be carried very high in one
day. It is better to work around the entire building a few feet at
a time rather than to work on one side and carry the wall six or
more feet high. Walls thus erected are apt to get out of plumb from
the alternating effect of the night cold and the day sun.

As soon as the floor joists of any story are set in place and
floored, the window and door openings of the floor below should
be tightly closed, either by the permanent sash or by temporary
boarding or building paper, so that salamanders may be placed
inside to dry out the building thoroughly. Once a day the building
should be aired.

If the above suggestions are followed, there is no reason why
brickwork should not be continued through the average winter
months. The extra work accomplished during the usually dull season
is worth more to the contractor than the trouble he has taken or
the additional cost of labor.



GLOSSARY OF USUAL TERMS IN BRICK LAYING

  _Angle Iron._ A structural piece of steel in the form of a 90° angle
    used in certain situations to sustain brickwork.

  _Backing._ The part of the wall behind the face brick.

  _Bat._ Any part of a brick intentionally or accidentally broken off.

  _Bed._ The horizontal surface on which the bricks of the wall lie in
    courses. Also, the mortar on which the brick rest.

  _Bed Joint._ A joint between two horizontal courses of brick.

  _Belt Course._ A horizontal course of brick or other material usually
    projecting, and generally in line with window sills or heads.

  _Bench-Mark._ A well defined mark, accurately established, in
    a protected location on some immovable object, as a point of
    reference.

  _Bond._ The overlapping of brick in various ways so as to give both
    longitudinal and transverse strength to the wall, and at the same
    time produce a pleasing appearance.

  _Breaking Joint._ The placing of brick so that no two vertical or
    head joints come immediately over one another.

  _Buttered Joint._ A very thin mortar joint made by scraping a small
    quantity of mortar with the trowel on all edges of the brick and
    laying it without the usual mortar bed.

  _Cell._ One of the hollow spaces in building tile.

  _Centering._ The temporary frame or template on which an arch is
    turned.

  _Chase._ A vertical recess on the inside face of a wall formed by
    omitting one or more bricks in each course to accommodate plumbing,
    heating, or other pipes.

  _Chimney Breast._ The projection on the interior or exterior face of
    a wall caused by fireplace or flues.

  _Closure._ A quarter or three-quarter brick to close, when required,
    the end of a course, as distinguished from a half-brick. This term
    equally applies to tile.

  _Coping._ A row of brick, usually projecting, used to cap or finish
    the top of a wall and protect it from the weather. It is usually
    laid up in very rich Portland cement mortar with tooled joints.

  _Corbel._ One or more courses of brick projecting from the wall to
    form a support.

  _Course._ A horizontal row of brick in a wall.

  _Culling._ Sorting brick for size, color, and quality.

  _Culls._ The brick rejected in culling.

  _Diaper._ Any continuous pattern in brickwork of which the various
    bonds are examples. It is usually applied however, to diamond or
    other diagonal patterns.

  _Edge-set._ A brick set on its narrow instead of on its flat side.

  _Efflorescence._ The deposition of a white powder or crust on the
    surface of brickwork, due to soluble salts usually in the mortar
    but sometimes in the brick, and, drawn out with the moisture by
    the sun, left as a deposit on the surface. Brick clays containing
    these salts are now cured by using a carbonate of barium. Against
    mortar efflorescence care should be taken to protect all brickwork
    at eaves and sill courses from excessive moisture. Also Whitewash
    or Whitewashing.

  _Face Brick._ A well-burned brick, especially prepared, selected,
    and handled to secure attractive appearance in the face of a wall,
    as distinguished from common brick as used for backing or other
    structural work.

  _Face._ The long, narrow side of a brick, specially treated in the
    manufacture of face brick to produce certain color tones and
    textures.

  _Fire Stop._ A projection of brickwork on the walls between the
    joists to prevent the spread of fire or vermin.

  _Flat Stretcher Course._ A course of stretchers set on edge and
    exposing their flat sides on the surface of the wall. Frequently
    done with brick finished for the purpose on the flat side, such as
    enameled or glazed brick.

  _Flue._ A passage in a chimney especially for the exit of smoke and
    gases, one or more of which may be enclosed in the same chimney.

  _Flue Lining._ A smooth one-celled hollow tile for protecting flues.

