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´╗┐Title: A Complete Grammar of Esperanto
Author: Reed, Ivy Kellerman
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Complete Grammar of Esperanto" ***


The Esperanto alphabet contains 28 characters. These are the
characters of English, but with "q", "w", "x", and "y" removed, and
six diacritical letters added. The diacritical letters are "c",
"g", "h", "j" and "s" with circumflexes (or "hats", as Esperantists
fondly call them), and "u" with a breve. Zamenhof himself suggested
that where the diacritical letters caused difficulty, one could
instead use "ch", "gh", "hh", "jh", "sh" and "u". A plain ASCII
file is one such place; there are no ASCII codes for Esperanto's
special letters.

However, there are two problems with Zamenhof's "h-method". There
is no difference between "u" and "u" with a breve, and there is no
way to determine (without prior knowledge of the word(s) involved,
and sometimes a bit of context) whether an "h" following one of
those other five letters is really the second half of a diacritical
pair, or just an "h" that happened to find itself next to one of
them. Consequently other, unambiguous, methods have been used over
the years. One is the "x-method", which uses the digraphs "cx",
"gx", "hx", "jx", "sx" and "ux" to represent the special letters.
There is no ambiguity because the letter "x" is not an Esperanto
letter, and each diacritical letter has a unique transliteration.

                               A COMPLETE
                          GRAMMAR OF ESPERANTO

                       THE INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE


                       IVY KELLERMAN, A.M., Ph.D.


                   *       *       *       *       *


                           DR. L. L. ZAMENHOF

                             THE AUTHOR OF

                   *       *       *       *       *


This volume has been prepared to meet a twofold need. An adequate
presentation of the International Language has become an imperative
necessity. Such presentation, including full and accurate grammatical
explanations, suitably graded reading lessons, and similarly graded
material for translation from English, has not heretofore been
accessible within the compass of a single volume, or in fact within the
compass of any two or three volumes.

The combination of grammar and reader here offered is therefore
unique. It is to furnish not merely an introduction to Esperanto, or
a superficial acquaintance with it, but a genuine understanding of
the language and mastery of its use without recourse to additional
textbooks, readers, etc. In other words, this one volume affords
as complete a knowledge of Esperanto as several years' study of a
grammar and various readers will accomplish for any national language.
Inflection, word-formation and syntax are presented clearly and
concisely, yet with a degree of completeness and in a systematic order
that constitute a new feature. Other points worthy of note are the

The reasons for syntactical usages are given, instead of mere statements
that such usages exist. For example, clauses of purpose and of result
are really explained, instead of being dismissed with the unsatisfactory
remark that "the imperative follows 'por ke,'" or the "use of 'tiel ...
ke' and 'tia ... ke' must be distinguished from that of 'tiel ... kiel'
and 'tia ... kia,'" etc., with but little intimation of when and why
"por ke", "tiel ... ke" and "tia ... ke" are likely to occur.

Affixes are not mentioned until some familiarity with the general
character of the language is assured, as well as the possession of
a fair vocabulary. They are introduced gradually, with adequate
explanation and illustration. Of importance in connection with
word-formation is an element distinctly new--the explanation and
classification of compound words. Such words, like affixes, are
withheld until the use of simple words is familiar.

Another new feature is the gradual introduction of correlative words in
their logical order, and in their proper grammatical categories, before
they are called "correlatives," or tabulated. The tabulation finally
presented is a real classification, with regard to the meaning and
grammatical character of the words, not merely an arbitrary alphabetical
arrangement. The use of primary adverbs precedes the explanation of
adverb derivation; prepositions, especially "de", "da", "je", etc.,
receive careful attention, also the verb system, and the differentiation
of words whose English equivalents are ambiguous.

A general characteristic of obvious advantage is that almost without
exception new forms and constructions are illustrated by means of
words or roots already familiar. Likewise, the new words or roots of
each lesson recur at least once in the next lesson, and usually in
some lesson thereafter as well. Each reading exercise gives not only a
thorough application of the grammatical principles of the lesson, but a
review of those in the preceding lesson, and no use is made of words or
constructions not yet explained. The comparative ease of the language,
and the lack of necessity for reciting paradigms, permit the reading
exercises to be long enough for the student to feel that he has really
mastered something. These exercises are further unique, in that each
after the fifth is a coherent narrative, and nearly every one is a story
of genuine interest in itself. These stories, if bound separately, would
alone constitute a reader equivalent to those used in first and second
year work in national languages. (For list of titles, see Table of

The second element of the twofold need which this volume meets is the
necessity for a presentation of Esperanto, not as a thing apart, but
in that form which will make it most serviceable as an introduction to
national tongues. A stepping-stone to both ancient and modern languages,
Esperanto may render invaluable aid, and pave the way for surmounting
the many difficulties confronting both student and teacher. Through
Esperanto, the labor in the acquirement of these languages may be
reduced in the same proportion in which the pleasure and thoroughness
of such acquirement are increased. For this reason, the grammatical
constructions of Esperanto are here explained as consistently as
possible in accordance with the usage of national languages, especially
those in the school curriculum, and precise names are assigned to them.
Such matters as "contrary to fact conditions", "indirect quotations",
"clauses of purpose" and "of result", "accusatives of time" and
"measure", "expressions of separation", "reference", etc., thus
become familiar to the student, long before he meets them in the more
difficult garb of a national tongue, whose exceptions seem to outnumber
its rules, and whose idioms prove more puzzling than its exceptions,
unless approached by the smooth and gradual ascent of the International
Language, Esperanto.

                                                         Ivy Kellerman.

Washington, D. C.,
August 3, 1910.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS.

        I. Alphabet.--Vowels.--Consonants.--Names of the Letters.--
           Diphthongs.--Combinations of Consonants.--Syllables.--Accent.
       II. Nouns.--The Article.--Adjectives.--Attributive Adjectives.--
           Present Tense of the Verb
      III. The Plural Number.--Predicate Adjective and Noun
       IV. Transitive Verbs.--The Accusative Case.--The Conjunction
           "Kaj".--The Negative "Ne".
        V. The Complementary Infinitive.--Interrogation.--The
           Conjunction "Nek".
       VI. Personal Pronouns.--Agreement with Pronouns.--Conjugation of
           the Verb.
      VII. The Past Tense.--Prepositions.--Accusative Case of Personal
     VIII. Reflexive Pronouns.--Reflexive Verbs.
       IX. Limitation of the Third Personal Pronoun.--Possessive
           Adjectives.--Pronominal Use of Possessive Adjectives.--"La
           Kato kaj la Pasero".
        X. The Accusative of Direction.--The Article for the Possessive
           Adjective.--Apposition.--"La Arabo kaj la Kamelo".
       XI. Possessive Case of Nouns.--Impersonal Verbs.--Verbs
           Preceding their Subjects.--Coordinating Conjunctions.--"La
           Arabo en la Dezerto".
      XII. Indirect Statements.--The Indefinite Personal Pronoun
           "Oni".--The Future Tense.--"La Ventoflago".
     XIII. The Demonstrative "Pronoun Tiu".--Tenses in Indirect
           Quotations.--Formation of Feminine Nouns.--"En la
      XIV. The Demonstrative Pronoun "Cxi tiu".--Possessive Form of
           the Demonstrative Pronoun.--The Suffix "-Il-".--The
           Expression of Means or Instrumentality.--"La Mangxo".
       XV. The Demonstrative Adjective.--Adverbs Defined and
           Classified.--Formation of Opposites.--"La Ruza Juna
      XVI. The Demonstrative Adverb of Place.--Accompaniment.--The
           Adverb "For".--The Meaning of "Povi".--"Malamikoj en la
     XVII. The Demonstrative Temporal Adverb.--Comparison of
           Adjectives.--Manner and Characteristic.--"Diri",
           "Paroli" and "Rakonti".--"Frederiko Granda kaj la
           Juna Servisto".
    XVIII. The Demonstrative Adverb of Motive or Reason.--Derivation
           of Adverbs.--Comparison of Words Expressing Quantity.--
           Comparisons Containing "Ol".--Causal Clauses.--"Pri la
      XIX. "Ju" and "Des" in Comparisons.--The Preposition "Inter".--
           The Preposition "Pro".--Prepositions with Adverbs and Other
           Prepositions.--"La Auxtuno kaj la Vintro".
       XX. The Demonstrative Adverb of Manner and Degree.--Prepositions
           Expressing Time-Relations.--"En Septembro".
      XXI. The Accusative of Time.--Adverbs and the Accusative of
           Time.--The Preposition "Por".--"La Sezonoj kaj la
     XXII. Clauses Expressing Duration of Time.--Clauses Expressing
           Anticipation.--The Infinitive with "Anstataux", "Por",
           "Antaux ol".--The Expression of a Part of the Whole.--
           "Diogeno kaj Aleksandro Granda".
    XXIII. Adverbs Expressing a Part of the Whole.--The Demonstrative
           Adverb of Quantity.--Result Clauses.--"En la Butiko".
     XXIV. The Interrogative Pronoun.--The Present Active
           Participle.--Compound Tenses.--The Progressive Present
           Tense.--The Suffix "-Ej-".--"En Nia Domo".
      XXV. The Interrogative Adjective.--The Imperfect Tense.--
           Salutations and Exclamations.--Word Formation.--"Koni" and
           "Scii".--"La Nepo Vizitas la Avinon".
     XXVI. The Interrogative Adverb of Place.--The Past Active
           Participle.--Adverb Derivation from Prepositions.--Adverbs
           Expressing Direction of Motion.--The Suffix
           "-Eg-".--"La Pluvego".
    XXVII. The Interrogative Temporal Adverb.--The Perfect Tense.--The
           Preposition "Cxe".--The Suffix "-Ar-".--"Tempo" and "Fojo".--
           The Orthography of Proper Names.--"Roberto Bruce kaj la
   XXVIII. The Interrogative Adverb of Motive or Reason.-- The
           Infinitive as Subject.--Present Action with Past
           Inception.--The Suffix "-Ul-".--"Logxi" and "Vivi".--"Pri
           la Avo kaj la Avino".
     XXIX. The Interrogative Adverb of Manner and Degree.--The
           Pluperfect Tense.--Cardinal Numbers.--The Accusative of
           Measure.--"Nia Familio".
      XXX. The Interrogative Adverb of Quantity.--Modifiers of
           Impersonally Used Verbs.--Formation of Cardinal
           Numerals.--The Suffix "-An-".--"Leciono Pri Aritmetiko".
     XXXI. The Relative Pronoun.--The Future Perfect Tense.--Ordinal
           Numerals.--"Alfredo Granda kaj la Libro".
    XXXII. "Kia" as a Relative Adjective.--"Kie" as a Relative
           Adverb.--The Future Active Participle.--The Periphrastic
           Future Tenses.--The Suffix "-Ind-".--"Alfredo Granda
           kaj la Kukoj".
   XXXIII. "Kiam" as a Relative Adverb.--"Kiel" as a Relative
           Adverb.--Numeral Nouns and Adverbs.--Word Derivation from
           Prepositions.--"La Invito".
    XXXIV. Prepositions as Prefixes.--The Suffix "-Ebl-".--Expression
           of the Highest Degree Possible.--Titles and Terms of
           Address.--"Cxe la Festo".
     XXXV. "Kiom" as a Relative Adverb.--The Present Passive
           Participle.--Fractions.--Descriptive Compounds.--"La Hxinoj".
    XXXVI. The Present Passive Tense.--The Use of "De" to Express
           Agency.--The General Meaning of "De".--Word Derivation
           from Primary Adverbs.--The Suffix "-Ist-".--"Antikva
   XXXVII. The Distributive Pronoun.--The Preposition "Po".--
           Dependent Compounds.--"La Cxapelo sur la Stango".
  XXXVIII. The Distributive Adjective.--The Imperfect Passive Tense.--
           Compound Tenses of Impersonal Verbs.--Reciprocal
           Expressions.--The Suffix "-Uj-".--"Vilhelmo Tell kaj
           la Pomo".
    XXXIX. The Distributive Adverb of Place.--The Future Passive
           Tense.--Possessive Compounds.--The Time of Day.--The
           Suffix "-Obl-".--"En la Stacidomo".
       XL. The Distributive Temporal Adverb.--The Distributive Adverb
           "Cxial".--The Past Passive Participle.--The Perfect
           Passive Tense.--The Preposition "Laux".--The Suffix
           "-Em-".--"La Perdita Infano".
      XLI. The Distributive Adverb "Cxiel".--The Distributive
           Adverb "Cxiom".--The Pluperfect Passive Tense.--The
           Future Perfect Passive Tense.--The Expression of
           Material.--The Suffix "-Et-".--"La Donaco".
     XLII. The Future Passive Participle.--The Passive Periphrastic
           Future Tenses.--The Generic Article.--The Suffix
           "-Ec-".--"Sur la Vaporsxipo".
    XLIII. The Indefinite Pronoun.--Participial Nouns.--The Prefix
           "Ek-".--The Suffix "-Id-".--"La Nesto sur la
     XLIV. The Indefinite Adjective.--The Indefinite Adverb of Place.--
           Predicate Nominatives.--"La Cxevalo kaj la Sonorilo".
      XLV. The Indefinite Temporal Adverb.--The Indefinite Adverb
           "Ial".--Causative Verbs.--Emphasis by Means of "Ja".--
           "Cxe la Malnova Ponto".
     XLVI. The Indefinite Adverb "Iel".--The Indefinite Adverb "Iom".--
           The Suffix "-Ad-".--The Use of "Mem".--"Arhximedo kaj la
    XLVII. The Negative Pronoun.--The Adverbial Participle.--The Prefix
           "Re-".--"La Filozofo Arhximedo".
   XLVIII. The Negative Adjective.--The Negative Adverb of Place.--The
           Negative Temporal Adverb.--The Suffix "-Ajx-".--The Adverb
           "Jen".--"Du Artkonkursoj".
     XLIX. The Negative Adverbs "Nenial", "Neniel", "Neniom".--The
           Suffix "-Igx-".--"La Krepusko".
        L. The Pronouns ending in "-O".--Correlative Words.--The Use of
           "Ajn".--The Suffix "-Ing-".--"La Gordia Ligajxo".
       LI. The Pronoun "Ambaux".--Formations with "-Ig-" and "-Igx-".--
           Factual Conditions.--"La Monahxoj kaj la Azeno".
      LII. The Conditional Mood.--Compound Tenses of the Conditional
           Mood.--Less Vivid Conditions.--Independent Use of the
           Conditional Mood.--The Prefix "Dis-".--"Pri la
     LIII. Conditions Contrary to Fact.--The Verb "Devi".--The
           Preposition "Sen".--"La Filozofo Sokrato".
      LIV. Summary of Conditions.--Clauses of Imaginative
           Comparison.--The Use of "Al" to Express Reference.--The
           Suffix "-Estr-".--"La Ostracismo de Aristejdo".
       LV. The Imperative Mood.--Resolve and Exhortation.--Commands and
           Prohibitions.--Less Peremptory Uses of the Imperative.--The
           Use of "Mosxto".--"La Glavo de Damoklo".
      LVI. The Imperative in Subordinate Clauses.--The Preposition
           "Je".--The Suffix "-Op-".--"La Marsxado de la Dekmil Grekoj".
     LVII. Clauses Expressing Purpose.--Further Uses of the
           Accusative.--Synopsis of the Conjugation of the Verb.--The
           Suffix "-Um-".--"La Reirado de la Dekmilo".
    LVIII. Permission and Possibility.--The Prefix "Ge-".--The
           Suffix "-Acx-".--Interjections.--"Aleksandro Granda".
      LIX. The Position of Unemphatic Pronouns.--Some Intransitive
           Verbs.--The Suffix "-Er-".--The Prefixes "Bo-" and
           "Duon-".--Correspondence.--"Kelkaj Leteroj".
       LX. Some Transitive Verbs.--Elision.--The Prefix "Eks-".--The
           Prefix "Pra-".--The Suffixes "-Cxj-" and "-Nj-".--Weights and
           Measures.--The International Money System.--Abbreviations.--
           "Pri La Kamero".




                   *       *       *       *       *

                         A COMPLETE GRAMMAR OF

                   *       *       *       *       *

                               LESSON I.


1. The Esperanto alphabet contains the following letters: a, b, c, cx,
d, e, f, g, gx, h, hx, i, j, jx, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, sx, t, u, ux,
v, z.


2. The vowels of the alphabet are pronounced as follows:

"a" as in "far".

"e" as in "fiance", like "a" in "fate".

[Footnote: This "long a" sound in English frequently ends with a
vanish,--a brief terminal sound of "short i" which makes the vowel
slightly diphthongal, as in "day", "aye". Such a vanish must
not be given to any of the Esperanto vowels.]

"i" as in "machine".

"o" as in "toll", "for".

"u" as in "rude", "rural".


3. The consonants "b", "d", "f", "h", "k", "l", "m", "n", "p", "t",
"v", "z", are pronounced as in English, and the remaining eleven as

"c" like "ts" in "hats", "tsetse".

"cx" like "ch" in "chin", "much".

"g" like "g" in "go", "big".

"gx" like "g" in "gem", "j" in "jar".

"hx" is produced by expelling the breath forcibly, with the throat only
partially open.

[Footnote: As in pronouncing German and Scotch "ch", Spanish "j", Irish
"gh", Russian "x", Classical Greek Greek: "chi" etc. There are only a
few words containing this consonant.]

"j" like "y" in "yes", "beyond".

"jx" like "z" in "azure", "s" in "visual".

"r" is slightly trilled or rolled.

"s" like "s" in "see", "basis".

"sx" like "sh" in "shine", "rash", "ch" in machine".

"ux" like "w" or consonantal "u". See Diphthongs, 5.

                         NAMES OF THE LETTERS.

4. The vowels are named by their sounds, as given in (2). The names
of the consonants are "bo", "co", "cxo", "do", "fo", "go", "gxo",
"ho", "hxo", "jo", "jxo", "ko", "lo", "mo", "no", "po", "ro", "so",
"sxo", "to", "uxo", "vo", "zo". These are used in speaking of the
letters, in pronouncing them in abbreviations, as "ko to po" for
"k. t. p." (= etc.), and in spelling words, as "bo, i, ro, do, o,


5. Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels uttered as a single
sound, by one breath-impulse. The diphthongs in Esperanto contain an
i or u sound as the second element, but in order to avoid confusion
with combinations of vowels not forming diphthongs (as in "naiva", like
English "naive", etc.), they are written with "j" and "ux" instead.
Their pronunciation is as follows:

"aj" like "ai" in "aisle".

"ej" like "ei" in "vein", "ey" in "they".

"oj" like "oi" in "coin", "oy" in "boy".

"uj" like "ui" in "ruin", "u(e)y" in "gluey".

"eux" like "ayw" in "wayward", or like E(h)oo" pronounced together.

"aux" like "ou" in "out", "ow" in "owl".

                      COMBINATIONS OF CONSONANTS.

6. Each consonant, in a combination of two or more consonants, is
pronounced with its full value, whether within a word or at its
beginning. There are no silent letters.

a. Thus, both consonants are clearly sounded in the groups "kn", "kv",
"gv", "sv", in such words as "knabo", "kvin", "gvidi", "sviso".

b. The combination "kz", as in "ekzisti", "ekzameno", must not be
modified to the "gs" or "ks" represented by "x" in "exist", "execute".

c. The combination "sc", as in "escepte", "scias", is equivalent to the
combination "sts" in "laST Said", "firST Song", pronounced together
rapidly. The "s" in a word beginning with "sc" may be sounded with the
end of the preceding word, if that word ends in a vowel, as "mis-cias"
for "mi scias".

d. The "n" and "g" are pronounced separately in the combination "ng", in
such words as "lingvo", "angulo", producing the sound of "ng" heard in
"linger", not that in "singer".

e. Each of two similar letters is clearly sounded, as "interrilato",
"ellasi", like "inter-relate", "well-laid".


7. Each word contains as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs.
The division of syllables within a word is as follows:

a. A single consonant goes with the following vowel, as "pa-no",
"be-la", "a-e-ro".

b. A consonant followed by "l" or "r" (which are liquids) goes with the
"l" or "r", as in "ta-blo", "a-kra", "a-gra-bla".

c. Otherwise, the syllable division is made before the last consonant of
the group, as "sus-pek-ti", "sank-ta", "deks-tra".

d. Prefixes are separated from the words to which they are attached,
as "dis-meti", "mal-akra", and compound words are divided into their
component parts, as "cxef-urbo", "sun-ombrelo".


8. Words of more than one syllable are accented upon the syllable before
the last, as "TA-blo", "a-GRA-bla", "sus-PEK-ti".

                          WORDS FOR PRACTICE.

9. (To be pronounced aloud, and correctly accented) Afero, trairi,
najbaro, aero, hodiaux, pacienco, centono, cxielo, ecx, samideano,
treege, obei, obeu, Euxropo, gvidi, gxojo, cxiujn, justa, gxuste, jugxi,
jxauxdo, lingvo, knabo, largxa, pagi, kvieteco, ekzemplo, ellerni, fojo,
krajono, forrajdi, kuirejo, cxevalejo, sankteco, scio, nescio, edzo,
meze, duobla, sxipo, sxargxi, posxo, svingi, sklavo, palaj, sxafajxo,
atmosfero, monahxo, geometrio, lauxdi, vasta, eksplodi, sencxesa,
sensencajxo, malluma, arbaranoj, mangxo, fresxa, auxskulti, dauxri.

                               LESSON II.


10. Words which are the names of persons or things are called nouns.
The ending, or final letter, of nouns in Esperanto is "o":

   knabo = boy.                       pomo = apple.
   cxevalo = horse.                   tablo = table.

                              THE ARTICLE.

11. The definite article is "la", the, as "la knabo", the boy, "la
cxevalo", the horse, "la tablo", the table, "la pomo", the apple. In
English there is an indefinite article "a, an" for the singular, but
none for the plural. Esperanto has no indefinite article for either
singular or plural. Therefore "knabo" may mean "boy", or "a boy", "pomo"
may mean "apple" or "an apple".


12. A word used with a noun (expressed or understood) to express
a quality or characteristic is called an adjective. The ending of
adjectives in Esperanto is "a":

   bela = beautiful.                  granda = large.
   flava = yellow.                    forta = strong.

                        ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES.

13. An adjective is said to modify a noun whose quality it expresses.
When directly preceding or following its noun, it is called an
attributive adjective:

   la granda cxevalo = the large horse.
   bela birdo = a beautiful bird.
   floro flava = a yellow flower.
   forta knabo = a strong boy.

                       PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB.

14. Words which express action or condition are called verbs. When
representing an act or condition as a fact, and dealing with the present
time, they are said to be in the present tense. The ending of all
Esperanto verbs in the present tense is "-as":

   kuras = runs, is running.          brilas = shines, is shining.
   flugas = flies, is flying.         dormas = sleeps, is sleeping.

15. The person or thing whose action or condition the verb expresses is
called the subject of the verb:

   La suno brilas, the sun shines (is shining), subject: suno.
   Knabo kuras, a boy runs (is running), subject: knabo.


        (To be memorized in this and in all following lessons.)

   bela = beautiful.                  kaj = and.
   birdo = bird.                      kantas = sings, is singing.
   blanka = white.                    knabo = boy.
   bona = good.                       kuras = runs, is running.
   brilas = shines, is shining.       la = the.
   cxevalo = horse.                   luno = moon.
   dormas = sleeps, is sleeping.      marsxas = walks, is walking.
   flava = yellow.                    pomo = apple.
   floro = flower.                    suno = sun.
   flugas = flies, is flying.         tablo = table.
   forta = strong,                    violo = violet.
   granda = large.                    viro = man.

                            READING LESSON.

1. Bona viro. 2. La granda tablo. 3. Blanka floro. 4. Flava birdo. 5. La
bela birdo kantas. 6. Forta knabo kuras. 7. La bona viro marsxas. 8. La
bela cxevalo kuras. 9. La suno brilas. 10. Birdo flugas kaj knabo kuras.
11. Cxevalo blanka marsxas. 12. La bela luno brilas. 13. La knabo kantas
kaj la viro dormas. 14. Bela granda pomo. 15. La bona knabo kantas. 16.
La granda cxevalo dormas. 17. La suno brilas kaj la luno brilas. 18.
Granda forta tablo. 19. Violo flava. 20. La bona flava pomo.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. A beautiful flower. 2. A good large table. 3. A yellow violet and
a white violet. 4. The moon is-shining (shines). 5. The good boy
is-walking (walks). 6. The beautiful yellow bird is-flying (flies).
7. The strong man is-sleeping (sleeps). 8. The white bird is-singing
(sings). 9. A strong horse runs, and a man walks. 10. The sun shines,
and the boy is-singing (sings). 11. The large yellow apple. 12. An apple
large and good.

                              LESSON III.

                           THE PLURAL NUMBER.

16. The plural number of nouns, that is, the form which indicates
more than one person or thing, is made by adding "-j" to the noun, as
"viroj", men, from "viro", man; "tabloj", tables, from "tablo", table.

[Footnote: "-oj" is pronounced like "oy" in "boy". See 5.]

17. An adjective modifying a plural noun agrees with it in number, being
given the plural form by the addition of the ending -j. An adjective
modifying two or more nouns used together is of course given the plural

   bonaj viroj, good men.
   grandaj cxevaloj, large horses.
   belaj birdo kaj floro (bela birdo kaj bela floro),
      beautiful bird and (beautiful) flower.

[Footnote: "-aj" is pronounced like "ai" in "aisle". See 5.]

18. The article is invariable, that is, does not change in form when
used with plural nouns, as "la viro", the man, "la viroj", the men. The
verb is also invariable in form:

   La viroj marsxas, the men walk, the men are walking.
   La suno kaj la luno brilas, the sun and the moon are shining.
   La viro estas, the man is.
   La viroj estas, the men are.

                     PREDICATE ADJECTIVE AND NOUN.

19. When the adjective is a part of that which is told or predicated of
the subject of the verb, as when used with the verbs "to be," "to seem,"
etc., it is called a "predicate adjective":

   La birdo estas bela, the bird is beautiful.
   La knabo sxajnas bona, the boy seems good.
   La viroj estas fortaj, the men are strong.

20. A noun may also be used as part of the predicate, and is then called
a "predicate noun":

   Violoj estas floroj, violets are flowers.
   La kolombo estas birdo, the dove is a bird.

21. Predicate nouns and adjectives agree in number with the word
or words with which they are in predicate relation:

   Rozoj estas belaj, roses are beautiful.
   La knabo kaj la viro sxajnas fortaj, the boy and the man seem strong.


   alta = high, tall.                 kolombo = dove.
   arbo = tree.                       kusxas = lies, is lying, lie.
   cxambro = room.                    longa = long.
   domo = house.                      rozo = rose.
   en = in.                           rugxa = red.
   estas = is, are.                   segxo = chair.
   folio = leaf.                      sidas = sits, sit, is sitting.
   fresxa = fresh.                    sur = on.
   gxardeno = garden.                 sxajnas = seems, seem.
   kampo = field.                     verda = green.

                            READING LESSON.

1. La alta viro estas en la gxardeno. 2. Blanka cxevalo estas en la
kampo. 3. Belaj birdoj sidas sur la verda arbo. 4. La bonaj knaboj estas
en la domo. 5. La cxambroj en la bela domo estas grandaj. 6. Fresxaj
floroj kusxas sur la tablo. 7. La violoj en la kampo estas belaj. 8. La
luno kaj la suno sxajnas grandaj. 9. La kolomboj estas belaj birdoj.
10. La knaboj sxajnas fortaj. 11. Rugxaj pomoj estas sur la tablo en la
cxambro. 12. La fortaj viroj sidas sur segxoj en la longa cxambro. 13.
La arboj estas altaj kaj verdaj. 14. La kolomboj sur la arboj kantas.
15. Fortaj cxevaloj marsxas kaj kuras en la verdaj kampoj. 16. La knaboj
dormas en la granda domo. 17. Rugxaj, flavaj, kaj verdaj folioj estas en
la gxardeno. 18. Longa tablo estas en la domo. 19. Belaj birdoj flugas
kaj kantas en la kampo. 20. Fresxaj rozoj sxajnas belaj. 21. La folioj
estas verdaj kaj rugxaj.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The trees in the garden are tall and green. 2. The rooms in the house
are long. 3. The flowers on the table are red, yellow and white. 4. The
leaves are long and green. 5. The men are-sitting (sit) on chairs in the
garden. 6. In the garden are yellow roses. 7. The birds in the field are
doves. 8. The boys in the room in the house seem tall. 9. Fresh violets
are beautiful flowers. 10. The horses in the green fields seem strong.
11. Doves are-singing (sing) in the garden. 12. The men in the large
house sleep. 13. The house is long and high, and the rooms in the house
are large. 14. Red and yellow apples lie on the big table. 15. Green
leaves are on the trees in the large garden.

                               LESSON IV.

                           TRANSITIVE VERBS.

22. The verbs so far given have been "intransitive verbs", expressing a
state or an action limited to the subject, and not immediately affecting
any other person or thing, as "la knabo kuras", the boy runs. On the
other hand a "transitive verb" expresses an act of the subject upon some
person or thing; as, "la knabo trovas -- --", the boy finds -- --.

                          THE ACCUSATIVE CASE.

23. The person or thing acted upon is called the "direct object" of
a transitive verb, and is given the ending "-n". This is called the
accusative ending; and the word to which it is attached is said to be
in the "accusative case":

   La viro havas segxon, the man has a chair.
   La knabo trovas florojn, the boy finds flowers.

[Footnote: The ending "-n" follows the ending "-j", if the word to be
put in the accusative case is in the plural number.]

24. An attributive adjective modifying a noun in the accusative case is
made to agree in case, by addition of the same accusative ending "-n".
This prevents any doubt as to which of two or more nouns in a sentence
is modified by the adjective, and permits of variation in the order of
the words:

   La knabo trovas belan floron, the boy finds a beautiful flower.
   Florojn belajn la viro havas, the man has beautiful flowers.
   La viro havas grandan segxon, the man has a large chair.
   Rugxan rozon la knabo havas, the boy has a red rose.

25. A predicate adjective or noun (19) is never in the accusative case,
nor is the accusative ending ever attached to the article, which is
invariable as stated in 18.

                         THE CONJUNCTION "KAJ".

26. In the expression "both ... and ...", the conjunction "kaj" is used
for both words, being merely repeated:

   La viro kaj marsxas kaj kuras, the man both walks and runs.
   La cxevalo estas kaj granda kaj forta,
      the horse is both large and strong.
   La knabo havas kaj rozojn kaj violojn,
      the boy has both roses and violets.
   Kaj la knabo kaj la viro estas altaj,
      both the boy and the man are tall.

                           THE NEGATIVE "NE".

27. The negative word meaning "not" when forming part of a sentence,
and "no" when used as an answer to a question, is "ne". When used as
a sentence-negative, it usually immediately precedes the verb. For
emphatic negation of some other word than the verb, "ne" may precede
that word:

   Violoj ne estas rugxaj, violets are not red.
   La viroj ne sidas sur segxoj, the men are-not-sitting on chairs.
   La kolombo kantas, ne flugas, the dove is-singing, not flying.
   La domo estas blanka, ne verda, the house is white, not green.


   apud = near, in the vicinity of.   koloro = color.
   benko = bench.                     largxa = wide, broad.
   brancxo = branch.                  mangxas = eat, eats.
   diversa = various.                 mola = soft.
   felicxa = happy.                   nigra = black.
   frukto = fruit.                    ne = not, no.
   havas = have, has.                 rompas = break, breaks.
   herbo = grass.                     sed = but.
   ili = they.                        trovas = find, finds.
   kolektas = gather, collect.        vidas = see, sees.

                            READING LESSON.

1. La knaboj ne estas en la cxambro en la blanka domo. 2. Ili estas
en la granda gxardeno. 3. La gxardeno sxajnas kaj longa kaj largxa.
4. La felicxaj knaboj vidas la belan gxardenon. 5. Ili vidas florojn
apud alta arbo. 6. La floroj havas diversajn kolorojn. 7. La knaboj
kolektas kaj rugxajn kaj flavajn florojn. 8. Sed ili ne trovas fruktojn
en la gxardeno. 9. Florojn blankajn ili ne vidas. 10. La alta arbo
havas verdajn foliojn sur la brancxoj. 11. La knaboj rompas brancxon,
kaj kolektas la fruktojn. 12. Ili vidas florojn sur la brancxoj, sed
la florojn ili ne kolektas. 13. La knaboj ne sidas sur benkoj en la
gxardeno, sed kusxas sur la mola herbo. 14. La kolomboj sidas sur la
arboj, kaj ili estas felicxaj. 15. La knaboj vidas la belajn birdojn.
16. Fortaj nigraj cxevaloj mangxas la herbon en la kampo. 17. La knaboj
vidas la cxevalojn, sed la cxevaloj ne vidas la knabojn. 18. La cxevaloj
ne dormas, ili mangxas. 19. La fresxa herbo estas verda kaj mola. 20.
Felicxaj estas kaj la knaboj kaj la cxevaloj. 21. La pomo estas bona

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Green leaves are on the trees. 2. The boys break branches and gather
the apples. 3. They are near the tall tree in the garden. 4. They find
leaves on the tree, but they do not see the fruit. 5. The house is long,
broad and high. 6. The rooms in the house are both long and wide. 7. The
men have strong black horses. 8. The horses eat the fresh green grass in
the field. 9. The men sit on benches in the garden. 10. The boys do not
sleep, but they lie on the soft grass. 11. They see both the birds and
the flowers, and they seem happy. 12. The flowers have various colors,
but the grass is green. 13. The doves are not sitting on the tree, they
are flying near the trees. 14. Beautiful red roses are lying on the
table in the house. 15. The large red apples are near the yellow roses.

                               LESSON V.


28. The infinitive is a form of the verb which expresses merely the
general idea of the action or condition indicated, and has some of the
characteristics of a noun. The ending of the infinitive is "-i", as
"kuri", to run, "esti", to be, "havi", to have.

29. An infinitive used to complete the meaning of another verb, serving
as a direct object to a transitive verb, is called a "complementary
infinitive". If the complementary infinitive is from a transitive verb,
it may itself have a direct object:

   La knabo volas kuri, the boy wishes to run.
   Birdoj sxatas kanti, birds like to sing.
   La knabo volas havi cxevalon, the boy wishes to have a horse.
   Ili volas trovi florojn, they wish to find flowers.


30. An interrogative sentence is one which asks a question. Unless some
directly interrogative word (as "who," "when," "why," etc.) is used,
the sentence is rendered interrogative by use of the word "cxu". This
interrogative particle is placed at the beginning of a sentence, the
words of which are left in the same order as for a statement. Since
there is no inversion of order, there is no necessity for a word like
English "do" or "does," to introduce the verb:

   Cxu la knabo estas bona? Is the boy good?
   Cxu ili havas florojn? Have they flowers?
   Cxu la kolomboj kantas? Do the doves sing? (Are the doves singing?)

                         THE CONJUNCTION "NEK".

31. In the expression "neither ... nor ...", the conjunction "nek"
is used for both words. Since an adjective modifier of two or more
words connected by "nek" must necessarily modify them separately,
the adjective remains in the singular number:

   Ili nek marsxas nek kuras, they neither walk nor run.
   La viro havas nek domon nek gxardenon,
      the man has neither a house nor a garden.
   Nek la rozo nek la violo estas verda,
      neither the rose nor the violet is green.


        (Verbs will hereafter be quoted in the infinitive form.)

   bruna = brown.                     matura = ripe.
   cxerizo = cherry.                  Mario = Mary.
   cxu = (30).                        nek = neither, nor.
   dolcxa = sweet.                    persiko = peach.
   gusto = taste.                     jes = yes.
   gxi = it.                          preferi = to prefer.
   Gertrude = Gertrude.               sxati = to like.
   knabino = girl.                    voli = to wish.

                            READING LESSON.

1. Cxu persiko estas rugxa? 2. Jes, gxi estas kaj rugxa kaj dolcxa. 3.
Cxu cxerizoj estas brunaj? 4. Ne, ili estas nek brunaj nek nigraj, sed
flavaj. 5. Cxu la pomo estas frukto? Jes, gxi estas bona frukto. 6.
Cxu la viro kaj la knabo havas pomojn? 7. Ne, ili havas nek pomojn nek
persikojn. 8. Cxu Mario havas la maturan frukton? 9. Mario kaj Gertrudo
havas la frukton. 10. Ili estas en la domo, kaj mangxas la maturan
frukton. 11. La persikoj havas dolcxan guston. 12. La knabinoj volas
havi florojn, sed la knaboj preferas kolekti diversajn fruktojn. 13. Ili
volas trovi maturajn cxerizojn kaj flavajn persikojn. 14. La cxerizoj
havas belan rugxan koloron. 15. La persikoj sxajnas molaj kaj bonaj. 16.
Mario rompas brancxon, kaj vidas cxerizojn sur la brancxoj. 17. Gertrudo
estas felicxa, kaj volas havi la belan frukton. 18. Gertrudo estas alta,
bela knabino. 19. Mario sxatas cxerizojn. 20. La knaboj kaj knabinoj
sidas sur la verda herbo, kaj mangxas la cxerizojn. 21. Ili ne volas
mangxi pomojn, ili preferas la dolcxajn cxerizojn. 22. La folioj apud la
cxerizoj estas nek largxaj nek longaj.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Have the girls beautiful flowers? 2. No, they have fresh fruit. 3.
The boys do not wish to gather flowers. 4. They prefer to break the
branches, and find the sweet cherries. 5. Gertrude wishes to eat apples,
but Mary has neither apples nor peaches. 6. Do the girls like to sit in
the house and eat fruit? 7. Yes, they like to sit in the house, but they
prefer to walk in the field. 8. Are ripe peaches brown? 9. No, they are
red and yellow. 10. Has the peach a sweet taste? 11. Do the girls see
the beautiful black horses in the fields? 12. Yes, they see the horses,
but the horses seem not to see the girls. 13. Mary sits on the soft
green grass, and eats ripe fruit.

                               LESSON VI.

                           PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

32. Words which stand in the place of nouns, as "you," "he," "who,"
"which," are called "pronouns". Pronouns referring to the person
speaking ("I", "we"), the person addressed ("you", "thou"), or the
person or thing spoken of ("he", "she", "it", "they"), are called
"personal pronouns". They are considered singular or plural, according
to whether they refer to one or more persons. Since the meaning of such
pronouns indicates the number, no plural ending is ever attached to
them. The personal pronouns are:

                         Singular.            Plural.

    First person:      mi, I (me).          ni, we (us).

   Second person:      vi, you.             vi, you.

                       li, he (him).
    Third person:      sxi, she (her).      ili, they (them).
                       gxi, it.

[Footnote: There is another pronoun "ci" (thou), for the second person
singular, used in solemn style, as in the Bible, in poetry, and also
for intimate or familiar address when desired, like German "du", French
"tu", etc.]

                        AGREEMENT WITH PRONOUNS.

33. Nouns in predicate relation with pronouns, or adjectives modifying
such pronouns, are made to agree with them in number:

   Ni estas bonaj kaj felicxaj, we are good and happy.
   Rozoj estas floroj, ill ne estas fruktoj,
      roses are flowers, they are not fruits.
   Gertrudo, vi estas bona, Gertrude, you are good.
   Knabinoj, cxu vi estas felicxaj? Girls, are you happy?

                        CONJUGATION OF THE VERB.

34. Any pronoun may serve as the subject of a verb. The combination
of the verb with each of the personal pronouns in succession for its
subject, is called the "conjugation" of the verb. Following is the
conjugation of the present tense of "esti", and of "vidi":

   mi estas = I am.                   mi vidas = I see.
   vi estas = you are.                vi vidas = you see.
   li (sxi, gxi) estas =              li (sxi, gxi) vidas :
      he (she, it) is.                   he (she, it) sees.
   ni estas = we are.                 ni vidas = we see.
   vi estas = you (plural) are.       vi vidas = you (plural) see.
   ili estas = they are.              ili vidas = they see.


   al = to, toward.                                hodiaux = today.
   Arturo = Arthur.                                kudri = to sew.
   aux = or (aux ... aux ..., either ... or ...)   Roberto = Robert.
   cxar = because.                                 skui = to shake.
   doni = to give.                                 stari = to stand.
   fali = to fall.                                 sub = under, beneath.
   fenestro = window.                              virino = woman.

                            READING LESSON.

1. Knaboj, cxu vi volas sidi en la domo, aux en la gxardeno? 2. Ni
preferas sidi hodiaux en la gxardeno, sub la granda arbo. 3. Cxu vi
havas pomojn, aux cxerizojn? 4. Ni havas nek pomojn nek cxerizojn,
sed ni havas dolcxajn persikojn. 5. Arturo donas al vi la maturajn
persikojn, cxar li sxatas kolekti frukton. 6. Arturo, cxu vi rompas la
brancxojn? 7. Ne, sed mi skuas brancxon, kaj la persikoj falas. 8. Mi
staras sub la arbo, kaj kolektas la dolcxan frukton. 9. La frukton mi
donas al Mario kaj Gertrudo. 10. Mi volas doni persikon al Heleno, sed
hodiaux sxi estas en la domo. 11. Sxi sidas apud la fenestro kaj kudras.
12. Sxi preferas kudri, kaj volas nek marsxi nek sidi en la gxardeno.
13. Kaj sxi kaj la virino apud sxi volas kudri hodiaux. 14. Ili estas
felicxaj, cxar ili vidas la birdojn en la arbo apud la fenestro. 15. La
birdoj estas kolomboj, kaj sidas sur la arbo. 16. Sub la arboj en la
kampo staras cxevaloj, kaj ili mangxas la verdan molan herbon. 17. Ni
donas pomojn al ili, cxar ili sxatas pomojn. 18. Ni estas felicxaj, cxar
ni havas belajn persikojn maturajn kaj bonajn. 19. Roberto, vi estas
alta, sed vi, knabinoj, ne estas altaj.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Does Arthur break the branch and gather the apples? 2. No, he shakes
the branch, and the apples fall. 3. They are ripe and sweet. 4. Robert,
do you wish to stand beneath the tree? 5. No, I do not wish to stand
under it, but near it. 6. I wish to give both the peaches and the apples
to the woman. 7. She is sitting in the house, near the window. 8. Mary
is sitting in (on) a chair near her. 9. Both Mary and the woman are
sewing. 10. They prefer to sew, and do not wish to walk in the garden
to-day. 11. They are happy because they like to sew. 12. They do not
wish to gather flowers, or walk, or see the birds. 13. They have neither
apples nor peaches, but they do not wish to eat. 14. They give the fruit
to the boys and girls.

                              LESSON VII.

                            THE PAST TENSE.

35. The past tense of the verb expresses an action which took place in
past time, or a condition which existed in past time. The ending of
this tense is "-is", as "kuris", ran, "flugis", flew, "brilis", shone.
The conjugation of "esti" and also of "vidi" in the past tense is as

   mi estis = I was.                  mi vidis = I saw.
   vi estis = you were.               vi vidis = you saw.
   li (sxi, gxi) estis =              li (sxi, gxi) vidis :
      he (she, it) was.                  he (she, it) saw.
   ni estis = we were.                ni vidis = we saw.
   vi estis = you (plural) were.      vi vidis = you (plural) saw.
   ili estis = they were.             ili vidis = they saw.