  _Footing._ The broadened base of a foundation wall, or other
    super-structure.

  _Green Brickwork._ Brickwork in which the mortar has not yet set.

  _Grout._ Rich mortar made very thin so that it will readily run into
    the joints of brickwork and fill them.

  _Header._ A brick laid on its flat side across the thickness of the
    wall, so as to show the end of the brick on the surface of the wall.

  _Header Course._ A course composed entirely of headers.

  _Head Joint._ A joint between the ends of two bricks in the same
    course. Also Vertical Joint.

  _Hearth._ That portion of a fireplace level with the floor, upon
    which the fire is built. The rear portion extending into the fire
    opening is known as the back hearth.

  _Lead._ A part of the wall at the corners, or elsewhere when needed,
    built in advance of the rest of the wall as a guide to which the
    line is attached.

  _Lime Putty._ Slaked lime in a soft puttylike condition before sand
    or cement is added.

  _Line._ The string stretched taut from lead to lead as a guide for
    laying the top edge of a brick course.

  _Lintel._ A horizontal support for brickwork over an opening.

  _Mantel._ A shelf projecting beyond the chimney breast above the
    fireplace opening.

  _Nogging._ A filling of brick between the roof rafters from wall
    plate to roof boards for the purpose of making the building
    wind-tight.

  _Pointing._ Inserting mortar into the joints after the brickwork is
    completed, in order to correct defects left in the progress of the
    work.

  _Quoins._ Projecting courses of brick at the corners of buildings as
    ornamental features.

  _Racking._ Laying the end of the wall with a series of steps so
    that when work is resumed, the bond can be easily continued. More
    convenient and structurally better than toothing.

  _Reveal._ The vertical side of a window or door opening from face of
    wall to frame.

  _Rowlock Course._ A course of headers laid on the edge instead of on
    the flat side of the brick as usual.

  _Salmon Brick._ The softer brick of the kiln suitable for places
    protected from outside exposure or where great crushing strength is
    not required.

  _Selects._ The bricks accepted as the best after culling.

  _Shove Joint._ A vertical joint filled by shoving the brick, when it
    is being laid in the bed of mortar, against the next brick. Also
    Shoved Joint.

  _Skewback._ In brickwork, a brick or stone cut to make an inclined
    surface for receiving thrust or pressure, as of an arch.

  _Slush Joint._ A vertical joint filled by throwing mortar in with the
    trowel after the bricks are laid. Also Slushed Joint.

  _Smoke Chamber._ The space in a fireplace immediately above the
    throat, where the smoke gathers before passing into the flue, and
    narrowed by corbeling to the size of the flue lining above. Also
    Smoke Cavern.

  _Soldier Course._ A course of stretchers set on end with the face
    showing on the wall surface.

  _Splay._ A slope or bevel, particularly at the sides of a window or
    door.

  _Story Pole._ A pole on which the height from joist to joist, as well
    as all intermediate openings, brick courses, etc., is indicated.

  _Stretcher._ A brick laid on its flat side so as to show its face on
    the surface of the wall.

  _Template._ Any form or pattern, such as centering, over which
    brickwork may be formed.

  _Thickness of Wall._ The thickness of a wall stated in terms of
    brick, inches, or tiers, thus:

  _In Number
    of Brick._  _In Inches._   _In Tiers._
  ------------  ------------   ----------
  One brick      4"             1 tier
  Two   "        8" or 9"       2 tiers
  Three "        12" or 13"     3 tiers
  Four  "        16" or 17"     4 tiers

  _Throat._ An opening at the top of a fireplace through which the
    smoke passes to the smoke chamber and chimney.

  _Tier._ One of the four-inch, or one-brick, layers in the thickness
    of a wall. (Gilbreth).

  _Toothing._ The method of building the end of a wall so that the end
    stretcher of every alternate course projects one-half its length,
    against which another wall may be built.

  _Toothing-in._ Joining a new wall to an old toothed wall.

  _Trimmer Arch._ A brick arch built in front of and below a fireplace
    opening to support the hearth, abutting on the fireplace foundation
    and thrusting against the header joist.

  _Tuck-pointing._ The filling in of joints in old brickwork with fresh
    mortar, usually cement.