36. A preposition is a word like "in," "on," placed before a noun or
pronoun to indicate some relation between this and another word. The
preposition is said to "govern" the noun or pronoun, which is called its
"complement". In English, the complement of a preposition seems to be
put in the accusative case if it is a pronoun, but to remain unchanged
in form if it is a noun. In Esperanto the preposition does not affect
the form of the word governed, which remains in the nominative case:

   La arbo estas en la gxardeno, the tree is in the garden.
   Bonaj pomoj estas sur gxi, good apples are on it.
   Mi donis cxerizojn al li, I gave cherries to him.
   La knabo estas apud mi, the boy is near me.
   Sub la arbo staris cxevalo, under the tree stood a horse.


37. For use as the object of a verb, any pronoun may be put in the
accusative case by addition of the accusative ending "-n" (23):

   La viro vidis vin kaj min, the man saw you and me.
   Li vidis ilin kaj nin, he saw them and us.
   Mi vidis nek lin nek sxin, I saw neither him nor her.
   Ni volas havi gxin, we wish to have it.


   agrabla = pleasant, agreeable.     luma = light (not dark).
   bildo = picture.                   muro = wall.
   blua = blue.                       nun = now.
   danki = to thank.                  planko = floor.
   de = from.                         pordo = door.
   diri = to say.                     rigardi = to look (at).
   infano = child.                    tapisxo = carpet.
   interesa = interesting.            tra = through.

                            READING LESSON.

1. Hodiaux la knaboj kaj knabinoj estas en la granda domo. 2. Ili staras
apud la tablo, en agrabla luma cxambro. 3. Gxi havas altajn largxajn
fenestrojn. 4. Sub la tablo kaj segxoj, mola tapisxo kusxas sur la
planko. 5. La tapisxo havas belajn kolorojn, rugxan, bluan, flavan, kaj
verdan. 6. Virino marsxis tra la pordo, kaj staris apud la tablo. 7. Sxi
havis interesajn bildojn, kaj donis ilin al la knaboj kaj la knabinoj.
8. Sxi diris "Cxu vi volas rigardi la bildojn?" 9. "Jes, ni dankas
vin," diris la infanoj, kaj sxi donis al ili la bildojn. 10. Granda
bildo falis de la tablo, sed Arturo nun havas gxin. 11. Li donas gxin
al Mario, sxi dankas lin, kaj donas gxin al Roberto. 12. Ili volis doni
gxin al Gertrudo, sed sxi diris "Ne, mi dankas vin, mi ne sxatas rigardi
bildojn." 13. Sxi marsxis de la tablo al la fenestro kaj diris "Mi
preferas kudri." 14. Sxi volis sidi en granda segxo apud la fenestro.
15. La virino rigardis sxin kaj diris "Mi donis la bildojn al vi, knaboj
kaj knabinoj," cxar ili estas interesaj bildoj. 16. Gertrudo diris "Vi
estas bona al ni, sed mi volas sidi apud la pordo aux la fenestro. 17.
Mi kolektis dolcxajn violojn en la gxardeno, kaj nun mi volas rigardi la
dolcxajn florojn, kaj kudri."

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Do the boys and girls wish to be good? 2. They gathered fresh flowers
and gave them to the woman. 3. The happy children were in the garden,
but now they are in the house. 4. The rooms in the house are light,
because they have large wide windows. 5. The doors in the room are
wide and high. 6. The carpets on the floor seem soft, and have various
beautiful colors. 7. A large strong table stands near the door. 8.
We can sit near the table and look through the windows. 9. Gertrude
is-looking-at the various pictures. 10. She looks-at them, and seems
to be happy. 11. She gave a picture to me and I thanked her. 12. Helen
walked near the table and shook it. 13. Arthur did not see the pictures
because they were lying on the floor. 14. He looked-at the pictures on
the wall, but they are neither interesting nor beautiful. 15. Robert
looked through the window, and saw us in the pleasant garden.

                              LESSON VIII.

                          REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.

38. A pronoun which refers to the same person or thing as the subject
of the verb in the sentence, but is used in some other relation than
subject of that verb, is said to be used "reflexively", or to be a
"reflexive pronoun".

39. The first and second personal pronouns, "mi", "ni", and "vi",
("ci") are used for the reflexive pronouns of the first and second
persons. There can be no ambiguity, since words such as "me, myself,
us, ourselves," can refer to no one else than the person or persons
speaking; while words such as "you, yourself, yourselves (thee,
thyself)," can refer to no one else than the person or persons

   Mi vidas min, I see myself.
   Mi diris al mi, I said to myself.
   Ni havas tapisxon sub ni, we have a carpet under us.
   Ni amuzis nin, we amused ourselves.
   (Ci trovas domon apud ci, thou findest a house near thee.)
   Vi diras al vi, you say to yourself (yourselves).
   Vi amuzas vin, you amuse yourself (yourselves).

40. When the verb is in the third person, a pronoun of the third person,
used otherwise than as the subject, might or might not refer to the
subject of that verb. For example, "He sees a bird near him," may mean
that the subject sees a bird near himself, or near another person.
If such a pronoun of the third person is intended to refer to the
subject of the verb, Esperanto uses a special reflexive pronoun "si"
(accusative "sin"), which means "him(self)", "her(self)", "it(self)",
"them(selves)", according to the gender and number of the verb:

   Li amuzas sin, he amuses himself.
   Arturo vidis birdon apud si, Arthur saw a bird near him(self).
   Sxi trovas floron apud si, she finds a flower near her(self).
   Mario trovis sin sur blua tapisxo,
      Mary found herself on a blue carpet.
   La tapisxo havas diversajn kolorojn en si,
      the carpet has various colors in it(self).
   La birdo kasxas sin sub la folioj,
      the bird hides itself under the leaves.
   Ili amuzas sin, they amuse themselves.
   La viroj havas segxojn apud si,
      the men have chairs near them(selves).
   La virinoj trovas florojn apud si,
      the women find flowers near them(selves).
   La arboj havas cxerizojn sur si,
      the trees have cherries on them(selves).
   Sub si la infanoj trovis molan tapisxon,
      under them(selves) the children found a soft carpet.

[Footnote: From the very fact that "si" always refers to the subject of
the verb, it is evident that "si" can never itself be used as subject or
part of the subject of the verb.]

                            REFLEXIVE VERBS.

41. A verb having a reflexive pronoun for its direct object is sometimes
called a "reflexive verb", from the fact that some languages have had or
still have a special reflexive or middle form of the verb, to express an
act of the subject on or for itself, or they have certain verbs whose
use is chiefly or exclusively reflexive. The conjugation of a verb
reflexively is therefore as follows:

   mi amuzas min (mi min amuzas), I amuse myself.
   vi amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas), you amuse yourself.
   li (sxi, gxi) amuzas sin (sin amuzas),
      he (she, it) amuses him (her, it)self.
   ni amuzas nin (ni nin amuzas), we amuse ourselves.
   vi amuzas vin (vi vin amuzas), you amuse yourselves.
   ili amuzas sin (ili sin amuzas), they amuse themselves.

[Footnote: As Greek "etraponto", they turned themselves; Latin
"exerceor", I exercise myself, "vescor", I eat (I feed myself); German
"ich huete mich", I beware (I guard myself); Spanish "me alegro", or
"alegrome", I rejoice (I gladden myself); French "il s'arrete", he halts
(he stops himself).]


   Alfredo = Alfred.                  komenci = to begin.
   amuzi = to amuse.                  lauxdi = to praise.
   antaux = before, in front of.      legi = to read.
   aparteni = to belong.              libro = book.
   griza = gray.                      perdi = to lose.
   iri = to go.                       skatolo = small box or case.
   Johano = John.                     strato = street.
   kasxi = to hide, to conceal.       si = himself, etc. (40).

                            READING LESSON.

1. Johano kaj Alfredo amuzis sin en la gxardeno. 2. Johano kasxis sin,
kaj Alfredo trovis Johanon. 3. Alfredo sin kasxis en alta arbo, kaj
Johano trovis Alberton. 4. Mario kaj Gertrudo sin kasxis apud la floroj,
kaj la knaboj trovis la knabinojn. 5. La knabinoj ne volas perdi sin en
la agrabla kampo. 6. Johano komencis amuzi sin en luma cxambro en la
domo. 7. La muro havas interesajn bildojn sur si. 8. Tra la fenestro
antaux si Johano rigardas la virojn kaj la virinojn sur la strato. 9.
Li havas molan grizan tapisxon sub si, kaj ne volas segxon. 10. Li kaj
Alfredo volis iri al la strato kaj amuzi sin. 11. Ili marsxis al la
pordo, kaj trovis rugxan skatolon antaux si. 12. En la skatolo estis
libro, kaj Johano diris al si "La libro ne apartenas al mi." 13. Li
diris al Alfredo "Cxar ni trovis gxin, mi volas legi la libron." 14.
Virino antaux pordo komencis rigardi la knabojn, kaj ili diris al sxi
"Cxu la libro apartenas al vi? Ni trovis gxin en skatolo." 15. La virino
diris "Jes, ni perdis gxin, kaj mi dankas vin, cxar vi donas al mi la
skatolon kaj la libron." 16. Sxi iris al la strato, kaj la knaboj iris
al la domo.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The book in the gray box does not belong to me. 2. I found it in
front of me, near the door. 3. You began to praise yourselves, but I do
not praise myself. 4. They hid themselves, and I stood near them. 5. The
birds sit on the tree, because it has ripe cherries on it. 6. Alfred
amused himself on the street, but we like to amuse ourselves in the
house. 7. The trees have good fruit on them. 8. She found herself in a
beautiful light room. 9. The carpet on the floor had various colors in
it, and the high wall had pictures on it. 10. The pictures had boys and
girls in them. 11. The book belongs to her, but it fell from the box.
12. The table has red and blue and yellow flowers on it. 13. Did you see
the doves near the flowers in front of (before) you? 14. The birds saw
the fruit on the tree in front of them, and flew to the branches. 15. I
sat on the bench in the garden, and began to read an interesting book.
16. They hid themselves in the leaves and began to sing. 17. The child
is in a pleasant room.

                               LESSON IX.


42. Since there is a special reflexive pronoun of the third person, the
third personal pronouns, "li", "sxi", "gxi", "ili", when used otherwise
than as subjects, never refer to the subject of the verb, but always to
some other person or thing:

   La knabo lauxdas lin, the boy praises him (another person).
   Sxi donas pomojn al sxi, she gives apples to her (to another person).
   La birdo vidis gxin, the bird saw it (something else than the bird).
   La knaboj kasxis ilin, the boys hid them (other persons or things).
   Ili trovis ilin apud si,
      they found them (other persons or things) near them(selves).
   La birdoj flugis al ili, the birds flew to them.

                         POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES.

43. Words like "my," "his," "your," which indicate ownership or some
possessive relation, are called "possessive adjectives". Possessive
adjectives are formed from the personal pronouns by adding the adjective
ending "-a", as "mia", my, "via", your ("cia", thy), "lia", his, "sxia",
her, "gxia", its, "nia", our, "via", your (plural), "ilia", their. The
limitation in the use of the third personal pronouns ("42") is also true
of the adjectives derived from them:

   Mia domo kaj miaj gxardenoj estas grandaj,
      my house and my gardens are large.
   Johano sidas sur via segxo, John is sitting in your chair.
   Li havas lian cxevalon, he has his (another person's) horse.
   Cxu vi legis sxiajn librojn? Did you read her books?

[Footnote: Sometimes these words are called possessive pronouns,
although really they are not pronouns at all, but pronominal adjectives
with a possessive meaning.]

44. Reflexive possessive adjectives, like the reflexive pronoun, refer
to the subject of the verb in the sentence. For the first and second
persons, they are the same as the personal possessive adjectives. The
reflexive possessive adjective of the third person is "sia", his, her,
its, their, formed by adding the ending "-a" to the reflexive pronoun

   Mi havas miajn librojn sur mia tablo, I have my books on my table.
   Johano perdis siajn librojn, John lost his (John's) books.
   Mario estas en sia cxambro, Mary is in her room.
   La birdoj flugis al sia arbo, the birds flew to their tree.


45. Possessive adjectives may be used predicatively, as "the book is
mine," or may modify some word or words not expressed, as "mine are
large." Instead of having special forms, like English "mine", "yours",
"hers", etc., Esperanto uses the regular possessive adjectives preceded
by the article:

   La granda libro estas la mia, the large book is mine.
   La via estas granda, la miaj estas belaj,
      yours is large, mine are beautiful.
   Ili havas la sian, sed ne la lian, they have theirs, but not his.
   La iliaj sxajnas esti bonaj, theirs seem to be good.


   diro = saying, remark.             mangxo = meal.
   gxis = as far as, up to, down to.  nesto = nest.
   hieraux = yesterday.               pasero = sparrow.
   juna = young.                      patro = father.
   kapti = to catch, to seize.        post, after, behind.
   kato = cat.                        surprizi = to surprise.
   kolera = angry.                    teni = to hold, to keep.
   lavi = to wash.                    vizagxo = face.

                            READING LESSON.

1. Hieraux mi perdis mian grizan katon. 2. Ilia kato kaptis nian
birdon. 3. Via kolera diro surprizis mian patron. 4. Cxu la granda
kampo apartenas al sxia patro? 5. Ne, gxi ne estas la lia. 6. La lia
estas bela, sed mi preferas la mian. 7. Cxu vi sxatas vian libron aux
la ilian? 8. Li havas nek siajn cxevalojn nek la iliajn. 9. La knabinoj
sxajnas esti koleraj. 10. Ili komencis legi siajn librojn. 11. La viro
kaptis kaj tenis siajn cxevalojn, sed li ne trovis iliajn cxevalojn.
12. Sxia libro kusxas sur la planko, post sxia segxo. 13. Sxi ne trovis
ilian libron, sed la junaj infanoj trovis la nian.

                         LA KATO KAJ LA PASERO.

Griza kato iris de la domo gxis la strato. Gxi vidis paseron antaux si,
kaj volis mangxi gxin. La kato staris post granda arbo, kaj kaptis la
paseron. La pasero diris "Bona kato lavas sin antaux sia mangxo, sed vi
ne lavis vian vizagxon." La interesa diro surprizis la katon. La kato
ne tenis la paseron, sed komencis lavi sian vizagxon. La pasero flugis
de la kato gxis la arbo. La kolera kato diris "Mi perdis mian mangxon,
cxar mi komencis lavi min antaux la mangxo!" Nun la katoj ne lavas sin
antaux la mangxoj. Ili havas siajn mangxojn, kaj post la mangxoj ili
lavas la vizagxojn. La paseroj ne surprizas ilin nun, sed ili tenas la
paserojn. La katoj estas felicxaj, sed la paseroj ne estas felicxaj. La
junaj paseroj volas flugi al la nestoj en la arboj.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The boys are not in their (own) house, but they are in his. 2 Is the
large beautiful house yours? 3. The woman walked through the door of
their house, as far as her room. 4. The room has interesting pictures on
its walls. 5. We praised their flowers yesterday, and they gave them to
us. 6. Their books are in their (the books') box. 7. They are on their
(the boys') table. 8. The gray cat was angry because it did not hold the
bird. 9. The sparrow surprised it, and it commenced to wash its face.
10. The sparrow wished to fly as far as the tall tree, but the cat held
it. 11. The sparrow said "A good cat washes its face, but you are not a
good cat." 12. The sparrow was angry because the cat seized it and held
it. 13. The bird did not lose its meal, but the angry cat lost its meal.
14. Do you see his cat or hers? 15. I see both his and hers, but ours
is not in our garden. 16. My father is a tall strong man. 17. I like to
look at him. 18. The children saw the young birds in the nest.

                               LESSON X.

                      THE ACCUSATIVE OF DIRECTION.

46. When the verb in a sentence expresses motion, the word indicating
the place, person or thing toward which the motion is directed is given
the accusative ending. This is also true if the word is the complement
of any preposition which does not itself sufficiently indicate motion
in a certain direction. (The prepositions "al", to, toward, "gxis",
as far as, "tra", through, express motion in the direction of their
complements, and could not well be used except in a sentence whose verb
expresses motion. Consequently the accusative is not used after any of
these three):

   Li iris gxardenon, he went to the garden ("gardenward").
   La viro iros Bostonon, the man will go to Boston ("Bostonward").

[Footnote: Cf. English "he went home," "he went homeward," etc.]

   Li estis en la gxardeno, kaj kuris en la domon,
      he was in the garden and ran into the house.
   Gxi ne estas sur la tablo, gxi falis sur la plankon,
      it is not on the table, it fell upon the floor.
   Ili falis sub la tablon gxis la planko,
      they fell under the table as far as the floor
      (direction expressed by whole prepositional phrase).
   Mi iris tra la domo en mian cxambron,
      I went through the house into my room.


47. In many sentences where the possessor is already sufficiently
indicated, English nevertheless uses a possessive adjective, as in "I
wash my face," "he shakes his head," but on the other hand omits it
entirely with certain words indicating relationship, as in "Brother gave
it to me," etc. In both cases Esperanto uses the article instead of the
possessive adjective, unless the fact of possession is to be emphasized:

   Mi lavas la vizagxon, I wash my face.
   Li skuas la kapon, he shakes his head.
   La patro estas alta, Father is tall.
   Mi donis gxin al la patro, I gave it to Father.


48. English often uses the preposition "of" between two words where
no idea of possession really exists, as "the city of Boston." Since
nouns used in apposition refer to the same thing, and are in the same
grammatical construction, Esperanto does not use a preposition:

   La urbo Bostono estas granda, the city (of) Boston is large.
   Mia amiko Johano estas alta, my friend John is tall.
   Cxu vi ne konas min, vian amikon? do you not know me, your friend?


   arabo = arab.                      meti = to put, to place.
   baldaux = soon.                    nazo = nose.
   Bostono = Boston.                  nur = only, merely.
   frato = brother.                   pusxi = to push.
   kamelo = camel.                    trans = across.
   kapo = head.                       tuta = whole, entire, all.
   kolo = neck.                       urbo = city.
   korpo = body.                      varma = warm.

                        LA ARABO KAJ LA KAMELO.

Arabo sidis en sia domo en la urbo. Apud domo trans la strato li vidis
kamelon. La kamelo iris trans la straton gxis la pordo, kaj diris al la
arabo, "Frato, mi ne estas varma, mi volas meti nur la nazon en vian
varman domon." La arabo skuis la kapon, sed la kamelo metis la nazon tra
la pordo en la cxambron. La kamelo komencis pusxi sian tutan vizagxon
en la domon. Baldaux li havis la kapon gxis la kolo en la domo. Post la
kapo iris la kolo en gxin, kaj baldaux la tuta korpo estis en la domo.
La arabo estis kolera, cxar li ne volis havi tutan kamelon en sia domo.
Li kuris al la kamelo, kaptis lin, tenis lin, kaj diris, "Frato, vi
volis meti nur la nazon en mian domon. La cxambro ne estas granda sed
gxi estas la mia, kaj mi preferas sidi en gxi." "Via diro estas bona,"
diris la kamelo, "via domo ne estas granda, sed gxi estas varma, kaj mi
sxatas stari en gxi. Mi preferas stari kaj kusxi en gxi, kaj mi donos
al vi mian arbon trans la strato. Cxu vi ne volas iri sub la arbon?"
Kaj la kamelo pusxis la arabon de lia domo en la straton de la urbo. La
kamelo nun trovis sin en varma cxambro, sed la juna arabo staris trans
la strato kaj ne estis varma.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The cat ran across the street. 2. Across the street it found a
sparrow. 3. It caught the bird, but began to wash its face, and the
sparrow flew to the nest. 4. I went into the garden as far as the large
tree. 5. I did not hold my book, and it fell upon the floor. 6. It began
to fall under the table, but I seized it. 7. My brother pushed the
books into their box, and put it on the table. 8. We went to the city
of Boston yesterday and into a beautiful house. 9. The arab shook his
head and said, "No." 10. But the camel commenced to go through the door.
11. His remark did not seem to surprise the camel. 12. The camel pushed
its head and neck, and soon its whole body into the warm house. 13. It
wished to put merely its nose into it. 14. The arab was angry, because
it pushed itself into his house. 15. He said, "Brother, the house is
mine, and I do not wish to have you in it." 16. But soon after the
remark, the whole camel was in the house. 17. He pushed the young arab
into the street. 18. He went across the street and stood upon the grass
under a tree.

                               LESSON XI.

                       POSSESSIVE CASE OF NOUNS.

49. The preposition "de" is used to express possession or connection:

   La muroj de la domo, the walls of the house.
   La koloroj de la floroj, the colors of the flowers.
   La libro de la knabo, the book of the boy (the boy's book).
   Brancxo de la arbo, a branch of the tree.
   La gxardeno de la viroj, the garden of the men (the men's garden).

                           IMPERSONAL VERBS.

50. Verbs with an impersonal or indeterminate subject, as "it rains,"
"it is snowing," are called impersonal, because there is no actual
subject, the word "it" serving merely as an introductory particle. No
such particle is used with impersonal verbs in Esperanto:

   Pluvas, it rains, it is raining.
   Negxis hieraux, it snowed yesterday.


51. When the verb in a sentence precedes its subject, English often uses
an introductory particle, such as "there," "it." In Esperanto no such
particles are needed:

   Estas floroj sur la tablo, there are flowers on the table.
   Estis Johano, ne Alfredo, en la gxardeno,
      it was John, not Alfred, in the garden.
   Estas domo en la kampo, there is a house in the field.
   Estis mi, it was I.

                       COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.

52. Words like "aux", "kaj", "nek", "sed", which join words,
word-groups, or sentences together are conjunctions. All the
conjunctions given so far connect words, phrases, or sentences of
similar rank or kind. These are called coordinating conjunctions,
and the words, phrases, or sentences connected by them are said
to be coordinate:

   Cxu vi marsxas aux kuras?
   ("Aux" connects the verbs.)

   Sxi iris, kaj ni estis felicxaj.
   ("Kaj" connects the sentences.)

   Nek vi nek mi vidis gxin.
   (The second "nek" connects the pronouns,
   the first being introductory and adverbial.)

   Aux li aux sxi perdis la libron.
   (The second "aux" connects the pronouns,
   the first being introductory and adverbial.)

   Gxi falis sur la segxon, sed ne sur la plankon.
   ("Sed" connects the phrases.)

   Li ne sxatis gxin. Tamen li tenis gxin.
   ("Tamen" connects the sentences.)

[Footnote: A phrase is a word-group forming an expression, but not
containing a verb, as "through the house," "of the man," "before me,"

[Footnote: Coordinating conjunctions may be further classified according
to their meaning: "Aux" is disjunctive, connecting alternates, and
expressing separation. "Kaj" is copulative, expressing union. "Nek"
is disjunctive, expressing separation and also negation. "Sed" is
adversative, expressing opposition, contrast, or modification of a
previous statement. "Tamen" is adversative, affirming something in spite
of a previous objection or concession. "Do," "so, then, consequently,"
is argumentative, expressing a logical inference or result in a somewhat
conversational manner.]


   akvo = water.                      porti = to carry.
   amiko = friend.                    ricxa = rich, wealthy.
   ankaux = also.                     sablo = sand.
   bezoni = to need.                  sako = sack, bag.
   dezerto = desert.                  seka = dry.
   fidela = faithful.                 tamen = nevertheless.
   mono = money.                      trinki = to drink.
   negxi = to snow.                   veni = to come.
   pluvi = to rain.                   vojo = road, way.

                        LA ARABO EN LA DEZERTO.

Arabo iris trans grandan sekan dezerton. Kamelo, lia fidela amiko,
portis lin. La kamelo ankaux portis belajn tapisxojn, cxar la arabo
estis ricxa viro. La arabo havis ne nur tapisxojn, sed ankaux sakojn. En
la sakoj estis akvo, cxar en la dezerto nek pluvas nek negxas. La viro
trinkis akvon, kaj ankaux donis akvon al sia kamelo. La kamelo marsxis
kaj marsxis, sed ne venis al la domo de la arabo, cxar ili perdis la
vojon. La suno brilis, kaj la sablo de la dezerto sxajnis varma. La
arabo ne trovis la vojon, kaj baldaux li ne havis akvon. Tamen la kamelo
marsxis kaj marsxis, kaj baldaux la arabo vidis sakon antaux si, sur la
seka sablo. Li estis felicxa kaj diris al si "Cxu estas akvo en gxi?
Mi volas trinki, kaj volas doni akvon al mia fidela kamelo." Li ankaux
volis lavi la tutan vizagxon en la akvo, cxar li estis varma. Post sia
diro li kaptis la sakon, kaj komencis rigardi en gxin. Li metis la nazon
en gxin, sed ne trovis akvon en la sako. Nek li nek lia fidela kamelo
havis akvon, cxar estis nur mono en la sako. La arabo estis kolera, cxar
li ne volis monon, li bezonis akvon. Li havis monon en sia domo en la
urbo, kaj volis trovi akvon. Cxu li tamen metis la sakon trans la kolon
de sia kamelo? Ne, li ne volis meti gxin sur sian kamelon, cxar li estis
kolera. Li ne tenis la sakon, sed gxi falis sur la sablon, kaj kusxis
apud li. La sako nun kusxas sur la sablo de la granda dezerto, kaj la
mono estas en gxi.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Today it is raining, but yesterday it was snowing. 2. Did your friend
John carry his chair into the house? 3. I saw your good friends on the
way to the city. 4. Is the large sack behind the door theirs? 5. Neither
she nor her brother saw the whole city. 6. They went to the city of
Boston and lost their way. 7. There are interesting houses across the
street. 8. The body of a camel is large, and its neck is long. 9. The
camel pushed its head into the house of the arab, and he was angry. 10.
On the sand in the desert there lies a sack. 11. In the sack there is
money. 12. The arab was warm, and wished to drink water. 13. He also
wished to give water to the faithful camel. 14. Nevertheless, he found
only money in the sack. 15. He was angry, and did not keep the sack.
16. Yesterday he wished to find money, but today he prefers water. 17.
Nevertheless there is only sand in the desert. 18. He wished to come
from the dry desert to the house of a faithful friend. 19. Both he and
his friends are rich. 20. They went to his house yesterday, and came to
theirs today. 21. They do not need money.

                              LESSON XII.

                          INDIRECT STATEMENTS.

53. A statement made indirectly by means of a clause dependent upon a
verb meaning "say," "think," "know," "believe," or a similar expression,
as in "I know that he came," "I hear that he is good," is called an
"indirect statement." (The "direct" statement is "he came," "he is
good.") An indirect statement is joined to the main verb or sentence by
the subordinating conjunction "ke," that.

   Johano diras ke vi venis hieraux,
      John says that you came yesterday.
   Sxi opinias ke estas mono en la sako,
      she thinks that there is money in the bag.

[Footnote: A clause is a group of words including a verb, which is
dependent upon or subordinate to a main verb or sentence, as "--that he
came," "--when he went," "--that he is good," etc.]

[Footnote: In English the subordinating conjunction may sometimes be
omitted, either "I think that he is good," or "I think he is good,"
being usually permissible. But in Esperanto there is no variation, and
the conjunction "ke" is never omitted.]


54. When an indefinite personal pronoun is desired, as in the
expressions "one knows," "they say," "people say," "you can see," etc.,
the indefinite personal pronoun "oni" is used. This pronoun may also be
used in translating such expressions as "it is said," "I am told," etc.:

   Oni diras ke li estas ricxa, they say (one says) that he is rich.
   Oni vidas ke ili estas amikoj, one sees that they are friends.
   Mi opinias ke oni sxatas lin,
      I think that people like him (that he is liked).
   Oni diris al mi ke estas sablo en la dezerto,
      I was told (people said to me) that there is sand in the desert.
   Oni opinias ke sxi estas felicxa,
      it is thought (one thinks) that she is happy.
   Cxu oni vidis nin en la gxardeno?
      Were we seen (did people see us) in the garden?
   Oni sxatas agrablajn infanojn,
      people like agreeable children (agreeable children are liked).

                           THE FUTURE TENSE.

55. The future tense of the verb expresses an act or state as about to
take place, or as one that will take place in future time. The ending of
this tense is "-os," as "kuros," will run, "flugos," will fly, "brilos,"
will shine. The conjugation of "esti" and also of "vidi" in the future
tense is as follows:

   mi estos = I shall be.             mi vidos = I shall see.
   vi estos = you will be.            vi vidos = you will see.
   li (sxi, gxi) estos =              li (sxi, gxi) vidos :
      he (she, it) will be.              he (she, it) will see.
   ni estos = we shall be.            ni vidos = we shall see.
   vi estos = you (plural) will be.   vi vidos = you (plural) will see.
   ili estos = they will be.          ili vidos = they will see.


   auxdi = to hear.                   oni = (see 54).
   blovi = to blow.                   opinii = to think, to opine.
   greno = grain (wheat, corn, etc.). orienta = east, eastern.
   ke = that (conjunction).           pluvo = rain.
   kontraux = against.                suda = south, southern.
   montri = to show, to point out.    velki = to wilt, to wither.
   norda = north, northern.           vento = wind.
   nova = new.                        ventoflago = weathercock.
   okcidenta = west, western.         vetero = weather.

                             LA VENTOFLAGO.

Estis varma vetero, la suno brilis, kaj suda vento blovis. Tamen la
nova ventoflago sur la domo diris al si, "La sudan venton mi ne sxatas.
Mi preferas orientan venton." La vento orienta auxdis la diron kaj gxi
venis kontraux la ventoflagon. Pluvis kaj pluvis, kaj oni estis kolera
kontraux la ventoflago, cxar gxi montras orientan venton. Gxi diris,
"Pluvas nun, sed la greno en la kampoj bezonos sekan veteron. Oni estos
kolera kontraux mi, cxar mi montras orientan venton." La okcidenta vento
auxdis la ventoflagon, kaj baldaux venis. Gxi ne estis forta, sed gxi
estis seka kaj agrabla vento, kaj ne portis pluvon. La viroj, virinoj,
kaj junaj infanoj volis trinki, sed ili ne havis akvon. La greno kaj la
floroj velkis, kaj la frukto ankaux falis. La nova ventoflago diris,
"Oni estos kolera kontraux mi, cxar ne pluvas. Oni opinios ke, cxar mi
montras okcidentan venton, la frukto falas, kaj la greno kaj floroj
velkas. Mi sxatas montri nek okcidentan nek orientan venton!" Norda
vento auxdis kaj venis al la ventoflago. La vetero ne estis agrabla,
kaj la virinoj kaj la junaj infanoj ne estis varmaj. Negxis, kaj oni
estis kolera. Oni diris "La greno kaj la frukto bezonas varman veteron,
sed hodiaux negxas. Ni preferas la sudan venton. Ni havis gxin, antaux
la orienta, la okcidenta, kaj la norda ventoj. La ventoflago ne estas
fidela amiko al ni. Gxi ne montras bonajn ventojn, kaj ni volas rompi
gxin!" Oni kuris al la domo, kaptis la novan ventoflagon, kaj ankaux
rompis gxin. Gxi falis, kaj kusxis sur la vojo antaux la domo.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. One can see that the weathercock points-out the winds. 2. They say
that the west wind will be a dry wind. 3. The weathercock now shows that
an agreeable south wind blows. 4. People will be angry with (against)
the weathercock, because it points-out a north wind. 5. A north wind is
not warm, and the grain and fruit will need a warm wind. 6. It snowed,
and the young children were not warm, because the north wind blew. 7.
People will like a south wind, but an east wind will carry rain. 8.
Can one find money in the desert? 9. Do you think (that) he is in the
house? 10. He is said to be (they say that he is) on the street. 11.
It is thought (people think) that the camel is a faithful friend. 12.
I am told (people tell me) that the camel has a large body, and a long
neck. 13. One can see that it is not beautiful. 14. People do not like
to drink warm water. 15. Nevertheless we shall drink warm water in the
city. 16. It was beautiful weather yesterday, but today we shall have
good weather also. 17. I think that a warm wind will blow soon. 18. My
friend has a beautiful new house.

                              LESSON XIII.

                    THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN "TIU".

56. The demonstrative pronoun "tiu", that, is used to indicate a person
or a definitely specified thing. The plural is "tiuj", those:

   Tiu estas la via, kaj mi volas tiun,
      that is yours, and I wish that one.
   Tiuj estos koleraj kontraux vi, those will be angry with you.
   Li auxdis tiujn, he heard those (persons, or things).

57. The demonstrative pronoun "tiu" is also used as a "pronominal
adjective", in agreement with a noun:

   Tiu vento estos varma, that wind will be warm.
   Mi vidas tiun ventoflagon, I see that weathercock.
   Tiuj infanoj estas junaj, those children are young.
   Mi trovos tiujn librojn, I shall find those books.


58. The verb in an indirect statement (53) or an indirect question
remains in the same tense in which it would be if the statement or
question were direct. (In English this is true only if the introductory
verb is present or future, since after an introductory past tense the
tense of the indirect quotation is changed, and "am, is, are, have,
will" become "was, were, had, would," etc.)

   Mi diras ke li estas bona, I say that he is good.
   "  diris "  "    "    "  , I said that he was good.
   "  diros "  "    "    "  , I shall say that he is good.
   Li miras cxu mi auxdas, he wonders whether I hear.
   "  miris  "   "   "   , he wondered whether I heard.
   "  miros  "   "   "   , he will wonder whether I hear.
   Mi opiniis ke gxi estas bona, I thought that it was good
                                       (I thought "it is good").
   Oni miris cxu li venos, they wondered whether he would come
                                       (they wondered "will he come?").

[Footnote: An indirect question is introduced by "cxu", whether, after
verbs meaning "ask," "wonder," "know," etc.: "Mi miras cxu li venis", I
wonder whether he came. "Oni demandas cxu li estas ricxa", people ask
whether he is rich.]

                      FORMATION OF FEMININE NOUNS.

59. Feminine nouns corresponding to distinctly masculine nouns such as
"frato", "knabo", "viro", may be formed from these by inserting the
suffix "-in-" just before the noun-ending "-o":

   fratino = sister                   patrino = mother
      (from frato, brother).             (from patro, father).
   knabino = girl                     virino = woman
      (from knabo, boy).                 (from viro, man).

[Footnote: Cf. English names similarly formed from masculine names,
as "Pauline, Josephine, Ernestine, Geraldine," etc., also German
"Koenigin", queen, from "Koenig", king; "Loewin", lioness, from "Loewe",
lion, etc.]


   almenaux = at least.               paroli = to talk, to speak.
   cxapelo = hat.                     parko = park.
   cxielo = sky, heaven.              preskaux = almost.
   filo = son.                        pri = concerning, about.
   konstrui = to build.               promeni = to take a walk.
   miri = to wonder.                  super = above.
   morgaux = tomorrow.                timi = to fear, to be afraid (of).
   nubo = cloud.                      tiu = that (56).
   ombrelo = umbrella.                zorga = careful.

                              EN LA PARKO.

Miaj junaj amiko kaj amikino, kaj ankaux ilia patrino, iris hieraux al
la parko. La infanoj diris al la patrino ke la parko estas agrabla,
kaj ke ili volas promeni en gxi. La knabino parolis al sia frato pri
la belaj floroj. Sxi diris al li ke la floroj velkas, kaj ke la herbo
en preskaux la tuta parko bezonas pluvon. La knabo diris hodiaux al
mi ke hieraux li kaj lia fratino auxdis la birdojn en la arboj super
siaj kapoj. Li diris ke li miris pri tiuj birdoj, tamen li opinias ke
la birdoj baldaux konstruos siajn nestojn en tiuj arboj. La infanoj
promenis, kaj baldaux ili vidis ke grizaj nuboj venas sur la cxielon,
kaj mia juna amikino timis ke pluvos. Sxi parolis al la patrino pri la
nuboj kaj la pluvo, montris al sxi la grizajn nubojn, kaj diris ke si
volas iri al la domo. Ili komencis marsxi al la strato, kaj preskaux
kuris, cxar ili ne havis ombrelon. Tra la fenestroj de la domoj oni
rigardis ilin, kaj la knabo miris cxu li kaj liaj patrino kaj fratino
amuzas tiujn virojn kaj virinojn. Tamen la patrino diris ke sxi ne timas
ke sxi amuzos tiujn, sed ke sxi timas la pluvon. Sxi kaj la filino volas
esti zorgaj pri almenaux la novaj cxapeloj. La filo diris al sxi ke li
ankaux estas zorga, sed ke li opinias ke ne pluvos. Baldaux la patro
venis al ili, kaj portis ombrelojn, cxar li ankaux timis la pluvon.
Li miris cxu la infanoj kaj ilia patrino havas ombrelojn. Baldaux
pluvis, sed ili estis sekaj, cxar ili havis la ombrelojn. Morgaux ili ne
promenos en la parko, sed iros al la urbo.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The east wind is dry and the south wind will be too warm. 2. A
west wind blew against the weathercock, but the grain needed a south
wind. 3 A north wind is blowing and I think that it will soon snow. 4.
It (51) will be beautiful weather tomorrow, because a pleasant wind
is now blowing. 5. The flowers will wither because those children
gathered them. 6. They are talking about that park, but I do not wish to
take-a-walk, because there are clouds in (on) the sky. 7. At least we
shall take an umbrella, and my brother will hold it over our heads. 8.
My sister said "Mother and I are-afraid that it will rain." 9. My young
sister will be careful about that new umbrella. 10. I wonder whether
she will take-a-walk tomorrow. 11. That park is pleasant and the grass
is soft and green. 12. The birds are building their nests now, in those
branches above our heads. 13. The sky above us is blue, and a west wind
is beginning to blow. 14. I can see that weathercock, on that large
house near the park. 15. Mother says that my sister will have a new hat
tomorrow. 16. She will be careful of (about) that hat. 17. My father's
friend is very careful of his son. 18. One sees that he is not a strong

                              LESSON XIV.


60. The demonstrative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) meaning "this"
is formed by using with "tiu" (56) the word "cxi", which expresses the
general idea of nearness or proximity. (Consequently the literal meaning
of "cxi tiu" is "that one nearby", "that one here".) The word "cxi" may
either precede or follow the pronoun:

   Cxi tiu estas la mia, this is mine.
   Mi vidis cxi tiun, I saw this one.
   Cxu vi volas tiujn cxi? Do you wish these?
   Cxi tiu knabino estas mia fratino, this girl is my sister.
   Mi vidis cxi tiujn cxapelojn, I saw these hats.
   Cxi tiuj amikoj promenos, these friends will take a walk.

61. The words "tiu" and "cxi tiu" may be used to distinguish between
persons or things "previously" mentioned and "just" mentioned:

   Gertrude kaj Mario estas en la parko.
   Tiu rigardas la florojn, cxi tiu kolektas ilin.

   Gertrude and Mary are in the park.
   The former (that one) looks at the flowers,
   the latter (this one) gathers them.


62. To express possession, the demonstrative pronouns "tiu" and "cxi
tiu" have the special possessive or genitive forms "ties", that one's,
and "cxi ties", this one's. The use of "ties" and "cxi ties" to mean
"the former" and "the latter" is similar to the use of "tiu" and "cxi
tiu" shown in 61:

   Mi iris al ties domo, I went to that one's house.
   Cxi ties filoj estas junaj,
      this person's (this one's) sons are young.
   Mi sxatas ties koloron, sed preferas cxi tiun floron,
      I like that one's color, but prefer this flower.
   La patro kaj lia amiko parolas pri siaj domoj.
   Ties estas nova, sed cxi ties sxajnas bela.
      Father and his friend are talking about their houses.
      The former's is new, but the latter's seems beautiful.

                           THE SUFFIX "-IL-".

63. Names of instruments, tools or utensils may be formed by adding
the suffix "-il-" (followed by the ending "-o") to roots whose meaning

   flugilo, wing (from flugi, to fly).
   kaptilo, snare, trap (from kapti, to catch).
   kudrilo, needle (from kudri, to sew).
   montrilo, indicator, (clock) hand (from montri, to point out, show).
   tenilo, handle (from teni, to hold).

[Footnote: The root of a word is that part of it which contains the
essential meaning, and to which the verb endings "-i", "-as", "-is",
"-os", the noun ending "-o", the adjective ending "-a", etc., are
attached, when no suffix intervenes. Thus, "vir-" is the root of "viro"
and of "virino"; "kur-" is the root of "kuri", etc.]


64. The means or instrumentality through which an act is accomplished is
expressed by use of the preposition "per":

   Oni kudras per kudrilo, one sews by means of (with) a needle.
   La birdoj flugas per flugiloj, the birds fly by (with) wings.
   Li amuzas sin per tiuj bildoj,
      he amuses himself with (by) those pictures.
   Mi trovis gxin per via helpo, I found it by (through) your help.


   akra = sharp                       najbaro = neighbor.
   busxo = mouth.                     per = by means of (64).
   dekstra = right (not left).        supo = soup.
   cxi (see 60).                      telero = plate.
   forko = fork.                      terpomo = potato.
   helpo = help.                      ties = that one's (62).
   kafo = coffee.                     trancxi = to cut.
   kulero = spoon.                    tre = very, exceedingly.
   mano = hand.                       viando = meat.

                             LA MANGXO.

Hieraux mi miris cxu mi havos bonan mangxon en la domo de mia amiko. Sed
mi opiniis ke mi havos tre bonan mangxon, cxar mia amiko sxatas doni
bonajn mangxojn al siaj amikoj. Oni metis tre bonan supon antaux mi,
kaj mi mangxis tiun per granda kulero. Post la supo mi havis viandon.
Cxi tiun mi tenis per forko, kaj trancxis per akra trancxilo. La forko,
trancxilo kaj kulero estas mangxiloj. Mi havis ne nur viandon, sed
ankaux novajn terpomojn. Mi trancxis tiujn cxi per la trancxilo, sed
mi metis ilin en la busxon per forko. Mi tenis la forkon en la dekstra
mano, kaj metis la trancxilon trans mian teleron. Oni bezonas akran
trancxilon, sed oni ne bezonas tre akran forkon. Post la viando kaj la
terpomoj, oni donis al mi fresxajn maturajn cxerizojn. Ili kusxis sur
granda telero, kaj havis belan koloron. Ilia gusto estis ankaux bona.
Mi preskaux ne diris ke mi ankaux havis kafon. Mi parolos morgaux al
mia amiko pri lia kafo, kaj lauxdos gxin. Post la mangxo, najbaro de
mia amiko venis en cxi ties domon, kaj ili parolis al mi pri siaj novaj
domoj. Per la helpo de sia patro, mia amiko konstruos grandan domon.
Lia najbaro volas konstrui belan sed ne tre grandan domon. Ties nova
domo estos bela, sed mi opinias ke mi preferos cxi ties domon. Mia amiko
volis doni almenaux kafon al sia najbaro, sed li diris ke li ne volas
trinki kafon. Tamen li volis persikon. Li tenis tiun en la mano, kaj
mangxis tiun.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The birds have very strong wings on their bodies, but they do not
have hands. 2. They will build their nests, and sing about the young
birds. 3. Those children were talking to me yesterday about their cat.
4. They said that it likes to catch and eat sparrows. 5. Tomorrow it
will hide (itself) behind a tree, and will catch a young sparrow. 6. The
children will gather peaches in that-person's garden, and will put them
upon a plate. 7. They will shake the whole tree by means of a branch. 8.
The sweet fruit above them will fall upon the soft green grass. 9. The
children wondered whether the cherries were ripe. 10. They seem almost
ripe, and tomorrow the children will pick (gather) them, with the help
of their father. 11. It is said (54) that the grain in that-man's field
very [much] needs rain. 12. People also think that the flowers will
wither, for (because) it did not rain yesterday or today. 13. My careful
young friend will carry an umbrella in his hand tomorrow, because he
fears the rain. 14. He sees those gray clouds in (on) the sky. 15. He
holds the umbrella by its handle. 16. The weathercock is an indicator
concerning the weather. 17. One eats meat with a fork, and soup with a
spoon. 18. One holds the spoon in the right hand. 19. A knife is sharp,
but one does not need a sharp fork. 20. We shall have a very good meal,
and also very good coffee.