  _Vertical Joint._ Same as Head Joint.

  _Washing Down._ Cleaning the surface of the brick wall, after it is
    completed and pointed, with a mild solution of muriatic acid.

  _Water Table._ A slight projection of the lower courses of brickwork
    at the base of a building.

  _Webb._ The thin wall bounding and separating the cells in hollow
    tile.

  Whitewashing, Whitewash. See Efflorescence.

  _Wind Shelf._ The ledge back of the damper at the bottom of the smoke
    cavern.

  _Withe._ A partition between two flues in the same chimney.



INDEX


  Additional copies of plans, etc.                     41
  Adobe, first brick made                               5
    in America                                          7
  Aim of this Manual                                    5
  America, brick manufacture and use in                 7
  American Bond                                        33
  American Face Brick Association                     104
  Anchors, for joist                                   19
    for roof plate                                     20
  Angle Irons, use of                                  23
  Angles in wall construction                       21-22
    best method for                                    22
  Arches, face brick                                   23
  Architectural Symbols table of                       40
  Asbestos Shingles                                 37-38
  Ash Chute for hearth                                 30
  Ash Pit for fireplace                                18
  Asphalt for waterproofing                       18, 108
  Asphalt Shingles                                  37-38

  Babylonian origin of brick                            5
  Backing, common brick                       15, 19, 105
    hollow tile                               15, 25, 106
  Basket Weave Pattern                                 35
  Bats, care in using                                  33
  Bays, laying corners of                              21
  Beauty of House, economic value                      11
  Bill of Materials, see Quantity Survey
  Bonding, face brick to common                     18-19
    face brick to frame                                27
    face brick to hollow tile                          26
    in foundation walls                                17
  Bonds, see Face Brick Bonds
  Brick, burning of                                     7
    common, see Common Brick
    face, see Face Brick
    manufacture and use in America                      7
    method of laying                                   17
    on edge or flat                                    31
    per square foot, table                            104
    story of                                            5
    treatment for color                                 7
  Brickmaking, ancient and modern                     6-7
  Brick Veneer, see Face Brick Veneer
  Brickwork, extent of ancient use                    5-6
    in England and America                            6-7
    in Middle Ages                                      6
    mortar joints used in                              35
    strength and rigidity of                           33
  Builder, opportunity for the                          8
  Building a Home, importance of                       10
  Buttered Joints                              19, 25, 35

  Casement Windows                                     23
  Cement, for waterproofing                       18, 108
    handling                                          108
    in mortar                                     36, 104
  Cement-lime Mortar                              36, 104
  Cement Plaster, when used for flues                  21
    when used for waterproofing                        18
  Chimneys, interior and exterior                  20, 21
    with hollow tile construction                      26
    with veneer construction                           27
  China                                                 6
  Clays in brickmaking                                  7
  Cleaning down wall                               24, 26
    labor for                                         108
  Closing in building                                 109
  Closures, brick                                      34
    hollow tile                              25, 106, 107
  Coefficients for tile, table                        106
  Coke for salamanders                                109
  Cold Weather, work in                               109
  Color Effects, in brick wall                          8
  Comfort and Health, in brick house                   11
  Common Bond                                          33
  Common Brick, compared with face                     16
    for backing                               15, 19, 105
    handling                                          108
    hard-burned                                     6, 17
    in place of tile                                  106
    quantities required                          105, 107
    selected                                           16
    wetting before use                                108
  Comparative Costs, in percentages                    12
  Concave Mortar Joint                                 35
  Concealed Bond                                       19
  Concrete, for footings                               17
    for step forms, path borders, etc.                 31
  Convex Mortar Joint                                  35
  Copies, plans and specifications                     41
  Corbeling, between joists                         19-20
    for chimney support                                18
    in fireplaces                                      30
  Corners of Wall, not right-angled                 21-22
  Costs, initial and final                          9, 12
    getting a unit of                                 108
    percentage differences                             12
  Cradle of human civilization                          5
  Creosote in damp proofing                            18

  Dampness, how to prevent                             15
  Dean & Dean, architects                              40
  Depreciation, in value of house                      10
  Diamond Patterns                                     34
  Door Frame Sizes, table of                           23
  Door Sills, in brick construction                    22
    in hollow tile construction                        26
    in veneer construction                             28
  Double Header Bond                               19, 25
  Drains, at base of foundation walls                  17
  Drying Brick, before setting in kiln                  7
  Drying out building                                 109
  Dry-press Brick                                       7

  Economic merits of face brick                         9
  Economic value of beauty                             11
  Effect of bond and mortar joint                       9
  Efflorescence                                        15
  Egypt, brickmaking in                                 6
  England, brickwork in                                 6
  English and English Cross Bond                    33-34
  English Country Houses                                6
  Estimating, amount of common brick                  105
    amount of face brick                              104
    amount of hollow tile                             106
  Euphrates Valley                                      5

  Face Brick, arches                                   23
    artistic possibilities of                       9, 36
    bond or pattern in                                  9
    bonding to common                               18-19
    bonding to frame                                   27
    bonding to tile                                    26
    bonds                                           33-35
    care in making and handling                        16
    color and texture                                 7-8
    handling on the job                               108
    inspection of                                     108
    pre-eminent merits of                               9
    quantities required                          104, 107
    standard size of                                  104
    veneer on old frame                            16, 27
    wastage                                           105
  Face Brick Construction, comfort of                  11
    economy of                                  9, 12, 38
    fire-safety of                                     38
    solid                                           16,18
    types of wall                                      15
  Face Brick Veneer Construction               15, 26, 28
    on old frame houses, etc.                  16, 27, 28
  Fire Brick, in fireplaces                            30
  Fireplaces, construction of                          29
    damper, flue, hearth                               30
    designs                                         30-31
    foundation for                                     18
    labor for                                         108
    openings, table of                                 29
  Fire Causes, interior and exterior, table            38
  Fire Protection                                      11
    fire-resistive shingles                         37-38
    interior protective measures                       38
  Fire Protection for the roof                         37
    to be increased                                    37
  Fire Stops                                           19
    check vermin                                       20
    right and wrong practice                           20
    when not needed                                 24-25
  Flat Brick Arches, construction of                   23
  Flemish Bond                                         34
  Flemish influence in England                          6
  Floors and Walks of brick                            31
  Flues and Flue Linings                               21
  Flush-cut Mortar joint                               35
  Footings, for foundations                            17
    for veneer on old frame                            28
  Foundation Walls                                     17
    waterproofing                                      18
  Frame Construction, up-keep and depreciation         10
    veneering old                                16-27-28
    weakness of                                        15
  Frames, window and door                           22-23
  Freezing Weather, work in                           109
  Fundamentals of building                              5
  Furnace Flue Cleanout                                21
  Furring, kinds of                                    24
    when, and when not, needed                 15, 24, 25

  Garden Walls, bond in                           34, 105
    of face brick                                      32
  Gate Posts, face brick                               32
  General rule for brick quantities                   104
  Georges, The, days of                                 6
  Gothic Epoch of building                              6
  Gravel, for wide mortar joints                       36
  Greek Crosses, seen in bonds                         34
  Green Brick                                           7
  Green Brickwork, in wall                             18
  Grounds                                              24
  Grouting of brick walks                              31
  Growing demand for brick building                     8
  Gypsum Board, as fire retardant                      38

  Handling Materials                                  108
  Hearth, The                                          30
  Henry VIII, times of                                  6
  Herringbone Pattern                             35, 105
  Hollow or Vaulted Brick Wall                         24
  Hollow Tile, backing for face brick               5, 15
    bonding to face brick                              26
    brick-size                                        106
    closures                                 25, 106, 107
    construction                                   25, 26
    handling                                          108
    methods of laying                                  25
    quantities required                          106, 107
    reinforced lintel                                  26
    sizes of                                      25, 106
    "split furring"                                    24
    table of sizes                                    106
    wastage                                           106
  Home-building, importance of                         10
  Homes, shortage of                                   14
  Hydrated Lime                                   37, 104

  Increasing Profits                                8, 28
  India                                                 6
  Insurance, saving on                                 11
  Israel in Egypt                                       5

  Joints, slushing of                              17, 19
  Joist Anchors, beveling ends of                      19
  Joslin, Arthur W., on the hollow wall                24
  Juergens, Alfred, artist                             40