                               LESSON XV.

                      THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE.

65. The demonstrative adjective related to the demonstrative pronoun
"tiu" (56) is "tia", that kind of, that sort of, such:

   Tia floro estas bela, that kind of a flower is beautiful.
   Mi sxatas tian viandon, I like that sort of meat.
   Tiaj najbaroj estas agrablaj,
      such (that kind of) neighbors are pleasant.
   Mi volas auxdi tiajn birdojn, I wish to hear such birds.


66. An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective,
another adverb, or phrase. It may express manner, time, degree,
negation, etc. Adverbs are either primary, as "now," "almost," or
derived, as "glad-ly," "sweet-ly," The Esperanto primary adverbs given
in this and in preceding lessons may be classified as follows:

                (a) Temporal Adverbs (expressing time).

         baldaux = soon.             morgaux = tomorrow.
         hieraux = yesterday.        nun = now.
         hodiaux = today.            tuj = immediately.

                         (b) Adverbs of Degree.

         almenaux = at least.        preskaux = almost.
         nur = merely.               tre = very, much.

                  (c) Adverbs Expressing Other Ideas.

         addition: ankaux = also.    emphasis: ecx = even.
         interrogation: cxu, (30).   affirmation: jes = yes.
         proximity: cxi, (60).       negation: ne = not, no, (27).

a. An adverb usually precedes, but may also follow, the word or words
which it modifies. It must be so placed as to leave no doubt about which
of two words or word-groups it is intended to modify. Thus, "mi preskaux
volis havi tiun" clearly means "I almost wished to have that"; but "mi
volis preskaux havi tiun" might mean either "I almost wished to have
that," or more probably "I wished almost to have that." An example of
permissible variation in the position of adverbs is shown in questions
to which an affirmative answer is expected. Such questions may be put in
the form of a statement, followed by "cxu ne" (instead of having "cxu"
introduce the sentence, with "ne" in its normal position):

   Li venos, cxu ne? He will come, will he not?
   La vetero estas bela, cxu ne? The weather is beautiful, is it not?
   Vi auxdis tiun diron, cxu ne? You heard that remark, did you not?

                        FORMATION OF OPPOSITES.

67. If the meaning of a word is such that it can have a direct opposite,
such opposite may be formed from it by use of the prefix "mal-":

   malalta = low, short (from "alta", high, tall).
   malamiko = enemy (from "amiko", friend).
   maldekstra = left (from "dekstra", right).
   malhelpi = to hinder (from "helpi", to help).
   maljuna = aged, old (from "juna", young).
   malnova = old, not new (from "nova", new).

[Footnote: Cf. English "malcontent", "discontented," "maladroit",


   dum = during.                      povi = to be able.
   ecx = even.                        preni = to take.
   gardi = to guard.                  propono = proposal.
   helpi = to help, to aid.           respondi = to answer.
   honti = to be ashamed.             ruza = sly, cunning.
   kara = dear.                       sxteli = to steal.
   kontenta = satisfied.              tia = that kind of (65).
   kuragxa = courageous.              tuj = immediately.
   nokto = night.                     vocxo = voice.

                           LA RUZA JUNA VIRO.

Ruza juna viro kaj bona maljuna viro iris trans dezerton. Tiu havis
nigran cxevalon, cxi tiu havis blankan cxevalon. "Vi gardos niajn
cxevalojn dum la nokto, cxu ne?" diris la juna viro per dolcxa vocxo al
sia amiko, "Cxar dum la nokto oni ne povos vidi mian nigran cxevalon,
sed malamikoj povos tuj vidi vian blankan cxevalon. Oni povos sxteli
tian cxevalon, cxar vi estas maljuna kaj malforta, kaj ne povos malhelpi
malamikojn." Tia propono ne sxajnis agrabla al la maljuna viro. Li ne
estis kontenta, tamen li ne volis perdi sian cxevalon, cxar li estis
malricxa. Li diris al si ke li donos sian blankan cxevalon al la juna
viro, kaj prenos ties nigran cxevalon. Tuj li diris al cxi tiu "Sed per
via helpo mi ne perdos mian cxevalon: mi donos la mian al vi, kaj prenos
vian cxevalon. La via estas malbela, sed gxi estas almenaux nigra; vi
donos gxin al mi, cxu ne?" "Jes," respondis la ruza juna viro, kaj li
donis sian nigran cxevalon al tiu, kaj prenis la blankan cxevalon.
"Nun," diris la maljuna viro, "Vi estas kuragxa kaj forta, kaj vi gardos
la cxevalojn, cxu ne? Vi povos malhelpi malamikojn per tiu granda akra
trancxilo, kaj oni ne povos sxteli vian blankan cxevalon." La ruza juna
viro ne hontis. Li respondis "Mia kara amiko, mi nun dormos, cxar oni
ne sxtelos blankan cxevalon. Mi povos vidi tian cxevalon dum la nokto,
kaj malhelpi malamikojn. Sed tiu cxevalo via ("that horse of yours")
havas la koloron de la nokto, kaj ecx nun oni povas sxteli gxin." La
malkontenta maljuna viro diris per kolera vocxo "Cxu vi ne hontas pri
tia propono?" Tamen la ruza juna viro tuj komencis dormi, kaj la maljuna
viro gardis la cxevalojn dum la tuta nokto.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.
        (Words to be formed with the prefix "mal-" are quoted.)

1. Does one eat potatoes and meat with a fork or a spoon? 2. One puts
soup into the mouth by means of a spoon. 3. One cuts fruit with a knife,
and puts the fruit upon a plate. 4. The coffee was "cold", and I was
much "dissatisfied". 5. My knife was "dull", nevertheless I almost
immediately cut my (the) "left" hand. 6. I was ashamed, but I think
that the handle of that knife was very "short". 7. The grass is "wet"
today, and I fear that we shall not be able to take a walk, even in that
"small" park. 8. I "dislike" to go-walking upon the "hard" streets.
9. The courageous young man and his "aged" friend talked about their
"enemies". 10. They wished to be careful about their horses. 11. The
young man was very sly, and wished to sleep during the night. 12. He
said that one can steal a black horse during the "dark" night. 13. He
said that either (aux) he or the "old" man would guard the horses. 14.
The "old" man answered that he would give to him his [own] white horse.
15. He took that one's black horse. 16. He was ashamed, and was very
angry at his "faithless" friend. 17. But he "stayed-awake", and guarded
the horses.

                              LESSON XVI.


68. The demonstrative adverbs of place related to the pronouns "tiu" and
"cxi tiu" are "tie", there, in (at) that place, and "cxi tie", here, in
(at) this place:

   La telero estas tie, the plate is there (in that place).
   La libroj kusxas cxi tie, the books lie here (in this place).
   Mi trovis vin tie kaj lin tie cxi, I found you there and him here.
   Tie la vetero sxajnas tre agrabla,
      there the weather seems very pleasant.

69. If the verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place
indicated by "tie" or "cxi tie", the ending "-n" is added to the adverb
(46), forming "tien", thither, there, and "cxi tien", hither, here:

   Li iros tien, he will go there (thither).
   Mi venis cxi tien, I came here (hither).
   Ni estis tie, kaj venis cxi tien,
      we were there and came here (hither).


70. Accompaniment or association is expressed by the preposition "kun",
with, along with:

   La viro venis kun sia amiko, the man came with his friend.
   Mi promenos kun vi, I shall go walking with you.
   La knabo kun tiu viro estas lia frato,
      the boy with that man is his brother.

[Footnote: "Kun" must not be confused with "per" (64), which expresses
instrumentality, although per may often be translated by English "with."
The English preposition "with" may be said to have three rather clearly
defined different meanings. In the linguistic history of this word,
the original meaning was "against," still shown in "fight with, strive
with, contend with, withstand", etc. (Cf. German "widerstreiten", to
strive with, "widerhalten", to resist, etc.) Gradually this word "with"
usurped the meaning of the original preposition "mid," expressing
association or accompaniment (cf. German "mit", with, which it crowded
out of the language except in one unimportant compound). The word
"by" was also encroaching upon "mid" from another direction, and so
"mid's" successor "with" came to be interchangeable with "by" in
expressing instrumentality. Thus, English "with" indicates opposition,
accompaniment, or instrumentality, for which three senses Esperanto has
the three prepositions "kontraux", "kun", and "per", respectively.]

                           THE ADVERB "FOR".

71. The adverb "for", away, may be used independently, as "Li iris
for de mi", he went away from me, but it is more frequently used as a
prefix to give a sense of departure, loss or somewhat forcible removal:

   foriri = to go away, to depart.
   forkuri = to run away, to escape.
   forlasi = to leave alone, to abandon, to desert.
   formangxi = to eat away, to eat up.
   forpreni = to take away, to remove.
   fortrinki = to drink away, to drink up.

[Footnote: Cf. the prefix "for-" in English "forfend," to keep away,
to avert, "forbid," to exclude from, to command against, "forbear," to
refrain from, etc.]

                         THE MEANING OF "POVI".

72. The verb "povi", to be able, is used to translate English "can",
which is defective, that is, does not occur in all of the forms a verb
may have:

   Mi povas paroli, I am able to talk, I can talk.
   Mi povis paroli, I was able to talk, I could talk.
   Mi povos paroli, I shall be able to talk, ------.
   Mi volas povi paroli, I wish to be able to talk, ------.


   el = out of, out.                  peli = to drive, to chase.
   cxirkaux = around, roundabout.     posxo = pocket.
   for = away (71).                   rajdi = to ride.
   frua = early.                      rapidi = to hasten.
   glavo = sword.                     resti = to remain, to stay.
   horo = hour.                       sagxa = wise.
   kun = with (70).                   tie = there (68).
   lasi = to leave.                   voki = to call.

                        MALAMIKOJ EN LA DEZERTO.

Juna viro kaj lia sagxa patro volis iri trans la dezerton, kun siaj
amikoj. La amikoj estis fortaj, kaj la juna viro estis tre kuragxa. Ili
restis en malgranda urbo dum la nokto, kaj forrajdis kun tiuj amikoj.
La patro kaj la filo opiniis ke la amikoj kun ili povos helpi per siaj
akraj glavoj. Ili opiniis ke ili povos forpeli la malamikojn. Ecx en
la dezerto oni trovas malamikojn. Tiaj malamikoj forprenas la monon de
bonaj viroj. La juna viro estis kontenta, cxar li estis kun la amikoj.
La maljuna viro estis kontenta cxar li estis kun sia filo. Baldaux la
nokto venis. Estis tre malluma tie en la dezerto, kaj ili preskaux ne
povis vidi. Dum la fruaj horoj de la nokto la patro auxdis vocxojn, kaj
preskaux tuj li vidis la malamikojn. La ruzaj malbonaj viroj rapidis
tien, kaj vokis la maljunan viron. La malkuragxaj amikoj de la patro kaj
filo nek restis tie, nek helpis forpeli la malamikojn. Ili tuj forkuris.
La malamikoj staris cxirkaux la patro, kaj forpusxis lin de lia cxevalo.
La filo volis malhelpi ilin, sed li ne povis. Li povis nur resti kun la
patro, kaj gardi lin tie kontraux la glavoj de la malamikoj. Baldaux la
malamikoj komencis forpreni la monon el la posxoj de la sagxa maljuna
viro. La kolera filo diris per maldolcxa ("bitter") vocxo "Cxu vi ne
hontas? Cxu vi lasos al ni nek la cxevalojn nek nian monon?" Sed la
malamikoj respondis "Ne, ni lasos al vi nek la cxevalojn nek la monon.
Ni ne estas malsagxaj." Post tiu diro ili tuj forrapidis, kaj prenis kun
si la cxevalojn.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The foolish friends of the young man and his aged father did not stay
with them. 2. They did not help them with their swords, but ran away at
once ("tuj"), and were not ashamed. 3. The old man heard disagreeable
voices behind him, and soon he saw the enemy. 4. The enemy called them,
and hastened there (69). 5. Those sly bad men took the money out of
the pockets of the courageous young man. 6. They stood around him, and
also around his father. 7. The father and son could not even guard
their horses. 8. The enemy did not leave (to) these their horses, but
took both the horses and the money. 9. Soon the enemy rode away, during
the late hours of the night. 10. The father and son were angry and
dissatisfied. 11. They said "We fear and dislike such men." 12. The
father said "By the help of our neighbors we can ("povos") find those
bad men, and drive them away, out of the desert." 13. The son replied,
"Dear Father, such a proposal seems good, and I will help with my long
sharp sword. 14. But we are now in the desert, and the road to the city
is long. 15. We cannot ride thither, but we can walk thither. 16. Can
you not hasten, with ("per") my help?" 17. The wise old man answered,
"Yes, my son, with such help I can walk thither."

                              LESSON XVII.


73. The demonstrative temporal adverb related to the demonstrative
pronoun "tiu" is "tiam", then, at that time:

   Tiam li rajdos al la urbo, then he will ride to the city.
   Nun ili estas sagxaj, sed tiam ili estis malsagxaj,
      now they are wise, but at that time they were foolish.

                       COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

74. An adjective may have three degrees, "positive", "comparative" and
"superlative." English has various ways of forming the comparative
and superlative degrees (as by the suffixes "-er, -est," the adverbs
"more, most," and irregular methods as in "good, better, best," etc.).
Esperanto has only one method, using the adverbs "pli", more, and
"plej", most:

   ---------------  ------------------------  --------------------------
   bela, beautiful  pli bela, more beautiful  plej bela, most beautiful
   bona, good       pli bona, better          plej bona, best
   malbona, bad     pli malbona, worse        plej malbona, worst
   sagxa, wise      pli sagxa, wiser          plej sagxa, wisest

75. The preposition "el" is used with words expressing the group or
class out of which a superlative is selected and mentioned:

   Li estas la plej juna el tiuj, he is the youngest of (out of) those.
   Vi estas la plej felicxa el ni, you are the happiest of us.
   Tiu estis la plej ruza el la viroj,
      that one was the craftiest of the men.

                       MANNER AND CHARACTERISTIC.

76. The actions or feelings which accompany an act or state, or the
characteristic which permanently accompanies a person or thing, may be
expressed by a substantive with the preposition "kun":

   Li prenis gxin kun la plej granda zorgo,
      he took it with the greatest care.
   Mi auxdis lin kun intereso kaj plezuro,
      I heard him with interest and pleasure.
   Sxi estas virino kun bona gusto,
      she is a woman with (of) good taste.
   Mi havas cxevalon kun forta korpo,
      I have a horse with a strong body.

[Footnote: Sometimes the manner of an action may be expressed by the
instrument of it, expressed by the preposition "per" with a substantive
modified by an adjective: "Li kantis per dolcxa vocxo", he sang with (by
means of) a sweet voice. "Vi pusxis min per forta mano", you pushed me
with a strong hand.]

                    "DIRI", "PAROLI" AND "RAKONTI".

77. The verbs "diri", to say, "paroli", to talk, to speak, and
"rakonti", to relate, having in common the general idea of speech or
expression, must not be confused in use:

   Mi diris al vi ke pluvas, I said to (told) you that it was raining.
   Mi diris gxin al vi, I said it to you (I told you).
   Mi parolis al vi pri gxi, I talked (spoke) to you about it.
   Mi rakontis gxin al vi, I related (told) it to you.


   ami = to love.                     pli = more (74).
   ekster = outside (of).             plumo = pen.
   Frederiko = Frederick.             rakonti = to relate (77).
   gratuli = to congratulate.         regxo = king.
   intereso = interest.               servisto = servant.
   letero = letter.                   skribi = to write.
   plej = most (74).                  tiam = then (73).
   plezuro = pleasure.                zorgo = care.


Hieraux mi legis interesan libron pri Frederiko Granda ("the Great").
En gxi oni rakontas ke la regxo kun plezuro legis aux skribis per sia
plumo, dum malfruaj horoj de la nokto. Agrabla juna knabo, la plej juna
el la servistoj, tiam restis ekster la pordo. Cxar la regxo legis plej
interesan novan libron, li ne opiniis ke la horo estas malfrua. Li vokis
sian malgrandan serviston, sed la knabo, nek venis nek respondis. La
regxo iris tien, kaj trovis la knabon ekster la pordo. Li vidis ke la
knabo dormas sur malalta segxo. Tiam Frederiko Granda ne estis kolera,
sed hontis cxar li vokis la infanon. La regxo Frederiko vidis leteron
en la posxo de la knabo. Tuj li prenis la leteron el lia posxo, kaj
rigardis gxin. Gxi estis letero al la servisto, de lia patrino. Sxi ne
estis ricxa virino, sxi sxajnis esti tre malricxa. En cxi tiu letero la
patrino diris per la plumo ke sxi amas la filon. Sxi dankis lin cxar
li skribis al sxi longan leteron. Sxi ankaux dankis lin cxar li donis
al sxi monon. La regxo volis esti tre bona al tia filo. Kun la plej
granda zorgo li metis monon el sia posxo kun la letero kaj tiam lasis la
leteron en ties posxo. Tiam li formarsxis al sia cxambro, kaj vokis la
malgrandan serviston. La knabo tuj auxdis, kaj rapidis tra la pordo. Li
kuris trans la cxambron, kaj staris antaux la regxo. "Cxu vi dormis?"
diris Frederiko Granda. "Jes, mi timas ke mi preskaux dormis," respondis
la knabo, "kaj mi tre hontas." Tiam li metis la manon en la posxon,
kaj trovis la monon. Li sxajnis pli malfelicxa kaj diris kun granda
timo "Malamiko metis cxi tiun monon en mian posxon! Oni opinios ke mi
sxtelis gxin! Oni malamos min, kaj forpelos min!" Frederiko respondis,
"Ne, mi donis gxin al vi, cxar mi amas bonajn knabojn. Mi gratulas vian
patrinon, cxar sxi havas tian filon."

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. An interesting story is related (54) about Frederick the Great. 2.
His youngest servant stayed outside of the door. 3. The king called him,
and he hastened thither and stood before him. 4. Yesterday he did not
hear the king. 5. The king called him, but he did not answer. 6. The
king thought that the boy had gone away with the older servants, and he
was angry. 7. He left his book on the table, and went to the door. 8.
Then he saw that the little boy was sleeping there. 9. He looked at him
with greater interest, and saw a letter in his pocket. 10. The letter
was from the boy's mother. 11. He had written a letter to her, with his
pen, and had given (to) her money, because she was poor. 12. He wrote
longer letters with pleasure, because he was a most faithful son. 13.
The king congratulated the mother of the boy, concerning such a son. 14.
(The) king Frederick wished to be kinder ("pli bona") to the boy. 15. He
placed his book upon the table, near his sword, and talked to the little
servant. 16. Then the older servants came, and stood around the king.
17. They walked with great care, and the younger servant did not hear
them. 18. They loved the little boy, and wished to help him.

                             LESSON XVIII.


78. The demonstrative adverb of motive or reason, related to the
demonstrative pronoun "tiu", is "tial", therefore, for that reason,

   Tial la servisto foriris, therefore the servant went away.
   Tial mi gratulis lin, for that reason I congratulated him.
   Tial oni forpelis lin, so they drove him away.

                         DERIVATION OF ADVERBS.

79. Adverbs may be derived from roots whose meaning permits, by addition
of the adverb-ending "-e", as "felicxe", happily, "kolere", angrily. The
comparison of adverbs is similar to that of adjectives:

   -------------   ----------------------  -----------------------
   sagxe, wisely   pli sagxe, more wisely  plej sagxe, most wisely
   bone, well      pli bone, better        plej bone, best
   malbone, badly  pli malbone, worse      plej malbone, worst
   ruze, slyly     pli ruze, more slyly    plej ruze, most slyly

                          "MALPLI" AND "MALPLEJ".

80. The opposites (67) of "pli" and "plej" are "malpli", less, and
"malplej", least. Their use is similar to that of "pli" and "plej".
(These adverbs may also modify verbs):

   Li estas malpli kuragxa, he is less courageous.
   Tiuj estis malplej akraj, those were least sharp.
   La vento blovis malpli forte, the wind blew less strongly.
   Li skribis malplej zorge, he wrote least carefully.
   Mi malpli timas ilin, I fear them less.
   Vi malplej bezonos helpon, you will need help least.


81. Since in their precise sense the words "pli", "malpli", "plej",
"malplej", express degree, a quantitative meaning is given by "multe",
"much", in the desired degree of comparison:

   multe, much        pli multe, more (in amount)   plej multe, most

                      malpli multe, less     "      malplej multe, least

   malmulte, little   pli malmulte, less     "      plej malmulte, least

                      COMPARISONS CONTAINING "OL".

82. In a comparison made by the use of "pli" or "malpli", the case used
after "ol", than, must indicate clearly the sense intended:

   Mi amas ilin pli multe ol sxin, I love them more than (I love) her.
   Mi amas ilin pli multe ol sxi,
      I love them more than she (loves them).
   Vi helpis la viron malpli multe ol la knabo,
      you helped the man less than the boy (helped him).
   Vi helpis la viron malpli multe ol la knabon,
      you helped the man less than (you helped) the boy.

                            CAUSAL CLAUSES.

83. A clause giving a cause or reason is introduced by "cxar", because,
for, or by the combination "tial ke", for this reason that, because,

   Mi venis frue, cxar mi volis vidi vin,
               I came early, for I wished to see you.
   La floroj velkis tial, ke ne pluvis,
               the flowers wilted for this reason, that it did not rain.


   anstataux = instead of.            multa = much (multaj, many).
   aprilo = April.                    ofta = frequent (ofte, often).
   auxgusto = August.                 ol = than (82).
   jaro = year.                       printempo = spring (season).
   junio = June.                      tago = day.
   julio = July.                      sezono = season.
   majo = May.                        somero = summer.
   marto = March.                     tial = therefore (78).
   monato = month.                    vintro = winter.

                            PRI LA SEZONOJ.

La vintro estas la malplej agrabla sezono el la tuta jaro. Negxas tre
multe, kaj tial oni nur malofte promenas, cxar la stratoj estas tro
malsekaj. Oni marsxas kun granda zorgo, kaj malrapide ("slowly"), tial
ke oni ne volas fali kaj preskaux rompi la kolon. Oni zorge gardas sin
tiam kontraux la malvarmaj nordaj ventoj. La manojn oni metas en la
posxojn, sed la vizagxon oni ne povas bone gardi. Mi ne sxatas resti
ekster la domo dum tia vetero. Mi multe preferas sidi en varma luma
cxambro, kaj skribi leterojn per bona plumo. La monatoj de la printempo
estas marto, aprilo kaj majo. La bela printempo sxajnas pli agrabla ol
la vintro. Gxiaj tagoj estas pli longaj kaj pli varmaj, gxiaj ventoj
blovas malpli forte. En cxi tiu sezono la kampoj kaj arboj frue komencas
montri plej belajn kolorojn. La birdoj konstruas siajn nestojn, kaj
dolcxe kantas. Oni povas promeni sur la mola herbo, anstataux sur
malsekaj malagrablaj stratoj. Pluvas pli multe en aprilo, tamen post
la pluvo la herbo sxajnas pli verda, kaj la nuboj baldaux forflugas de
la blua cxielo. Dum majo oni trovas violojn, kaj en junio oni vidas
tre multajn rozojn. Sed la plej agrabla el la sezonoj estas la somero.
Anstataux malvarmaj ventoj la somero havas la plej belan veteron, kun
suda aux okcidenta ventoj. La longaj tagoj estas varmaj, sed la noktoj
estas tute agrablaj. Tiam oni havas pli bonajn fruktojn ol dum la
printempo. La monatoj de la somero estas junio, julio kaj auxgusto. Mi
plej sxatas junion. Cxu vi sxatas gxin pli multe ol mi? Cxu vi sxatas
auxguston pli multe ol julion?

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. I read a most interesting book about Frederick the Great. 2. It
relates that he often stayed-awake and read with great interest during
the later hours of the night. 3. His youngest servant was a small boy.
4. The king loved this boy more than [he loved] the older servants. 5.
The winter is a less pleasant season than the spring, but the summer is
more pleasant than that [season]. 6. During March the east winds blow
most strongly, and shake the trees very much. 7. In April one needs his
umbrella, for (the reason that) there are often clouds in the sky and
it rains a great deal (very much). 8. The streets are very wet, but the
water does not seem to wash them. 9. In May one begins to find sweet
violets, and the birds in the trees above our heads sing very sweetly.
10. In June the most beautiful roses are seen (54). 11. July and August
are the warmest months of the whole year. 12. The days are longer than
the nights, and the weathercock shows west and south winds, instead of
those disagreeable north and east winds. 13. One stays outside [of] the
house then with greater pleasure, and goes walking in the parks. 14.
I think that I like the summer better than you [do]. 15. Therefore I
praise the summer more than you [do]. 16. However, I praise you more
than [I praise] your younger brother. 17. He is less wise than you.

                              LESSON XIX.

                     "JU" AND "DES" IN COMPARISONS.

84. In clauses expressing a comparison between two objects, acts or
states, the adverbial use of English "the ... the ..." (meaning "by how
much ... by that much ...") is rendered by the adverbs "ju" and "des",

   Ju pli bona li estas, des pli felicxa li estos,
   the better he is, the happier he will be.
   Ju pli ofte mi rigardas, des pli mi volas rigardi,
   the oftener I look, the more I wish to look.
   Ju pli bele la luno brilas, des pli oni sxatas la nokton,
     the more beautifully the moon shines, the more one likes the night.
   Ju malpli pluvas, des pli la floroj velkas,
     the less it rains, the more the flowers wither.
   Ju malpli multe vi helpas, des malpli multe mi lauxdos vin,
     the less you help, the less I shall praise you.
   Cxar vi helpis, mi des pli multe lauxdos vin,
     because you helped, I shall praise you the (that much) more.

[Footnote: Cf. Shakespeare, As You Like It, V, II, 49, "By so much the
more shall I tomorrow be at the height of heart-heaviness, by how much I
shall think my brother happy in having what he wishes for."]

                        THE PREPOSITION "INTER".

85. In English, the preposition "between" is used in reference to two
persons or things, and "among" in reference to three or more. As the
difference in meaning is not essential, Esperanto has but the one
preposition inter to express both "between" and "among":

   Li sidas inter vi kaj mi, he is sitting between you and me.
   Li sidas inter siaj amikoj, he is sitting among his friends.
   La monato majo estas inter aprilo kaj junio,
      the month of May is between April and June.
   Inter tiuj libroj estas tre interesa libro,
      among those books there is a very interesting book.

                         THE PREPOSITION "PRO".

86. Cause or reason may be expressed not only by an adverb (78) or a
clause (83), but also by use of the preposition "pro", because of, on
account of, for the sake of, for. It directs the thought away from the
complement toward the action, feeling or state caused by it, or done in
its interest or behalf:

   La floroj velkas pro la seka vetero,
      the flowers wilt because of the dry weather.
   Mi skribis la leteron pro vi,
      I wrote the letter for you (for your sake).
   Pro tiuj nuboj mi timas ke pluvos,
      on account of those clouds I fear that it will rain.
   Oni sxatas cxerizojn pro la dolcxa gusto,
      people like cherries because of the sweet taste.


87. Prepositions may be used with adverbs or with prepositional phrases
when the meaning permits:

   La kato kuris el sub la tablo, the cat ran out-from under the table.
   Li venos el tie, he will come out of there.
   De nun li estos zorga, from now he will be careful.
   Li staris dekstre de la vojo, he stood on the right of the road.
   Mi iros for de cxi tie, I shall go away from here.


   auxtuno = autumn, fall.            negxo = snow.
   decembro = December.               novembro = November.
   des = (see 84).                    nuda = bare, naked.
   februaro = February.               oktobro = October.
   glacio = ice.                      pro = because of (86).
   inter = between, among (85).       rikolti = to harvest.
   januaro = January.                 rivero = river.
   ju = (see 84).                     septembro = September.
   kovri = to cover.                  tero = ground, earth.

                     LA AUXTUNO KAJ LA VINTRO.

La sezonoj de la jaro estas la vintro, la printempo, la somero, kaj la
auxtuno. La auxtuno estas inter la somero kaj la vintro. Gxiaj monatoj
estas septembro, oktobro kaj novembro. En septembro oni povas kolekti
maturajn fruktojn. Tiam ankaux oni rikoltas la flavan grenon de la
kampoj. Dum cxi tiu monato kaj dum oktobro la folioj sur la brancxoj
komencas esti rugxaj kaj flavaj, anstataux verdaj. La herbo velkas, kaj
bruna tapisxo sxajnas kovri la teron. Baldaux la folioj falas al la
tero, kaj en novembro la arboj estas tute nudaj. Pli aux malpli frue
negxas. La glacio ofte kovras la akvon en la riveroj, kaj restas sur la
stratoj kaj la vojoj. La mola blanka negxo kovras la teron, kaj kusxas
sur la brancxoj de la arboj. Tiam, pro la fortaj ventoj, gxi falas de
la brancxoj al la tero. La birdoj frue lasas tian veteron, kaj flugas
de cxi tie al pli sudaj kampoj kaj arboj. Ili ne povas resti, pro la
malvarmaj tagoj kaj noktoj. Ili malsxatas la negxon kaj la glacion pli
multe ol ni. Ju pli multe negxas; des pli malofte ni volas promeni. Ni
preferas resti en la domo, anstataux ekster gxi. Ju pli ni rigardas la
nudajn brancxojn de la arboj, des pli malagrabla sxajnas la vintro.
Tamen la junaj infanoj tre sxatas tian veteron, kaj ju pli negxas, kaj
ju pli forte la norda vento blovas, des malpli ili estas kontentaj en
la domo. Ili volas kuri sur la negxo, cxirkaux la arboj kaj inter ili,
kun siaj junaj amikoj. Ili povas bone amuzi sin per la negxo. La monatoj
de la vintro estas decembro, januaro kaj februaro. Gxi estas la plej
malvarma sezono.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. September, October and November are the months of autumn. 2. In these
months, people harvest the yellow grain and gather various fruits. 3.
The leaves on the trees around us begin to have red and yellow colors.
4. They begin to fall from the branches and lie upon the ground. 5. The
more strongly the cold north wind blows through the branches, the sooner
the leaves fall from there. 6. They lie under the bare trees, with the
brown grass. 7. The sooner it snows, the sooner the ground will seem
to have a white carpet. 8. The snow will completely ("tute") cover the
grass during the months of the winter. 9. These months are December,
January and February. 10. From that time ("de tiam") the ice and snow
will cover the roads, and altogether ("tute") hide them. 11. There will
often be ice on the water of the river. 12. We like this season of the
year more than March, April and May. 13. We like it even more than the
summer. 14. The months of the latter (62) are June, July and August. 15.
The summer is the warmest season of the entire year. 16. Therefore we
often say that the summer is the pleasantest season. 17. Because of its
many pleasures, the summer is dear to me. 18. It is between the spring
and the autumn.

                               LESSON XX.


88. The demonstrative adverb of manner and degree, related to the
demonstrative pronoun "tiu", is "tiel", in that (this) manner, in
such a way, thus, so. Like English "thus," "so," "tiel" may modify
adjectives and other adverbs, by indicating degree:

   Cxu oni tiel helpas amikon?
      Does one help a friend in that (this) way?
   Mi gxin skribis tiel, I wrote it thus (in such a way).
   La vetero estas tiel bela, the weather is so beautiful.
   Tiel mallonge li parolis, thus briefly he spoke.
   Mi trovis tiel belan floron, I found such a beautiful flower.
   Li prenis tiel multe, he took that much (so much).


89. The relations which prepositions express may be of various kinds.
As in English, a certain number of prepositions primarily expressing
place may also express time-relations. Such prepositions are "antaux",
"cxirkaux", "de", "en", "gxis", "inter", "post", and "je" (whose use in
other than time-relations will be explained later):

   Mi foriros cxirkaux junio, I shall depart about June.
   De tiu horo mi estis via amiko, from that hour I was your friend.
   Li ne parolis al mi de tiu semajno,
      he did not speak to me since from) that week.
   En la tuta monato ne negxis,
      it did not snow in (at any time within) the entire month.
   Mi dormis gxis malfrua horo, I slept until (up to) a late hour.
   Gxis nun li ne vidis vin, until now he did not see you.
   Inter marto kaj junio mi iros tien,
      between March and June I shall go there.
   Je malfrua horo li foriris, at a late hour he went away.
   Mi iros tien je dimancxo, I shall go there on Sunday.
   Je tiu horo li vokis min, at that hour he called me.
   Sxi ne restis tie post julio, she did not stay there after July.
   Post ne longe mi vokos vin,
      soon (after not long) I shall call you.

90. When a definite date or point in time is expressed, "antaux" means
"before." When used with an expression of an "amount" of time, it is
to be translated by "ago" following the expression (not by "before"
preceding it):

   Antaux dimancxo mi foriros, before Sunday I shall go away.
   Mi vidis lin antaux tiu horo, I saw him before that hour.
   Li skribos gxin antaux la nova jaro,
      he will write it before New Year.
   Antaux multaj jaroj mi trovis gxin, many years ago I found it.
   Mi rompis gxin antaux longa tempo, I broke it a long time ago.
   Antaux tre longe vi legis tiun libron,
      you read that book very long ago.
   Li venis antaux ne longe, he came recently (not long ago).
   Antaux malmultaj jaroj li forkuris, a few years ago he escaped.

[Footnote: As already shown, "kun" expresses accompaniment, "per"
expresses instrumentality, "pro" expresses cause, "kontraux" expresses
opposition, "anstataux" expresses substitution, "sur", "apud", "sub",
etc., express place, "dum" expresses time, etc.]


   dimancxo = Sunday.                 mateno = morning.
   energia = energetic.               promeno = walk, promenade.
   frosto = frost.                    rakonto = story, narrative.
   je = at, on (89).                  ripozi = to rest, to repose.
   kota = muddy.                      semajno = week.
   labori = to work, to labor.        tempo = time.
   laca = tired, weary.               tiel = thus, so (88)
   lundo = Monday.                    tro = too, too much.
   mardo = Tuesday.                   vespero = evening.

                             EN SEPTEMBRO.

Antaux multaj jaroj ni preferis resti en nia malgranda domo trans la
rivero, dum la tuta auxtuno. Sed nun ni restas tie nur gxis oktobro.
De auxgusto gxis oktobro la vetero estas tre agrabla tie, sed baldaux
post tiu monato la fortaj ventoj blovas, kaj la folioj komencas fali. La
frosto kovras la teron, kaj baldaux negxas tre ofte. Ju pli nudaj estas
la arboj, des pli malbelaj ili sxajnas. La vetero antaux novembro ne
estas tro malvarma, sed post tiu monato ni opinias ke la urbo estas pli
agrabla ol domo inter kampoj kaj arboj, trans largxa rivero. La frosto,
negxo kaj glacio kovras la teron en decembro, januaro kaj februaro. Sed
la monato septembro sxajnas tre agrabla, pro siaj multaj plezuroj. La
viroj laboras energie en la kampoj, de la mateno gxis la vespero. Ili
rikoltas la flavan grenon, kaj kolektas la fruktojn. Sed je dimancxo oni
ne laboras tiel energie, sed dormas gxis malfrua horo, tial ke je tiu
tago oni ripozas. Je lundo oni komencas labori tre frue, kaj je mardo
oni ankaux laboras energie. En septembro la vojoj ne estas tro kotaj,
kaj longaj promenoj estas ofte agrablaj. Ju pli ofte mi promenas kun
miaj amikoj, des pli multe mi sxatas tiajn promenojn. Sed hieraux mi
estis tre laca post la promeno, tial mi ripozis sur granda mola segxo.
Antaux ne longe la patro promenis kun mi, sed ni ne estis tiel lacaj je
tiu tago. Sxajnas ke ju pli ofte ni promenas, des malpli lacaj ni estas
post la promenoj. Post ne longe mi estos pli forta.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Many years ago we had a small house across the river. 2. We did not
remain there during the entire year, but only in the warmer months of
the summer. 3. Often we stayed until September or even until October. 4.
My younger brothers and sisters amused themselves very well there from
(the) morning until (the) evening. 5. They amused themselves among the
flowers and trees, or went from there into the large fields. 6. Here the
men work energetically, and harvest the ripe yellow grain. 7. Only on
Sunday do they rest, because on that day one does not work. 8. Between
August and November the men work more than in the winter. 9. In December
and after that month they rest, for (83) from that time the frost, ice
and snow cover the ground. 10. Because of the snow on the ground, long
walks are not pleasant in the winter. 11. Recently (90) we went walking
in the park across the river, but we were so tired after that walk! 12.
The longer the walk is, the sooner one wishes to rest. 13. On Monday it
rained, so (78) we read stories and wrote letters, in a pleasant light
room in our house. 14. Before evening, however, the sun shone, and the
streets were not so muddy. 15. On Tuesday these streets were almost dry,
and soon the roads near the river and between the fields will also be
dry. 16. A few years ago those roads were very good.

                              LESSON XXI.

                        THE ACCUSATIVE OF TIME.

91. Duration of time and a date or point in time may be expressed
not only by use of the prepositions "dum", during, and "je", at, on,
but also (as in English) without the use of any preposition. When no
preposition is used, the word or words indicating time are put in the
accusative case:

   Li restis tie la tutan semajnon (dum la tuta semajno),
      he stayed there the whole week (during the whole week).
   Sxi estis felicxa longan tempon (dum longa tempo),
      she was happy a long time (during a long time; for a long time).
   Ni rajdos tagon kaj nokton (dum tago kaj nokto),
      we shall ride a day and a night (during a day and a night;
      for a day and a night).
   Mi venis dimancxon (je dimancxo), I came Sunday (on Sunday).
   Tiun horon (je tiu horo), li forkuris,
      that hour (at that hour) he escaped.

92. Although generally preferable, an accusative construction must
be carefully placed, or avoided altogether, if confusion with other
accusatives (expressing direction of motion, direct object, etc.) might

   Mi volas iri Bostonon je lundo, I wish to go to Boston on Monday.
   Mi volas iri al Bostono lundon, I wish to go to Boston Monday.
   Lundon mi volas iri Bostonon, Monday I wish to go to Boston.


93. An accusative of time, as well as a temporal adverb, may further
define or be defined by another expression of time:

   Li venis longan tempon antaux tiu horo,
      he came a long time before that hour.
   Jaron post jaro ili restis tie,
      year after year they stayed there.
   hodiaux matene, this morning.
   hodiaux vespere, this evening.
   hodiaux nokte, tonight.
   hieraux vespere, last evening.
   hieraux nokte, last night.
   dimancxon matene, Sunday morning.
   lundon vespere, Monday evening.
   mardon nokte, Tuesday night.

94. An accusative of time does not necessarily imply that the act or
state mentioned occurs oftener than the instance cited. An adverb from
the same root usually gives an idea of frequency or repetition:

   Li iros al ilia domo dimancxon, he will go to their house Sunday.
   Li iras al ilia domo dimancxe, he goes to their house Sundays.
   Li laboris tagon kaj nokton, he worked a day and a night.
   Li laboras tage kaj nokte,
      he works day and night (by day and by night).

                         THE PREPOSITION "POR".

95. The object or purpose with reference to which an act is performed
or a condition exists is expressed by the preposition "por", for. It
directs the thought toward its complement, contrasting thus with "pro"

   Mi havas libron por vi, I have a book for you.
   Mi ne havas la tempon por tiel longa promeno,
      I have not the time for so long a (such a long) walk.
   Ili faris gxin por via plezuro, they did it for your pleasure.


   brila = brilliant.                 merkredo = Wednesday.
   Dio = God.                         mezo = middle.
   dividi = to divide.                mondo = world.
   fari = to make.                    paci = to be at peace.
   forgesi = to forget.               por = for (95).
   gxojo = joy.                       plori = to weep.
   konstanta = constant.              preta = ready.
   kvieta = quiet, calm.              ridi = to laugh.
   lando = land, country.             riprocxi = to reproach.

                        LA SEZONOJ KAJ LA MONDO.

Antaux tre longa tempo Dio faris la mondon. Li vidis ke la floroj
havas belajn kolorojn, ke la arboj estas altaj kaj verdaj. Tiam li
vokis la sezonojn kaj diris "Belan mondon mi faris por vi. Cxu vi
gardos gxin tage kaj nokte, kaj estos tre zorgaj pri gxi?" La sezonoj
respondis "Jes," kaj ridis pro gxojo. Mallongan tempon ili sxajnis
esti tre felicxaj inter la arboj kaj floroj de la nova mondo. Sed ne
multajn semajnojn ili tiel zorge gardis la mondon. Ili komencis malpaci
("quarrel") inter si, de la mateno gxis la vespero, kaj ofte forgesis
la arbojn kaj florojn. Ju pli ili malpacis, des malpli zorge ili gardis
la mondon. La malkonstanta printempo ne sxatis la kvietan vintron, kaj
ploris pri la malvarma negxo. La varma brila somero diris ke la auxtuno
estas tro malbrila. La laca auxtuno volis ripozi, kaj riprocxis la
malkonstantan printempon pri cxi ties kota vetero. Pli kaj pli multe ili
malpacis, kaj post ne longe ili tute ne restis amikoj. Tiam la auxtuno
diris "Mi ne povas pli longan tempon labori kun vi pro la mondo. Niaj
gustoj estas tro diversaj. Tial hodiaux matene ni dividos la mondon
inter ni." La vintro respondis "Bone! Mi estas preta," kaj la somero kaj
la printempo ridis pro gxojo. Tiun tagon ili dividis la mondon inter si.
La vintro konstruis sian domon en la plej nordaj kaj sudaj landoj. Tie
la frosto, negxo kaj glacio kovras la tutan landon, dum la tuta jaro. La
brila energia somero prenis por si la mezon de la mondo. Tial la vetero
tie estas plej varma kaj brila. La auxtuno kaj la printempo prenis por
si la landojn inter la vintro kaj la somero. Tial la vetero estas nek
tro varma nek tro malvarma en cxi tiuj landoj. Tiam la sezonoj rakontis
al Dio ke ili tiel dividis la mondon inter si.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Tuesday my brother heard an interesting story, and Wednesday evening
after a pleasant walk he related it to me. 2. The story is, that many
years ago God made the beautiful new world, and gave it to the seasons.
3. They laughed for joy, and said that they would guard it well. 4.
They were ready for pleasure, and also were willing ("volis") to work
energetically for-the-sake-of the new young world. 5. Almost a year
they were happy, but these seasons were too diverse, and could not long
remain friends. 6. The brilliant summer wept and reproached the tired
autumn. 7. The autumn preferred to rest, and disliked the muddy weather
of the inconstant spring. 8. The quiet winter concealed itself beneath
the frost and soft white snow, and wished to sleep. 9. The longer they
kept the world among them, the more they quarreled. 10. Soon the autumn
made the proposition, "We will divide the world." 11. Immediately that
morning the seasons divided the world among themselves. 12. The northern
and southern lands now belong to the winter, and the middle of the world
belongs to the summer. 13. The spring and autumn took for themselves
those lands between the winter and summer.

                              LESSON XXII.


96. The time during which an act takes place or a condition exists may
be expressed not only by an adverb or accusative of time (91), or by use
of the preposition "dum", but also by a clause introduced by "dum":

   Li venis dum vi forestis,
      he came while (during-the-time-that) you were away.
   Dum la sezonoj malpacis, ili forgesis pri la mondo,
      while the seasons quarreled, they forgot about the world.
   Ni ridas pro gxojo dum negxas,
      we laugh for joy while it is snowing.


97. A clause expressing an action or condition as preceding or
anticipating that of the main verb is introduced by "antaux ol":

   Mi foriros antaux ol vi venos, I shall depart before you (will) come.
   Antaux ol vi riprocxis lin, li ne ploris,
      before you reproached him, he did not weep.
   Vi ploris antaux ol vi ridis,
      you wept before (sooner than) you laughed.


98. An infinitive may be substantively used with "anstataux" to express
substitution, with "por" to express purpose (Cf. Old English "But what
went ye out for to see," Matt. xi, 8), and with "antaux ol" to express
anticipation. It is usually translated by the English infinitive in

   Anstataux resti li foriris, instead of staying he went away.
   Vi malhelpas anstataux helpi min, you hinder instead of helping me.
   Ni venis por helpi vin, we came to help (in order to help) you.
   Mi estas preta por iri merkredon,
      I am ready to go (for going) Wednesday.
   Li havos tro multe por fari, he will have too much to do.
   Mi laboros antaux ol ripozi, I shall work before resting.
   Antaux ol foriri, li dankis min, before going away, he thanked me.
   Dio faris la mondon antaux ol doni gxin al la sezonoj,
      God made the world before giving it to the seasons.

[Footnote: "Substantive" is the general name for nouns and pronouns,
that is, for words which indicate persons, things, etc., and may be used
as subject or object of a verb, complement of a preposition, etc.]

[Footnote: The infinitive may be used with "antaux ol" if its subject
is the same as the subject of the main verb. Otherwise the construction
explained in (97) must be used.]


99. After nouns indicating a quantity or portion of some indefinite
whole, the substantive expressing that indefinite whole is preceded by
the preposition "da", of:

   Estas skatolo da cxerizoj tie, there is a box of cherries there.
   Mi trovis grandan sakon da mono, I found a large bag of money.
   Li havas teleron da viando, he has a plate of meat.
   Post horoj da gxojo ofte venas horoj da malgxojo,
      after hours of joy there often come hours of sorrow.

100. The preposition "da" must not be used if a quantity or portion of a
"definite" or "limited" whole is expressed. If the word indicating the
whole is limited by "la", it is thereby made definite:

   Telero de la maturaj pomoj, a plate of the ripe apples.
   Sako de la bona kafo, a sack of the good coffee.


   Aleksandro = Alexander.            koni = to be acquainted with.
   barelo = barrel.                   lauxta = loud.
   bruo = noise.                      lito = bed.
   da = of (99).                      logxi = to dwell, to reside.
   demandi = to inquire, to ask.      nombro = number (quantity).
   Diogeno = Diogenes.                pura = clean.
   greka = Greek.                     suficxa = sufficient, enough.
   kelkaj = several, some.            veki = to wake.
   kvankam = although.                viziti = to visit.
   cxifono = rag.                     vesto = garment, clothes.


Antaux multaj jaroj sagxa greka viro, Diogeno, logxis en granda urbo. Li
opiniis ke ju pli malmulte oni bezonas, des pli felicxa oni estas. Por
montri al la mondo ke li ne bezonas multe, kaj ke tial li havas suficxe
por esti felicxa, li logxis en granda malnova barelo, anstataux havi
domon. Anstataux kusxi nokte sur lito aux almenaux sur mola tapisxo, li
ecx dormis en tiu barelo. Oni multe parolis pri Diogeno en la urbo, ne
nur cxar li tiel logxis, sed ankaux pro liaj sagxaj diroj. Post kelke
da tempo ("some time") la regxo Aleksandro Granda venis tien por viziti
la urbon. Dum li estis tie li auxdis pri Diogeno, kaj demandis pri li.
"Cxu li logxas en la urbo?" Aleksandro diris. "Kvankam vi ne konas lin,
mi opinias ke mi volas vidi tian viron." Oni respondis "Diogeno estas
sagxa viro, sed anstataux logxi en domo, li preferas sidi la tutan
tempon en malnova barelo. Anstataux porti ("wearing") purajn vestojn, li
portas nur malpurajn cxifonojn, cxar li opinias ke ju pli malmulte li
bezonas, des pli felicxa li estos." Aleksandro diris "Antaux ol foriri
de via lando mi vizitos tiun viron." Antaux ol li foriris de la urbo,
Aleksandro iris kun nombro da amikoj por viziti Diogenon, kaj trovis lin
en lia barelo. "Cxu tiu viro volas paroli al mi?" demandis Diogeno per
lauxta vocxo. Aleksandro Granda respondis "Mi estas la regxo Aleksandro,
kaj mi volas koni vin. Mi vidas ke kvankam vi estas sagxa vi estas tre
malricxa. Cxu vi ne volas kelkajn novajn vestojn anstataux tiuj malpuraj
cxifonoj?" Diogeno tuj diris "Antaux ol vi venis kaj staris inter mi kaj
la suno, cxi tiu tre varme brilis sur min. Cxu vi venis por fari bruon
kaj por veki min?" Aleksandro ridis kaj diris "Mi vidas ke vi havas
suficxe por esti felicxa. Tial mi estas preta por foriri."

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Diogenes was a wise man who dwelt in a Greek city, many years ago. 2.
In order to show to the inconstant world that one does not need much in
order to be happy, he did not have even a house or a bed. 3. He stayed
day and night in a big barrel, instead of residing in a house. 4. He
preferred to wear old rags, instead of good clean clothes. 5. He said
"The less one needs, the happier he will be." 6. While Alexander the
Great was visiting that city, people talked to him about Diogenes. 7.
They asked "Are you acquainted-with that wise man?" 8. Soon the king
went with a number of his friends to that-man's big barrel, in the
middle of the city. 9. Diogenes was asleep, but the noise of the loud
voices waked him, and he said angrily "You are standing between me and
the sun! Will you not go away at once?" 10. Although several of the men
laughed, Alexander said "We did not come to quarrel with you. 11. I see
that you have enough to be happy, so instead of talking and making a
noise we shall leave (go away from) you at once." 12. Before Diogenes
could answer, Alexander had quietly walked away.

                             LESSON XXIII.


101. After adverbs used to indicate a quantity or portion of some
indefinite whole, as well as after nouns of such meaning (99), the
substantive expressing the indefinite whole is preceded by the
preposition "da":

   Multe da bruo, much (a quantity of) noise.
   Tiel malmulte da tempo, so little (such a small quantity of) time.
   Kelke da pomoj, some (an indefinite number of) apples.

102. Verbs may be modified by an adverb and prepositional phrase
containing "da":

   Li trinkis malmulte da akvo, he drank little (not much) water.
   Estas multe da sablo en la dezerto, there is much sand in the desert.
   Ju pli negxas, des pli multe da negxo kusxas sur la vojoj,
      the more it snows, the more snow lies on the roads.

[Footnote: A prepositional phrase containing "da", whether following a
noun or an adverb, is sometimes called a "partitive" construction.]

103. It is evident from the above examples that an adverb followed
by "da" has a somewhat collective sense, indicating a general sum,
mass, or portion of the whole, without distinction of particulars.
An "adjective" of quantitative meaning, on the other hand, usually
indicates consideration of the individuals composing the sum or mass

   En urbo oni havas multe da bruo, in a city one has much noise.
   Ni auxdis multajn bruojn, we heard many (different) noises.
   Tie oni havas multe da plezuro, there one has much pleasure.
   Oni havas multajn plezurojn tie,
      people have many (different) pleasures there.


104. The demonstrative adverb of quantity related to the demonstrative
pronoun "tiu" is "tiom", that (this) much, that many, that quantity, so
much, etc.:--

   Mi donis tiom da mono al vi,
      I gave that much (that amount of) money to you.
   Mi acxetis tiom da viando, I bought that much meat.
   Tiom de la libroj mi legis, that many of the books I read.

                            RESULT CLAUSES.

105. A clause of result (also called a consecutive clause) expresses an
action or condition as due to, or resulting from, something indicated
in the main sentence, as "he is so strong that he can do it," "I had so
much pleasure that I laughed heartily." In Esperanto a result clause is
introduced by "ke", preceded (directly or in the main sentence) by an
adverb or adjective of manner, degree, or quantity:

   Diogeno estis tiel sagxa greka viro ke Aleksandro lauxdis lin,
      Diogenes was such a wise Greek man that Alexander praised him.
   Mi havis tiom da plezuro ke mi tre ridis,
      I had so much pleasure that I laughed very much.
   Gxi estas tia vilagxo ke mi sxatas logxi tie,
      it is such (that sort of) a village that I like to live there.


   acxeti = to buy.                   kontuzo = bruise.
   asparago = asparagus.              lakto = milk.
   brasiko = cabbage.                 legomo = vegetable.
   butiko = store, shop.              ovo = egg.
   frago = strawberry.                pizo = pea.
   funto = pound.                     sabato = Saturday.
   glaso = glass, tumbler.            tiom = that much (104).
   jxauxdo = Thursday.                vendredo = Friday.
   kremo = cream.                     vilagxo = village.

                             EN LA BUTIKO.

Hodiaux matene mi iris kun la patrino al la plej granda butiko en nia
vilagxo. Tie sxi acxetis tiom da legomoj kaj fruktoj ke ni tute ne povis
porti ilin. Tial juna knabo venis kun ni, kaj portis kelke da ili por
ni. La patrino ne acxetis tiel multe je vendredo, sed hodiaux estas
sabato, kaj sxi volis acxeti legomojn por dimancxo, cxar dimancxe oni
ne povas iri en la butikojn. Tial sabate oni kutime acxetas suficxe
por la mangxoj de sabato kaj dimancxo. Meze de la butiko staras multe
da bareloj. En cxi tiuj oni trovas grandan nombron da fresxaj puraj
legomoj. La patrino acxetis tiel multe da asparago kaj novaj pizoj, kaj
tiel grandan sakon da terpomoj, ke la tablo restis preskaux nuda. Mi
vidis brasikon tie, sed tiun legomon mi malsxatas, kvankam oni diras
ke gxi estas tre bona legomo. Antaux ol foriri de la butiko la patrino
acxetis kelke da ovoj, kaj rigardis la fruktojn en bareloj apud la
pordo. Ili sxajnis tiel bonaj ke sxi acxetis kelkajn maturajn pomojn
kaj skatolon da fragoj. Dum oni donis al sxi la fruktojn, mi acxetis
kelkajn funtojn da sukero. Tiam ni estis pretaj por foriri el la butiko.
Sur la vojo ni auxdis tiel grandan bruon ke mi lasis la patrinon kaj
kuris trans la straton. Mi trovis tie infanon,la filon de nia najbaro.
Li faris la bruon, cxar li falis de la arbo antaux sia domo, kaj tre
lauxte ploris. Li diris al mi ke li havas multajn kontuzojn sur la kapo.
Cxar mi bone konas la infanon, mi demandis "Cxu vi volas grandan rugxan
pomon? Mi havas tian pomon por vi." Li tuj kaptis la pomon, kaj mi
foriris. Tiam la patrino kaj mi iris al la domo.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. I shall go to the village today with my younger sister. 2. We wish
to buy some eggs, vegetables and fruit for Mother. 3. Mother prefers to
remain in the house, because it is raining. 4. It rained on Thursday and
Friday, but today it is not raining very much. 5. The air is warm and
pleasant, and we shall carry umbrellas with us. 6. We shall buy some
new peas, a box of strawberries and several pounds of sugar. 7. Thus
we shall have enough for the meals of Saturday and Sunday. 8. I wonder
whether we shall see such asparagus and such cabbage on the tables or in
the barrels. 9. Although I do not often eat such vegetables, Father and
Mother are very fond of ("multe sxatas") both cabbage and asparagus. 10.
We shall also buy enough milk for several glasses of milk, and we shall
need much cream for the strawberries. 11. It seems that we shall buy
such a number of vegetables that we cannot carry them. 12. While we were
standing near the door, ready to go toward the village (46), we heard a
loud voice. 13. A child was standing in the street, and crying. 14. He
wished to go with his mother to visit some friends. 15. I suppose that a
noise on the street waked him, and he did not wish to remain in his bed.

                              LESSON XXIV.

                       THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN.

106. The interrogative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is "kiu",
who, which. Since the use of this pronoun indicates a question, the
sentence containing it does not need the interrogative adverb "cxu"

   Kiu vokas vin? Who calls you?
   Kiun vi vokas? Whom do you call?
   Kiuj el vi vokis nin? Which (ones) of you called us?
   Kiujn li helpis? Whom (which ones) did he help?
   Kiun tagon vi venos? What day will you come?
   Kiujn legomojn vi preferas? What vegetables do you prefer?
   Mi miras kiun libron vi acxetis? I wonder which book you bought?

107. The interrogative pronoun "kiu" has a possessive or genitive form
"kies", whose:

   En kies domo vi logxas? In whose house do you reside?
   Kies amikojn vi vizitis? Whose friends did you visit?


108. A participle is a "verbal adjective", as in "a "crying" child."
It agrees like other adjectives with the word modified (19, 24). The
participle from a transitive verb (22) may take a direct object, and a
participle expressing motion may be followed by an accusative indicating
direction of motion (46). The present active participle, expressing what
the word modified "is doing", ends in "-anta," as "vidanta", seeing,
"iranta", going:

   La ploranta infano volas dormi. The crying child wishes to sleep.
   Mi vidas la falantajn foliojn, I see the falling leaves.
   Kiu estas la virino acxetanta ovojn? Who is the woman buying eggs?
   Mi parolis al la viroj irantaj vilagxon.
      I talked to the men (who were) going toward the village.

                            COMPOUND TENSES.

109. A participle may be used predicatively with a form of "esti", as
"Mi estas demandanta", I am asking, "La viro estas acxetanta", the man
is buying. Such combinations are called "compound tenses", in contrast
to the "simple" or "aoristic" tenses.

[Footnote: An aoristic tense consists of but one word (ending in
"-as", "-os", etc.) and expresses an act or state as a whole, without
specifying whether it is finished, still in progress, or yet begun.]

Compound tenses occur less often in Esperanto than in English, and an
aoristic Esperanto tense may often be translated by an English compound
tense, as "La birdoj flugas", the birds are flying. When used to
form a compound tense, the verb "esti" is called the "auxiliary verb".
No other verb is ever used as an auxiliary (a simpler method than in
English, which uses "be", "have", "do", "will", "shall", "would", etc.).


110. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle
with the present tense of "esti" is called the "progressive present
tense". It differs from the aoristic present by expressing an action
as definitely in progress, or a condition as continuously existing, at
the moment of speaking. The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as

   mi estas vidanta, I am seeing.
   vi estas vidanta, you are seeing.
   li (sxi, gxi) estas vidanta, he (she, it) is seeing.
   ni estas vidantaj, we are seeing.
   vi estas vidantaj, you (plural) are seeing.
   ili estas vidantaj, they are seeing.

                           THE SUFFIX "-EJ-".

111. Words expressing the place where the action indicated by the root
occurs, or where the object indicated by the root may be found, are
formed by inserting the suffix "-ej-" before the noun-ending:

   cxevalejo, stable (from "cxevalo", horse).
   dormejo, dormitory (from "dormi", to sleep).
   herbejo, meadow (from "herbo", grass).
   logxejo, lodging-place, dwelling (from "logxi", to dwell, to lodge).

[Footnote: Similar formations are made in English with the suffix "-y",
as "bakery", "bindery", "grocery", etc. This suffix is equivalent to the
"-ei" in German "Baeckerei", bakery, "Druckerei", printing-office, etc.,
and to the "-ie" in French "patisserie", pastry-shop, "imprimerie",
printing-shop, etc.]


   alia = other, another.             kuiri = to cook.
   baki = to bake.                    kurteno = curtain.
   dika = thick.                      kutimo = custom.
   facila = easy.                     leciono = lesson.
   familio = family.                  lerni = to learn.
   kanapo = sofa.                     pano = bread.
   kies = whose (107).                persono = person.
   kiu = who (106).                   salono = parlor.

                              EN NIA DOMO.

Oni ofte miras kies domo en nia vilagxo estas plej bela, kaj kiu domo
estas la plej agrabla logxejo. Nia domo ne estas tre granda, sed gxi
estas nova kaj ni multe sxatas gxin. Gxia salono estas granda, kun belaj
puraj kurtenoj kovrantaj la fenestrojn, kaj mola dika tapisxo kovranta
la plankon. Cxi tie estas kelkaj segxoj, malgranda tablo, kaj longa
kanapo. Personoj vizitantaj nin kutime sidas en cxi tiu cxambro, kaj
dum ni estas sidantaj tie ni nur parolas, anstataux skribi aux legi.
Alia cxambro en la domo estas tre luma kaj agrabla, sed malpli granda.
Cxi tie staras tablo suficxe granda por nia tuta familio, kaj en tiu
cxambro oni mangxas. Ofte ni restas tie longan tempon post la mangxo,
cxar la patro rakontas interesajn rakontojn al ni, kaj ni multe ridas,
kaj demandas pri tiuj rakontoj, kaj tiel bone amuzas nin ke mi preskaux
forgesas pri miaj lecionoj. Tamen mi havas multe da lecionoj por lerni,
kaj ili tute ne estas facilaj. Je tre frua horo matene mi iras al la
lernejo, kun miaj fratoj kaj fratinoj. Nur sabate kaj dimancxe ni ne
iras tien. La lernejo estas malnova kaj malgranda, sed oni estas nun
konstruanta novan pli grandan lernejon apud nia domo. Dum la infanoj
estas lernantaj siajn lecionojn tie, la patrino kutime iras al la
bakejon, por acxeti suficxe da pano, por la mangxoj de la tago. Ofte
sxi iras ankaux al aliaj butikoj. Jxauxdon sxi acxetis kelke da novaj
pizoj, kaj da asparago. Vendredon sxi acxetis kelkajn funtojn da sukero,
skatolon da fragoj, kaj suficxe da kremo kaj lakto. Hodiaux sxi estas
acxetanta brasikon kaj sakon da terpomoj. Sxi volas kuiri tre bonan
mangxon, tamen sxi havas tro multe por fari en la kuirejo, cxar sxi ne
havas servistinon.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Who is the woman sitting on the sofa in the parlor? 2. I can not
easily see her, but I hear her voice. 3. I wonder whose voice that is.
4. However, I think that it is the voice of a friend of Mother's. 5. Now
I can see her, although she does not see me. 6. I am well acquainted
with her. 7. She is a friend of our whole family, and is visiting a
neighbor of ours ("najbaron nian") in this city. 8. My sister is sitting
on the sofa in another room, and learning her lessons. 9. Soon she
will go to school. 10. Whose book is she reading? 11. That thick book
is mine, but the other books on the table near her are hers. 12. She
prefers to sit in the sewing-room (111) to read or write (98), because
the curtains in front of the windows are not too thick, and so (78)
that room is very light and pleasant. 13. She also likes to look at the
falling snow, and the men and women walking on the muddy streets. 14. On
account of the cold weather, people are wearing thick clothes. 15. The
men and boys are keeping their hands in their pockets while they walk.
16. The girls walking toward the school are friends of my sister's. 17.
In that school they learn to cook. Soon they will be able to bake bread,
and even to cook a whole meal. 18. I think such a custom is very good.
19. Many persons can not cook well enough ("suficxe bone").

                              LESSON XXV.

                      THE INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE.

112. The interrogative adjective related to the interrogative pronoun
"kiu", is "kia", what kind of, what sort of:

   Kiajn vestojn li portis? What sort of clothes did he wear?
   Kian panon vi preferas? What kind of bread do you prefer?
   Mi miras kia persono li estas. I wonder what sort of a person he is.
   Kia vetero estas? What sort of weather is it?
   Kia plezuro! What a pleasure!

                          THE IMPERFECT TENSE.

113. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle
with the past tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as in
progress in past time, but not perfected, and is called the "imperfect
tense". The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows:

   mi estis vidanta. I was seeing.
   vi estis vidanta. you were seeing.
   li (sxi, gxi) estis vidanta. he (she, it) was seeing.
   ni estis vidantaj. we were seeing.
   vi estis vidantaj. you were seeing.
   ili estis vidantaj. they were seeing.

                     THE PROGRESSIVE FUTURE TENSE.

114. The compound tense formed by using the present active participle
with the future tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as in
progress--or a condition as existing continuously--at a future time, and
is called the "progressive future" tense. The conjugation of "vidi" in
this tense is as follows:

   mi estos vidanta. I shall be seeing.
   vi estos vidanta. you will be seeing.
   li (sxi, gxi) estos vidanta. he (she, it) will be seeing.
   ni estos vidantaj. we shall be seeing.
   vi estos vidantaj. you will be seeing.
   ili estos vidantaj. they will be seeing.


exclamation may be regarded as the direct object of a verb which is not
expressed; these words are put in the accusative

   Bonan matenon! Good morning! (I wish you "good morning.")
   Bonan nokton! Good night! (I wish you a "good night.")
   Multajn salutojn al via patro!
      (I send) many greetings to your father!
   Dankon! Thanks! (I give to you "thanks.")
   Cxielon! Heavens! (I invoke the "heavens.")

                            WORD FORMATION.

116. The majority of roots have such a meaning that at least two kinds
of words, and often three or four, may be formed from them by use of
the general endings for verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. (Each
root will hereafter be quoted but once in the vocabularies, with a
hyphen separating it from the ending with which it appears first in the
reading lesson, or with which it is most frequently used.) Following are
examples of word formation from roots already familiar:

VERB.         NOUN.                ADJECTIVE.           ADVERB.

brili         brilo                brila                 brile
   to shine      shine, brilliance    shining, brilliant    brilliantly

flori         floro                flora                 flore
   to bloom      flower, blossom      floral                florally

gxoji         gxojo                gxoja                 gxoje
   to rejoice    joy, gladness        joyful, glad          gladly

kontuzi       kontuzo
   to bruise     bruise, contusion

              tuto                 tuta                  tute
                 whole                entire, whole, all    entirely

                           "KONI" AND "SCII".

117. The verb "koni", which means "to know" in the sense of "to be
acquainted with" is used in speaking of persons, languages, places, etc.
"Koni" always has a direct object. It is never followed by "ke", "cxu",
"kiu", or any other interrogative word. "Scii" means "to know" in the
sense of "to be aware," "to have knowledge." It is not used in speaking
of persons.

[Footnote: "Koni" is equivalent to German "kennen", French "connaitre",
Spanish "conocer", while "scii" is equivalent to German "wissen", French
"savoir", Spanish "saber".]

   Cxu vi konas tiun personon? Do you know that person?
   Mi scias ke li estas nia najbaro. I know that he is our neighbor.
   Mi bone konas Bostonon. I am well acquainted with Boston.
   Mi ne scias cxu li konas ilin. I do not know whether he knows them.


   av-o = grandfather.                kia = what kind of (112).
   buked-o = bouquet.                 lingv-o = language.
   ekzamen-o = examination.           nep-o = grandson.
   ferm-i = to close.                 nu! Well!
   frap-i = to strike, to knock.      paper-o = paper.
   geometri-o = geometry.             salut-i = to greet.
   german-a = German.                 sci-i = to know (117).
   hejm-o = home.                     stud-i = to study.

                       LA NEPO VIZITAS LA AVINON.

Hieraux matene mi vizitis la avinon. Sxia hejmo estas apud la granda
nova bakejo. Mi vidis sxin tra la fenestro, cxar la kurtenoj kovrantaj
gxin estas tre maldikaj. Sxi estis sidanta sur la kanapo, kaj skribanta
per plumo sur granda papero. Antaux ol frapi sur la pordo mi vokis sxin
kaj diris "Bonan matenon, kara avino!" Tuj sxi demandis "Kiu estas tie?
Kies vocxon mi auxdas?" Mi respondis "Estas via nepo. Cxu vi ne konas
mian vocxon?" Antaux ol sxi povis veni al la pordo mi estis malfermanta
gxin. Mi iris en la salonon kaj donis al la avino bukedon da floroj.
"La patrino donas cxi tiujn al vi, kun siaj plej bonaj salutoj," mi
diris. La avino respondis "Nu, kia plezuro! Multan dankon al sxi pro la
bela bukedo, kaj ankaux al vi, cxar vi portis gxin cxi tien por mi!"
Dum sxi estis metanta la florojn en glason da akvo la avino diris "Nu,
kiajn lecionojn vi havis hodiaux en la lernejo?" Mi respondis ke mi
bone konis la lecionojn, cxar mi zorge studis ilin. "Ni estas lernantaj
la germanan lingvon," mi diris, "kaj ju pli longe ni studas gxin, des
pli multe mi gxin sxatas, kvankam gxi estas tre malfacila." Mi rakontis
ankaux pri la lecionoj de geometrio, kaj aliaj lecionoj, sed diris ke la
ekzamenoj estos baldaux komencantaj. "Je tiu tempo," mi diris, "mi estos
skribanta la respondojn al la ekzamenoj, preskaux la tutan semajnon."
La avino demandis kun intereso "Cxu la demandoj de la ekzamenoj estos
malfacilaj?" Mi respondis "Mi ne scias, sed mi timas ke ni estos tre
lacaj post tiom da laboro." Post kelke da aliaj demandoj kaj respondoj,
mi opiniis ke estas la horo por foriri. Dum mi estis foriranta, la avino
diris "Multajn salutojn al la tuta familio!" Mi dankis sxin, diris
"Bonan tagon!" kaj tiam foriris.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. What sort of noise do I hear outside the door? 2. Are some of my
friends knocking? 3. We were talking yesterday about the examinations in
our school, and these boys came home to study with me. 4. I shall go to
the door to open it and to greet my friends. 5. Good morning! Did you
come to study geometry, or the German language? 6. Which of these is
usually more difficult, and in which will the examination be the longer?
7. Well, we brought our German books, because we prefer to study these.
8. We wish to know this language thoroughly. 9. We shall go into the
writing-room (111), for (83) some friends of my grandmother are in the
parlor. 10. We can hear their voices here, and we can not study very
well while they are talking. 11. They were carrying many flowers, and
gave a beautiful bouquet to my grandmother. 12. She said "Many thanks
for (86) the sweet violets! In whose garden did they bloom?" 13. Her
friend's granddaughter is a friend of my youngest sister. 14. Well,
shall we begin to study? Have you enough paper, and have you a good pen?
15. I shall close this other door, because they are baking bread in the
kitchen, and cooking meat. 16. We shall be hearing the voices of so many
persons that I know that we can not study.

                              LESSON XXVI.


118. The interrogative adverb of place, related to the interrogative
pronoun "kiu" is "kie", where, in (at) what place. If the verb in the
sentence expresses motion toward the place indicated by "kie", the
ending "-n" is added, forming "kien", whither (where):

   Kie li estis kaj kien oni forpelis lin?
      Where was he and whither did they drive him (away)?
   Li miros kie lia nepo estas. He will wonder where his grandson is.
   Mi ne scias kien li kuris. I do not know where (whither) he ran.

                      THE PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE.

119. The past active participle, (for the characteristics of a
participle see 108) expressing what the word modified "did" or "has
done", ends in "-inta", as "vidinta", having seen, "irinta", gone,
having gone:

   La falintaj folioj estas brunaj. The fallen leaves are brown.
   Kiu estas la viro salutinta nin?
      Who is the man having greeted (who greeted) us?
   Oni forgesas la foririntajn personojn.
      One forgets the departed persons (the persons who have gone away).


120. Adverbs may be derived from prepositions whose sense permits, by
use of the adverb ending "-e":

   Antauxe li studis la geometrion, previously he studied geometry.
   Poste li studis la germanan, afterwards he studied German.
   Li marsxis antauxe, ne malantauxe, he walked in front, not behind.
   Dume la viroj staris cxirkauxe, meanwhile the men stood roundabout.
   Ili venis kune kaj sidis apude, they came together and sat near by.


121. An adverb expressing place or direction is given the ending "-n"
when used with a verb expressing motion toward that place or direction
(69, 118, etc.):

   Cxu li rajdis norden aux suden? Did he ride north or south(ward)?
   Ni kuris antauxen, ne malantauxen, we ran forward, not back.
   La bukedo falis eksteren kaj suben,
      the bouquet fell out and underneath.
   Li estis marsxanta hejmen, he was walking home (homeward).

[Footnote: The adverb may precede the verb and be united with it by
simple juxtaposition, if the resulting word is not too long: "Li
hejmeniris", he went home (he "home-went"). "Ni antauxeniros", we
shall advance (go forward). "La bukedo subenfalis", the bouquet fell

                           THE SUFFIX "-EG-".

122. The suffix "-eg-" may be added to a root to augment or intensify
its meaning, thus forming an "augmentative" of the root:

   barelego, hogshead (from "barelo", barrel).
   bonega, excellent (from "bona", good).
   malbonege, wickedly, wretchedly (from "malbone", badly, poorly).
   domego, mansion (from "domo", house).
   ploregi, to sob, to wail (from "plori", to weep).
   treege, exceedingly (from "tre", very).


   aer-o = air.                       pez-a = heavy.
   danc-i = to dance.                 polv-o = dust.
   fulm-o = lightning.                sekv-i = to follow.
   gut-o = drop (of water, etc.).     sercx-i = to hunt for, to search.
   kie = where (118).                 silent-a = still, silent.
   okaz-i = to happen, to occur.      subit-a = sudden.
   okul-o = eye.                      tegment-o = roof.
   pec-o = piece.                     tondr-o = thunder.

                              LA PLUVEGO.

Nu, kia pluvego okazis hieraux vespere! Post kvieta varmega mateno,
subite multaj nuboj kovris la cxielon. La aero sxajnis peza, kaj estis
tute silenta kelkan tempon. Tiam forte blovanta vento frapegis la
arbojn, kaj komencis fortege skui la brancxojn. Multege da polvo kaj
malgrandaj pecoj da papero dancis kaj flugis cxirkauxen en la aero, kaj
ankaux cxielen. Falis tiam kelkaj grandaj gutoj da pluvo, kaj ni sciis
ke la pluvego estas venanta. Ni malfermis niajn ombrelojn, kaj kuris
antauxen, por iri hejmen antaux ol falos multe da pluvo. La fulmo tiel
ofte brilis ke ni fermis la okulojn pro gxi, kaj treege gxin timis.
Preskaux tuj la tondro sekvis gxin. Tondris tiom kaj tiel lauxtege ke la
bruo sxajnis frapi kontraux niajn kapojn. Tiam komencis subite pluvegi,
sed je tiu tempo ni estis preskaux sub la tegmento de nia domo. Dume la
vento pli kaj pli blovegis, kaj ju pli forte gxi blovis, des pli peze
la gutoj da pluvo falis teren, kun multege da bruo. Mi opinias ke mi
malofte antauxe vidis tian pluvegon. La sekvintan tagon mi promenis tre
frue, kaj vidis ke la pordego al la gxardeno de mia avo estas kusxanta
sur la tero. Apude mi vidis ventoflagon falintan de la tegmento de tiu
granda cxevalejo. Velkintaj floroj kusxis sur la tero cxirkaux mi, kaj
inter ili estis brancxoj falintaj de la arboj, cxar la grandega forto
de la vento forrompis ecx cxi tiujn. Sur malgranda brancxo restis
nesto, sed kie estis la birdoj! Mi sercxis la junajn birdojn sed tute
ne povis trovi ilin, tial mi opinias ke ili forflugis antaux ol la
ventoj forrompis de la arbo ilian malgrandan hejmon. Mi ne scias kien
ili flugis, sed mi opinias ke ili flugis suden al la arboj en tiu granda
kampo trans la rivero.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. While we were walking home (121) from school yesterday, it rained
very suddenly. 2. What a storm it was! 3. We were talking about the
lessons in geometry, and were looking at these books about the German
language. 4. So we did not see the clouds in (on) the sky. 5. Well, we
forgot about examinations and began to wonder where to go. 6. We did
not know whether we had enough time to run even to Grandfather's house
before it would rain. 7. Many papers fell out of our books, and the
wind caught them. 8. The wind chased them away from us, and they seemed
to dance around in the air. 9. However, we easily caught and gathered
them, and then we ran forward. 10. Suddenly it thundered very loudly,
and we saw the brilliant lightning in the sky. 11. We almost closed our
eyes for the lightning. 12. Big drops of rain fell heavily and struck
the dust violently. 13. The air was heavy and still then, and the storm
immediately followed the few drops of rain. 14. We hastened across the
street, and ran faster and faster. 15. We were exhausted (122) and our
clothes were exceedingly wet before we were in the house. 16. The rain
was dropping from the roof, but we ran through it, and knocked on the
door. 17. We rested some time here, before going home.

                             LESSON XXVII.


123. The interrogative temporal adverb, related to the interrogative
pronoun "kiu", is "kiam", when, at what time?

   Kiam li sercxos min? When will he look for me?
   Oni miras kiam li venos, they wonder when he is coming (will come).
   Kiam falis tiuj gutoj da pluvo? When did those drops of rain fall?

                           THE PERFECT TENSE.

124. The compound tense formed by using the past active participle
with the present tense of "esti" is called the "perfect tense". It
differs from the aoristic past tense (35) and from the imperfect (113)
by expressing an act or condition as definitely completed or perfected.
The conjugation of "vidi" in the perfect tense is as follows:

   mi estas vidinta, I have seen (I am having-seen).
   vi estas vidinta, you have seen (you are having-seen).
   li (sxi, gxi) estas vidinta, he (she, it) has seen (is having-seen).
   ni estas vidintaj, we have seen (we are having-seen).
   vi estas vidintaj, you have seen (you are having-seen).
   ili estas vidintaj, they have seen (they are having-seen).

                       THE PREPOSITION "CXE".

125. The general situation of a person, object or action is expressed by
the use of the preposition "cxe", at, at the house of, in the region or
land of, among, with, etc.:

   Li staris silente cxe la pordego, he stood silently at the gate.
   Li logxas cxe mia avo, he lives (dwells) at my grandfather's.
   Ili estas cxe la lernejo, they are at the school.
   Li restos cxe amikoj, he will stay with (at the house of) friends.
   Li vizitos cxe ni morgaux, he will visit at-our-house tomorrow.

                           THE SUFFIX "-AR-".

126. Words expressing a collection, group or assemblage of similar
persons or things, as "forest" (collection of trees), "army" (assemblage
of soldiers), etc., may be formed by the use of the suffix "-ar-". This
suffix may itself be used as a root to form "aro", "group, flock", etc.,
"are", in a group, by throngs, etc. Words formed with the suffix "-ar-"
are called collectives:

   arbaro, forest (from arbo, tree).
   cxevalaro, herd of horses (from cxevalo, horse).
   kamparo, country (from kampo, field).
   libraro, collection of books, library (from libro, book).
   amikaro, circle of friends (from amiko, friend).

                          "TEMPO" AND "FOJO".

127. The general word for "time" in the sense of duration, or
suitability (as "the proper time"), is "tempo". The word "fojo",
time, occasion, refers to the performance or occurrence of an
act or event, in repetition or series:

   Mi ne havas multe da tempo, I have not much time.
   Li venis multajn fojojn, kaj la lastan fojon li restis longan tempon,
      he came many times, and the last time he remained a long time.
   Kelkajn fojojn lauxte tondris, several times it thundered loudly.
   Multe da fojoj ni fermis la okulojn pro la fulmo,
      many times we closed our eyes on account of the lightning.


128. Proper nouns, that is, nouns which are names of persons, cities,
countries, etc., are given Esperanto spelling if they are names of
continents, countries, large or very well-known cities, or if they
are first (Christian) names of persons, as "Azio", Asia, "Skotlando",
Scotland, "Bostono", Boston, "Johano", John, "Mario", Mary. Surnames
and names of places which are small or not well known are more often
quoted in the national spelling. The pronunciation may be indicated
in parentheses, as "Mt. Vernon" ("Mauxnt Vernon"), "Roberto Bruce"
("Brus"), "Martinique" ("Martinik'"), etc.


   arane-o = spider.                  ramp-i = to crawl.
   Azi-o = Asia.                      rekt-a = direct, straight.
   cxe = at (125).                    rimark-i = to notice.
   fin-o = end, ending.               send-i = to send.
   foj-o = time, instance (127).      Skotland-o = Scotland.
   kiam = when (123).                 soldat-o = soldier.
   pacienc-o = patience.              sukces-i = to succeed.
   pied-o = foot.                     supr-e = above.
   plafon-o = ceiling.                venk-i = to conquer.

                      ROBERTO BRUCE KAJ LA ARANEO.

Oni rakontas la sekvantan interesan rakonton pri Roberto Bruce, regxo
antaux multaj jaroj en Skotlando. Okazis ke li estis rigardanta la
soldataron de siaj malamikoj, de la fenestro de granda cxevalejo.
Por povi rigardi plej facile, kaj ankaux por sin kasxi, li forsendis
siajn soldatojn kaj restis la tutan tagon sub tiu tegmento. Kvankam la
cxevalejo estis granda gxi estis malnova, kaj li opiniis ke la malamikoj
ne sercxos lin tie. Je la fino de la tago li subite rimarkis araneon
sur la muro apud si. La araneo estis rampanta supren, sed baldaux gxi
falis en la polvon cxe liaj piedoj. Tuj la falinta araneo komencis
alian fojon supren rampi. Alian fojon gxi falis teren, sed post ne
longe gxi komencis rampi alian fojon. "Kia pacienco!" diris la regxo al
si. "Mi ne sciis ke la araneo havas tiel multe da pacienco! Sed kien
gxi nun estas falinta?" Li rigardis cxirkauxen kaj fine ("finally")
li vidis la falintan araneon. Kun granda surprizo li rimarkis ke gxi
estas komencanta supren rampi. Multajn fojojn gxi supren rampis, kaj
tiom da fojoj gxi falis malsupren. Fine, tamen, gxi sukcese rampis
gxis la plafono. La regxo malfermis la busxon pro surprizo, kaj diris
al si "Kiam antauxe mi vidis tiom da pacienco! Mi opinias ke la fina
sukceso de tiu malgranda araneo donas al mi bonegan lecionon. Mi estas
ofte malsukcesinta, sed malpli ofte ol tiu araneo sur la muro. Mi estas
perdinta multe da soldatoj, kaj la malamikoj estas venkintaj multajn
fojojn, cxar ili havas multe pli grandan nombron da soldatoj. Tamen, mi
estos pacienca, cxar oni ne scias kiam li fine sukcesos." La sekvintan
tagon, la regxo Roberto Bruce komencis treege labori kontraux siaj
malamikoj. Post mallonga tempo li bone sukcesis, kaj tute venkis la
malamikoj en granda venko cxe Bannockburn (Banokb'rn).

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Although the enemies of Robert Bruce conquered him many times, he
finally conquered them in Scotland, because he was patient and very
courageous. 2. He was sitting in a large stable, to hide (himself), and
also in order to (98) look directly from its roof (at) the soldiery
(126) of the enemy. 3. At the end of the day he noticed a spider
crawling up (ward) on the wall. 4. The spider fell suddenly into the
dust and lay at the king's feet, but soon began to crawl up. 5. "Where
does it wish to go?" said the king to himself. 6. "What patience it
shows! It has crawled up and fallen down a great many times." 7. Finally
however the spider succeeded, and crawled up to the ceiling. 8. The
king said that he had learned a lesson from the patient spider. 9. He
said "Although the enemy have conquered many times, because they have a
larger number of soldiers, I shall finally succeed against them." 10.
Soon it happened that the wind blew violently, and a rainstorm occurred.
11. The blast shook the foliage (126) on the trees, and broke away many
small branches. 12. A group of soldiers ran right ("rekte") toward the
stable, and Robert Bruce was much afraid that they would find him. 13.
But they merely stole the horses there, and rode away.

                             LESSON XXVIII.


129. The interrogative adverb of motive or reason related to the
interrogative pronoun "kiu" is "kial", why, wherefore, for what

   Kial la araneo supren rampis? why did the spider crawl up?
   Mi demandos kial li rimarkis gxin, I will ask why he noticed it.

                       THE INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT.

130. The infinitive may be used as the subject of a verb.

[Footnote: Cf. the complementary infinitive (28), equivalent to the
object of a verb, and the use of the infinitive after the prepositions
"por", "anstataux", "antaux ol" (98).]

Any modifier of the infinitive is necessarily adverbial. An indefinite
personal object (or pronominal complement of a preposition) after an
infinitive used as subject is expressed by the reflexive pronoun "si":

   Promeni estas granda plezuro, to go walking is a great pleasure.
   Promeni estas agrable, to go walking is pleasant.
   Cxu estas facile rigardi la plafonon?
      Is it easy to look at the ceiling?
   Estas bone sin helpi, it is well to help oneself.
   Paroli al si estas malsagxe, to talk to oneself is silly.


131. A present act or state which began in the past is expressed by the
present tense (instead of by the past as in English):

   Mi estas cxi tie de lundo, I have been (I am) here since Monday.
   De Marto mi studas tiun lingvon,
      since March I have been (I am) studying that language.
   Ili estas amikoj de tiu tago,
      they have been (they are) friends from that day.
   Ni logxas tie de antaux kelkaj monatoj,
      we have been living (we are living) here since some months ago.

[Footnote: Cf. German "er ist schon lange hier", he has already been
here a long time, French "je suis ici depuis deux ans", I have been here
two years, etc.]

                           THE SUFFIX "-UL-".

132. The suffix "-ul-" is used to form nouns indicating a person
characterized by or possessing the distinguishing trait, character or
quality in the root:

   junulo, a youth, a young man (from "juna", young).
   belulino, a beauty, a belle (from "bela", beautiful).
   maljunulo, an old man (from "maljuna", old).
   sagxulo, a sage, a wise man (from "saga", wise).
   malricxulino, a poor woman (from "malricxa", poor).

[Footnote: Cf. the English adjectives "quer-ul-ous", "cred-ul-ous",
"garr-ul-ous", etc., and the Latin nouns "fam-ul-us", a servant,
"fig-ul-us", a potter, and "leg-ul-us", a gatherer.]

                        "LOGXI" AND "VIVI".

133. The verb "logxi", "to reside, to dwell, to lodge", must not be
confused with "vivi", which means "to live" in the sense of "to be

   Li logxas apude, he lives near by.
   Li vivis longan tempon, he lived a long time.
   Vivi felicxe estas pli bone ol logxi ricxe,
      to live happily is better than to live (lodge) richly.


   afabl-a = amiable, affable.        kial = why (129).
   afer-o = thing, matter, affair.    mejl-o = mile.
   balanc-i = to balance, to nod.     okulhar-o = eyelash.
   barb-o = beard.                    okulvitr-oj = spectacles.
   batal-o = battle.                  pens-i = to think, to ponder.
   brov-o = eyebrow.                  vang-o = cheek.
   bukl-o = curl (of hair).           verand-o = porch, veranda.
   har-o = hair.                      viv-i = to live (133).

                        PRI LA AVO KAJ LA AVINO.