  Labor Required                                      108
  Lath, where and how placed                           20
  Laying out work for brick                            23
    for hollow tile                                    26
  Leads, laying up at corners                          17
  Lime, handling                                      108
  Lime, lump or hydrated                      36, 37, 104
  Lintels and Arches                                   23
  Lumber                                            13-14

  Magna Charta, days of                                 6
  Maintenance or Upkeep                                10
  Mesopotamian Plain                                    5
  Metal Wall Ties                                  19, 27
  Mexico                                                7
  Modern Brick Making                                   7
  Mortar Colors                                        36
  Mortar Joints                                        35
  Mortars, mixing and tempering                     36-37
    table of mixes                                    104
  Muriatic Acid, for cleaning walls                    24

  Nail Holds, for furring                              20
  Nails, as anchors or ties                    24, 27, 28
  National Board of Fire Underwriters                  38
  Nebuchadnezzar                                        5
  Nogging, where, and where not, needed                20

  Octagon or Splay brick                               21
  Offsets in chimneys                                  21
  Openings                                             22
    supports for                                       23
  Origin of brickmaking                                 5
  Ornamental Brickwork, outside                     30-32

  Patterns in brickwork                             34-35
  Paying Investments                                   27

  Percentages, of brick added for bonds               105
    of difference in costs                             12
  Pergola Posts, face brick                            31
  Persia                                                6
  Peru                                                  7
  Pitch for waterproofing                         18, 108
  Plans and Specifications, prices                  40-41
  Plastering without furring                        24-25
  Pointing up wall                                     24
  Porches, bond in walls of                           105
    of face brick on old buildings                     28
  Protection, of bricklayers in winter                109
    of the day's work                                  19
  Putty, lime                                          37

  Quantities of Materials                        104, 107
  Quantity Survey                                      40
  Queen Anne, days of                                   6

  Raked Mortar Joint                                   35
  Reinforcing, of pergola and gate posts               32
    of tile lintels                                    26
  Relieving Arches                                     23
  Repp, Geo. W., architect                             17
  Reversal of Plans                                    40
  Rodded Mortar Joint                                  35
  Roman Brickwork                                       6
  Roof, fire-resistive material for                    37
    point of danger in fire                            37
  Roof Plate Anchors                                   20
  Rowlock Courses                                  18, 35
    effect on quantities                              105
    in arches                                          23
  Running Bond                                         33

  Salamanders, use of                                 109
  Sand, handling                                      108
    for mortars                                        36
  Sand-mold Brick                                       7
  Sargon of Akkad                                       5
  Scaffolding                                          18
  Scribing Bead                                        23
  Segmental Face Brick Arches                          23
  Semi-circular Face Brick Arches                      23
  Sentimental Value of the house                       11
  Sewage Disposal                                      40
  Shingle Tile                                      37-38
  Sills, window and door                               22
  Sizes, common brick                                 105
    hollow tile                                   25, 106
    standard face brick                               104
  Skewbacks, in arch construction                      23
  Slaking Lime                                         37
  Slate Shingles                                    37-38
  Slop-mold Brick                                       7
  Slushing Joints                                  17, 19
  Soldier Courses                                  18, 35
    effect on quantities                              105
  Solid Face Brick Construction                    15, 18
  Spanish in Mexico and Peru, the                       7
  Specifications and Plans                             40
  Splay or Octagon Brick                               21
  Staff Bead or Brick Mold                             23
  Steel Lintels                                    23, 28
  Steps, brick                                         31
  Stiff-mud Brick                                       7
  Storage Space                                       108
  Store Fronts Veneered                                28
  Stretcher Bond                                       33
  Striking Joints                                  17, 19
  Stripped Mortar Joint                                35
  Struck Joint, the                                    35
    when to avoid                                      19
  Structural Merits of face brick                       9
  Stucco, veneering old                                27
    weakness of                                        16

  Tables
      Architectural Symbols                            40
      Coefficients for Tile Quantities                106
      Comparative Costs                                12
      Door Frame Sizes                                 23
      Fire Causes                                      38
      Fireplace Openings                               29
      Flue Linings                                     21
      Mortar Mixes for 1000 Brick                     104
      Mortar Mixes for 1000 Tile                      104
      Number Brick per Square Foot                    104
      Percentages Added for Bonds                     105
      Tile Sizes                                      106
      Window Frame Sizes                               22
  Tar, for waterproofing                          18, 108
  Tempering Mortars                                    37
  Terra Cotta Flue Linings                             21
  Texture of brick                                      8
  Thickness of walls                              18, 111
  Tower of Babel                                        5

  Upkeep, see Maintenance

  Value of Face Brick House, artistic              11, 16
    economic                                        9, 11
    selling or renting                                 11
    sentimental                                        11
  Vaulted or Hollow Brick Wall                         24
  Veneering, see Face Brick Veneer
  Vermin Stops, see Fire Stops
  Vitruvius on elements in architecture              5, 9
  V-tooled Mortar Joint                                35

  Walks and Floors of brick                            31
    estimating brick for                              105
  Walls, hollow tile                               15, 25
    methods of laying 12"                              20
    solid brick                                    15, 18
    veneer                                         15, 26
    when 8" or 12"                                     18
  Washing down, see Cleaning down wall
  Wastage, of brick                                   105
    of hollow tile                                    106
  Wastes of War                                        13
  Waterproofing Foundation Walls                       18
    labor for                                         108
  Water Tables                                         18
  Weathered Mortar Joint                               35
  Wetting Common Brick                                108
  Wide Choice, in color and texture                     8
  Wide Mortar Joint, how secured                       36
  Window Frames and Sash                               22
    table of sizes                                     22
  Window Sills, in brick construction                  22
    in hollow tile construction                        26
    in veneer construction                             28
  Wire-cut Brick                                        7
  Withes in chimneys                                   21
  Wood Shingles                                        37
  Work in cold weather                                109


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

HALF-TONES

                                                     Page
  Frontispiece                                          4
  Brickwork of Old Persian Tomb                         6
  Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia                        7
  Face Brick Bungalow, Evanston, Ill.                  10
  Face Brick Bank, Detroit, Mich.                      10
  Face Brick Bungalow, Windsor Park, Ill.              11
  Face Brick Library, Coatsville, Ind.                 11
  Face Brick Store Front, Birmingham, Ala.             12
  Face Brick School, Highland Park, Ill.               13
  Face Brick Store Front, St. Louis, Mo.               13
  Face Brick House, Buffalo, N. Y.                     14
  Face Brick Bungalow, Atlanta, Ga.                    15
  Veneering over Old Frame                             16

ZINCS

                                                    Page

  Brickmaking in Egypt                                  6
  Brick Footing                                        17
  Types of Basement Walls                              18
  Concealed Bond                                       19
  Metal Wall Ties                                      19
  Good and Bad Joist Anchors                           19
  True Corbeling between Joists                        19
  False Corbeling between joists                       20
  Rafters and Roof Plate                               20
  Chimney Height                                       21
  Chimney Withes                                       21
  Chimney Offset                                       21
  Outside Angle Corners                                21
  Obtuse Angle Turns                                   22
  Acute Angle Turns                                    22
  The Solid Brick Wall                                 22
  Brick Arches                                         23
  Hollow or Vaulted Brick Wall                         24
  Face Brick on Hollow Tile                            25
  Hollow Tile and Steel Lintels                        26
  Veneer Construction                                  27
  Nail Wall Ties                                       27
  Veneering Old Frame                                  28
  Perspective of Fireplace                             29
  Cross Section of Fireplace                           29
  Hearth Edge Set                                      30
  Hearth Flat Set                                      30
  Fireplace Designs                                    30
  Steps, End Set Treads                                31
         Flat Set Treads                               31
         Edge Set Treads                               31
  Pergola Post                                         31
  Fireplace Design                                     31
  Porch or Pergola post                                32
  Gate Post                                            32
  Bonding Strength                                     33
  Common or American Bond                              33
  English Bond                                         33
  English Cross or Dutch Bond                          34
  Flemish Bond                                         34
  Garden Wall Bond                                     34
  Diamond Bond Patterns                                34
  Checkerboard Pattern                                 35
  Basket Weave Pattern                                 35
  Herringbone Pattern                                  35
  Mortar Joints                                        35
  Pergola                                              41
  Color Plates                                     42-102
  Brick and Mortar Joint                              104
  Stock Tile Shapes                                   106



                 =The American Face Brick Association=

  JOHN H. BLACK, President              S. C. MARTIN, 1st Vice President
  B. W. BALLOU, 2nd Vice President      R. D. T. HOLLOWELL, Sec.-Treas.