Mia avo estas tre afabla persono. Li estas maljunulo kun blankaj haroj
kaj blanka barbo. Li havas bluajn okulojn, kaj la brovoj super ili estas
ecx pli blankaj ol liaj haroj. Kvankam li logxas en nia vilagxo de
antaux kelkaj jaroj, li antauxe logxis en Skotlando. Antaux multaj jaroj
li estis soldato, kaj li ofte parolas al mi pri la bataloj kaj venkoj
de tiu tempo. Sidi kviete sur la verando kaj rakonti tiajn rakontojn al
la nepo sxajne donas al li multe da plezuro. Multajn fojojn je la fino
de la tago li sidas tie, kaj parolas pri tiaj aferoj gxis malfrua horo
de la vespero. Sidi cxe liaj piedoj kaj auxdi liajn rakontojn estas
tre interese al mi. Komence, dum mi estas cxe li, mi kutime demandas
"Cxu oni sukcesis en tiu batalo?" Tuj li balancas la kapon kaj komencas
pacience rakonti pri la venkoj kaj malvenkoj ("defeats"). Li malofte
respondas "Mi ne scias," al miaj demandoj "Kiam," kaj "Kial." Kelkajn
fojojn li diras "Mi havas tiun opinion, sed mi ne bone scias pri la
tuta afero, kaj mi miras cxu aliaj personoj scias pli bone." Cxar li
estas multe studinta kaj pensinta, liaj opinioj estas treege interesaj.
Li gxojas tial ke mi demandas pri aferoj okazintaj ("things that have
happened"), cxar tiaj demandoj montras ke mi ankaux pensas pri ili.
Mia avino estas malgranda, kun belaj bukloj da tute blankaj haroj. Sxi
havas belajn brunajn okulojn, kun longaj nigraj okulharoj. Oni diras ke
antaux multaj jaroj sxi estis belulino. Ecx nun estas plezure rigardi
sxin, kaj vidi sxiajn rugxajn vangojn. De antaux kelkaj jaroj sxi portas
okulvitrojn por legi aux skribi aux kudri, kaj sxi bezonas ripozon post
malmulte da laboro. Promeno de ecx mejlo estas tro longa nun por la
avino. Oni diras ke sxi ne vivos tre longan tempon, kaj tia penso donas
malgxojon al ni, cxar ni treege amas la afablan paciencan avinon.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Our grandfather is an old man, and they say that he will not live
much longer. 2. He is not very strong, and can not take ("fari") long
walks. 3. The mile between his house and ours now seems long to him. 4.
He prefers to sit quietly in the house or on the veranda, and think,
nearly all day long (the whole day). 5. He is very amiable, and can tell
exceedingly interesting stories, about the victories and defeats which
happened (119) many years ago. 6. Such things are wicked I think, and I
am very glad that (83) such battles do not happen now. 7. Grandfather
has a long white beard and much white hair. 8. It is very interesting to
hear his stories, and also to look directly at him while he is telling
them. 9. He tells such stories with great pleasure. 10. Although he
has lived with (125) us since February (131), he does not know (117) a
great many of the neighbors, or of the other persons living (133) near.
11. Grandmother has blue eyes, red cheeks, and soft white curls. 12.
She speaks slowly, with a sweet voice, and is very patient. 13. Today
she said to me "Good morning, my dear (132), I have lost my spectacles.
Will you look-for them for me?" I nodded (the head) and soon found the

                              LESSON XXIX.


134. The interrogative adverb of manner or degree, related to the
interrogative pronoun "kiu", is "kiel", how, in what way, to what

   Kiel oni vivas en tia aero? How do people live in such air?
   Kiel afabla sxi estas! How amiable she is!
   Mi miras kiel la batalo okazis, I wonder how the battle happened.
   Kiel longe li pensis pri gxi? How long did he think about it?

                         THE PLUPERFECT TENSE.

135. The compound tense formed by combining the past active participle
with the past tense of "esti" represents an act or condition as having
been completed at some time in the past, and is called the "pluperfect
tense". The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows:

   mi estis vidinta, I had seen (I was having-seen).
   vi estis vidinta, you had seen (you were having-seen).
   li (sxi, gxi) estis vidinta, he (she, it) had seen (was having-seen).
   ni estis vidintaj, we had seen (we were having-seen).
   vi estis vidintaj, you had seen (you were having-seen).
   ili estis vidintaj, they had seen (they were having-seen).

                           CARDINAL NUMERALS.

136. Cardinals are numeral adjectives which answer the question "How
many?" The cardinals from one to twelve are as follows:

   unu = one.                         sep = seven.
   du = two.                          ok = eight.
   tri = three.                       naux = nine.
   kvar = four.                       dek = ten.
   kvin = five.                       dek unu = eleven.
   ses = six.                         dek du = twelve.

137. With the exception of "unu", none of the cardinals may receive the
plural ending "-j" or the accusative ending "-n". That is, they are
invariable in form. "Unuj" may be used to mean "some" in contrast to
"aliaj", others:

   Unuj marsxis, aliaj kuris, some walked, others ran.
   Mi prenis unujn kaj lasis la aliajn, I took some and left the others.

138. The preposition "el" is used after numeral adjectives expressing a
number "out of" some larger number or quantity:

   Ses el la knaboj venis, six of the boys came.
   Ok el tiuj libroj estas la miaj, eight of those books are mine.
   El tiuj cxapeloj mi sxatas nur unu, of those hats I like only one.

[Footnote: The cardinal "unu" must not be used in the sense of the
English pronominal "one," as in "I am searching for a book, but not the
one on the table", which should be translated "Mi sercxas libron, sed ne
tiun sur la tablo."]

                       THE ACCUSATIVE OF MEASURE.

139. A substantive in the accusative case may be used, instead of
a prepositional phrase or an adverb, not only to express measure
(duration) of time (91), but also to express measure of weight, price,
length, etc.:

   Li marsxis dek unu mejlojn, he walked eleven miles.
   La parko estas largxa tri mejlojn, kaj longa kvar mejlojn,
      the park is three miles wide and four miles long.
   La tablo pezas dek du funtojn,
      the table weighs (is heavy) twelve pounds.

                              NIA FAMILIO.

Mi rakontos al vi kian familion ni havas. Ni estas ses personoj kaj ni
logxas en cxi tiu domo de antaux preskaux kvar jaroj. Antaux ol veni
cxi tien al la urbo, ni estis logxintaj tri jarojn en kvieta vilagxo
en la kamparo. Mia patro estas alta, kun grizaj haroj kaj griza barbo.
Kvankam li ne estas ricxulo, li tamen havas suficxe da mono por vivi
kontente kaj felicxe. Li sxatas marsxi, kaj ofte li estas marsxinta
kvin aux ses mejlojn por unu promeno. Unu fojon mi demandis "Kiel vi
povas marsxi tiel multe?" Li respondis "Dum mi estis junulo mi estis
soldato, kaj tiam mi estis tre multe marsxanta. Tial mi ne forgesas la
plezurojn de longaj promenoj." La patrino estas malpli alta ol mi, kaj
kiel bluajn okulojn sxi havas, sub nigraj okulharoj kaj nigraj brovoj!
Sxiaj haroj estas nigraj kaj buklaj, kaj sxiaj vangoj estas rugxaj. Sxi
havas dolcxan vocxon, kaj estas plezuro auxdi sxiajn kantojn. Por legi
aux skribi sxi kutime portas okulvitrojn. Mi havas du fratojn kaj unu
fratinon. La fratino havas dek unu jarojn.

[Footnote: Like French and some other languages, Esperanto commonly uses
the verb "to have" rather than the verb "to be", in expressing age: Li
havas sep jarojn, he is seven years old (he has seven years). Mi havis
dek jarojn tiam, I was ten years old (I had ten years) then.]

Unu el la fratoj havas ok jarojn, la alia havas dek du jarojn. Ili povas
bonege kuri, rajdi, kaj fari aliajn interesajn aferojn. Ili lernis
siajn lecionojn en la lernejo tiel bone ke ses fojojn en unu monato
oni lauxdis ilin. Ni multe gxojis pri tiom da lauxdo por la fratoj. La
fratino estas malpli forta, tamen sxi ofte promenas kun ni ecx du aux
tri mejlojn. La avino ankaux logxas cxe ni de antaux sep aux ok jaroj.
Unu el ni kutime restas cxe la hejmo kun sxi, dum la aliaj promenas,
cxar sxi ne estas suficxe forta por marsxi ecx unu mejlon. Mi ofte miras
kial sxi preferas sidi sur la verando, kaj mi demandas al sxi "Cxu vi
estas tro laca por marsxi?" Sxi kutime balancas la kapon kaj diras "Jes,
mia nepo, mi estas tro laca."

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Three and four make seven. 2. Two and six make eight. Five and six
make eleven. 3. Seven and five make twelve. 4. I have been studying
geometry since five months ago, and German since January. 5. I have read
three German books, but I shall not be able to talk in this language
until after August. 6. To learn how to speak such a language is a
difficult matter. 7. Nine of the children in our school are now studying
German with me. 8. Some learn it easily, others do not like it. 9. Three
of the boys and two of the girls in that school are German. 10. They
had resided four years in a large city, but I think (that) they live
more contentedly in our quiet village. 11. They can not talk with us
very well, but merely nod their heads when we talk to them. 12. I had
not seen them before they came to school, although they are neighbors
of ours. 13. They are amiable children, with blue eyes, red cheeks, and
yellow hair. 14. They can ride very well, and often ride eight or ten
miles in one day. 15. They usually ride in a park three miles wide and
four miles long, where there is but little ("nur malmulte da") dust.

                              LESSON XXX.


140. The interrogative adverb of quantity related to the interrogative
pronoun "kiu" is "kiom", how much, how many:

   Kiom da tempo vi ripozis? How much time did you rest?
   Kiom da sukero kaj kiom da fragoj vi acxetis?
      How much sugar and how many strawberries did you buy?
   Ni miras kiom da mono li havos,
      we wonder how much money he will have.
   Kiom de la leciono vi lernis? How much of the lesson did you learn?


141. Any modifier of an impersonal verb (50) or of a verb used
impersonally, that is, with an infinitive or clause for its subject,
or without any definitely expressed or personal subject (as in "it is
cold," "it seems too early"), must necessarily be adverbial:

   Estas varme en la domo, it is warm in the house.
   Estos malvarme morgaux, it will be cold tomorrow.
   Estas bone ke li venis, it is well that he came.
   Estas amuze ke ni forgesis lin, it is amusing that we forgot him.
   Ke vi venis estis tre sagxe, that you came was very wise.
   Estos pli agrable en la salono, it will be pleasanter in the parlor.


142. The cardinal numerals for the tens, hundreds and thousands are
formed by prefixing "du", "tri", "kvar", etc., to "dek", ten, "cent",
hundred, and "mil", thousand, respectively.

             dudek, twenty.           sesdek, sixty.
             tridek, thirty.          sepdek, seventy.
             kvardek, forty.          okdek, eighty.
             kvindek, fifty.          nauxdek, ninety.

              Hundreds.                    Thousands.
      ----------------------------    -------------------------
      ducent, two hundred.            trimil, three thousand.
      kvincent, five hundred.         kvarmil, four thousand.
      sepcent, seven hundred, etc.    sesmil, six thousand, etc.

143. The cardinals between ten and twenty, twenty and thirty, etc., are
formed by placing "unu, du, tri", etc., after "dek, dudek, tridek", etc.
(Cf. "dek unu", eleven, "dek du", twelve, 136):

   dek kvar = fourteen.               tridek kvin = thirty-five.
   dek naux = nineteen.               sepdek ok = seventy-eight.
   dudek tri = twenty-three.          nauxdek ses = ninety-six, etc.

144. Cardinals containing more than two figures begin with the largest
number and descend regularly, as in English:

   cent tridek kvin, one hundred and thirty-five.
   kvarcent nauxdek sep, four hundred and ninety-seven.
   sescent du, six hundred and two.
   mil okdek, one thousand and eighty.
   mil naucent dek du,
      one thousand nine hundred and twelve
      (nineteen hundred and twelve).

                           THE SUFFIX "-AN-".

145. The suffix "-an-" is used to form words indicating an inhabitant or
resident of the place denoted by the root, or a member or adherent of
the party, organization, etc., denoted by the root. The suffix "-an-"
may itself be used as a root, forming "ano", member, etc.

   bostonano = Bostonian.             domano = inmate of a house.
   kamparano = countryman, peasant.   vilagxano = villager.

[Footnote: Cf. English "urb-an", "suburb-an", "Rom-an", "republic-an",
"Mohammed-an", etc.]


   aritmetik-o = arithmetic.             memor-i = to remember.
   cent = hundred (142).                 mil = thousand (142).
   erar-o = error, mistake.              minut-o = minute.
   grad-o = grade, degree.               ricev-i = to receive.
   kalkul-i = to calculate, to reckon.   sekund-o = second.
   kiom = how much (140).                superjar-o = leap-year.

                        LECIONO PRI ARITMETIKO.

Estas malvarme hodiaux, kaj tute ne agrable ekster la domo. La urbanoj
ne estas promenantaj en la parko, cxar ili preferas resti en la domoj.
Mi ankaux restis en la domo, kaj parolis al mia juna frato. Mi helpis
lin pri la leciono en aritmetiko, tial ke li baldaux havos ekzamenojn,
kaj li volas esti preta por skribi tre bonajn respondojn. Mi demandis
al li "Kiom faras dek tri kaj dek kvar?" Li respondis ke tiuj faras
dudek sep. Tiam mi demandis kiom faras dudek unu kaj tridek kvar. Li
kalkulis kvin aux ses sekundojn, per mallauxta vocxo, kaj diris "Ili
faras kvindek kvin." Mi demandis kiom faras ducent tri kaj sepcent
ok, kaj li respondis ke ili faras nauxcent dek unu. Li tute ne faris
erarojn al mi, kaj fine mi diris al li ke li povas bonege kalkuli. Mi
opinias ke li ricevos bonan gradon en la ekzamenoj. Post kelkaj minutoj
ni komencis paroli pri aliaj aferoj. Mi demandis "Kiom da tagoj en la
monato septembro?" La frato respondis "Septembro, novembro, aprilo kaj
junio havas tridek tagojn. Kvankam tiuj monatoj havas tiom da tagoj, la
aliaj monatoj havas tridek unu tagojn. Sed la monato februaro havas nur
dudek ok tagojn." Estas interese lerni pri cxi tiu monato februaro. Dum
tri jaroj gxi havas dudek ok tagojn, sed en la sekvanta jaro gxi havas
dudek naux tagojn. La jaro havanta tian februaron estas la "superjaro."
Mi rakontis tiun interesan aferon al la frato, kaj li diris ke li bone
memoros gxin. Li diris ke li ne antauxe sciis pri la superjaro. Li
ne sciis ke la superjaro havas tricent sesdek ses tagojn, kvankam la
aliaj jaroj havas nur tricent sesdek kvin tagojn. Li diris ke li ankaux
memoros pri la nombro da tagoj en la superjaro, kaj ke li rakontos la
aferon al la aliaj knaboj.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. (To be written out in full): 14, 18, 42, 86, 79, 236, 431, 687, 788,
1240, 1885, 9872, 4500, 1912. 2. There are twelve months in a year, and
in most of the months of the year there are thirty-one days. 3. There
are only thirty days in the months April, June, September and November.
4. There are seven days in a week, and twenty-four hours in a day. 5.
Twelve of these hours make the day, and the others make the night. 6.
There are sixty minutes in one hour, and sixty seconds in one minute.
7. There are four weeks and also two or three days in one month. 8.
In the year there are fifty-two weeks. 9. How many weeks are there in
ten years? 10. At least one year in ten years is a leap-year. 11. In a
leap-year there are three hundred and sixty-six days, instead of three
hundred and sixty-five. 12. Wise men calculated about this matter, many
years ago. 13. It is well for us that they liked to study arithmetic.
15. I have often received good grades in this study. 16. I remember it
easily, and seldom make mistakes.

                              LESSON XXXI.

                         THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.

146. A connecting pronoun referring to something which precedes (or
follows) is called a "relative pronoun". The person or thing to which
it refers is called its "antecedent." The relative pronoun, identical
in form with the interrogative pronoun (106), as in English, is "kiu",
which, who.

[Footnote: Sometimes English uses "that" for a relative pronoun, as
"I saw the book that you have." This must always be translated by
"kiu". Likewise, English sometimes omits the relative pronoun, as "I
saw the book you have." The relative pronoun is never thus omitted in

The relative pronoun agrees in number with its antecedent. Whether it
is in the accusative case or not depends upon its relation to its own
verb or to other words in its own clause (called the relative clause):

   La junuloj, kiuj venis, estas afablaj,
      the youths who came are amiable.
   La personoj, kiujn li vidos, estas amikoj miaj,
      the persons (whom) he will see are friends of mine.
   Mi kalkulis la gradon, kiun li ricevos,
      I calculated the grade (which) he will receive.
   Mi memoras tiun aferon, pri kiu vi parolas,
      I remember that matter about which you speak.

147. Like English "whose" the genitive form "kies" of the interrogative
pronoun (107) is also used as a relative, referring to a substantive
(singular or plural) for its antecedent:

   Li estas la viro, kies libron vi trovis,
      he is the man whose book you found.
   Mi konas la infanojn, kies patro estas amiko via,
      I know the children whose father is a friend of yours.

                       THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.

148. The compound tense formed by combining the past participle with the
future tense of the auxiliary verb "esti" represents an act or condition
as having been already completed or perfected at a future time, and is
called the "future perfect tense." The conjugation of "vidi" in this
tense is as follows:

   mi estos vidinta, I shall have seen (I shall be having-seen).
   vi estos vidinta, you will have seen (you will be having-seen).
   li (sxi, gxi) estos vidinta,
      he (she, it) will have seen (will be having-seen).
   ni estos vidintaj, we shall have seen (shall be having-seen).
   vi estos vidintaj, you will have seen (will be having-seen).
   ili estos vidintaj, they will have seen (will be having-seen).

                           ORDINAL NUMERALS.

149. Ordinal numerals are adjectives which answer the question "Which
in order?" as "first", "third", etc. They are formed by adding the
adjectival suffix "-a" to the cardinals. The various parts of an ordinal
must be connected by hyphens, since it is to the entire cardinal, and
not any part of it, that the adjective ending "-a" is attached:

   unua = first.                      kvardek-sesa = forty-sixth.
   dua = second.                      cent-okdek-kvina :
   tria = third.                         hundred and eighty-fifth.
   oka = eighth.                      mil-okcent-kvara :
   dek-unua = eleventh.                  one thousand eight hundred and
   dek-nauxa = nineteenth.               fourth.
   dudek-sepa = twenty-seventh.       sesmil-sepa :
                                         six thousand and seventh.

[Footnote: Ordinal numerals may be abbreviated thus: "la", "1st", "2a",
"2nd", "3a", "3rd", "5a", "5th", "1912a", "1912th", "233a", "233rd",
etc. If the ordinal number is used in an accusative construction, the
abbreviation is given the accusative ending, as "lan", "2an", "3an",
"1912an", etc.]


   angl-a = English.                  neces-a = necessary.
   dezir-i = to desire.               paf-i = to shoot.
   dolar-o = dollar.                  pafark-o = bow (for shooting).
   gajn-i = to win, to gain.          part-o = part, share.
   kost-i = to cost.                  pen-i = to strive, to try.
   last-a = last.                     traduk-i = to translate.
   latin-a = Latin.                   sag-o = arrow.
   mar-o = sea.                       sam-a = same.

                      ALFREDO GRANDA KAJ LA LIBRO.

Antaux pli multe ol mil jaroj vivis Alfredo Granda, unu el la plej
interesaj personoj pri kiuj ni estas auxdintaj. Li estis la unua angla
regxo, kiu deziris legi librojn. Li estis ankaux la lasta, kiu povis
legi ilin, gxis post multaj jaroj. Unu tagon, dum li estis malgranda
knabo kun flavaj buklaj haroj, lia patrino, tre sagxa regxino, montris
al li kaj al liaj fratoj belegan libron. Sxi diris ke la libro kostis
multe da mono en lando trans la maro, kaj ke gxi nun apartenas al
sxi. Si diris "Miaj filoj, mi donos cxi tiun libron al tiu el vi, kiu
lernos legi gxin. Kiu el vi estos la unua, kiu povos legi? Tiu ricevos
la libron." Nu, Alfredo komencis studi, kaj post ne longe li gajnis
la belegan libron. Liaj fratoj ecx ne penis gajni gxin. Tiam oni tre
malmulte pensis pri libroj. La regxoj kaj iliaj filoj nur malofte povis
legi, kaj treege malofte povis skribi. Oni lauxdis nur personojn,
kiuj bone rajdis kaj batalis per sagoj kaj pafarkoj. Sed oni opiniis
ke tute ne estis necese scii pri la aferoj, kiujn la libroj rakontas.
Tial Alfredo ne ricevis lauxdon pro sia deziro por legi. La sesan
aux sepan jaron post sia ricevo de la libro, Alfredo volis lerni la
latinan lingvon, cxar tiam oni skribis latine ("in Latin") la librojn,
kiuj estis plej bonaj. Oni sercxis gxis la finoj de la lando, kaj iris
multajn mejlojn, sed preskaux ne povis trovi personon, kiu ecx estis
auxdinta pri tia lingvo. Fine oni trovis personon por helpi Alfredon,
kiu tiam lernis la latinan lingvon. Tiu sama Alfredo estis regxo multajn
jarojn, kaj estis unu el la plej bonaj regxoj, kiujn la angla lando
estas havinta. Alfredo skribis librojn en la latina lingvo, kaj ankaux
tradukis latinajn librojn en la anglan lingvon.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. (To be written out in full): 37th, 59th, 73rd, 92nd, 846th, 119th,
1274th, 1910th, 14235th. 2. Before my friend will have finished that
mansion (122), it will have cost twenty thousand dollars. 3. Before
coming to visit you, I shall have ridden twelve miles on my horse. 4.
The grade which you will have received in arithmetic soon after the
first of March will be excellent. 5. You do not make mistakes very often
in the lessons. 6. I shall try after a few minutes to translate that
Latin book, for ("cxar") it seems interesting. 7. It is necessary to
study Latin, for I desire to read the stories which are in my Latin
book. 8. The one thousand nine hundred and fourth year was a leap-year.
9. The fourth year after that year was also a leap-year. 10. The 1912th
year will be a leap-year. There are three hundred and sixty-six days in
such a year. 12. Alfred won the book which his mother had bought. 13.
Such a book now costs four or five hundred dollars. 14. Alfred the Great
was the last king until many years afterward (until after many years)
who could read or write. 15. He was the first king in that land who even
wished to be able to read books. 16. We often talk about this same King
Alfred, and say that he was the father of the English language. 17.
People say so ("diras tiel") because he translated Latin books into the
language of his land, and because he also wrote books in that language.

                             LESSON XXXII.

                     "KIA" AS A RELATIVE ADJECTIVE.

150. The interrogative adjective "kia" (112) is also used as a relative
adjective, referring back to "tia," or to some equivalent phrase or word
indicating quality, such as "sama", etc. In this use it may often be
translated "as", or "which":

   Mi havas tian libron, kian mi volas,
      I have such a (that kind of) book as (which kind) I wish.
   Tiaj amikoj, kiajn vi havas, estas afablaj,
      such friends as (of which kind) you have are amiable.
   Li deziras tian cxapelon, kia kostas ses dolarojn,
      he desires that kind of hat which (kind) costs six dollars.
   Mi havas la saman deziron, kian vi,
      I have the same desire as you (same kind which you have).

                      "KIE" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB.

151. The interrogative adverb "kie", "kien" (118) is also used as a
relative adverb of place with "tie", "tien", or some other expression of
place for its antecedent.

[Footnote: Any interrogative adverb may also be used to introduce an
indirect question, thus serving as a subordinating conjunction (cf.

"Kien" is used when the verb in the relative clause expresses motion
toward the place indicated, whether or not its antecedent has this
ending. Similarly, "kie" may refer to "tie" or to "tien":

   Mi iros tien, kie vi estas,
      I shall go there where you are.
   Mi estis tie, kien vi iros,
      I was there (at that place) where you will go.
   Mi iros tien, kien vi iris,
      I shall go to that place to which you went
      (I shall go where you went).
   Mi trovis lin en la urbo, kie li logxas,
      I found him in the city where he lives.
   Cxu vi venos cxi tien, kie ni estas?
      Are you coming here where we are?

                     THE FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE.

152. The future active participle, expressing what the word modified
will do or is about to do, ends in "-onta," as "vidonta", about to
see, "ironta", about to go:

   La forironta viro vokis sian serviston,
      the man going to depart (the about-to-depart man)
      called his servant.
   La virino salutonta vin estas tre afabla,
      the woman about to greet you is very affable.
   La venonta monato estas marto,
      the coming month is March.
   La venontan semajnon mi foriros,
      the coming (next) week I shall depart.


153. The compound tenses formed by combining the future active
participle with each of the three aoristic tenses of "esti" represent
an act or state as about to occur in the present, past, or future,
respectively, and are called "periphrastic future tenses." Except when
great accuracy is desired, these tenses are not often used. A synopsis
of "vidi" in the first person singular and plural of these tenses is as

                          Present Periphrastic Future.

   mi estas vidonta,                   ni estas vidontaj,
   I am about to (going                we are about to (going
                     to) see.                              to) see.

                           Past Periphrastic Future.

   mi estis vidonta,                   ni estis vidontaj,
   I was about to (going               we were about to (going
                      to) see.                              to) see.

                          Future Periphrastic Future.

   mi estos vidonta,                   ni estos vidontaj,
   I shall be about to (going          we shall be about to (going
                           to) see.                             to) see.

                          THE SUFFIX "-IND-".

154. The suffix "-ind-" is used to form words expressing "worthy of,
deserving of," that which is indicated in the root. It may also be used
as a root, to form "inda", worthy, "malinda", unworthy, "indo", worth,
merit, etc.:

   dezirinda = desirable.          rimarkinda = noteworthy, remarkable.
   lauxdinda = praiseworthy.       ridinde = ridiculously, laughably.
   mallauxdinda = blameworthy.     tradukinda = worth translating.


   ankoraux = still, yet.             flar-i = to smell.
   atak-i = to attack.                gast-o = guest.
   bat-i = to beat.                   ho! = Oh!
   cert-a = sure, certain.            kri-i = to exclaim, to cry.
   defend-i = to defend.              kruel-a = cruel.
   difekt-i = to spoil.               kuk-o = cake.
   edz-o = husband.                   lign-o = wood.
   fajr-o = fire.                     suspekt-i = to suspect.

[Footnote: The adverb "ankoraux" expresses the ideas "until and during
the present time", "in the future as now and before", "in constant or
uniform succession", "in an increasing or additional degree", given
sometimes by English "yet", sometimes by "still": Mi estas ankoraux
sidanta cxi tie, "I am still sitting here." Li ankoraux ne venis, "still
he has not come (he has not come yet)." Li ankoraux restos tie, "he
will still stay there." Ankoraux ili venas, "still they come." Li estos
ankoraux pli ruza, "he will be still (yet) more crafty."]

                      ALFREDO GRANDA KAJ LA KUKOJ.

Unu fojon antaux pli multe ol mil jaroj, soldatoj venis de trans la maro
por ataki la anglan regxon Alfredon Grandan. Ili nek konis nek malamis
lin, sed ili sciis ke li estas persono kies landon ili deziras gajni.
Cxi tiuj malamikoj estis venintaj tiel subite ke Alfredo ne estis preta
por defendi sian landon kontraux ili. Tial li forkuris kelkajn mejlojn
de la urbo, kaj sin kasxis en granda arbaro malantaux vilagxo. Anstataux
porti regxajn vestojn li acxetis tiajn cxifonojn kiajn kamparanoj kaj
malricxuloj portas. Li logxis cxe malricxa sed lauxdinda kamparano,
kiu ne konis la regxon, kaj tute ne suspektis kia persono lia gasto
estas. Unu memorindan tagon Alfredo estis sidanta apud la fajro, kaj
estis rigardanta siajn sagojn kaj pafarkon dum li pensis malgxoje pri
sia lando. La edzino de la arbarano demandis "Cxu vi ankoraux sidos tie
dekkvin aux dudek minutojn?" "Jes," respondis la regxo. Sxi diris "Nu,
estos necese fari pli varmegan fajron por tiaj kukoj kiajn mi nun estas
bakonta. Cxu vi gardos tiujn kukojn kiuj nun estas super la fajro, dum
mi kolektos pli multe da ligno?" Alfredo respondis "Certe mi gardos ilin
kontraux la fajro." La virino sercxonta lignon foriris en alian parton
de la arbaro, kie estis multe da ligno, kaj la regxo penis zorgi pri la
kukoj. Sed baldaux li forgesis ilin, kaj la fajro ilin difektis. Kiam la
virino venis kaj flaris la kukojn sxi kriis "ho, vi riprocxinda viro!
Kvankam vi ankoraux sidas tie, vi ne pensas pri la kukoj, kaj la fajro
estas difektinta ilin!" Sxi estis kruele batonta la regxon, kiam li
diris al sxi kiu li estas, kaj kial li forgesis la kukojn. Tiam sxi tre
hontis, kaj anstataux mallauxdi lin sxi volis esti ankoraux pli bona al

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Alfred the Great was a praiseworthy king who lived more than a
thousand years ago. 2. People still talk about him because he not only
translated many Latin books into the English language, but also wrote in
English. 3. He wished to help the peasants still more. 4. But enemies
often attacked him, and finally they conquered his soldiers. 5. Then
they hastened to where (151) Alfred was. 6. They were about to attack
him, when he rode away secretly ("kasxe") into a large forest. 7. There
he dwelt some time in the house of a poor forester. 8. He wore such
rags as a peasant usually wears, and did not tell the forester who he
was. 9. One day he was sitting near the fire and wondering, "Will the
enemy have conquered my soldiers next week?" 10. The forester's wife
said, "Will you sit there yet a while and take-care of those cakes? I am
about to gather more wood." 11. He replied, "Certainly, I will try to
help you." 12. But when after a few minutes the woman smelled the cakes,
she knew that the fire had spoiled them. 13. She exclaimed "Oh, what a
blame-worthy man!" 14. She commenced to beat the king cruelly, but he
did not defend himself. 15. Instead (120), he told her who he was.

                             LESSON XXXIII.

                      "KIAM" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB.

155. The interrogative temporal adverb "kiam" (123) is also used as a
relative temporal adverb, with "tiam" or an equivalent word or phrase
for its antecedent. (It may not be omitted as in English "at the time he

   Mi suspektis lin je la tempo kiam li venis,
      I suspected him at the time when he came (the time that he came).
   Li defendis sin tiam, kiam oni atakis lin,
      he defended himself then, when he was attacked.
   Mi ankoraux sidos tie gxis kiam vi venos,
      I shall still sit there until when you come (until you come).
   Post kiam li tiel lauxte kriis, li komencis plori,
      after he shouted so loudly, he began to cry.

                      "KIEL" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB.

156. The interrogative adverb "kiel" (134) is also used as a relative
adverb of manner and degree, with "tiel", or "same", or an equivalent
adverb or phrase for its antecedent. It may often be translated "as":

   Mi defendis min tiel, kiel li defendis sin,
      I defended myself in that way in which (way) he defended himself.
   Vi ne estas tiel kruela kiel li,
      you are not so cruel as he (is).
   Ili batis lin same kiel vi,
      they beat him in the same way as you (did).
   Ili batis lin same kiel vin,
      they beat him the same as (they did) you.
   Kiel mi diris al li, mi estas felicxa,
      as I told him, I am happy (antecedent not expressed).
   Li parolis tiel mallauxte kiel antauxe,
      he spoke as softly as before.
   Sxi estas tiel bona kiel sxi estas bela,
      she is as good as she is fair.

                       NUMERAL NOUNS AND ADVERBS.

157. Nouns may be formed from the cardinals by addition of the ending
"-o." After such nouns the preposition "da" or "de" is used:

   dekduo = a dozen.                  milo = a thousand.
   dudeko = a score.                  unuo = a unit.
   deko = a ten, half a score.        kvaro = a four, a quartette.
   cento = a hundred.                 trio = a three, a trio.

[Footnote: The prepositions "da" and "de" follow nouns (99, 100) or
adverbs (101), while "el" follows adjectives in the superlative degree
(75), cardinal numerals (138), and the pronouns tiu, kiu (106), etc.:
"dekduo da ovoj", a dozen (of) eggs. "dekduo de la ovoj", a dozen of the
eggs. "dek du el tiuj ovoj", twelve of those eggs. "kiu el la ovoj?"
which one of the eggs? "tiu el la ovoj", that one of the eggs. "la plej
fresxa el la ovoj", the freshest of the eggs.]

158. Adverbs may be formed from the cardinals by addition of the ending

   unue = firstly, at first.              deke = tenthly.
   due = secondly, in the second place.   sesdeke = sixtiethly.
   kvine = fifthly, in the fifth place.   okdek-kvare = eighty-fourthly.


159. Adjectives, verbs and nouns, as well as adverbs (120), may be
derived from prepositions by addition of the formative endings (116),
with sometimes a special suffix also:

   anstatauxi = to replace, to take the place of.
   anstatauxulo = a substitute.
   antauxa = previous, preceding.
   apuda = near, contiguous, adjacent.
   cxirkauxi = to surround, to encircle.
   cxirkauxo = a circuit, a circumference.
   kontrauxa = adverse, opposite, contrary.
   kontrauxulo = adversary, opponent.
   kunulo = comrade, companion.
   superi = to surpass, to exceed, to be above.
   superege = surpassingly, exceedingly.


   adiaux = farewell, goodbye.            kuz-o = cousin.
   akcept-i = to accept, to receive.      malgraux = notwithstanding.
   elekt-i = to choose, to select.        par-o = pair.
   fest-i = to celebrate, to entertain.   pend-i = to hang.
   gant-o = glove.                        prez-o = price.
   gxentil-a = courteous.                 renkont-i = to meet.
   invit-i = to invite.                   sxu-o = shoe.
   jxus = just, at the moment.            uz-i = to use.

[Footnote: The adverb "jxus" indicates the elapsing of the least
possible time since the act or condition indicated, or between the two
acts or conditions indicated. "Ni jxus venis", we just came (we came but
a moment ago). "Mi havas la saman opinion kian vi jxus diris", I have
the same opinion as you just gave (said). "Mi vidis lin jxus kiam li
estis forironta", I saw him just when he was about to depart. "Jxus kiam
vi venis li foriris", just as you came he went away.]

                               LA INVITO.

Hieraux matene mia kuzo vizitis cxe ni, kaj invitis min al malgranda
festo kiu okazos morgaux vespere. Tiam li festos la lastan tagon de
la jaro. Li diris ke la gastoj sidos cxirkaux la fajrejo kaj rakontos
rakontojn gxis malfrua horo. Mi akceptis lian gxentilan inviton, kaj
diris ke mi certe venos. Mia kuzo logxas en la sama urbo kie nia familio
logxas, sed en alia parto. Lia hejmo estas preskaux du mejlojn de la
nia. Tamen, ni estas bonaj kunuloj, kaj ofte promenas kune. Jxus kiam li
estis elironta el la pordo hieraux, mi uzis la okazon ("opportunity")
por proponi mallongan promenon. Li respondis ke li gxoje promenos kun
mi, malgraux la negxa vetero. Tial ni formarsxis tien, kie la stratoj
estis malplej kotaj. La kuzo havas dek ok jarojn, sed mi estas preskaux
tiel alta kiel li. Mi estas certa ke mi estas ankaux tiel forta kiel li.
Ni parolis pri multaj interesaj aferoj, kaj bonege nin amuzis, gxis kiam
estis necese hejmen iri. La kuzo diris "adiaux," kaj iris rekte hejmen,
sed mi iris al granda butiko. Unue, mi volis acxeti paron da novaj
gantoj, por anstatauxi la malnovajn gantojn kiujn mi ankoraux estis
portanta, kvankam mi acxetis ilin antaux tri monatoj. Due, mi bezonis
paron da novaj sxuoj. Mi iris en la butikon kie pendis tiaj gantoj,
kiajn mi sxatas, kaj oni tuj venis por renkonti min, kaj demandis "Kiajn
vestojn vi volas acxeti?" Oni montris al mi preskaux dudekon da paroj
da gantoj. Mi elektis tre bonan paron, kaj estis jxus acxetonta ilin,
malgraux la tro granda prezo, kiam mi vidis alian pli belan paron.
Tial mi acxetis cxi tiun, kaj poste mi rigardis la sxuojn. Mi trovis
rimarkinde bonan paron, cxar estas centoj da sxuoj en tiu butiko. Mi tuj
acxetis tiun paron, kaj tiam hejmen iris.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. My friend likes to live in the city, but his wife prefers to live in
their little wooden house in the country. 2. There she can see and smell
the flowers, and can take ("fari") long walks in the adjacent fields
and forest. 3. There are often hundreds of persons in a village, but
there are thousands of persons in a city. 4. The larger a city is, the
larger and better its stores are. 5. In the second place, one can buy
better bread, vegetables and cake in the city. 6. Thirdly, one can also
find better gloves, hats and shoes there, and the price is often less.
7. Therefore I make use of the opportunity when I go to the city, and
usually buy a pair of new gloves. 8. I am still wearing a pair of gloves
which the rain spoiled. 9. Notwithstanding their ugly color, they are
still thick and good. 10. But soon I shall buy such a pair as (150) is
hanging in the window of that store. 11. The price is low, and I need a
new pair now, for my cousin has invited me to a small party ("festo")
at his house. 12. I accepted his invitation courteously, and said that
I would gladly be his guest. 13. We are good comrades, although he is
younger than I am. 14. My (girl) cousin, his sister, is older than he
is, but he is as tall as she. 15. I was just about to send a letter to
him at the minute that (155) he knocked on our door. 16. His visit will
take the place of (159) my letter. 17. Just as (just when) he was going
away, I said goodbye to him, and said that I would meet him in the park
tomorrow. 18. I think that we shall have a pleasant walk, although the
weather is still remarkably cold, the same as (156) it was two or three
months ago.

                             LESSON XXXIV.

                       PREPOSITIONS AS PREFIXES.

160. Any preposition may be used as a prefix to a verb, provided the
resulting compound is intelligible. A few prepositional compounds are
given below, only verbs being shown, although nouns, adjectives and
adverbs may be formed from these (116):

   alveni = to arrive.                interparoli = to converse.
   aldoni = to add.                   kontrauxdiri = to contradict.
   antauxdiri = to predict.           kunlabori = to collaborate.
   cxirkauxpreni = to embrace.        kunveni = to assemble.
   cxeesti = to be present.           priskribi = to describe.
   dependi = to hang from, to depend. subteni = to support.
   demeti = to lay aside.             surmeti = to put on.
   depreni = to subtract.             traguti = to percolate.
   enhavi = to contain.               travidi = to see through
   eliri = to go out.                 transiri = to cross.

[Footnote: Like English "out" the preposition "el" often develops in
composition a secondary sense of "thoroughly" or "completely" (cf. "I am
tired out"): "eltrovi", to find out, to discover. "elpensi", to think
out, to invent. "ellabori", to work out, to elaborate. "ellerni", to
learn thoroughly, to master. "eluzi", to use completely, to wear out

                          THE SUFFIX "-EBL-".

161. The suffix "-ebl-" is used to form adjectives, adverbs, etc.,
expressing the likelihood or possibility of that which is indicated by
the root. It may be used as a root, to form "ebla", possible, etc.

   eltrovebla = discoverable.         rompebla = breakable.
   legebla = legible.                 videbla = visible.
   mangxebla = edible.                travidebla = transparent.

[Footnote: The suffix "-ebl-" is often equivalent to the English
suffixes "-able", "-ible", but these suffixes have other meanings also,
as in "readable," "worth reading" (leginda), "lovable," "deserving of
love" (aminda), etc.]


162. The adverb "plej", "most" (74), modified by "kiel eble" (as
possible), is used to express the highest degree possible:

   Gxi estas kiel eble plej bona, it is the best possible.
   Ni estos kiel eble plej sagxaj, we shall be as wise as possible.
   Li uzis kiel eble plej malmulte, he used the least possible.
   Mi skribis kiel eble plej legeble, I wrote as legibly as possible.

                      TITLES AND TERMS OF ADDRESS.

163. The words "sinjoro," gentleman, "sinjorino," lady, "frauxlino,"
miss, are used like English "Mr., Mrs., Miss," before proper names,
and are also used as terms of address, without being followed by the
name: "Adiaux, Sinjoro. Adiaux, Sinjorino," Goodbye (Sir). Goodbye,

   Frauxlino B----, cxu vi konas tiun sinjoron kun Sinjorino C----?
      Miss B----, do you know that gentleman with Mrs. C----?
   Mi ne konas tiun frauxlinon, I do not know that young lady.
   Kien vi volas iri, Frauxlino? Where do you wish to go (Miss)?
   Sinjoro A---- estas tre afabla, Mr. A---- is very amiable.

[Footnote: Cf. English "Doctor, Professor, Madam," as terms of address,
and also German "Mein Herr, gnaedige Frau, gnaediges Fraeulein," French
"Monsieur, Mademoiselle," Spanish, "Senor, Senora," Italian "Signore,"


   atent-a = attentive.               onkl-o = uncle.
   auxskult-i = to listen.            san-a = in good health.
   babil-i = to chatter.              sent-i = to feel.
   doktor-o = doctor.                 sinjor-o = gentleman.
   frauxl-o = bachelor.               sxtup-o = step (of stairs).
   gaj-a = merry, gay.                tas-o = cup.
   grup-o = group.                    vojagx-o = voyage, journey.

                           CXE LA FESTO.

Hieraux vespere mi iris al la hejmo de mia kuzo, kiu estis invitinta
min al malgranda festo cxe li. Cxar mi deziris alveni kiel eble plej
frue, mi foriris de mia logxejo kiel eble plej baldaux, malgraux la
negxa vetero. Mi estis surmetinta paron da dikaj gantoj, kaj mi portis
dikajn sxuojn. Mi ankaux havis mian ombrelon, kvankam pro la vento mi ne
povis uzi tiun. Tuj kiam mi supreniris la sxtuparon cxe la hejmo de la
kuzo, li auxdis min, kaj venis por malfermi la pordon kaj akcepti min.
"Bonan vesperon, kia estas via sano?" li diris. Mi respondis "Mi sanas
bonege, dankon," kaj eniris la domon kun li. Ni supren iris per granda
sxtuparo al cxambro kie mi lasis la cxapelon, gantojn kaj ombrelon, tiam
ni malsupren venis kaj eniris la salonon. Mi salutis la onklinon, kiu
afable parolis al mi, kaj ankaux la du kuzinojn. Unu kuzino estis jxus
priskribonta interesan libron, kiun sxi antaux ne longe tralegis, kiam
la aliaj gastoj komencis alveni. Sinjoro B---- cxeestis, kaj Doktoro
C----, kun sia filino Frauxlino Mario, kaj multe da aliaj sinjoroj
kaj sinjorinoj. La gastoj sidis aux staris en malgrandaj grupoj, kaj
interparolis kun videbla plezuro. Unu rakontis pri vojagxo, kaj tiam
oni komencis priparoli la prezojn de aferoj en aliaj landoj. Mi atente
auxskultis kelkajn minutojn, kaj tiam foriris al alia grupo, kie oni
gaje babilis pri estontaj ("future") promenoj kaj festoj. Post unu aux
du horoj, la servistinoj alportis al ni bonan malgrandan mangxon, kune
kun tasoj da bonega kafo. Fine, je malfrua horo ni gxentile dankis la
familion de mia kuzo, kaj diris adiaux. Tiam ni foriris hejmen, kun
sentoj da granda plezuro pro la agrabla festo.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. There are dozens of edible fruits, but the fruits of hundreds of
trees are not at all ("tute ne estas") edible. 2. The transparent cup
and plate upon the table are very breakable. 3. I predict that you will
break them as soon as you seize them. 4. That letter is worth reading.
5. But it is difficult to read it, for it is not very legible. 6. It is
from my uncle, who wishes to arrive at-our-house as early as possible.
7. He is still in the city, but soon he will be here, and will go up the
steps ("sxtuparon") of our porch and knock on the door. 8. There are
very few persons who contradict his opinions. 9. His opinions, however,
are worthy of attention (154) and usually I listen courteously while he
is talking. 10. Now, however, I prefer to listen to the group of ladies
in the adjacent room. 11. They are chattering gaily, and listening
to the young lady who is about to sing. 12. Madam, do you feel the
wind? I notice that it is blowing the curtains which hang before that
window. 13. I will close the window, because I am not very well ("sana")
today. 14. Is that gentleman across the room a bachelor? 15. Yes. He is
describing a voyage and the people whom he met.

                              LESSON XXXV.

                       "KIOM" AS A RELATIVE ADVERB.

164. The interrogative adverb "kiom" (140) is used as a relative adverb
of quantity, with "tiom" or some equivalent word or phrase for its
antecedent. In this use it is commonly translated "as":

   La taso enhavis tiom da kafo, kiom mi povis trinki,
      the cup contained as much coffee as I could drink.
   Mi havos tiom da tempo, kiom mi bezonos,
      I shall have as much time as I shall need.
   Li sendis tiom, kiom vi volis, he sent as much as you wished.


165. The present passive participle (for the present active participle
see 108), expressing that which is "undergone by" the person or thing
indicated by the word modified, ends in "-ata", as "vidata", being

[Footnote: The verb "iri", to go, used to illustrate the active
participles (108, 119, 152), cannot be used to illustrate a passive
participle, since passive participles can be made from transitive verbs
(22) only.]

   La lauxdata knabo estas felicxa, the boy being praised is happy.
   Mi sercxos la deziratan libron, I shall look for the desired book.
   La vestoj farataj por vi estas belaj,
      the clothes being made for you are beautiful.


166. Fractions are formed from the cardinals by the use of the suffix
"-on-" followed by the ending "-o". Adjectives and adverbs may be
derived from these by use of the endings "-a" or "-e":

   La duono de ses estas tri, the half of six is three.
   Li estis nur duone atenta, he was only half attentive.
   La triona parto de ses estas du, the third part of six is two.
   Dek unu dekduonoj, eleven twelfths.
   Mi dudekone finis la laboron, I one-twentieth finished the work.

                         DESCRIPTIVE COMPOUNDS.

167. A compound word whose first element modifies the second in an
adjectival or adverbial relation is called a "descriptive compound".
The final "-a" or "-e" of the first element may be omitted, unless the
resulting combination would be ambiguous or harsh-sounding.

a. When the first element is adverbial (an adverb or preposition), the
second element may be either an adverb or adjective:

   multekosta, expensive.
   duonkolere, half angrily.
   nevidebla, invisible.
   nevole, involuntarily.
   rugxflava (rugxeflava), reddish yellow.
   survoje, on the way, en route.
   antauxhieraux, day before yesterday.
   postmorgaux, day after tomorrow.

b. An adjective may be used for the first element, if the second is an
adverb or adjective "derived from a noun-root":

   samtempa, contemporaneous.
   unufoje, once, one time.
   trifoje, thrice, three times.
   unutaga, one day's, of one day.
   unuataga, the first day's.
   frutempe, at an early time.

c. A noun may be used for the second element, if the resulting word
has not merely unity of form, but also unity of meaning with a
slightly different sense from that expressed by the noun and adjective

[Footnote: In national languages a change of accent often accompanies
such change in meaning, as "BLACKberry" (not "black BERry"), "BLUEbird"
(not "blue BIRD"), "SWEETheart" (not "sweet HEART"), German "JUNGfrau",
"virgin" (not "jung FRAU", young woman), etc.]

   bonveno, a welcome (not "bona veno", a good coming).
   libertempo, a vacation, leisure (not "libera tempo", free time).
   superjaro, leap-year (not "super jaro", above a year).
   bondeziroj, good wishes, felicitations
      (not "bonaj deziroj", good desires).
   plimulto, a majority (adverb and noun combined).


   hxin-o = Chinaman.                 naci-o = nation.
   jam = already.                     pagx-o = page.
   kler-a = enlightened, learned.     pres-i = to print.
   komerc-o = trade, commerce.        pulv-o = gunpowder.
   lanc-o = spear, lance.             sxangx-i = to change.
   liber-a = free.                    te-o = tea.
   metod-o = method, way.             ted-a = tiresome, tedious.

[Footnote: The adverb "jam" indicates a change from some preceding
action or state to the different one expressed in the sentence, clause
or phrase containing "jam". It may often be translated "yet," "now,"
etc. "Mi jam vidis lin", I already saw (have already seen) him. "Cxu vi
jam trovis gxin? Ne, mi ankoraux ne trovis gxin". Have you yet (have you
already) found it? No, I have not yet (still not) found it. "Li jam ne
vivas", he no longer lives (he already is-not-alive). "Jam ne negxas",
it is not snowing now (already not snowing).]

                             LA HXINOJ.

Antaux miloj da jaroj la hxinoj estis la plej klera nacio en la mondo.
Dum aliaj nacioj ankoraux ne konis metodojn por presi librojn, kaj
ankoraux faris ilin skribe, la samtempaj hxinoj jam estis forlasintaj
tiun multekostan kaj tedan metodon. Ili jam estis presantaj la pagxojn
de miloj da libroj. Aliaj nacioj tiam estis batalantaj kiel eble plej
kruele, per sago kaj pafarko, kaj per lanco. Sed ili ankoraux ne havis
pafilojn, cxar pulvo estis tute nekonata al ili. Tamen la hxinoj jam
bone konis metodojn por fari kaj por uzi pulvon, kaj faris tiajn amuzajn
flavrugxajn fajrojn, kiajn ni ankoraux hodiaux acxetas de ili, por uzi
je festaj tagoj. Sed la hxinoj ne multe sxatis la komercon, kaj ne
deziris acxeti aux lerni de aliaj nacioj. Ili ankoraux nun havas la
samajn metodojn por presi librojn kaj por fari pulvon, kiajn ili havis
antaux mil jaroj. Ili malofte sxangxas siajn kutimojn. Tial la aliaj
nacioj, kiuj antauxe ne estis tiel kleraj, antauxeniras pli rapide ol
la hxinoj. La lando de la hxinoj enhavas tiom da personoj, kiom tri aux
kvar aliaj nacioj. Granda parto de tiu lando estas ankoraux nekonata al
okcidentaj nacioj, kvankam plej multe da nia teo elvenas el la hxina
lando. Oni diras ke la parolata lingvo kaj la skribata lingvo de la
hxinoj estas du tre malsamaj aferoj. La lingvo estas almenaux treege
malfacila, kaj post kiam oni estas longe studinta gxin, oni tamen estas
nur duone lerninta gxin. Mi gxojas tial ke la lingvoj studataj en la
lernejoj de nia lando ne estas tiel malfacilaj kiel la hxina lingvo. La
latina kaj germana lingvoj estas suficxe malfacilaj, kvankam ili estas
tre interesaj kaj ankaux konataj de la kleruloj en multaj landoj. La
latina lingvo jam ne estas parolata lingvo.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Why are the persons in that merry group laughing and chattering
instead of listening to Mr. B----? 2. I think that the doctor is telling
stories about a bachelor who was once a good friend of his. 3. The
gentleman being talked about (160, 165) will visit us this evening,
possibly. 4. My aunt and cousin will come down stairs and converse with
him. 5. We shall drink as many cups of tea or of coffee as we wish. 6.
He will say "How is your health, Madam?" My aunt will reply half-angrily
that she is seldom ill. 7. We shall sit on the veranda, for the sun is
still shining, although it is already setting. 8. That young lady who
came with Mrs. C---- relates the best possible stories. 9. She says
that the Chinese were already an enlightened nation hundreds of years
ago, while other nations were still cruelly fighting. 10. A method for
printing the pages of books, instead of writing them, was a discovery
of the Chinese. They printed books in their printing-shops, a thousand
years ago. 12. They also were-acquainted-with gunpowder, which they made
and used for such fires as we use on national days of-celebration, when
we have leisure and wish to enjoy (to amuse) ourselves. 13. But the
Chinese have not changed these methods. 14. Their ways of commerce, work
and pleasure are the same as they were long ago. 15. Such a nation does
not progress rapidly, even though its life is very long.

                             LESSON XXXVI.

                       THE PRESENT PASSIVE TENSE.

168. The compound tense formed by combining the present passive
participle with the present tense of the auxiliary verb "esti" expresses
an act or condition as "being undergone" by the subject of the verb, and
is called the "present passive tense". The conjugation of "vidi" in this
tense is as follows:

   mi estas vidata, I am (being) seen.
   vi estas vidata, you are (being) seen.
   li (sxi, gxi) estas vidata, he (she, it) is (being) seen.
   ni estas vidataj, we are (being) seen.
   vi estas vidataj, you are (being) seen.
   ili estas vidataj, they are (being) seen.

                   THE USE OF "DE" TO EXPRESS AGENCY.

169. The person by whom (or the thing by which) an act, indicated by a
passive verb or participle, is performed is called the "agent" of the
passive voice, and is expressed by a substantive preceded by "de":

   La lanco estas portata de mi, the spear is carried by me.
   La libroj estas jam presataj de li,
      the books are already being printed by him.
   La vojoj estas kovrataj de negxo,
      the roads are being covered by snow.
   Sxi estas lauxdata de la sinjoro,
      she is being praised by the gentleman.

                      THE GENERAL MEANING OF "DE".

170. The preposition "de" conveys the general idea of separation from a
source or starting point, in space (literal or figurative), or in time
(89, 131). This meaning develops into that of the source from which
connection or ownership arises (49), and also into that of the agency
from which an act is done or a condition caused (169). The prepositional
phrase containing "de" must be so placed as to avoid ambiguity in its
meaning, or must be reinforced by an adverb or other word:

   La arbo estas malproksima de la domo, the tree is far from the house.
   Gxi estas proksima de la gxardeno, it is near to (from) the garden.
   Mi prenas la libron for de la knabo,
      I take the book away from the boy.
   Mi prenas la libron de la knabo, I take the book of the boy.
   La afero dependas de vi, the matter depends upon (from) you.


171. Adjectives, verbs, and nouns may be derived from primary adverbs
(66), as well as from prepositions (120, 159):

   La nunaj metodoj, the present methods (methods of-now).
   Mi adiauxis lin per adiauxa saluto,
      I bade farewell to him by a farewell salute (see also 273).
   Ni faris tujan intersxangxon, we made an immediate exchange.
   Cxu li skribis jesan aux nean respondon?
      Did he write an affirmative or a negative answer?
   Anstataux nei, li respondis jese,
      instead of denying, he answered affirmatively.
   La morgauxa festo estos pli agrabla ol la hierauxa,
      tomorrow's (the morrow's) celebration will be more pleasant
      than that of yesterday.
   La tiamaj personoj estis liaj samtempuloj,
      the persons of-that-time were his contemporaries.

                          THE SUFFIX "-IST-".

172. The suffix "-ist-" is added to roots to express the profession,
trade or occupation connected with the idea in the root:

   floristo = florist.                okulisto = oculist.
   komercisto = trader, merchant.     presisto = printer.
   servisto = servant.                sxtelisto = thief.


   administr-i = to manage.           mont-o = mountain.
   antikv-a = ancient                 nom-o = name.
   Euxrop-o = Europe.                 proksim-a = near.
   grav-a = important, serious.       reprezent-i = to represent.
   ital-a = Italian.                  respublik-o = republic.
   kvadrat-a = square.                tiran-o = tyrant.

[Footnote: The words "antikva", "maljuna", "malnova", all of which may
at times be translated "old," must not be confused in use: Mi havas
malnovan cxapelon, "I have an old hat (a hat which is not new)". Li
estas maljuna sinjoro, "he is an old (aged) gentleman". Li estas malnova
amiko mia, "he is an old friend of mine (a friend of long standing)". La
hxinoj estis kleraj ecx en la antikva tempo, "the Chinese were learned
even in the olden time (in ancient time)". La antikvaj kleruloj jam
sciis tre multe, "the ancient learned (enlightened) men already knew a
great deal". La maljuna sinjoro en la malnovaj vestoj estas antikvisto,
"the old gentleman with the old clothes is an antiquary".]

                          ANTIKVA RESPUBLIKO.

La plej antikva respubliko en Euxropo kusxas en la norda parto de la
bela itala lando, inter la maro kaj la rivero, proksime de la montoj.
Gxia nomo estas San Marino, kaj gxi estas respubliko de antaux mil
kvarcent jaroj. Kvankam la cxirkauxaj landoj kaj nacioj apartenis en
antikva tempo al la tiamaj regxoj, San Marino jam estis libera. Gxiaj
aferoj estas ankoraux administrataj tiel, kiel la anoj (145) volas,
ne kiel unu aux alia regxo aux tirano deziras. Dufoje en la jaro la
anoj elektas personojn, kiuj administros la gravajn aferojn de la
respubliko dum la sekvontaj ses monatoj. Kvardek ses el tiuj personoj
reprezentas la anojn, kaj unu alia estas regxo tiun duonon da jaro.
Per tia metodo, la anoj estas bone reprezentataj, kaj la aferoj estas
administrataj kiel eble plej sagxe. La tuta respubliko enhavas nur
dudek du kvadratajn mejlojn da tero. En la respubliko kaj la tiea (171)
urbo kiu havas la saman nomon, ne estas tiom da personoj kiom en multaj
italaj urboj. Tamen cxi tiu respubliko estas pli granda ol multaj
antikvaj grekaj respublikoj. La grekaj respublikoj estis bonekonataj,
kaj enhavis multe da kleruloj inter siaj anoj. Sed en la nuna tempo la
grekoj havas regxon. Oni ne trovas tre klerajn personojn en San Marino,
tamen la laboristoj estas energiaj, kaj laboras kiel eble plej multe.
La rikoltistoj plej ofte havas bonajn rikoltojn, kaj la plimulto da
personoj estas treege kontenta kaj felicxa. Oni ne pensas pri komerco
aux eksterlandaj (167, a) aferoj kaj ne volas vojagxi malproksimen de la
bone amata hejmo. Oni preferas gaje amuzi sin cxehejme (167, a), en la
libertempo inter la rikoltoj, kaj la vivo tute ne sxajnas malfacila aux

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The serious affairs of a republic are managed by persons representing
the persons who live there. 2. The inhabitants are well represented, and
as free as possible. 3. Enlightened persons often prefer to live in a
republic. 4. Persons who have a good king are very happy, but those who
have a bad king are as unhappy as possible. 5. Nowadays ("nuntempe")
there are very few tyrants. 6. The majority of the kings of Europe are
praiseworthy. 7. That nation which was most enlightened a thousand years
ago was the Chinese nation. 8. The Chinese of-that-time already had
good printers among them. 9. It is said (54) that the Chinese drink as
much tea as two or three contemporary nations. 10. The oldest republic
in Europe is named San Marino. 11. It is near the mountains, in the
northern part of the much praised Italian land. 12. It contains only
twenty-two square miles, and is therefore one of the smallest republics
in the world. 13. Fourteen hundred years ago it was already a republic,
and it is still that same republic. 14. The inhabitants are energetic
and patient, and have as much to eat as they need. 15. There are bakers
and shopkeepers (172) and many laborers among them. 16. They do not
think about commerce, or greatly ("multe") change their customs. 17.
They seldom take ("faras") tiresome journeys, but remain peacefully
("pace") at home.

                             LESSON XXXVII.

                       THE DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN.

173. The distributive pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is "cxiu", each
(one), every (one). Sometimes it is equivalent to English "any", as in
"Any one who studies can learn," etc. The plural is "cxiuj", every, all.
The article is never interposed between "cxiuj" and the noun modified
(as in English "all the men"), and is used only if "cxiuj" is pronominal
and followed by "el":

[Footnote: The use of "cxiu" and "cxiuj" must be distinguished from that
of the adjective "tuta", which means "all" in the sense of "entire":
"Cxiuj viroj laboras la tutan tagon", all men work all (the whole) day.
"Mi vidis cxiun vizagxon,
   sed mi ne vidis la tutan vizagxon de cxiu viro",
I saw every face,
   but I did not see all the face of each man.]

   Cxiu, kiu studos, lernos, every one who studies will learn.
   Mi vidis cxiun el ili, kaj parolis al cxiu knabo,
      I saw each of them, and talked to every boy.
   Mi dankas vin cxiujn, I thank you all (I thank all of you).
   Ni cxiuj estas reprezentataj, we are all (all of us are) represented.
   Cxiuj el la maristoj alvenis, all (every one) of the sailors arrived.

174. The distributive pronoun has a possessive or genitive form "cxies",
every-one's, every-body's:

   Li konas cxies nomon, he knows every-one's name.
   Cxies opinio estis diversa, every-body's opinion was different.
   Kies vocxojn mi auxdas? Cxies, whose voices do I hear? Everybody's.

                         THE PREPOSITION "PO".

175. The preposition "po", at the rate of, at, is used chiefly before
cardinals and has a distributive sense:

   Li marsxas po kvar mejloj cxiutage,
      he walks at the rate of four miles daily (every-day).
   Mi acxetis kafon po malalta prezo, I bought coffee at a low price.
   Mi acxetis viandon po kvarono da dolaro por funto,
      I bought meat at a quarter of a dollar for (per) pound.
   La cxapelisto acxetas cxapelojn pogrande,
      the hatter buys hats wholesale.

                          DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS.

176. A compound word whose first element is a substantive, dependent
upon the second element in some prepositional relation, is called a
"dependent compound". (If the two words were not united into one, the
first element would be preceded by a preposition, or would be in the
accusative case.) The ending "-o" may be omitted from the first element
of a dependent compound:

[Footnote: A personal pronoun serving as the first element of a
dependent compound may keep the accusative ending, to indicate its
construction: "sinlauxdo", self-praise. "sinekzameno", self-examination.
"sindefendo", self-defence. "sinkontrauxdira", self-contradictory.]

   jarcento, century (cento da jaroj).
   mangxocxambro, dining-room (cxambro por mangxoj).
   noktomezo, midnight (mezo de la nokto).
   paperfaristo, papermaker (faristo de papero).
   sunbrilo, sunshine (brilo de la suno).
   tagmezo, noon (mezo de la tago).
   vespermangxo, supper (mangxo je la vespero).
   ventoflago, weathercock (flago por la vento).


   cxies = every body's (174).        lag-o = lake.
   cxiu = every-body (173).           po = at the rate of (175).
   decid-i = to decide.               sever-a = severe.
   dev-o = duty.                      stang-o = pole.
   fleks-i = to bend.                 svis-o = Swiss.
   genu-o = knee.                     vend-i = to sell.
   intenc-i = to intend.              Vilhelm-o = William.
   jugx-i = to judge.                 vort-o = word.

                     LA CXAPELO SUR LA STANGO.

Antaux ol Svislando estis tiel libera kiel la nuna svisa respubliko,
gxiaj aferoj estis administrataj de personoj kiuj reprezentis aliajn
naciojn. Ofte tiuj personoj estis kiel eble plej severaj jugxistoj al la
svisoj. Unufoje plej kruela tirano estis administranta aferojn svisajn.
Li elpensis rimarkindan metodon por montri sian povon ("power"), kaj por
esti malagrabla al la svisoj. Li decidis meti sian cxapelon sur altan
stangon en la vendejo ("market-place"), en malgranda vilagxo apud bela
lago inter la altaj montoj. Li diris ke de nun tiu cxapelo reprezentas
lin, kaj portos lian nomon. Saluti la cxapelon estos la grava devo de
cxiu persono en la vilagxo. Estos cxies devo ne nur saluti la cxapelon,
sed ankaux genufleksi ("kneel") antaux la stango. La tirano diris ke
li forprenos la domon, la kampojn kaj tiom da mono, kiom li povos, de
cxiu vilagxano aux kamparano kiu forgesos genufleksi. "Mi intencas sendi
gardistojn," li diris, "kiuj rimarkos cxu vi cxiuj genufleksos kiam
vi estas proksimaj de la stango." Je tagmezo alvenis gardistoj, por
rimarki cxu la necesaj salutoj estos farataj de cxiuj, kaj por kapti
cxiujn svisojn kiuj ne genufleksis. Baldaux la kamparanoj komencis eniri
la vendejon, por vendi legomojn po kiel eble altaj prezoj, kaj por
acxeti vestojn kaj aliajn aferojn po treege plej malaltaj prezoj. Cxiu,
kiu iris proksimen de la stango, zorge genufleksis antaux la cxapelo
de la malamata tirano, pro timo pri la hejmoj kaj la familioj. Fine,
kamparano, kies nomo estis Vilhelmo Tell, eniris la vendejon, kaj staris
du aux tri minutojn proksime de la stango, dum li diris kelkajn vortojn
al amiko. Sed anstataux fari tujan saluton, aux genufleksi, li tute ne
rigardis la stangon.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The day before yesterday my youngest cousin was sitting on my knee,
and I told him that a rainbow ("cxielarko") is made by the sunshine and
the rain. 2. My cousin goes to school every day, after he has breakfast
in the dining-room. 3. A new school is being built, not far from the
home of the judge. 4. It is my cousin's duty to study those books at
the rate of ten pages a day. 5. My cousin and I decided last night
(93) to buy new hats for ourselves. 6. We intend to go to the hatter's
early tomorrow morning. 7. I think that all clothes are being sold
at a low price at-the-present-time. 8. During a visit at a friend's,
I read an interesting book about ancient Europe. 9. It relates that
several centuries ago a severe and cruel tyrant was managing affairs
in Switzerland. 10. Once he put his hat on a pole in the market-place,
and said that it was the duty of-every-one to kneel before it. 11. This
serious affair happened in a village one or two miles square, on ("cxe")
the lake not far from the mountains through which one goes on the way
(167, a) to the Italian land. 12. William Tell did not kneel or even
look at the hat representing the tyrant.

                            LESSON XXXVIII.

                      THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE.

177. The distributive adjective related to the distributive pronoun
"cxiu", giving a comprehensive idea of the quality of some person or
thing, is "cxia", every kind of, every sort of:

   Oni vendas cxiajn fruktojn tie,
      they sell every sort of fruit there.
   Estas cxiaj personoj en la mondo,
      there are all sorts of persons in the world.

                      THE IMPERFECT PASSIVE TENSE.

178. The compound tense formed by combining the present passive
participle with the past tense of the auxiliary verb "esti" expresses
an act or condition as being undergone by the subject of the verb "at
some time in the past". It is called the "imperfect passive tense". The
conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows:

   mi estis vidata, I was (being) seen.
   vi estis vidata, you were (being) seen.
   li (sxi, gxi) estis vidata, he (she, it) was (being) seen.
   ni estis vidataj, we were (being) seen.
   vi estis vidataj, you were (being) seen.
   ili estis vidataj, they were (being) seen.


179. When impersonal verbs, or other verbs used impersonally, are in
compound tenses, the participial element is given the ending "-e", like
other modifiers of impersonally used verbs (141):

   Estis pluvante antaux unu minuto, it was raining a minute ago.
   Estis multe negxinte, it had snowed a great deal.
   Estis vidate ke cxiu ploras, it was seen that every one wept.

                        RECIPROCAL EXPRESSIONS.

180. To give a reciprocal sense, when there are two or more subjects and
the action goes from one to the other (expressed in English by "each
other," "one another," "mutually," "reciprocally"), the phrases "unu la
alian", "unu al la alia", etc., or the adverb "reciproke", is used:

   Estas nia devo helpi unu la alian,
      it is our duty to help one another.
   Ili parolas unu al la alia,
      they are talking to each other.
   La viroj reciproke uzis siajn pafilojn,
      the men used each other's guns.
   Ili falis unu sur la alian,
      they fell upon each other.

                           THE SUFFIX "-UJ-".

181. The suffix "-uj-" may be used to form words indicating "that which
contains, bears, or is a receptacle for", some number or quantity of
that which is expressed by the root. It may be used instead of "-lando"
to form the name of a region containing any one race or tribe, and
instead of "-arbo" to form the names of fruit trees:

   ujo = a receptacle.                patrujo (patrolando) = fatherland.
   monujo = purse.                    sukerujo = sugar-bowl.
   supujo = soup-tureen.              pomujo (pomarbo) = apple-tree.
   leterujo = letter-case.            sagujo = quiver.


   ag-i = to act.                     mort-i = to die.
   ceter-a = remaining.               pet-i = to plead, to request.
   cxia = of every kind (177).        prepar-i = to prepare.
   fier-a = proud.                    pun-i = to punish.
   imag-i = to imagine.               reciprok-a = reciprocal, mutual.
   konduk-i = to lead.                simil-a = like, similar.
   kor-o = heart.                     tusx-i = to touch.

                       VILHELMO TELL KAJ LA POMO.

Tuj kiam la gardistoj rimarkis ke la cxapelo sur la stango ne estis
salutata de Vilhelmo Tell, ili kaptis lin, kaj kondukis lin al la
tirano, por esti jugxata. La tirano demandis de Tell kial li ne
genufleksis antaux la cxapelo, simile al la aliaj vilagxanoj. Tell
respondis fiere ke li ne sciis pri la cxiutagaj genufleksoj de la aliaj
personoj. Li diris ke li tute ne intencis agi kontraux la deziroj de
la jugxistoj. Sed la tirano malamis la altan fortan svison, tial li
decidis puni lin per severa puno, kaj demandis "Kiun el viaj infanoj
vi plej amas?" Vilhelmo Tell ne povis imagi kial la demando estas
farata al li, kaj respondis "Mi amas cxiujn el ili, sinjoro." La tirano
diris "Nu, estas rakontate inter la vilagxanoj ke vi estas rimarkinda
arkpafisto ("archer"). Ni eltrovos kia arkpafisto vi estas. Ni vidos
cxu vi povos forpafi pomon de sur la kapo de via plej juna filo. Aldone
("in addition"), estos via devo forpafi la pomon per la unua sago, alie
("otherwise") mi punos vin kaj vian filon per tuja morto." Tell diris
ke li estas preta por ricevi cxian alian punon, anstataux tia puno,
sed malgraux cxies petoj la tirano estis jam elektanta pomon de apuda
pomarbo. Li kondukis la knabon malproksimen de la ceteraj personoj, kaj
metis la pomon sur lian kapon. Tell kaj la filo reciproke rigardis sin,
dum la patro diris ke li ne tusxos haron de lia kapo. Tiam li elprenis
sagon el la sagujo, faris la necesajn preparojn, kaj rapide pafis. Tuj
la pomo forfalis de la kapo de la infano, kaj cxiu havis felicxan koron.
Dum Tell cxirkauxprenis la filon, la tirano demandis "Kial vi havas tiun
ceteran sagon en la mano." Tell lauxte respondis "Por mortpafi vin, tuj
post la infano, cxar mi treege timis pro la vivo de mia kara filo."

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. William Tell had a strong flexible (161) bow. 2. He could
shoot-with-a-bow ("arkpafi") excellently, therefore he was a well-known
archer. 3. He put six or eight arrows into his quiver, and went with his
sons to the village. 4. Possibly he saw the hat upon the pole, but he
did not kneel before it. 5. It was being noticed already in the village
that Tell hated the tyrant very much. 6. When the guards seized him
for that act, and led him before the tyrant, who was also the judge,
Tell said "I did not know about this new duty, and could not imagine
why the hat was on the pole there." 7. The tyrant replied with ("per")
angry words, for he hated the proud Swiss whom every one else loved.
8. He said severely "It is said that you are a praiseworthy archer. 9.
Therefore I was wondering whether you could shoot an apple from your
son's head. 10. Now we shall see whether you can shoot off the apple, or
whether you will touch the child's head." 11. Amid the pleadings of all,
Tell successfully shot off the apple. 12. A similar second arrow was
ready in his hand. 13. The tyrant saw the remaining arrow, and prepared
to punish Tell by death. 14. But he escaped, and the Swiss congratulated
each other heartily ("kore"). 15. After some time they followed him, at
the rate of six miles an hour.

                             LESSON XXXIX.


182. The distributive adverb of place, related to the distributive
pronoun "cxiu", is "cxie", everywhere. The ending "-n" may be added to
"cxie" to show direction of motion (121):

   Oni trovas tiajn virojn cxie,
      such men are found everywhere.
   Li iris cxien, kie mi estis estinta,
      he went everywhere where I had been.
   Mi vidas lin cxie, kien mi iras,
      I see him everywhere I go.

                       THE FUTURE PASSIVE TENSE.

183. The compound tense formed by combining the present passive
participle with the future tense of "esti" indicates that an act or
condition "will be undergone" by the subject of the verb. It is called
the "future passive tense". The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is
as follows:

   mi estos vidata, I shall be seen.
   vi estos vidata, you will be seen.
   li (sxi, gxi) estos vidata, he (she, it) will be seen.
   ni estos vidataj, we shall be seen.
   vi estos vidataj, you will be seen.
   ili estos vidataj, they will be seen.

                         POSSESSIVE COMPOUNDS.

184. Compound adjectives may be formed with an adjectival root for the
first element, and a noun-root for the second element. Such adjectives
have the meaning "possessed of" that which is indicated in the compound.
(Similar adjectives are formed in English, with "-ed" as the final

   belbrova = beautiful-browed.       longnaza = long-nosed.
   bonintenca = good-intentioned.     kvarpieda = four-footed.
   dumana = two-handed.               rugxhara = red-haired.

                            THE TIME OF DAY.

185. The ordinals are used in expressing the hour of the day, with
"horo" expressed or understood. The minutes are expressed by the
cardinals. In questions the adjective "kioma" (from "kiom", how much)
is used:

   Kioma horo estas? What hour (what o'clock, what time) is it?
   Je kioma horo vi venos? At what time (what o'clock) will you come?
   Estas la dua horo, it is two o'clock (it is the second hour).
   Estas la tria kaj kvin minutoj, it is five minutes past three.
   Ni iris je la sesa kaj duono, we went at half past six.
   Estas la oka kaj kvardek kvin
      (or: estas unu kvarono antaux la nauxa),
      it is eight forty-five (a quarter of nine).

                          THE SUFFIX "-OBL-".

186. The suffix "-obl-" is used to form multiples indicating how many
fold, as "two fold," "double," "triple," etc.:

   duoblo, a double.
   duobla, double.
   duoble, doubly.
   kvarobla, quadruple.
   kvindekobla, fifty-fold.
   multobla, manifold.
   Trioble du estas ses, three times two is six.


   bilet-o = ticket.                  pag-i = to pay.
   cend-o = cent.                     preter = beyond, past.
   cxie = everywhere (182).           staci-o = station.
   esprim-o = expression.             telefon-i = to telephone.
   gicxet-o = wicket, ticket-window.  vagon-o = car.
   horlogx-o = clock.                 valiz-o = valise.

[Footnote: The preposition "preter" indicates the movement of something
alongside of and passing beyond something else. Since it does not
express motion "toward" its complement, it cannot be followed by the

                            EN LA STACIDOMO.

Du bonkoraj (184) amikoj miaj logxas en la urbo B----. Ni reciproke
konas nin de antaux ses jaroj. Mi estis duoble gxoja hieraux kiam mi
ricevis leteron de ili, cxar en tiu ili petis de mi baldauxan viziton.
Tial mi telefonis hieraux posttagmeze al la stacidomo, por demandi
je kioma horo foriros la vagonaro ("train") al B----. Oni respondis
per la telefono ke la vagonaro foriros je la tria kaj tridek kvin.
Tuj poste mi enmetis kelkajn vestojn en mian jam preskaux eluzitan
valizon, kaj faris cxiujn preparojn por la mallonga vojagxo. Je la dua
horo, tuj post la tagmangxo ("midday meal"), mi marsxis stacidomon.
Survoje mi eniris butikon kaj acxetis paron da novaj gantoj. Kiam mi
eniris la stacidomon, mi kuris preter la aliaj personoj al la gicxeto
kie biletoj estas vendataj. Mi diris al la sinjoro cxe la gicxeto "Mi
deziras bileton al B----. Kiom estos necese pagi?" La brunokula sinjoro
respondis "Tia bileto kostos dolaron dudek cendojn." Mi pusxis tiom da
mono tra la gicxeto, kaj tuj ricevis la bileton, kiun la sinjoro jam
havis en la mano. Tiam mi iris proksimen de la pordego tra kiu oni estos
enlasata al la vagonaro. "Kiom da tempo antaux la foriro de la vagonaro
al B----?" mi demandis al la gardisto. Li lauxtvocxe respondis "Nur sep
minutojn. Cxu vi ne vidas tiun horlogxon?" Mi ne estis rimarkinta la
horlogxon, tial mi almetis la montrilojn de mia posxhorlogxo ("watch")
por montri la saman horon. Mi estis multe tusxata de cxiaj bonintencaj
personoj kurantaj cxien preter mi, kaj pusxantaj unu la alian. Fine oni
malfermis la pordegon. Mi kaj la ceteraj personoj rapidis al la vagonaro
kaj kiel eble plej baldaux eniris gxin.

[Footnote: "Posttagmezo", afternoon, is a descriptive compound (167, a)
whose second element "tagmezo" is a dependent compound (176).]

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Because of the request of my friend whose brother died recently, I
went last ("la antauxan") week to visit him. 2. The remaining persons of
his family were not at home. 3. I telephoned to find out at what time
the train would depart. 4. I was told (54) that it would leave at four
twenty-seven. 5. I put enough money into my purse, and carried along
("kunportis") a valise into which I had put some clothes. 6. When I
entered the station, I hurried past the other people to the wicket, and
asked for ("petis") a ticket to B----. 7. The ticket seller said "Two
dollars and forty cents." 8. I could not imagine why it was necessary to
pay so much, but I at once pushed that much money through the window,
and received the ticket. 9. Then I looked at my watch and went near the
gate, but the yellowhaired guard who conducts persons to the trains
said "Persons who go through that gate before the train arrives will be
severely punished." 10. So all of us stood near the double gate. 11. The
trains are much like each other, and it is better to act as the guards
request, and not express impatience.

                               LESSON XL.


187. The distributive adverb of time, related to the distributive
pronoun "cxiu", is "cxiam", always, at all times:

   Vi cxiam pagas tro multe, you always pay too much.
   Mi estas cxiam preta por helpi vin, I am always ready to help you.

                    THE DISTRIBUTIVE ADVERB "CXIAL".

188. The distributive adverb of motive or reason, related to the pronoun
"cxiu", is "cxial", for every reason, for all reasons:

   Cxial li estas felicxa hodiaux, for every reason he is happy today.
   La mia cxial estas la plej bona, mine is for all reasons the best.

                      THE PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE.

189. The past passive participle expresses an act or condition as
"having been undergone" by the person or thing indicated by the word
modified. This participle ends in "-ita", as "vidita", having been

   La prezo pagita de vi estis tro granda,
      the price paid by you was too great.
   La punita infano ploras,
      the (having-been) punished child is crying.
   Mi acxetos bonefaritajn gantojn,
      I shall buy well-made gloves.
   Li sercxis la forgesitan bileton,
      he looked for the forgotten ticket.

                       THE PERFECT PASSIVE TENSE.

190. The compound tense formed by combining the past passive participle
with the present tense of the verb "esti" expresses an act or condition
which "has been undergone" by the subject of the verb. It is called the
"perfect passive tense". The conjugation of the verb "vidi" in this
tense is as follows:

   mi estas vidita, I have been seen (I am having-been-seen).
   vi estas vidita, you have been seen.
   li (sxi, gxi) estas vidita, he (she, it) has been seen.
   ni estas viditaj, we have been seen.
   vi estas viditaj, you have been seen.
   ili estas viditaj, they have been seen.

                      THE PREPOSITION "LAUX".

191. In expressing that "in accordance with which" something is done,
takes place, moves, etc., the preposition "laux" is used:

   Li agis laux sia opinio,
      he acted in accordance with his own opinion.
   Mi faros gxin laux bona metodo,
      I shall do it according to a good method.
   Laux kia maniero li agis?
      In what manner did he act?
   Mi marsxis laux la strato,
      I walked down (or up) the street.
   Li iris laux la rivero per tiu vojo,
      he went along the river by that road.
   Nuboj nigraj kuris laux la cxielo,
      black clouds raced along the sky.
   Gxi kusxas lauxlonge de la domo,
      it lies lengthwise of the house.

                           THE SUFFIX "-EM-".

192. The suffix "-em-" indicates a "tendency" or "inclination" toward
that which is expressed in the root:

   agema = active.                    pacema = peaceful, pacific.
   mallaborema = lazy.                pensema = pensive, thoughtful.


   atend-i = to wait (for), to expect.  laux = according to (191).
   cxial = for every reason (188).      manier-o = manner, way.
   cxiam = always (187).                mov-i = to move (transitive)
   gazet-o = magazine, gazette.         okup-i = to occupy.
   jxurnal-o = journal, paper.          pal-a = pale.
   kompat-i = to pity.                  polic-o = police.
   larm-o = tear.                       trankvil-a = calm, tranquil.

                           LA PERDITA INFANO.

Dum mi estis atendanta hieraux posttagmeze en la stacidomo, mi subite
rimarkis palan sinjorinon kun larmoj en sxiaj okuloj. Sxi rigardis
cxien kun esprimo de nekasxebla timo, kaj estis videble maltrankvila.
Sxi sercxis du aux tri minutojn inter la personoj cxirkaux si, kaj fine
sxi vidis bluevestitan policanon, kiu estis parolanta al unu el la
gardistoj. Sxi rapide diris kelkajn vortojn al li, kaj tuj li ankaux
komencis sercxi cie. Mi tre kompatis la ploreman sinjorinon, kaj kiam la
policano preteriris, mi demandis cxu mi ne povas helpi. Mi diris ke mi
ne estos okupata ("busy") gxis la alveno de la vagonaro. Li respondis
ke la filo de tiu virino estas perdita, kaj li donis al mi la sekvantan
priskribon de la infano, laux la vortoj de la patrino: la knabo estas
agema brunhara sesjarulo, kun bluaj okuloj, kaj li estas rugxe vestita
("dressed in red"). Lia patrino estis jxus acxetinta sian bileton cxe
la gicxeto, kaj post kiam sxi pagis la nauxdek cendojn por gxi, subite
sxi rimarkis ke la infano ne estis kun sxi. Kvankam sxi jam sercxis
cxie, la filo sxajnas ankoraux netrovebla. Sxi multe timas pro li,
kvankam li cxiam estas bona knabo. Mi tuj komencis marsxi cxien inter
la personoj cxirkaux mi, kaj fine eniris malgrandan cxambron apud la
horlogxo cxe la fino de la stacidomo, kie estas vendataj tagjxurnaloj
("newspapers"), gazetoj kaj libroj. Tie antaux nemovebla tablo kovrita
de brile koloritaj jxurnaloj staris malgranda rugxevestita knabo. Mi
diris al li "Mia studema juna amiko, oni ne vojagxas laux tiu metodo.
Via patrino jam de longe atendas vin. Mi montros al vi kie sxi estas."
Li venis kun mi, kaj proksime de la pordo kie mi estis lasinta mian
valizon staris la sinjorino. Sxi estis cxial gxoja kiam sxi vidis nin,
kaj dankeme cxirkauxprenis la infanon.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

lost in the station yesterday afternoon was very uneasy about him for
every reason. 2. She was pale and tearful ("plorema") when I saw her,
and looked in every direction in a most impatient manner. 3. There was
an expression of fear upon her face and she went as quickly as possible
to a nearby policeman, and said a few ("kelkajn") words to him. 4. I
heard the last words, and at once said to myself "It is now only ten
minutes past two. 5. My train will leave ("foriros") at half-past two,
so I have time to help." 6. I said to the blue-garbed policeman "During
the next ("sekvontajn") twenty minutes I shall not be busy. Do you
desire my help?" 7. He answered "Yes, you are very kind ("gxentila").
The son of that lady has been lost. 8. According to her description, he
is a yellow-haired blue-eyed five-year-old, and apparently ("sxajne")
too restless ("movema"). 9. I shall find him as soon as possible,
nevertheless I shall gladly accept your help. 10. The child is dressed
in white and wears a red hat." 11. As ("cxar") I am not at all lazy
("mallaborema"), I went along the stationary ("nemoveblaj") tables
as-far-as the end of the station, and there I saw that-sort-of child,
looking at the magazines and newspapers. 12. I led him to the lady, who
with tears in

                              LESSON XLI.


193. The distributive adverb of manner, related to the distributive
pronoun "cxiu", is "cxiel", in every way, in every manner:

   Li povas cxiel prepari gxin, he can prepare it in every manner.
   Li estos cxiel helpata, he will be helped in every way.


194. The distributive adverb of quantity, related to the distributive
pronoun "cxiu", is "cxiom", every quantity, the whole, all:

   Li prenis multe da sukero, sed ne cxiom da gxi,
      he took a great deal of sugar, but not all of it.
   Li elprenis cxiom de la teo el la teujo,
      he took all of the tea out of the tea caddy.

                     THE PLUPERFECT PASSIVE TENSE.

195. The compound tense made by combining the past passive participle
with the past tense of the verb "esti" expresses an act or condition
which "had been undergone" by the subject of the verb at some point in
past time. It is called the "pluperfect passive tense". The conjugation
of "vidi" in this tense is as follows:

   mi estis vidita, I had been seen (I was having-been-seen).
   vi estis vidita, you had been seen.
   li (sxi, gxi) estis vidita, he (she, it) had been seen.
   ni estis viditaj, we had been seen.
   vi estis viditaj, you had been seen.
   ili estis viditaj, they had been seen.


196. The compound tense made by combining the past passive participle
with the future tense of the verb "esti" expresses an act or condition
which "will have been undergone" by the subject of the verb at some
point in future time. It is called the "future perfect passive tense".
The conjugation of "vidi" in this tense is as follows:

   mi estos vidita, I shall have been seen (shall be having-been-seen).
   vi estos vidita, you will have been seen.
   li (sxi, gxi) estos vidita, he (she, it) will have been seen.
   ni estos viditaj, we shall have been seen.
   vi estos viditaj, you will have been seen.
   ili estos viditaj, they will have been seen.

                      THE EXPRESSION OF MATERIAL.

197. The material "out of which" something is made or constructed is
expressed by use of the preposition "el". As in English, an adjective
may be used instead of the prepositional phrase unless a verb or
participle lays stress upon the fact of construction:

   La tablo estas farita el ligno, the table is made out of wood.
   La tablo estas ligna (el ligno), the table is wooden (of wood).
   La infanoj konstruis domon el negxo,
      the children built a house of (out of) snow.
   Oni faras supon el asparago, they make soup out of asparagus.

                           THE SUFFIX "-ET-".

198. The suffix "-et-" indicates diminution of degree in that which is
expressed by the root. It is thus in contrast to the augmentative suffix
"-eg-" (122). Sometimes an affectionate significance is given:

   beleta = pretty.                   libreto = booklet.
   dormeti = to doze.                 monteto = hill.
   floreto = floweret, floret.        rideti = to smile.
   lageto = pond, small lake.         vojeto = path.


   best-o = animal.                   leon-o = lion.
   cxiel = in every way (193).        lud-i = to play.
   cxiom = the whole, all (194).      material-o = material.
   donac-o = gift, present.           posed-i = to own, to possess.
   drap-o = cloth.                    pup-o = doll.
   hund-o = dog.                      rost-i = to roast.
   konsist-i = to consist.            versx-i = to pour.

                               LA DONACO.