                            [Illustration]



                             =_Directors_=

  B. W. BALLOU                         T. P. CUTHBERT
  Kansas Buff Brick & Mfg. Co.         Fallston Fire Clay Company
  Kansas City, Mo.                     Pittsburgh, Pa.

  GEORGE A. BASS                       W. H. HOAGLAND
  Hydraulic-Press Brick Company        Claycraft Mining and Brick Company
  St. Louis, Mo.                       Columbus, O.

  H. R. BEEGLE                         B. MIFFLIN HOOD
  Beaver Clay Manufacturing Company    Legg Brick Company
  New Galilee, Pa.                     Atlanta, Ga.

  P. B. BELDEN                         G. B. LUCKETT
  The Belden Brick Company             Crawfordsville Shale Brick Co.
  Canton, O.                           Crawfordsville, Ind.

  J. H. BLACK                          S. C. MARTIN
  Jewettville Clay Products Company    Kittanning Brick & Fire Clay Co.
  Buffalo, N. Y.                       Pittsburgh, Pa.

  W. H. BRECHT                         D. H. MILLER
  Boone Brick, Tile & Paving Company   Milton Brick Company
  Boone, Ia.                           New York, N. Y.

  F. W. BUTTERWORTH                    J. W. MOULDING
  Western Brick Company                Thomas Moulding Brick Company
  Danville, Ill.                       Chicago, Ill.

                           CHAS. C. STRATTON
                      Alumina Shale Brick Company
                             Bradford, Pa.

                            [Illustration]


                             =_Members._=

  ALABAMA

  Alphons Custodis Chimney Const. Co. Ragland
  Birmingham Clay Products Co.        Birmingham
  Stephenson, L. L.                   Lovick

  ARKANSAS

  Fort Smith Brick Co.                Fort Smith

  GEORGIA

  Legg Brick Co.                      Atlanta

  IDAHO

  Burley Brick & Sand Co.             Burley
  Idaho Pressed Brick Co.             Pocatello


  ILLINOIS

  Acme Brick Co.                      Danville
  Alton Brick Co.                     Alton
  Barr Clay Co.                       Streator
  Decatur Brick Manufacturing Co.     Decatur
  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.           Chicago
  Lacon Clay & Coal Co.               Lacon
  Peoria Brick & Tile Co.             Peoria
  Richards Brick Co.                  Edwardsville
  Southern Fire Brick & Clay Co.      Chicago
  Streator Brick Co.                  Streator
  Western Brick Co.                   Danville

  IOWA

  Boone Brick, Tile & Paving Co.      Des Moines
  Des Moines Clay Co.                 Des Moines
  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.           Davenport

  INDIANA

  Adams Clay Products Co.             Martinsville
  Brazil Clay Co.                     Brazil
  Brooklyn Brick Co.                  Indianapolis
  Crawfordsville Shale Brick Co.      Crawfordsville
  Huntingburg Press Brick Co.         Huntingburg
  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.           Indianapolis
  Poston Paving Brick Co.             Crawfordsville
  Standard Brick Co.                  Crawfordsville
  Standard Brick Manufacturing Co.    Evansville
  U. S. Brick Co.                     Tell City

  KANSAS

  Cherryvale Brick Co.                Cherryvale
  Coffeyville Vit. Brick & Tile Co.   Coffeyville
  V. V. V. Brick & Tile Co.           Neodesha

  KENTUCKY

  Coral Ridge Clay Products Co.       Louisville
  Sphar Brick Co.                     Maysville

  MICHIGAN

  Briggs Company, The                 Lansing

  MINNESOTA

  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.           Minneapolis
  Twin City Brick Co.                 St. Paul

  MISSISSIPPI

  Brookhaven Pressed Brick & Mfg. Co. Brookhaven

  MISSOURI

  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.           Kansas City
  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.           St. Louis
  Kansas Buff Brick & Mfg. Co.        Kansas City

  NEW JERSEY

  Krantz Company, A. M.               Paterson
  Upper Kittanning Brick Co.          Jersey City