Mi volas doni beletan donacon al mia plej juna fratino morgaux, sed ju
pli mi pensas pri gxi, des pli malfacile estas decidi pri la afero.
Estas duoble malfacile, cxar sxi jam posedas cxiun ludilon ("toy") kiun
oni povas imagi. Cxiu el sxiaj amikoj gxoje donacas ("make presents") al
tiel afabla knabino. Tamen mi iris hieraux matene al ludilobutiko, kaj
rigardis la ludilojn tie. Multaj konsistis el diversaj pupoj, grandaj
kaj malgrandaj, kaj belege vestitaj. Sed mi estas certa ke la fratineto
jam posedas suficxe da pupoj--tial mi ne acxetis tian ludilon, kvankam
ili estas cxiam interesaj al knabinetoj. Sur unu tablo kusxis cxiaj
malgrandaj bestoj, faritaj el ligno, drapo, kaj diversaj materialoj.
Estis cxevaletoj, hundetoj, katetoj, kaj flavaj leonetoj. Proksime
de tiuj staris malgrandaj brile koloritaj vagonaroj, kiujn oni povis
rapide movi, laux la maniero de grandaj vagonaroj. Etaj policanoj staris
apude, kaj estis cxial malfacile elekti la plej interesan el tiom da
interesaj ludiloj. Baldaux mi rimarkis knabineton apud mi. Cxiel sxi tre
similis al mia fratino, kaj tial mi decidis elekti tian ludilon, kia
estos elektita plej frue de la nekonata knabineto. Mi atendis trankvile,
kaj ecx legis unu aux du pagxojn de miaj jxus acxetitaj gazetoj kaj
tagjxurnaloj. Fine la beleta infano estis rigardinta preskaux cxiom
de la ludiloj kiuj okupis la tablojn, dum la kompatinda servistino
lace sxin sekvis. Tiam la knabineto kriis "Ho, kiel beleta pupodomo!
Estas litoj en la dormocxambroj; legomoj kaj rostita viando, faritaj
el papero, kusxas sur la tablo en la mangxo-cxambro; kaj mi vidas tie
pupon, kiu certe jxus faris la teon, kaj estas elversxonta gxin en tiujn
tasetojn!" Tuj mi faris decidon laux la plezuro de la knabineto, kaj
baldaux la pupodomo estis acxetita por mia fratineto.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. My pale delicate ("malsanema") little sister is always happy when
she has a new toy. 2. Her dolls were made out of cloth when she was a
very little girl, because otherwise she could too easily break them.
3. But yesterday my grandmother made a present of a doll (presented a
doll) to her, and since that moment she has been as happy as possible.
4. I have not seen tears in her eyes, or heard a cross ("koleretan")
word. 5. This new doll is made out of cloth, and its dress consists of
very pretty material. 6. My sister decided that she likes it better
than her other playthings, and I think that those poor ("kompatindaj")
other dolls will soon have been forgotten. 7. The doll seems in every
way more interesting than the little animals made out of cloth or wood,
which are on the table with her dolls. 8. She possesses a little dog and
a little cat, and a little lion, and until yesterday she had a wooden
pony. 9. The pony is already broken, and has been given away to a poor
("malricxa") child, the daughter of our laundress ("lavistino"). 10. My
sister possesses a small train of cars which she can move everywhere,
and she is very fond of ("ametas") this toy. 11. There are small sacks
of sand in the cars, and usually she is happy when she is pouring the
sand out of one of these into another, or putting all of the sand into
a box, by means of a small spoon. 12. For every reason I am doubly glad
today that she is busied in this manner ("tiamaniere"). 13. I wish to
take a walk along that pleasant path toward the hill, instead of waiting
for my little sister. 14. I must buy the meat to roast for supper,
before I come home from my walk.

                              LESSON XLII.


199. The future passive participle, expressing that which "will be or
is about to be undergone" by the person or thing indicated by the word
modified, ends in "-ota", as "vidota", about to be seen:

   La punota infano mallauxte ploretas,
      the child about to be punished whimpers softly.
   La formovota tablo estas peza,
      the table about to be moved away is heavy.
   La domo konstruota de li estos bela,
      the house going to be built by him will be beautiful.


200. The compound tenses formed by combining the future passive
participle with each of the three aoristic tenses of "esti" represent
an act or condition as "about to be undergone" in the present, past,
or future, respectively. These are called "passive periphrastic future
tenses". Except when great accuracy is desired, these tenses, like those
of the active voice (153) are not often used. A synopsis of "vidi" in
the first person singular of these tenses is as follows:

                       Present Periphrastic Future.
          mi estas vidota, I am about to be (going to be) seen.

                        Past Periphrastic Future.
          mi estis vidota, I was about to be (going to be) seen.

                       Future Periphrastic Future.
       mi estos vidota, I shall be about to be (going to be) seen.

                          THE GENERIC ARTICLE.

201. The article is placed before nouns used in a comprehensive or
universal sense, indicating a whole class, kind, substance, or abstract
quality. In such use it is called the "generic article":

   La pacienco estas lauxdinda, patience is praiseworthy.
   La vivo surtera estas nur parto de la vivo cxiama,
      life on earth is merely a part of the life eternal.
   La viro estas pli forta ol la virino,
      man is stronger than woman.

[Footnote: Cf. French "La patience est amere, mais son fruit est doux,
patience is bitter, but its fruit is sweet", German "Das Leben ist
kurtz, life is short", Italian "La speranza e il pan de miseri, hope is
the poor man's bread", Spanish "Las riquezas son bagajes de la fortuna,
riches are the baggage of fortune", etc. In English the generic article
(as in "the life eternal" above) may often be replaced by omission of
both "a" and "the."]

                           THE SUFFIX "-EC-".

202. The suffix "-ec-" is used to form words indicating the "abstract
quality" of that which is expressed in the root, or formation, to which
it is attached:

   amikeco = friendship.              fleksebleco = flexibility.
   ofteco = frequency.                patreco = fatherhood.
   indeco = worthiness.               patrineco = motherhood.
   dankemeco = thankfulness.          maltrankvileco = uneasiness.


   bord-o = bank, shore.           pont-o = bridge.
   brak-o = arm.                   sonor-i = to ring (intrans.).
   fabrik-i = to manufacture.      surtut-o = overcoat.
   krut-a = steep.                 sving-i = to swing, to brandish.
   lan-o = wool.                   sxip-o = ship.
   mebl-o = piece of furniture.    sxton-o = stone.
   pas-i = to pass (intrans.).     vapor-o = steam.
   pitoresk-a = picturesque.       vetur-i = to travel (in a vehicle).

                         SUR LA VAPORSXIPO.

Unu el la plezuroj de la kampara vivo konsistas el la multenombraj
("numerous") okazoj por veturi cxien, kien oni volas iri, per kvietaj
pitoreskaj vojoj. Ni havas ankoraux unu ("still one, yet another")
okazon por plezuro en nia vilagxo, cxar ni povas veturi per vaporsxipo
sur la bela lago cxe kies bordo kusxas la vilagxo. Hieraux du kuzinoj
venis por viziti cxe ni, kaj tuj post la tagmangxo ni decidis promeni
laux tiu pitoreska vojeto al la lago. Kiam ni alvenis al la lago,
ni rimarkis ke beleta vaporsxipeto estis jxus forironta. Tial mi
acxetis tri biletojn, kaj kiel eble plej rapide ni suriris la sxipeton.
La sonoriloj ("bells") estis jam sonorintaj, kaj tuj post kiam ni
transmarsxis la ponteton, de la tero al la planko de la sxipeto, oni
forprenis la ponteton. Kelkaj personoj kiuj estis ankoraux sur la tero
kuris kun granda rapideco al la ponteto. Ili svingis la brakojn kaj la
ombrelojn tre energie, sed la sxipeto ne atendis ecx unu minuton. La
personoj sxajnis tre koleraj pro sia malfrueco, kaj ankoraux pli koleraj
pro la trankvila foriro de la sxipeto. Cxiu sur la sxipeto ridetis, cxar
la koleremo ("irascibility") estas cxiam amuza. Tiam cxiu komencis sin
amuzi tiel, kiel li deziris. Mi estis kunportinta dikan lanan surtuton,
sed pro la varmeco de la vetero mi ne bezonis gxin, kaj lasis gxin
sur apuda segxo. Ni atendis kun plezuro por vidi la krutajn montetojn
kiuj estos videblaj tuj kiam la sxipeto estos pasinta preter malgranda
arbaro. La pitoreskeco de la belaj montetoj estas difektota, cxar
grandaj fabrikejoj estas jam konstruataj cxe la montpiedoj. La sxtonoj
por la muroj jam kusxas pretaj apude, kune kun grandaj stangoj kaj aliaj
pecoj da ligno. Tie oni fabrikos tablojn, segxojn, kaj aliajn meblojn el
zorge elektita ligno.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. It is difficult in every way to select a present for a child who
already possesses enough toys. 2. In a toy-shop yesterday I examined
the dolls made out of woolen cloth and other material, and also looked
at the various little animals. 3. There were ponies, little dogs and
little lions and camels. 4. There were also little sets of furniture
(126), which consisted of tables, sofas and chairs. 5. On the tables
were small plates containing vegetables, fruits and roast (189) meat,
entirely made out of colored paper. 6. There were also little cups and
tumblers of thin glass, into which one could pour water or milk. 7. As
(cxar) one dollar was all (194) of the money which I had in my purse,
I left the shop. 8. I walked along a stony picturesque path toward the
lake, swinging my overcoat on my arm, while I thought over ("pripensis")
the difficulty, and tried to decide what sort of present to choose. 9.
The steamboat to B---- was just leaving, so I went across the footbridge
("ponteto") on to the pretty little ship, while its bells were ringing,
and rode an hour in the open ("libera") air. 10. The shore which we
passed is very picturesque, but its beauty is about to be spoiled, for a
large furniture factory is going to be built between that steep hill and
the lake. 11. Its proximity to the water is necessary, for water-power
("akvoforto") will be used.

                             LESSON XLIII.

                        THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN.

203. The indefinite pronoun (and pronominal adjective) "iu", any one,
a certain one, presents the idea of some person or thing, without
definitely characterizing it:

   Mi parolas pri iu, kiun vi konas,
      I am talking about a certain one whom you know.
   Mi vizitis iujn el viaj amikoj,
      I visited some of your friends.
   Mi havas kelkajn pomojn, sed iuj ne estas bonaj,
      I have several apples, but certain ones are not good.
   Iuj pontoj estas bone faritaj,
      some bridges are well made.

204. The indefinite pronoun "iu" has a possessive or genitive form
"ies", somebody's, someone's, a certain one's:

   Mi tusxis ies brakon, I touched someone's arm.
   Cxu ies surtuto kusxas sur la tablo?
      Is anybody's overcoat lying on the table?
   Ies ludiloj estas rompitaj, someone's playthings are broken.

                           PARTICIPIAL NOUNS.

205. Nouns may be formed from participles, by substituting the noun
ending "-o" for the adjectival ending "-a". Such participial nouns
indicate persons temporarily or non-professionally performing or
undergoing that which is expressed by the root:

   helpanto, one who is helping, an assistant.
   elpensinto, one who has thought out something, an inventor.
   legonto, one who is about to read.
   vidato, one (being) seen.
   sendito, one (having been) sent, an envoy.
   la jugxoto, the one about to be judged, the accused.

[Footnote: Participial nouns must not be confused with nouns formed
by the suffix "-ist-" (172) expressing professional or permanent
occupation: "rajdanto", a rider, "rajdisto", jockey, horseman,
"jugxanto", a judge (of something), "jugxisto", judge (professional),
"laboranto", a person working, "laboristo", laborer.]

                           THE PREFIX "EK-".

206. Sudden or momentary action, or the beginning of an action or state,
is indicated by the prefix "ek-":

   ekdormi, to fall asleep.
   ekkanti, to burst into song.
   ekiri, to set out, to start.
   ekridi, to burst into a laugh
   ekrigardi, to glance at.

                           THE SUFFIX "-ID-".

207. Words indicating the "young of, the child of, the descendant of,"
are formed by use of the suffix "-id-":

   cxevalido, colt (from "cxevalo", horse).
   hundido, puppy (from "hundo", dog).
   katido, kitten (from "kato", cat).
   leonido, a lion's whelp (from "leono", lion).
   regxidino, a king's daughter, a princess (from "regxo", king).


   amas-o = heap, throng.             kugl-o = bullet.
   dauxr-i = to continue.             milit-i = to fight, to make war.
   hirund-o = swallow. (bird).        ost-o = bone.
   hom-o = human being.               renvers-i = to upset, to overturn.
   humor-o = temper, humor.           sign-o = sign, mark.
   ies = some one's (204).            tend-o = tent.
   iu = some one (203).               tru-o = hole.

[Footnote: Cf. the difference between "viro", man (in contrast to
"virino", woman), and "homo", man in the generic sense, including both
men and women.]

                         LA NESTO SUR LA TENDO.

Unufoje iu regxo estis farinta militon kontraux la homoj de lando cxe la
bordo de pitoreska rivero. La soldatoj ne venis tien per vaporsxipoj,
sed estis konstruintaj ponton trans la rivero, por la veturiloj
("vehicles"). Estis necese resti kelkan tempon apud urbo kiun la regxo
volis ekataki, kaj li havis grandan tendaron ("encampment") antaux tiu
urbo. Unu tagon en la dauxro ("course") de la milito, iuj el la soldatoj
pasis preter la tendo de la regxo, laux la sxtona vojeto laux kiu ili
cxiutage marsxis por gardi la tendaron. Unu el cxi tiuj ekrimarkis ke
hirundo estas konstruinta sian neston sur la regxa tendo. Sur la nesto,
kiu estis bone konstruita el koto, sidis trankvile la hirundo. Dum la
soldatoj svingis la brakojn kaj ekridis unu post la alia, pri la kuragxa
birdo, la regxo auxdis ies vocxon. Li elvenis el sia tendo por eltrovi
kial la parolantoj faras tiom da bruo, kaj kial ili tiel ekkriis kaj
ekridis. Kiam la viroj montris al li la birdon, li diris kun bonhumora
rideto, "Tiu hirundo estos mia gasto. Cxiuj el la militistoj certe
zorgos de nun pri la hirundo kaj la hirundidoj." Tial la nesto restis
netusxata en la dauxro de cxiu batalo. Kelkaj kugloj pasis preter gxi,
sed la trankvileco de la birdo dauxris same kiel antauxe. Fine la regxo
venkis, per kruelega batalo. Tuj la venkintoj forportis la tendojn, kune
kun multaj militkaptitoj ("prisoners of war"). Nur la tendon de la regxo
oni lasis tie, cxar la regxo diris ke gxi nun apartenas al la hirundo.
Gxi jam estis malnova kaj eluzita, tra kiu la pluvo eniris per multe da
truoj. Sed gxi ankoraux staris, gxis iu tago somera kiam la hirundidoj
povis jam bone flugi. Tiam la vento subite renversis gxin, kaj gxi
ekfalis, kaj kusxis, amaso da cxifonoj, inter multe da kugloj, homaj
ostoj, kaj la ceteraj malgajaj postsignoj ("traces") de ies venko sur la

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. There is a pretty story about a swallow which built its nest for its
young ("idoj") on the king's tent. 2. The soldiers who were walking
along the steep path past the tent glanced at it, and caught sight
of (206) the bird. 3. Some of them burst into a laugh, and gestured
("svingis la brakon") toward the bird, to point it out to their
comrades. 4. The good-humored king put on a thick woolen overcoat, and
came out of his tent, to inquire why his soldiers were conversing so
noisily there. 5. The tent was an expensive one, and contained handsome
furniture, as well as ("kaj ankau") a bell which always rang as soon
as ("tuj kiam") one touched it. 6. The king immediately noticed the
swallow's nest, and said with an amiable smile "Surely such a courageous
bird is a worthy (154) guest for a king." 7. The warriors (172) cared
for the swallow as much as possible during the course of the war. 8.
When the victors departed, they left that tent there. 9. Finally the
wind upset it, and it fell to the ground. 10. The young swallows already
could fly, by ("je") that time. 11. The battleground is covered with
bullets, piles of human bones, and similar melancholy signs of war. 12.
War (201) is wicked and shameful (154). 13. Why do kings and princes
wish to make war upon each other (180)? 14. When their sons have gone
away to (make) war, the mothers of the soldiers are very uneasy. 15.
Perhaps those sons will be prisoners of war.

                              LESSON XLIV.

                       THE INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE.

208. The indefinite adjective, related to the indefinite pronoun "iu",
is "ia", of any kind, some kind of, a certain kind of, expressing
indefinitely the quality of a person or thing:

   Estas ia birdo sur tiu arbo,
      there is a bird of some sort on that tree.
   Mi vidis iajn ostojn sur la tero,
      I saw some kind of bones on the ground.
   Estas ia homo en tiu tendo,
      there is some sort of human being in that tent.


209. The indefinite adverb of place, related to the indefinite pronoun
"iu", is "ie", anywhere, somewhere, in (at) a certain place. If the
verb in the sentence expresses motion toward the place indicated by
"ie", the ending "-n" is added (121):

   Ie en tiu arbaro estas leono,
      somewhere in that forest is a lion.
   Ie malantaux la soldatoj vi trovos amason da kugloj,
      somewhere behind the soldiers you will find a heap of bullets.
   La hirundo flugis ien,
      the swallow flew somewhere (in some direction).
   Mi iros ien, sed mi ankoraux ne scias kien,
      I am going somewhere, but I do not yet know where.

                         PREDICATE NOMINATIVES.

210. An adjective may stand in predicate relation to the direct object
of a transitive verb, as well as to the subject of an intransitive verb
(19). Such a predicate adjective, agreeing in number (21) with the
object of the verb, but remaining in the nominative case, indicates the
result produced by the verb upon the object, or the condition, quality
or temporary state in which this object is found:

   Li faris la mondon felicxa,
      he made the world happy (made-happy the world).
   Mi lasis la knabon trankvila, I left the boy calm (undisturbed).
   Mi trovis la truon jam farita, I found the hole already made.
   Mi lasis ilin bone punitaj, I left them well punished.

[Footnote: Cf. the difference between the examples given and sentences
with the same words in an attributive (13) use:
Dio faris la mondon felicxan,
   God made the happy world.
Mi lasis la knabon trankvilan,
   I left the calm boy.
Mi trovis la jam faritan truon,
   I found the already made hole.
Mi lasis ilin bone punitajn,
   I left those who had been well punished.]

211. A noun may be used similarly in predicate relation after a
transitive verb, as well as after an intransitive verb (20):

   Sxi nomis sian filinon Mario, she named her daughter Mary.
   Oni elektis tiun reprezentanto,
      they elected that one representative.
   Mi vidos lin venkinto, I shall see him a conqueror.
   Mi trovis lin sxtelisto, I found him a thief.

[Footnote: Cf. the examples given and the following sentences using the
same words in apposition (48) or attributive relation (13):
Sxi nomis sian filinon Marion,
   she named (mentioned) her daughter Mary.
Oni elektis tiun reprezentanton,
   they elected that representative.]


   anonc-i = to announce.             pasxt-i = to feed (flocks, etc.).
   ia = some kind of (208).           plend-i = to complain.
   ie = somewhere (209).              proces-o = legal process.
   just-a = upright, just.            rajt-o = right, privilege.
   klar-a = distinct, clear.          ripar-i = to mend, to repair.
   kresk-i = to grow.                 sufer-i = to suffer.
   oportun-a = convenient.            sxnur-o = string.

                    LA CXEVALO KAJ LA SONORILO.

Unufoje en malgranda urbeto ("town") en Italujo, la regxo, kiun oni
estis nominta Johano, metis grandan sonorilon en la vendejon. Li anoncis
ke cxiu plendanto pri maljusteco havos la rajton alvoki ("to summon")
jugxiston per tiu sonorilo. Tiam la jugxisto faros proceson en la
jugxejo pro tiaj plendantoj. Oni multe uzis la sonorilon, laux la anonco
de la regxo, kaj multe da plendantoj ricevis justecon. Sammaniere,
granda nombro da maljustuloj estis punata per gxia helpo. Kiam okazis
ke iu homo montris sin maljusta al alia, cxi tiu anoncis la aferon per
la oportuna sonorilo. Kiam iu faris la edzinon malfelicxa, la sonorilo
tuj sonoris por anonci sxiajn suferojn, kaj por alvoki la jugxiston.
Fine, oni tiom uzis la sonorilon justecan, ke la sxnurego ("rope")
estis tute eluzita, kaj gxia lasta uzinto okaze forrompis gxin. Sed
iu preterpasinto vidis la duonon de la sxnurego kusxanta sur la tero,
kaj riparis gxin per kelkaj brancxetoj de apuda arbo. Li pensis en si
"Iu plendonto nun trovos gxin preta por esti uzata." Rimarkinde, la
brancxetoj ne velkis, sed restis verdaj, kaj kreskis kiel antauxe.

En la sama urbo logxis ricxulo kiu estis forvendinta preskaux cxiom de
siaj domoj, cxevaloj, cxevaletoj, cxevalidoj, hundoj kaj multekostaj
vestoj, cxar en sia maljuneco li amis nur la monon, kaj tiun li amegis.
Li ankoraux posedis nur unu maljunan cxevalon, kaj fine li forsendis
ecx tiun, por sin pasxti laux la vojo. En la dauxro de la tago, la
cxevalo ekrimarkis la brancxetojn kreskantajn sur la sxnurego de la
sonorilo. Tuj gxi kaptis la brancxetojn, por mangxi ilin, kaj tuj la
jugxisto auxdis la sonorilon klare sonoranta. Li rapidis al la vendejo,
kaj lauxte ekridis kiam li vidis ies cxevalon tie. Li decidis puni
la ricxulon cxar tiu cxi ne donis suficxe por mangxi al la maljuna

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The horse caught sight of the twigs with which a passer-by had mended
the bellrope. 2. Because it wished to eat the green leaves, it seized
the rope, and the bell immediately rang loudly and clearly. 3. The horse
almost upset the poles which supported (160) the roof over the bell
of-justice. 4. Any one (173) had the right to use this bell, to announce
any kind of injustice. 5. The judge burst into a laugh as soon as he saw
that sort of plaintiff standing there. 6. More often he saw human beings
as plaintiffs, instead of animals. 7. When a laborer showed himself
unkind to his wife and children, they could announce their sufferings by
means of the convenient bell. 8. People called it the bell of justice.
9. According to everyone's opinion, it is the duty of a just judge
to punish evildoers and unjust persons. 10. He decided that he would
institute proceedings ("faros proceson") against the owner (205) of the
horse. 11. The man had driven away the horse, and it was grazing ("sin
pasxtanta") along the road. 12. It was some one's duty to give some sort
of home to his horse. 13. The judge said, "I will find out whose horse
that poor beast is, and will put a mark opposite the name of that man.
I will not leave him alone ("trankvila"), but will show myself very

                              LESSON XLV.


212. The indefinite temporal adverb, related to the indefinite pronoun
"iu", is "iam", sometime, any time, ever, once upon a time:

   Iam mi rakontos la aferon al vi,
      sometime I will tell you the affair.
   Regxo iam logxis tie,
      a king once (upon a time) dwelt there.
   Cxu vi iam faris proceson kontraux li?
      Did you ever go to law against him?

                      THE INDEFINITE ADVERB "IAL".

213. The indefinite adverb of motive or reason, related to the
indefinite pronoun "iu", is "ial", for any reason, for some reason,
for certain reasons:

   Ial li ne riparis la tendon,
      for some reason he did not repair the tent.
   Cxu vi opinias ke ial li maljuste suferas?
      Do you think that for any reason he is suffering unjustly?

                            CAUSATIVE VERBS.

214. The suffix "-ig-" is used to form verbs indicating the "causing,
rendering or bringing about" of that which is expressed in the root or
formation to which it is attached. Verbs containing the suffix "-ig-"
are called "causative verbs" and are always transitive (22).

a. Causative verbs from adjectival roots indicate that the quality or
condition expressed in the root is produced in the object of the verb:

   dolcxigi, to sweeten, to assuage (from "dolcxa", sweet).
   moligi, to soften (from "mola", soft).
   plilongigi, to lengthen, to make longer (from "pli longa", longer).
   faciligi, to facilitate (from "facila", easy).
   beligi, to beautify (from "bela", beautiful).

[Footnote: The meaning often resembles that of the predicate nominative
(210), as:
Li faris la mondon gxoja,
   he made the world glad.
Li gxojigis la mondon,
   he gladdened the world.]

b. Causative verbs from verbal roots indicate that the action expressed
in the root is made to take place:

   dormigi, to put to sleep (from dormi, to sleep).
   konigi, to make acquainted with (from koni, to know).
   mirigi, to astonish (from miri, to wonder).
   mortigi, to kill (from morti, to die).

c. Causative verbs may be formed from noun-roots, prepositions, adverbs,
prefixes and suffixes whose meaning permits:

   amasigi, to amass, to heap up (from amaso, pile).
   kunigi, to unite, to bring together (from kun, with).
   forigi, to do away with (from for, away).
   ebligi, to render possible (-ebl-, 161).

                       EMPHASIS BY MEANS OF "JA".

215. The emphatic form of the verb, expressed in English by "do", "did",
as in "I do study", "I did find it", "Do tell me", and by adverbs such
as "certainly", "indeed", etc., is expressed in Esperanto by placing the
adverb "ja", indeed, before the verb:

   Vi ja mirigas min! You do astonish me!
   Li ja estas justa jugxisto, he is indeed an upright judge.
   Li ja havis tiun rajton, he did have that right.


   akompan-i = to accompany.          indiferent-a = indifferent.
   dangxer-o = danger.                ja = indeed (215).
   gvid-i = to guide.                 kred-i = to believe.
   ial = for some reason (213).       salt-i = to leap, to jump.
   iam = sometimes (212).             tir-i = to draw, to pull.

[Cf. the difference in meaning and use between "esti indiferenta", to be
indifferent, and "ne esti zorga", not to be careful, both of which may
be translated "not to care for":
Li estas indiferenta al la libro,
   he does not care about (is indifferent to) the book.
Li ne zorgas pri la libro,
   he does not care for (take care of) the book.
Estas indiferente al mi cxu li venos, aux ne,
   I do not care whether he is coming or not.]

                       CXE LA MALNOVA PONTO.

Iam logxis en nia urbeto junulo kiu havis afablan pli junan fratinon.
Unu tagon en la dauxro de la bela printempa vetero la junulo invitis
la fratinon veturi ien en veturilo tirata de du cxevaloj. La invito
gxojigis la knabinon, kaj sxi respondis ke sxi kun plezuro akompanos
la fraton. Tuj sxi pretigis sin por iri, kaj ili ekveturis. Ili pasis
preter pitoreskaj kampoj kaj arbaretoj, kaj fine alvenis al ponto trans
la rivero. Ili kredis gxin malnova kaj ne tre forta, kaj ial la junulino
estis treege timigita ("frightened"). "Ho, kara frato," sxi ekkriis,
kun eksalteto pro timo, "tiu ponto ja estas dangxera! Mi deziras marsxi
trans gxin, cxar iam la pezeco de unu persono estos tiom tro multe
por veturilo sur malforta ponto!" Sed la timemaj petoj de lia fratino
sxajne kolerigis la junulon, kaj li respondis malafable, "Nu, vi ja
mirigas min! Vi montras vin tre malsagxa, cxar la konstruintoj de tiu
ponto certe faris gxin suficxe forta por tia veturilo kia la nia. Ne
estos necese eksalti de gxi, kaj piede transiri la ponton." Tiamaniere
li penis trankviligi la kompatindan knabinon, sed tiaj vortoj nur
silentigis sxin, kaj sxi komencis mallauxte ploreti. Tamen la frato
montris sin indiferenta al sxiaj timemaj sentoj, kaj tute malatentis
sxiajn larmojn. Li gvidis la cxevalojn rekte trans la ponton, dum la
fratino atendis la bruegon de rompigita ligno, kaj imagis ke sxi estas
tuj mortigota. Tamen, la ponto estis tiel forta kiel la junulo estis
klariginta, kaj tute ne estis dangxera. Sed pro la malafableco de la
frato al la fratino, ili tute ne agrable pasigis la ceterajn horojn de
la posttagmezo, malgraux la beleco de la vetero kaj de la kamparo.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Somewhere in that same town, there lived another youth, who also had
an amiable sister. 2. One convenient day, she accompanied him for a
ride in a vehicle drawn by a fast horse. 3. When they reached ("alvenis
al") the bridge, this girl also was frightened for some reason, the
same as the girl in the other story. 4. She said "I do not intend to
complain, but the carriage will certainly be too heavy while we are
in it. I am afraid that that bridge is dangerous, so I will jump out
and walk. I will also pick ("kolektos") some sort of flowers, among
the flowers growing there, near where someone's horses are grazing.
I will not delay ("atendigi") you long." He replied, "That bridge is
entirely safe ("nedangxera") but instead of explaining ("making-clear")
to you about it, I will lead the horse across the bridge, while you
walk across, for I am not indifferent to your fear." Then he helped his
sister get out ("eliri") of the carriage, and guided the horse across.
Then he said with a pleasant smile, "It was not necessary to cross on
foot." She replied, "No, but you showed yourself a courteous brother,
and were very patient." Then they rode on ("antauxen"), and talked to
each other very amiably.

                              LESSON XLVI.

                      THE INDEFINITE ADVERB "IEL".

216. The indefinite adverb of manner, related to the indefinite pronoun
"iu", is "iel", somehow, in any way, in some (any) manner:

   Mi penis vin iel gvidi tien,
      I tried somehow to guide you thither.
   Iel ni anoncos la decidon,
      we shall announce the decision in some way.

                      THE INDEFINITE ADVERB "IOM".

217. The indefinite adverb of quantity, related to the indefinite
pronoun "iu", is "iom", some, any quantity, a certain amount:

   Cxu vi havas iom da tempo? Have you some time?
   Sxi varmigos iom da akvo, she will heat some water.
   Tiu metodo estas iomete dangxera,
      that way is a little dangerous (198).
   La sxnuro estas iom tro longa, the string is somewhat too long.

                           THE SUFFIX "-AD-".

218. The suffix "-ad-" is used to form words indicating that the action
expressed in the root is continuous, habitual or repeated.

a. Verbs formed with the suffix "-ad-" are called "frequentative
verbs", and may often be translated by the root meaning, preceded by
"keep (on)", "used to", etc.:

   frapadi, to keep knocking, to knock repeatedly.
   rigardadi, to keep on looking, to gaze.
   vizitadi, to keep visiting, visit repeatedly, frequent, haunt.
   Antaux du jaroj sxi tre dolcxe kantadis,
      two years ago she used to sing very sweetly.

b. Nouns formed with the suffix "-ad-" are often equivalent to English
verbal nouns ending in "-ing", and (with the generic article, 201) may
replace the infinitive as subject (130) and sometimes as object (29):

   kriado, crying, shouting (from krio, cry, shout).
   movado, motion, movement in general (from movo, a movement).
   pafado, shooting, fusillade (from pafo, a shot).
   parolado, a speech, address (from parolo, a word spoken).
   pensado, thought, contemplation (from penso, a thought).
   La promenado donas plezuron, the taking of walks gives pleasure.
   Mi preferas la legadon de tiaj libroj,
      I prefer the reading of (to read) such books.

                           THE USE OF "MEM".

219. The invariable pronoun "mem", self, selves, is intensive, and lays
stress upon the substantive which immediately precedes it, or which it
obviously modifies. (The combination of "mem" with personal pronouns
must not be confused with reflexive pronouns, 39, 40):

   Mi mem akompanos vin, I myself shall accompany you.
   La gvidisto mem perdis la vojon, the guide himself lost the way.
   Mi kredos al la viro mem, I shall give credence to the man himself.
   La viroj mem defendis sin, the men themselves defended themselves.
   Gxi pendas sur la muro mem,
      it hangs on the very wall (the wall itself).
   Sxi venis mem por vidi vin, she came herself to see you.
   Mi ekvidis la sxteliston mem,
      I caught a glimpse of the thief himself.


   Arhximed-o = Archimedes.           jxet-i = to throw, to cast.
   ban-i = to bathe (trans.).         kompren-i = to understand.
   fals-i = to debase, to forge.      kron-o = crown.
   Hieron-o = Hiero.                  lev-i = to lift, to raise.
   honest-a = honest.                 lok-o = place.
   ide-o = idea.                      mem = self, selves (219).
   iel = somehow (216).               or-o = gold.
   iom = some (217).                  Sikeli-o = Sicily.

                      ARHXIMEDO KAJ LA KRONOJ.

Iam bonekonata regxo, nomita Hierono, vivadis en granda urbo en Sikelio,
kiu estas sudokcidenta de Italujo. Li suspektis ke iam la kronfaristoj,
kiuj fabrikadis kronojn por li, ne uzis cxiom de la oro donita al ili de
la regxo, sed falsadis gxin per la uzado de iu alia materialo. Tamen,
Hierono ne povis per si mem eltrovi cxu oni falsadas la oron. Tial li
venigis grekan klerulon, kies nomo estis Arhximedo, kaj rakontis al
li sian timon pri la falsita oro. Arhximedo certigis lin ke iel li ja
eltrovos pri la falsado, kaj helpos la regxon kontraux la falsintoj,
kiuj estis tiel indiferentaj al la honesteco. Cxiutage li multe pensadis
pri la afero, sed ju pli longe li pensadis, des malpli sukcesaj estis
liaj penoj, gxis iu tago, kiam li okaze faris interesan eltrovon. Li
estis jxus baninta sin, kaj subite ekrimarkis ke dum li mem restis en la
akvo, ial sxajnis esti iomete pli multe da akvo en la banujo ol antauxe.
Tuj li komprenis ke lia korpo estas forpusxinta iom de la akvo el gxia
loko. Li komprenis ke tiom da akvo estas elpusxita, kiom antauxe estis
en tiu loko kie li mem estas. Tia levado de la akvo per lia korpo donis
al li sagxan ideon, kaj li prenis en la mano du aux tri orajn kronojn.
Li jxetis ilin unu post la alia en la banujon, kaj zorge rimarkis al kiu
alteco cxiu el ili levis la akvon. Tiam li eltiris ilin, kaj enmetis la
kronon pri kiu Hierono estis plej suspektema. Li rimarkis ke cxi tiu ne
tiel alten levis la akvon, tial li estis certa ke la oro en gxi estas
multe falsita. Oni diras ke kiam li eltrovis cxi tiun metodon por montri
la falsadon de la malhonestaj kronfaristoj, li eksaltetis pro gxojo kaj
ekkriis "euxreka," kiu estas la greka vorto por "mi estas trovinta."
Tiun saman vorton oni ankoraux nun uzadas en la angla lingvo.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Several centuries ago, a rich and powerful ("multepova") king,
named Hiero, lived in Sicily. 2. Sometimes he was suspicious about the
crown-makers who wrought ("faris") crowns for him, out of the gold which
he himself gave them. 3. He wondered whether these men were honest. 4.
He suspected that perhaps ("eble") they did not use all of the gold
which was given them, but kept some of it for themselves. 5. He could
not of himself ("per si mem") discover whether they were debasing the
gold in his crowns, so he summoned a wise man from ("el") Greece. 6. To
this well-informed man, whose name was Archimedes, he made clear his
fears. 7. Archimedes assured the king that he would find out somehow
about the matter. 8. He meditated several hours every day, and tried to
discover a satisfactory ("kontentiga") method, but for some reason he
did not succeed. 9. One day, however, when he was bathing (himself), he
noticed that there seemed to be a little more water in the bathtub when
he himself was in it, than before. 10. The rising of the water gave him
an idea. 11. He threw the crowns one after another into the water, and
noticed how much water each displaced. 12. In this manner ("tiamaniere")
he understood how much each had been alloyed by the local ("lokaj")
crown-makers, whom Hiero soon threw into prison ("la malliberejon").

                             LESSON XLVII.

                         THE NEGATIVE PRONOUN.

220. The negative pronoun (and pronominal adjective) is "neniu", no one,
nobody, no (formed of "ne" and "iu", with a medial "n" inserted for the
sake of euphony):

   Neniu el vi komprenas min, no one of you understands me.
   Mi trovis neniun preta por iri, I found nobody ready to go.
   Li havis neniun honestan serviston, he had no honest servant.

221. The negative pronoun "neniu" has a possessive or genitive form,
"nenies", nobody's, no one's:

   Cxies afero estas nenies afero,
      everybody's affair is nobody's affair.
   Li lauxdos nenies ideojn,
      he will praise no one's ideas.

                       THE ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLE.

222. A participle may be equivalent not only to a clause describing or
determining the substantive modified, as in "la parolanta viro", the
man who-is-talking, "la sendota knabo", the boy who-will-be-sent, but
also to an "adverbial" clause.

[Footnote: An adverbial clause modifies a verb, as in "dum vi atendis,
li foriris", while you waited, he went away; "cxar mi gxojis, mi ridis",
because I was happy, I laughed.]

Such a participle has for its subject the subject of the verb in the
sentence (though not in attributive or predicate relation with it), and
indicates some relation of time, cause, manner, situation, etc., between
the action of the participle and that of the main verb in the sentence.
An adverbial participle is given the ending "-e":

   Gxojante, mi ridis,
      rejoicing, I laughed.
   Forironte, ni adiauxis lin,
      being about to depart, we bade him farewell.
   Baninte la infaneton, sxi dormigis gxin,
      after bathing (having bathed) the baby, she put it to sleep.
   Estante ruzaj, ili falsis la oron,
      being sly, they debased the gold.
   Tiel helpate de vi, mi sukcesos,
      thus helped by you, I shall succeed.
   Silentigite de li, ili ne plendis,
      (having been) silenced by him, they did not complain.
   Punote, li ekkriis,
      being about to be punished, he gave a cry.
   Ne parolinte, li foriris,
      without speaking (not having spoken), he left.
   Li venis, ne vokite,
      he came without being (came not-having-been) called.

[Footnote: The adverbial participle must not be used in rendering the
English "nominative absolute" construction of a participial clause
referring to something else than the subject. In such a sentence a
clause must be used: "The youth being young, everyone watched him", cxar
la junulo estis juna, cxiu rigardadis lin; "the work being finished, he
went away", kiam la lahoro estis finita, li foriris.]

                           THE PREFIX "RE-".

223. The prefix "re-" indicates the repetition of an action or state, or
the "return" of a person or thing to its original place or state. (Cf.
English prefix "re-"; meaning either "again" or "back.")

   rekapti = to recapture.         rebrili = to shine back, to reflect.
   renovigi = to renew.            reteni = to hold back, to retain.
   rekoni = to recognize.          reveni = to come back, to return.
   gxis la revido = au revoir.     reiri = to go back, to return.
   ree = again, anew.              rejxeti = to throw back, to reject.


   brul-i = to be in flames, to burn.   masxin-o = machine.
   cilindr-o = cylinder.                nenies = nobody's (221).
   detru-i = to destroy.                neniu = no one (220).
   fam-a = famous.                      problem-o = problem.
   filozof-o = philosopher.             Sirakuz-o = Syracuse.
   fizik-o = physics.                   spegul-o = mirror.
   insul-o = island.                    sxrauxb-o = screw.

                       LA FILOZOFO ARHXIMEDO.

Eble neniu greka klerulo estis pli fama ol la filozofo Arhximedo. Longe
studadinte la problemojn de la geometrio kaj de la fiziko, li faris
multe da eltrovoj. Li tiel multe komprenis pri la uzado de la levilo
("lever") ke oni rakontas la sekvantan rakonteton pri li: Li diris al
la regxo Hierono "Kiam oni donos al mi lokon sur kiu mi povos stari, mi
mem ekmovos la mondon per mia levilo!" Zorge ekzameninte la ecojn (202)
de la sxrauxbo kaj de la cilindro, li elpensis diversajn masxinojn en
kiuj sxrauxboj kaj cilindroj estas iamaniere kunigitaj. Uzante unu el
tiuj masxinoj, oni povis facile pusxi al la akvo la sxipojn (necese
konstruitajn sur la tero); kiujn antauxe la viroj mem enpusxis en la
akvon, kun multe da laboro, aux tiris tien per cxevaloj. Uzante alian
masxinon elpensitan de tiu greko, oni povis levi akvon de unu loko al
alia. Ankoraux nun oni nomas tian masxinon la "sxrauxbo de Arhximedo."
En la dauxro de granda militado kontraux la urbo Sirakuzo, sur la
insulo Sikelio, Arhximedo elpensis diversajn masxinojn por helpi la
Sirakuzanojn. Vidinte ke la sunlumo rebrilas de spegulo, li faris el
speguloj masxinon per kiu li ekbruligis ("set on fire") la sxipojn de
la malamikoj. Cxi tiuj, ne komprenante kiamaniere* la sxipoj ekbrulis,
estis multe timigitaj. Sed ecx helpite de Arhximedo la Sirakuzanoj ne
venkis. Post iom da tempo, la malamikoj kaptis kaj tute detruis la urbon
Sirakuzon. Nenies domo restis netusxita, kaj centoj da personoj estis
mortigataj. Oni ne scias per kia morto Arhximedo mortis, sed eble la
malamikoj, iel rekoninte la elpensinton de la spegulmasxino, jxetis lin
en la maron aux alimaniere lin mortigis.

[Footnote: The use of "kiamaniere" (in what manner, how) is preferable
to that of "kiel" in indirect questions, as the latter might be confused
with the use of "kiel", meaning "as" (156).]

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The Greek philosopher Archimedes was not only famous long ago, among
his contemporaries (167, b, 132), but even today his name is well known
everywhere. 2. No one's knowledge about the problems of geometry and
physics was greater. 3. No one understood better the properties of the
cylinder and the screw. 4. Having studied these properties a long time,
and having meditated a great deal about them, he understood them a
little (217) better than any one else ("iu alia"). 5. The story about
the debasing of the gold crowns has already been told. 6. There is
another anecdote, namely ("nome"), that he remarked to Hiero, king of
Syracuse, that with a lever he would move the world, as soon as he
had a place on which he himself could stand. 7. Having discovered how
("kiamaniere") the sunlight is reflected by a mirror, and heats the
wood upon which it shines, he invented a machine made out of mirrors.
8. Aided by this machine, the Syracusans were able to set on fire the
wooden ships of the enemy. 9. The enemy, however, were not repulsed
from the island, but at once rebuilt and repaired their ships, and sent
them back to attack the city again. 10. Finally, having captured the
city, they destroyed it, and killed a large number of the inhabitants
("logxantoj"), also Archimedes himself.

                             LESSON XLVIII.

                        THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE.

224. The negative adjective, related to the negative pronoun "neniu," is
"nenia", no kind of, no sort of, expressing a negative idea concerning
the quality of a person or thing:

   Mi havas nenian spegulon, I have no sort of mirror.
   Nenia problemo estas tro malfacila por li,
      no sort of problem is too difficult for him.

                     THE NEGATIVE ADVERB OF PLACE.

225. The negative adverb of place is "nenie", nowhere. The ending "-n"
may be added, as to other adverbs (121), to indicate direction:

   Nenie estas pli bona masxino, nowhere is there a better machine.
   Mi iros nenien morgaux, I shall go nowhere tomorrow.

                     THE NEGATIVE TEMPORAL ADVERB.

226. The negative adverb of time is "neniam", never, at no time:

   Neniam vivis pli fama filozofo,
      there never lived a more famous philosopher.
   Vi neniam trovos tiajn sxrauxbojn aux cilindrojn,
      you will never find that kind of screws or cylinders.

                        THE SUFFIX "-AJX-".

227. The suffix "-ajx-" is used to form "concrete" words. It is thus in
contrast to the abstract-forming suffix "-ec-" (202).

a. A word formed from a verbal root by means of the suffix "-ajx-"
expresses a concrete example of "a thing which undergoes" (or, in the
case of intransitives, "results from") the action indicated in the root:

   konstruajxo = a building.            kreskajxo = a plant, a growth.
   sendajxo = consignment, thing sent.  rebrilajxo = a reflection.
   mangxajxo = food.                    restajxo = remainder.

b. A word formed from an adjectival root or formation by means of the
suffix "-ajx-" indicates "a thing characterized by" or "possessing the
quality" expressed in the root or formation to which it is attached:

   belajxo = a thing of beauty.       mirindajxo = a marvel.
   maljustajxo = an injustice.        okazintajxo = an occurrence.

c. A word formed from a noun-root by means of the suffix "-ajx-"
indicates "a thing made" or "derived from" that which is expressed in
the root:

   sukerajxo = a sweet, confection.   orajxo = a gold object.
   ovajxo = an omelet.                araneajxo = a spider-web.