  NEW YORK

  Jewettville Clay Products Co.       Buffalo

  NORTH CAROLINA

  Statesville Brick Co.               Statesville

  OHIO

  Acme Brick Co.                     Marietta
  Alliance Brick Co.                 Alliance
  Belden Brick Co.                   Canton
  Claycraft Mining & Brick Co.       Columbus
  Colonial Pressed Brick Co.         Mogadore
  Duro Brick Mfg. Co.                Akron
  Everhard Company, The              Massillon
  Franklin Brick & Tile Co.          Columbus
  Fultonham Texture Brick Co.        E. Fultonham
  Hanover Brick Co.                  Columbus
  Hocking Valley Fire Clay Co.       Nelsonville
  Hocking Valley Products Co.        Columbus
  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.          Cleveland
  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.          Roseville
  Ironclay Brick Co.                 Columbus
  McArthur Brick Co.                 McArthur
  Marietta Shale Brick Co.           Marietta
  Stark Brick Co.                    Canton
  Straitsville Impervious Brick Co.  New Straitsville
  Toronto Fire Clay Co.              Toronto
  Webster Brick Co.                  Chillicothe

  OKLAHOMA

  Muskogee Vitrified Brick Co.       Muskogee
  Pawhuska Vit. Brick Si Tile Co.    Pawhuska

  PENNSYLVANIA

  Alumina Shale Brick Co.            Bradford
  Auburn Shale Brick Co.             Auburn
  Bloomsburg Brick Co.               Bloomsburg
  Beaver Clay Mfg. Co.               New Galilee
  Bradford Pressed Brick Co.         Bradford
  Darlington Brick & Mining Co.      Darlington
  Darlington Clay Products Co.       Darlington
  Fallston Fire Clay Co.             Pittsburgh
  Ferro Brick Co.                    Watsontown
  Gloninger & Co.                    Pittsburgh
  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.          Du Bois
  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.          Philadelphia
  Kane Brick & Tile Co.              St. Marys
  Keystone Clay Products Co.         Greensburg
  Kittanning Brick & Fire Clay Co.   Pittsburgh
  Kittanning Clay Mfg. Co.           Kittanning
  Kittanning Clay Products Co.       Bradford
  Kushequa Brick Co.                 Kushequa
  Latrobe Brick Co.                  Latrobe
  Mill Hall Brick Works              Lock Haven
  Milton Brick Co.                   Milton
  Penn Brick Corporation             Bradford
  Pittsburgh-Callery Brick Co.       Pittsburgh
  Ridgway Brick Co.                  Watsontown
  Rochester Clay Products Co.        Rochester
  Stuempfle's Sons, David            Williamsport
  Vanport Brick Co.                  Pittsburgh
  Walker Brick Co., Hay              Pittsburgh
  Walkers Mills Stone & Brick Co.    Pittsburgh
  Watsontown Brick Co.               Watsontown
  Williamsgrove Brick Co.            Bigler
  Wynn & Starr Co.                   Trafford
  Yingling-Martin Brick Co.          Pittsburgh

  SOUTH CAROLINA

  Sumter Brick Works                 Sumter

  TENNESSEE

  Bush & Company, W. G.              Nashville
  Dixie Brick & Tile Co.             Puryear
  Key-James Brick Co.                Alton Park

  TEXAS

  Acme Brick Co.                     Fort Worth
  Elgin-Butler Brick & Tile Co.      Austin
  Elgin-Standard Brick Mfg. Co.      Elgin

  UTAH

  Ashton Fire Brick & Tile Co.       Ogden
  Ogden Pressed Brick & Tile Co.     Ogden
  Salt Lake Pressed Brick Co.        Salt Lake City
  Utah Fire Clay Co.                 Salt Lake City

  WASHINGTON, D. C.

  Hydraulic-Press Brick Co.           Washington

  G. C. Mars, Director of Service Department


                              +=========+
                          +===+ A·F·B·A +===+
                          | USE FACE BRICK  |
                          +==+ --it Pays +==+
                             +===========+


                   *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber Notes

Images were relocated so as to not split paragraphs. Since the
floor plan images have the same caption as the architects'
perspective renderings, the caption was replaced with Floor Plan.



*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A manual of face brick construction" ***




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