                           THE ADVERB "JEN".

228. The adverb "jen", behold, here, there, is used to point out or
call attention to something:

   Jen estas la problemo! There is the problem!
   Jen la filozofo! Behold the philosopher!
   Jen sxi ludas, jen sxi studas, now she plays, now she studies.
   Mi faris gxin jene, I did it as follows.
   Mi agis laux la jena metodo, I acted in the following way.
   Li diris la jenajn vortojn, he spoke the following words.


   arangx-i = to arrange.             neniam = never (226).
   art-o = art.                       nenie = nowhere (225).
   ber-o = berry.                     pentr-i = to paint.
   jen = there, behold (228).         postul-i = to demand.
   jxaluz-a = jealous.                precip-a = principal, chief.
   konkurs-o = competition.           regul-o = rule.
   lert-a = skilled, clever.          tromp-i = to deceive.
   nenia = no kind of (224).          vin-o = wine.

                            DU ARTKONKURSOJ.

Vivadis en Grekujo antaux multaj jarcentoj du lertaj famaj pentristoj.
Ili estis reciproke jxaluzaj, kaj neniam povis interparoli paceme.
Ne povinte decidi la problemon, kaj eltrovi kiu el ili estas la plej
lerta, ili fine arangxis konkurson pri la pentrado. Laux gxiaj reguloj,
cxiu el ili pentris pentrajxon, por montri sian lertecon. Unu pentris
teleron da vinberoj ("grapes"). Gxi estis tiel mirinde kolorigita ke ecx
la birdoj venis kaj penis gxin mangxi, pensinte gxin ne nur pentrajxo,
sed la vinberoj mem. "Nenia pentrajxo povos superi la mian," gxojege
ekkriis la pentristo, "jen, la birdoj mem rekonas mian lertecon!" Tiam
li diris al la alia artisto, "Nu, kial vi ne fortiras tiun kurtenon?
Mi volas rigardi vian pentrajxon." La dua pentristo respondis kun
rideto, "Jen estas mia pentrajxo. Nenie apud vi estas kurteno, sed vi
vidas nur pentrajxon de kurteno antaux tiu konstruajxo." Tre mirigite,
la pentrinto de la vinberoj diris "Vi ja superas min en la pentrado.
Mi trompis la birdojn per mia pentrajxo, sed vi trompas ecx aliajn
artistojn! Tia lerteco estas ja mirindajxo!"

Oni rakontas similan okazintajxon pri fama artisto kiu pentris multe
da pentrajxoj por Aleksandro Granda. Malgajninte en konkurso kontraux
iuj aliaj artistoj, li opiniis ke la jugxintoj estas maljustaj al
li, precipe pro la jxaluzeco. Li ekkriis "Cxar niaj pentrajxoj estas
bildoj de cxevaloj, ili certe postulas cxevalajn jugxantojn!" Tial oni
enkondukis du aux tri cxevalojn. La cxevaloj, tute ne rigardinte la
pentrajxojn de la aliaj artistoj, kuris rekte al tiu de la plendinta
artisto, kaj klare montris sian rekonadon de la tie pentritaj cxevaloj.
Surprizite, oni diris "Jen estas justaj jugxantoj!" Tuj oni lauxdis la
pentriston kaj severe punis la malhonestajn homajn jugxintojn.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION

1. Syracuse was the largest city on the island of Sicily. 2. The famous
philosopher and physicist Archimedes lost his life when that city was
destroyed and entirely burned. 3. At least, no sort of trace of him
seems to have been found after that occurrence. 4. Never, perhaps, was
there a more learned man in Syracuse. 5. Greece was also famous for
its skilled painters, and there are many anecdotes about them. 6. A
painter who failed in a certain competition believed that none of the
judges had been just to him. 7. He exclaimed "Behold this iniquity
(injustice)! Nowhere can I find a human being who is not jealous. 8.
Since the paintings are chiefly of horses, do they not require horses
for judges?" 9. His proposal was accepted (54), and some horses were led
in. 10. Without noticing (222) the other paintings, the horses walked
at once to the picture of the unsuccessful artist, and showed immediate
recognition of the horses painted there. 11. This act showed which
competitor ("konkursinto") was the most skilful. 12. The painter, having
deceived the horses, as another artist had once deceived birds by a
picture of grapes, said "Animals decide not by rules, but by feelings."

                              LESSON XLIX.


229. The negative adverb of motive or reason, related to the negative
pronoun "neniu", is "nenial", for no reason:

   Li estas nenial jxaluza, he is jealous for no reason.
   Nenial li trompis vin, for no reason he deceived you.

230. The negative adverb of manner is "neniel", in no way.

   Mi povos neniel arangxi konkurson,
      I can in no way arrange a competition.
   Tiu ago estas neniel lauxregula,
      That act is in no way regular.

231. The negative adverb of quantity is "neniom", no amount of, not
any, none, no:

   Tiu pentrajxo postulas neniom da lerteco,
      such a painting requires no skill.
   Estas neniom da vino en lia glaso,
      there is no wine in his glass.

                        THE SUFFIX "-IGX-".

232. The suffix "-igx-" is used to form intransitive verbs of an
"inchoative" nature.

a. Inchoative verbs from the roots of "intransitive verbs" indicate
the "beginning" or "coming into existence" of the act or condition
expressed in the root:

   sidigxi, to become sitting, to sit down, to take a seat.
   starigxi, to become standing, to stand up.

b. Intransitive verbs may be similarly formed from the roots of
"transitive" verbs, and indicate an action of the verb not immediately
due to the subject's acting upon itself (as in the case of reflexive
verbs, 41) and not caused by any direct agency (as in the case of the
passive voice, 169):

   La pordo fermigxas, the door closes (goes shut).
   La veturilo movigxas, the vehicle moves.
   La brancxo rompigxas, the branch breaks.
   Grupo da personoj kolektigxis, a group of persons gathered.

[Footnote: Cf. the examples given and the following sentences in which
the same verbal roots are used in the simple form and in the passive

   Ni fermas la pordon,          La pordo estas fermita,
         we close the door.           the door is (has been) closed.

   Oni movas la veturilon,       La veturilo estas movata,
         they move the vehicle.       the vehicle is being moved.

   Mi rompas la brancxon,        La brancxo estas rompita,
      I break the branch.           the branch is (has been) broken.

   Li kolektis florojn,          Floroj estas kolektitaj,
      he gathered flowers.          flowers have been gathered.]

c. Intransitive verbs may similarly be formed from "adjectival" roots,
and indicate the acquiring of the characteristic or quality expressed in
the root:

   lacigxi, to become tired, to get tired.
   varmigxi, to become warm, to get warm.
   maljunigxi, to become old, to age.

d. Verbs may similarly be formed from noun-roots, adverbs,
prepositions, prefixes and suffixes whose meaning permits:

   amikigxi, to become a friend.      kunigxi, to become joined.
   forigxi, to go away, to disappear. ebligxi, to become possible.


   apenaux = hardly, scarcely.        nenial = for no reason (229).
   atmosfer-o = atmosphere.           neniel = in no way (230).
   dub-i = to doubt.                  neniom = none, no (231).
   efektiv-a = effective, real.       ombr-o = shadow.
   hel-a = clear, bright.             pejzagx-o = landscape.
   horizont-o = horizon.              radi-o = ray.
   krepusk-o = twilight.              tropik-a = tropical.

                              LA KREPUSKO.

Estas tre agrable sidigxi sur la herbon, kaj rigardi la plilongigxantajn
ombrojn, en la dauxro de bela somera vespero. La suno grade mallevigxas
post la montetoj, la nuboj farigxas ("become") bele kolorigitaj, kaj la
tuta pejzagxo pli kaj pli beligxas. Malrapide la krepusko anstatauxas la
helan sunlumon, kaj fine cxie noktigxas. La krepusko estas la rebrilado
de la sunlumo tra la atmosfero, post la mallevigxo de la suno mem, laux
la jena maniero: la radioj suprenbriladas, en la aeron super niaj kapoj,
en la okcidenta parto de la cxielo. De tie ili rebriladas tiamaniere ke
la cxielo lumigxas. Kiam estas iom da nuboj sur la cxielo okcidenta,
la sunradioj briladas rekte kontraux ilin, belege kolorigante tiujn
nubojn. En tropikaj landoj la krepuskigxo okazas tre rapide. Gxi ne
nur komencigxas subite, sed ankaux dauxras tre mallongan tempon. La
noktigxo preskaux tuj sekvas la taglumon, kun rimarkinda subiteco.
Apenaux komencigxas la krepusko, kiam la subiranta suno sxajnas fali
preter la horizonto. Tute male ("quite on the contrary"), en landoj
treege nordaj, krepuskigxas tre frue en la tago, kaj la krepusko dauxras
longan tempon antaux ol la nokto venas. Efektive ("really"), en tiuj
landoj la krepusko tute anstatauxas la nokton, dum ses monatoj de la
jaro. Tie oni havas krepuskon dum la unua duonjaro, kaj la taglumon
dum la sekvinta duonjaro. Krepusko dauxranta tiom da tempo estas tiel
rimarkinda kiel tago de tia sama longeco. Mi dubas cxu tia dividado
de la tempo inter tago kaj malhela nokto estas agrabla, sed oni povas
neniel malhelpi gxin. Cxiu tre norda lando havas la saman travivajxon
("experience"), cxiujare, kaj efektive oni apenaux rimarkas gxin. Pri
cxiu plendanto oni nur diras "Li estas nenial malkontenta."

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

of ("pri") the two painters who, being mutually (180) jealous, arranged
a competition. 2. One painted a cluster (126) of grapes, so excellently
that the birds flew to it. 3. The other deceived his rival (competitor)
himself, by a painting of a curtain. 4. The most famous artists,
however, often show their skill by painting (222) pictures of the
sunset, chiefly, I think, because of the brilliant colors. 5. In fact
("efektive"), I doubt whether there is a more beautiful sight (227,
b) than the sunset. 6. It is made by the bright rays of the sun,
which shine back through the atmosphere, long after the sun itself
has passed below the horizon. 7. The more moisture ("malsekajxo")
there is in the air, the more brilliant the colors are, and the more
beautiful the entire landscape becomes. 8. In tropical lands, night
falls very suddenly, and there is almost no sort of twilight. 9. In
fact, a twilight scarcely occurs there. 10. In the lands far north, on
the contrary, the twilight lasts six months, and the remainder of the
year is the day. 11. To dwell in such a land is surely a remarkable
experience. 12. It can in no way be understood by persons who have never
lived there. 13. Such things increase (make greater) my desire to visit
those northern lands. 14. For no reason, however, do I

                               LESSON L.

                      THE PRONOUNS ENDING IN "-O".

233. In contrast to the pronouns ending in "-u" ("tiu", "kiu", "cxiu",
"iu", "neniu"), a similar series ending in "-o" refers to an object,
fact or action not definitely specified (but never to a person), like
English "what, anything, something, nothing," etc. Because of their
somewhat vague meaning, these pronouns do not occur in the plural, nor
are they ever used as pronominal adjectives:

Demonstrative: tio = that (thing, fact or action).
               cxi tio = this (thing, fact or action).

Interrogative and Relative: kio = what.

Distributive: cxio = everything.
              cxio cxi = all this.

Indefinite: io = anything, something.

Negative: nenio = nothing.

234. A pronoun (not personal) in predicate or relative relation to a
pronoun ending in "-o" must itself be of the same series:

   Kio estas cxi tio, kion vi diras? What is this, which you say?
   Sxi vidis tion, kio jxus okazis, she saw that which just occurred.
   Cxio cxi, kion vi vidas, estas farita de ili,
      everything here (all this), which you see, was done by them.
   Li havas ion por vi, sed nenion por mi,
      he has something for you, but nothing for me.

                           CORRELATIVE WORDS.

235. Pronouns, adjectives and adverbs, which are related to each other
as corresponding demonstratives, interrogatives, relatives, etc., are
called "correlatives". In Esperanto the correlative system is more
complete than in any other language, and may be summarized as follows:

 Demonstrative    Interrogative  Distributive  Indefinite  Negative
                  and Relative

 tio (233)        kio (233)      cxio (233)    io (233)    nenio (233)
  that (thing)     what, which    everything    anything    nothing

 tiu (56)         kiu (146)      cxiu (173)    iu (203)    neniu (220)
  that (one)       who, which     every, each   any (one)   no (one)

 ties (62)        kies (147)     cxies (174)   ies (204)   nenies(221)
  that one's       whose          every one's   any one's   no one's

 tia (65)         kia (150)      cxia (177)    ia (208)    nenia (224)
  that kind of     what kind of   every kind    any kind    no kind of

 tie (68)         kie (151)      cxie (182)    ie (209)    nenie (225)
  there            where          everywhere    anywhere    nowhere

 tiam (73)        kiam (155)     cxiam (187)   iam (212)   neniam (226)
  then             when           always        any time    never

 tial (78)        kial (129)     cxial (188)   ial (213)   nenial (229)
  therefore,       wherefore,     for every     for any     for no
  so               why            reason        reason      reason

 tiel (88),       kiel (156)     cxiel (193)   iel (216)   neniel (230)
  (156) thus, so   how, as        every way     any way     in no way

 tiom (104)       kiom (164)     cxiom (194)   iom (217)   neniom (231)
  that much,       how much,      all, the      some, any   none, no
  so much          as             whole of      amount      quantity

                           THE USE OF "AJN".

236. The word "ajn" may be placed after any interrogative-relative or
indefinite correlative word, to give a generalizing sense. In order
to avoid confusion with the accusative plural ending, "ajn" is "never
attached" to the correlative which it follows:

   kio ajn = whatever.                kiam ajn = whenever.
   kies ajn = whosesoever.            kiom ajn = however much.
   kie ajn = wherever.                ia ajn = any kind whatever.

                          THE SUFFIX "-ING-".

237. The suffix "-ing-" is used to form words indicating that which
holds "one" specimen of what is expressed in the root:

   glavingo = scabbard.               plumingo = pen-holder.
   lumingo = torch-holder.            ingo = sheath, case, socket.


   cxio = everything (233).           nenio = nothing (233).
   Gordio = Gordius.                  ofer-o = offering.
   io = anything (233).               reg-i = to rule, to govern.
   jug-o = yoke.                      sankt-a = sacred, holy.
   klin-i = to bend, incline (trans). templ-o = temple.
   kio = what (233).                  tio = that (thing) (233).
   lig-i = to tie, to bind.           util-a = useful.

                         LA GORDIA LIGAJXO.

Unufoje en antikva tempo la regatoj de iu regxolando en Azio ne
havis regxon. Ne sciante kion fari, ili demandis de la dioj. La dioj
respondis, "Kiu ajn venos unue en nian sanktan templon hodiaux, por fari
oferojn, estos via regxo." Okaze kamparano nomita Gordio venis al la
templo, jxus post la tagigxo. La regatoj tuj rekonis la estontan regxon,
kvankam li veturis sur peza malbela veturilo. Salutinte la surprizitan
kamparanon, oni nomis lin regxo. Decidinte fari dankoferon al la dioj,
Gordio metis en la templon la veturilon mem sur kiu li tien veturis,
antaux ol li komencis regi kiel la nova regxo. La jugo estis alligita
("tied fast") per granda ligajxo el sxnurego. Post la morto de Gordio
oni grade komencis kredi ion tre interesan pri tio. Oni diris ke tiu,
kiu povos iel ajn malligi tiun ligajxon, farigxos reganto super cxiuj
regxoj de Azio.

Post kelkaj jaroj Aleksandro Granda decidis fari grandan militadon
kontraux Azio, kaj alproksimigxis al la lando kie estis reginta Gordio.
Kiam li demandis, "Kio estas cxi tie la plej interesa vidindajxo?"
oni rakontis al li tion, kion oni diras pri la sxnurega ligajxo sur
la veturilo de Gordio. Kompreneble ("of course") Aleksandro deziris
fari ion ajn utilan por venki Azion, tial li tuj venigis gvidiston
por konduki lin al la templo. Alveninte tien, li zorge rigardadis la
ligajxon, kaj ekzamenis la sxnuregon el kiu gxi estis farita. Tiam,
elpreninte sian glavon el la glavingo, subite klinigxante li rekte
tratrancxis la tutan ligajxon. "Nenio estas pli facila ol tio," li
diris, "kaj nun mi ne dubas cxu mi certe regos super cxiuj regxoj de
Azio." Pro tio, kion faris Aleksandro Granda, oni ankoraux nuntempe
diras, kiam iu ajn superas malfacilajxon per kia ajn subita metodo, "Li
trancxis la gordian ligajxon."

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. One often hears the remark "I will cut the Gordian knot." 2. There
is an interesting story about this. 3. A wagon whose yoke was tied to
the pole by a large knot had been put in the middle of the temple.
4. It was a thank-offering to the sacred gods, by whose help Gordius
had in olden time become king. 5. It was said that whoever would be
able to untie that rope would no doubt become ruler over the whole of
Asia. 6. Alexander the Great, having begun a campaign against Asia,
approached the city where this temple was. 7. Having heard the story,
he at once had a guide come, and went thither, guided by him. 8. He
desired to do everything which was useful to the conquering of Asia. 9.
Having examined the knot carefully, he bent over and tried for a few
minutes to untie it. 10. Then he chose another method. 11. He seized
his sword, and suddenly cut through the whole knot. 12. Having done
this, he put the sword back into the scabbard. 13. This he did, instead
of continuing ("dauxrigi") his efforts to untie the knot. 14. In fact,
having no patience, he had become tired. 15. Perhaps the conquering
of Asia did not in any way become possible on account of this, but
at least the story is interesting, whatever actually ("efektive")
happened. 16. Nothing is impossible, whenever one tries enough. 17. In a
tropical country, such as part of Asia is, the landscapes are beautiful.
18. A tropical twilight is very short, however, and the shadows have
scarcely become long when the sun seems to sink suddenly below the
horizon, although the last bright rays continue to shine back through
the atmosphere for a few minutes.

                               LESSON LI.

                       THE PRONOUN "AMBAUX".

238. The pronoun (and pronominal adjective) "ambaux", both, indicates
two persons or things considered together. It is invariable in form:

   Ili ambaux venis al la templo,
      they both came to the temple.
   Ambaux faris oferojn al la dioj,
      both made offerings to the gods.
   Vidante kaj la plumon kaj la plumingon, mi prenis la ambaux,
      seeing both the pen and the penholder, I took both.

[Footnote: This pronoun must not be confused with the use of "kaj",
translated "both" in the combination "kaj ... kaj ...", "both ... and
..." (26).]

                FORMATIONS WITH "-IG-" AND "-IGX-".

239. Some verbs may be used in the simple form, and also with both the
suffix "-ig-" and the suffix "-igx-". Thus from one verb-root three
verbs of distinct meaning may be made, and the formation with "-ig-",
being transitive, may also be used in the passive:

   sidi = to sit, to be sitting.
      sidigxi = to become sitting, to take a seat.
      sidigi = to cause to sit, to seat.
      esti sidigata = to be caused to sit.
   silenti = to be silent.
      silentigxi = to become silent.
      silentigi = to cause to be silent, to silence.
      esti silentigita = to be silenced.
   kusxi = to lie, to be lying.
      kusxigxi = to lie down, to go to bed.
      kusxigi = to cause to lie, to lay.
      esti kusxigita = to be laid.
   stari = to stand, to be standing.
      starigxi = to rise, to stand up, to become erect.
      starigi = to raise, to cause to stand up, to erect.
      esti starigita = to be raised, to be erected.

                          FACTUAL CONDITIONS.

240. A conditional sentence consists of two parts, an "assumption" and
a "conclusion". The assumption is a clause (introduced usually by the
conjunction "se", "if") which assumes something as true or realized. The
conclusion is a statement whose truth or realization depends upon the
truth or realization of the assumption. "Factual conditions" (conditions
of fact) may deal with the present, past or future time:

   Se li vidas tion, li ploras,
      if he sees that, he weeps (is weeping).
   Se li vidis tion, li ploris,
      if he saw that, he wept.
   Li ploros, se li vidos tion,
      he will weep, if he sees that.
   Se li venis hieraux, li foriros morgaux,
      if he came yesterday, he will go away tomorrow.
   Se li estas vidinta tion, li nun ploras,
      if he has seen that, he now is weeping.
   Se tio estas vidota, li estas punota,
      if that is going to be seen, he is going to be punished.
   Se li estas kaptita, li estos jam punita,
      if he has been captured, he will already have been punished.


   ambaux = both (238).               mut-a = dumb, mute.
   azen-o = ass, donkey.              orel-o = ear.
   ben-i = to bless.                  petol-a = mischievous.
   dors-o = back.                     propr-a = own, one's own.
   form-o = form.                     se = if.
   halt-i = to stop (intrans.).       spir-i = to breathe.
   monahx-o = monk.                   turment-i = to torment.

                     LA MONAHXOJ KAJ LA AZENO.

Iam du monahxoj reiris tra la arbaro al la monahxejo, dum grade
krepuskigxis. Ambaux portis pezajn sakojn da terpomoj, kaj baldaux
lacigxis, sed ne sciis kion fari. Okaze ili ekvidis azenon ligitan
al arbo, kaj unu monahxo, haltinte, diris petole al la alia "Se vi
anstatauxos la beston, mi havos portanton por miaj propraj sakoj, kaj
ankaux por la viaj." Lia kunulo respondis "Nu, se la azeno portos miajn
sakojn, mi mem gxoje restos en gxia loko." Jxus dirite, tuj farite ("no
sooner said than done"). Malliginte la ligajxojn kiuj tenis la azenon,
ili jxetis la sakojn trans la dorson de la utila besto. Unu monahxo tuj
forkondukis la azenon, dum ambaux viroj lauxte ridis. Post tio, la dua
monahxo sin ligis per la sama sxnurego kiu antauxe tenis la azenon.
Kiam revenis la kamparano, kies azeno estis jxus sxtelita, li ekhaltis,
multe mirigite, vidante homon tie ligita. La monahxo anoncis al li,
"Cxar mi estis tro mangxema, Dio faris azenon el mi, antaux du jaroj. Mi
jxus rericevis mian propran formon." Tuj la kredema kamparano invitis
la petolan monahxon al sia hejmo. La monahxo restis tiun nokton cxe la
kamparano, kaj la sekvintan tagon li foriris, beninte la kamparanon, sed
kasxe ridante pri la afero. Tiam la kamparano iris vendejon, por acxeti
alian azenon. Li ekvidis sian propran azenon, kiun la unua monahxo estis
sendinta tien, post sia reveno al la monahxejo. La malsagxa kamparano,
klinigxinte al la besto, diris "Ho, bona monahxo, mi vidas ke duan fojon
vi jam estis tro mangxema!" La muta besto forte svingis la orelojn kaj
skuis la kapon, pro la varma elspirajxo apud sia orelo. Tio sxajne
estis respondo al la jxus diritaj vortoj, tial la malsagxa kamparano
ree acxetis sian propran azenon. Cxiam poste li nek turmentis nek ecx
laborigis gxin, kredante la azenon la sankta monahxo mem.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

ancient times, they usually asked the sacred gods about it. 2. If the
gods informed ("sciigis") them that whatever man would come to the
temple first would become their king, they immediately chose the first
comer ("la unuan veninton") king. 3. Whoever was chosen king made the
blessed gods a thank-offering, which consisted of something out of his
own possessions (227, a). 4. Gordius did not offer to the gods merely
the yoke of his wagon, but the whole wagon. 5. A knot of rope was tied
between the yoke and the pole. 6. People soon began to say, "If any one
soever can untie that knot, he will become ruler of Asia." 7. If any
other men tried to untie that rope, they failed. 8. Alexander, though
("tamen"), had scarcely arrived when he drew (out) his sword from the
scabbard, and cut the knot. 9. If you will take-a-seat, I will tell you
about the two mischievous monks, returning to the monastery. 10. Both
were breathing with difficulty, and stopped to rest. 11. Having noticed
a donkey near by, they untied it. 12. One led the long-eared dumb animal
away, while the other tied himself in its own place. 13. The credulous
(192) peasant believed everything which was told (54) him,

                              LESSON LII.

                         THE CONDITIONAL MOOD.

241. That indication of the speaker's frame of mind which is given by
the form of the verb is called the "mood" of the verb. All verbs given
so far have been in the "indicative mood", which represents an act or
state as a reality or fact, or in the "infinitive mood", which expresses
the verbal idea in a general way, resembling that of a substantive.
The "conditional mood" does not indicate whether or not the act or
state mentioned is a fact, but merely expresses the speaker's idea of
its likelihood or certainty, or is used in an assumption or conclusion
dealing with suppositions, not with actual facts. The ending of the
conditional mood is "-us". The conjugation of "vidi" in the aoristic
tense of the conditional mood is as follows:

   mi vidus, I should see.
   vi vidus, you would see.
   li (sxi, gxi) vidus, he (she, it) would see.
   ni vidus, we should see.
   vi vidus, you would see.
   ili vidus, they would see.


242. In addition to the aoristic tense, the conditional mood has three
active and three passive compound tenses, formed by combining the
participles with the aoristic tense of "esti" in the conditional mood. A
synopsis of "vidi" in these compound tenses is as follows:

                             Active Voice.

   Present:  mi estus vidanta,  I should be seeing.
   Past:     mi estus vidinta,  I should have seen.
   Future:   mi estus vidonta,  I should be about to see.

                             Passive Voice.

   Present:  mi estus vidata,   I should be seen.
   Past:     mi estus vidita,   I should have been seen.
   Future:   mi estus vidota,   I should be about to be seen.

                         LESS VIVID CONDITIONS.

243. A conditional sentence dealing with "suppositions" concerning
events in present or future time is called a "less vivid condition"
("Less vivid", in contrast to factual conditions (240), which are
"vivid", because they deal with facts.), and the conditional mood
is used in both the assumption and the conclusion:

   Se li vidus tion, li plorus,
      if he should see that, he would weep.
   Mi gxoje helpus vin, se mi povus,
      I would gladly help you, if I could.
   Se vi metus ilin sur la dorson de la azeno, gxi portus ilin,
      if you should put them on the donkey's back, it would carry them.
   La petola junulo turmentus la monahxon, se li revenus,
      the mischievous youth would torment the monk, if he should return.
   Se li estus kaptata, li estus punata,
      if he should be caught, he would be punished.


244. The conditional mood may be used in a conclusion whose assumption
is merely implied, serving thus to soften or make vague the statement or
question in which it is used:

   Mi gxoje helpus vin, I would gladly help you.
   Cxu vi bonvole dirus al mi? Would you kindly tell me?
   Kiu volus enspiri tian aeron? Who would wish to inhale such air?
   Estus bone reteni vian propran, it would be well to keep your own.
   La cxielo vin benus pro tio, Heaven would bless you for that.

                           THE PREFIX "DIS-".

245. The prefix "dis-" indicates separation or movement in several
different directions at once:

   disdoni = to distribute.           disigxi = to separate (intrans.).
   dispeli = to dispel.               disigxo = separation, schism.
   disigi = to separate (trans.).     dissendi = to send around.

[Footnote: Cf. the English prefix "dis-" in "disperse", "disseminate",
"distribute," etc.]


   cxes-i = to cease, to leave off.   kauxz-i = to cause.
   dens-a = dense.                    legx-o = law.
   difin-i = to define.               natur-o = nature.
   ekzist-i = to exist.               objekt-o = object.
   flu-i = to flow.                   plu = further, more.
   gravit-i = to gravitate.           turn-i = to turn (trans.).

[Footnote: The adverb "plu" gives an idea of continuance to the word
which it modifies. When used with "ne", the two together give an idea of
cessation concerning a previous continuous act or state: "Ambaux parolos
plu morgaux", both will talk further tomorrow. "Mi ne plu haltos", I
shall not stop (any) more. "Li ne plu sxajnis muta", he no longer seemed

                           PRI LA GRAVITADO.

1. Ofte oni parolas pri la pezeco de diversaj objektoj. Tia pezeco estas
kauxzata de la forto kiun oni nomas la gravitado. Pro tiu forto ne nur
objektoj sur la tero, sed ankaux la tero mem, havas konatan pezecon,
kiun la kleruloj jam antaux longe kalkulis. La suno kaj la luno simile
havas pezecon, cxar ili ambaux, same kiel la tero, movigxas laux tiu
sama gravitado kiu efektive regas cxiujn el la cxielaj korpoj. Se la
gravitado cxesus ekzisti, la riveroj ne plu fluus antauxen en siaj
fluejoj ("beds"). Ne fluante de altaj gxis malaltaj lokoj, la akvo
disfluus, aux restus tie, kie ajn gxi okaze estus. Neniom da pluvo
falus; kontrauxe, la malsekajxo en la aero ankoraux restus tie, en la
formo de densaj mallumaj cxiamaj nuboj. Cxiuj vivaj estajxoj ("beings"),
cxiuj konstruajxoj, efektive cxio, baldaux disflugus de la rapide
turnigxanta mondo. Cxiuj cxi ("all these") nun devas resti sur la tero,
tial ke la gravitado restigas ilin cxi tie. Se la gravitado ne plu
ekzistus, nenio restus plu sur la tero. La aero mem ne plu cxirkauxus
nin, sed gxi ankaux forlasus la mondon, tuj maldensigxinte ("having
become rarefied"). La fama angla filozofo Newton estis la unua, kiu
studadis la kialon ("reason") de la falado de objektoj. Li komencis,
laux la rakonto, per okaza ekrigardo al falantaj pomoj en sia propra
pomarbejo. Antaux tri jarcentoj, li eltrovis ke estas tia forto kia la
gravitado, kaj difinis la naturajn legxojn laux kiuj la gravitado sin
montras. Cxi tiu forto, kiu restigas cxion sur la tero, estas tamen
la kauxzo de nia lacigxado, kiam ni marsxas aux kuras, cxar gxi faras
nin pezaj, kaj tial ni ofte deziras halti kaj ripozi. Estas ankaux la
malfacileco en la superado de tiu sama forto, kiu faras tiel malfacila
la konstruadon de utilaj aersxipoj.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Newton was an Englishman who lived three centuries ago. 2. One day he
was walking in his orchard, and, noticing the falling apples, he stood
still ("ekhaltis") and began to wonder why they fall. 3. He studied the
cause of their falling, wishing to discover whatever laws of nature he
could. 4. He watched various falling objects, and tried to calculate
their velocity ("rapideco"). 5. Finally he recognized that force which
is called gravitation. 6. Of course ("kompreneble") gravitation had
always existed, but its laws were not noticed or clearly defined until
Newton studied the matter. 7. If gravitation should not exist any more,
no rain would fall, but instead of condensing, the moisture would remain
above our heads in eternal clouds. 8. But gradually the moisture and
the air itself, becoming rarefied, would fly away from the earth, being
held no longer by the force of gravitation. 9. The water in the rivers
would leave off flowing (cease to flow) on toward the sea, because now
the water flows from high to low places only on account of gravitation.
10. Instead of gravitating toward the sea, in fact, the water would flow
in every direction (245) out of the riverbeds, or would remain there,
without moving at all ("tute ne movante"). 11. Nothing on earth would
remain here very long, but everything would fly off the quickly moving
world, and leave it entirely bare. Soon, also, the earth itself would
break-into-pieces (245).

                              LESSON LIII.

                      CONDITIONS CONTRARY TO FACT.

246. A "condition contrary to fact" indicates that the opposite of what
is mentioned has really taken place or is taking place. It expresses the
speaker's certainty that an act or state would have been realized, if
some other act or state were also realized. Such conditions cannot refer
to the future, but only to present or past time. The conditional mood is

   Se vi estus turninta vin, vi estus vidinta tion,
      if you had turned, you would have seen that.
   Se la malsekajxo ne estus densigxinta, ne estus pluvinte,
      if the moisture had not condensed, it would not have rained.
   Se li estus kaptita, li estus punita,
      if he had been caught, he would have been punished.
   Se li estus sidanta tie, mi vidus lin,
      if he were (if he should be) sitting there, I should see him.
   Se la gravitado ne ekzistus, tiu pluvo ne estus falanta,
      if gravitation did not (should not) exist,
         that rain would not be falling.

                            THE VERB "DEVI".

247. The verb "devi" (cf. "devo", duty) is equivalent to the verb "must"
(which in English has no future, past, infinitive, etc.), and to "to
have to", "to be obliged to", etc., carrying the idea of "must" into all
tenses and moods. In the conditional mood its meaning is softened into a
vaguer sense (of "moral" obligation), and carries the idea of "ought":

   Objektoj en la aero devas fali, objects in the air have to fall.
   Ni devis agi laux la legxoj, we had to act according to the laws.
   Vi devos iri, you must (will have to) go.
   Sxi ne volas devi fari tion, she does not wish to have to do that.
   Ili devigis min iri, they compelled me to go.
   Vi devus iri, you should go (you ought to go).
   Oni devus pensi antaux ol paroli, one ought to think before speaking.
   Li estus devinta veni, he ought to have come.
   Tio devus esti farita, that ought to have been done.

                         THE PREPOSITION "SEN".

248. The preposition "sen", without, indicates the omission, absence or
exclusion of that which is expressed by its complement. It may be used
as a prefix (160), giving a sense of deprivation or exclusion (like that
given by the English suffix "-less"):

   Li difinis la vorton sen eraro, he defined the word without an error.
   La rivero sencxese fluas, the river flows without ceasing.
   Tio estas ne nur senutila sed ecx malutila,
      that is not only useless but even harmful.
   Li ne plu estas senmona, he is no longer penniless.
   Li sentime alproksimigxis al gxi, he fearlessly approached it.

[Footnote: English phrases containing "without" as in "without reading,"
must be changed to phrases clearly containing verbal nouns, as "without
the reading of," before translating into an Esperanto phrase with "sen".
Otherwise a participle with "ne" should replace the phrase ("222"): "Sen
la legado de tio, mi ne komprenus", without (the) reading (of) that,
I should not understand. "Ne leginte tion, mi ne komprenus", without
reading (not having read) that, I should not understand.]


   akuz-i = to accuse.                nobl-a = noble.
   instru-i = to teach.               pardon-i = to pardon.
   kondamn-i = to condemn.            pek-i = to sin.
   konfes-i = to confess, to admit.   prav-a = right, correct.
   konscienc-o = conscience.          sen = without (248).
   kulp-o = guilt.                    So-krato = Socrates.
   merit-i = to deserve.              venen-o = poison.

                          LA FILOZOFO SOKRATO.

Unu el la plej famaj grekaj filozofoj estis nomita Sokrato. Li
estis malbela malalta persono, kun senhara kapo kaj dika korpo, sed
malgraux tio li estis treege bona, nobla kaj sagxa. Li instruadis per
interparolado kun la lernantoj. Kutime li komencis per demando pri
io ajn, pri kio la auxskultanto respondos. Fine, la lernanto grade
komprenis cxu liaj propraj opinioj pri la afero estas pravaj. Ankoraux
nun oni nomas tiun metodon de instruado per la interparolado "la Sokrata
metodo." Sokrato diradis tute sen timo cxion, kion li pensis, ecx pri
la dioj kaj pri la nekredeblaj rakontoj pri la dioj. Se li ne estus
tiel multe klariginta, eble li estus vivinta pli longan tempon. Sed
multaj personoj malamis lin, precipe cxar li donis novajn ideojn al
la junuloj, kiuj sekve komencis pensi por si mem, anstataux fari tion
kion faras cxiu alia. Tial oni akuzis Sokraton en la jugxejo, nomante
lin pekanto kaj malbonfaranto, unue, cxar li ne disdonas oferojn al la
dioj, due, cxar li enkondukas novajn diojn (cxar li diris ke supernatura
vocxo, kiu sendube estis lia nomo por la konscienco, parolis mallauxte
cxe lia orelo), trie, cxar li malbonigas la junularon de la urbo. Se
li estus konfesinte la kulpon kaj petinte pardonon, tiam la jugxistoj
eble estus punintaj lin per nura ("mere") monpago ("fine"). Sed li fiere
respondis ke efektive li multe plibonigas la junularon, kaj anstataux
esti malutila, aux ecx neutila, li treege utilas al la urbo. Li diris
ke oni havas nenian rajton puni lin, sed ke, kauxze de sia bonfarado al
la urbo, li efektive meritas cxiutagan mangxon senpagan. Tamen, tute ne
kompreninte kiel prava Sokrato estas, la jugxistoj mortkondamnis lin.
Oni devigis lin trinki la venenon. Iom poste, en la malliberejo, li
trankvile adiauxis siajn plorantajn amikojn, kaj akceptinte la venenan
trinkajxon, sentime gxin trinkis.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Socrates believed that if one knows about good and evil (201) he will
do good, but will not do evil. 2. Therefore he wished to help mankind
("la homaron"), teaching them what the good is. 3. He also wished to
discover for himself what is right and what is wrong. 4. So he asked
every one whom he met (about) his opinions, and the one-talking-with
[him] would also notice whether his own ideas were right or not. 5. But
the fellow-citizens of Socrates were jealous, and hated him, because
they did not understand him. 6. Therefore they accused him, called him a
sinner, and sent around (245) false reports ("falsajn sciigojn") about
him. 7. Because he said that conscience guided him (in the form of a
soft voice at his ear), they accused him of ("pri") introducing (218,
b) new gods. 8. They also said that he was corrupting the youth of the
city. 9. If Socrates had pleaded guilty, and begged for a fine instead
of the death-punishment, without doubt he would have been pardoned and
fined ("monpunita"). 10. But he said "I have never in my life sinned in
any way, and I do not deserve any sort of punishment." So the judges
condemned him to death by the drinking of poison.

                              LESSON LIV.

                         SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS

249. The three kinds of conditional sentences, together with the moods
and tenses used in them, may be tabulated as follows:

   Name:            Factual     Less Vivid          Contrary to Fact

   Subject Matter:  facts       suppositions        opposite of facts

   Time:            any         (usually) future    present or past

   Mood:            indicative  conditional         conditional

   Tense:           any         (usually) aoristic  (usually) compound


250. Clauses of imaginative comparison are introduced by the conjunction
"kvazaux", as though, as if. Sometimes the verb in the comparison may be
left unexpressed or merely implied:

   Li trinkas la venenon kvazaux gxi estus vino,
      he drinks the poison as though it were wine.
   La kondamnito marsxis kvazaux kun malfacileco,
      the condemned man walked as if with difficulty.
   Li konfesis kvazaux kulpulo,
      he confessed like a culprit.


251. Personal pronouns, and less frequently nouns, may be used with the
preposition "al" to express "concern" or "interest" on the part of the
person indicated by the complement of this preposition:

   Li bruligis al si la manon, he burned his hand.
   Hi trancxis al li la barbon, they cut his beard (the beard for him).
   Sxi preparas al ni bonan mangxon, she is preparing us a good meal.
   Cxu vi faros servon al mi? Will you do me a service?

[Footnote: The use of "al" in this sense, approaching that of "por" but
less purposeful and definite, resembles the "dative of reference" and
"ethical dative" of other languages, as in French "je me suis brule la
langue", I have burned my tongue, German "ich wasche mir die Haende",
I wash my hands, Latin "sese Caesari ad pedes proicerunt", they threw
themselves at the feet of Caesar, Greek "ti soi mathesomai", what am I
to learn for you? etc.]

252. By an extension of its use in expressing reference, "al" may often
be used in the place of "de" expressing separation (170), when the use
of "de" might seem to indicate agency (169) or possession (49):

   La luno estas kasxata al ni de la nuboj,
      the moon is hidden from us (to us) by the clouds.
   Gxi estas stelita al mi de li,
      it has been stolen from me by him.

[Footnote: This use resembles the "dative of separation" of other
languages, as in German "es stahl mir das Leben", it stole the life from
me, French "il me prend la vie", it takes my life, Latin "hunc mihi
timorem eripe", remove this fear from me, Greek "dexato oi skaeptron",
he took his sceptre from him, etc.]

                          THE SUFFIX "-ESTR-".

253. The suffix "-estr-" is used to indicate the "chief", "head", or
"one in control" of that which is expressed in the root:

   lernejestro = (school) principal.  urbestro = mayor.
   monahxestro = abbot.               estraro = governing body.
   policestro = chief of police.      sxipestro = ship-captain.


   Aristejd-o = Aristeides.           popol-o = a people.
   ekzil-i = to exile.                pot-o = pot.
   enu-i = to be wearied, bored.      senc-o = meaning, sense.
   gxust-a = exact.                   signif-i = to signify.
   kvazaux = as though, as if (250).  son-i = to sound.
   ostr-o = oyster.                   strang-a = strange.
   ostracism-o = ostracism.           sxel-o = shell, bark, peel.

[Footnote: Care must be taken to distinguish "gxusta", exact, "gxuste",
exactly, just, from "justa", upright, just, "juste", justly, and also
from the adverb "jxus" just.]

                      LA OSTRACISMO DE ARISTEJDO.

La vorto ostracismo havas interesan devenon ("origin"). En gxia komenco
oni rekonas la grekan vorton kiu signifas "sxelon de la ostro." En gxia
fino oni vidas la saman "-ismon " kiu, deveninte de la greka, ankoraux
estas uzata kiel vortfino en multaj diversaj lingvoj. La nuna senco de
la vorto, facile trovebla en anglaj vortaroj ("dictionaries"), devenas
de la jena greka kutimo:

Sepdek jarojn antaux ol vivadis Sokrato, oni faris strangan legxon en
lia urbo. Laux tiu, oni povis ekzili iun ajn estron kies ideoj pri la
administrado de la urbo ne sxajnis pravaj. Cxi tion oni povis fari,
tute sen jugxado aux ecx akuzado, cxar oni havis la jenan metodon: se
cxe popola kunveno ses mil urbanoj vocxdonis ("vote") kontraux iun
ajn, tiu estis devigata foriri de la urbo, kaj forresti dek jarojn.
Li povis neniel havigi ("get") al si pardonon, sed devis tuj foriri
kvazaux konfesinta kulpulo. Por vocxdonoj, oni skribis la nomon de la
kondamnoto sur peco da potajxo ("pottery"), aux pli ofte sur ostrosxelo.
Gxuste tial oni nomas la kutimon ostracismo. Unufoje, kelkaj malamikoj
proponis vocxdonadon pri la ostracismo de tre bona kaj nobla viro,
nomita Aristejdo, kiu tute ne meritis tian punadon.

Antaux ol la kunveno disigxis, kamparano alproksimigxis al Aristejdo
(kiu mem cxeestis), petante lian helpon, cxar la neinstruita kamparano
ne povis skribi. La sagxulo diris "Kion vi volas skribi sur la sxelo?"
La kamparano, ne sciante ke li parolas al la viro mem, respondis
"Aristejdon." Skribinte gxin, Aristejdo demandis kun trankvila
konscienco "Pro gxuste kiaj pekoj vi malamas Aristejdon?" La kamparano
respondis, "Ho, mi ne kasxos al vi ke mi ecx ne konas lin! Sed mi
deziras ekzili lin nur cxar min enuigas la sono de lia nomo. Mi tre
enuas cxiam auxdante lin nomata Aristejdo la justa!"

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Aristeides had just arrived at the popular assembly when a peasant
approached him. 2. If Aristeides had not had a pleasant countenance
and musical ("belsonan") voice, doubtless the peasant would not have
asked his help. 3. Ought Aristeides to have written his own name on the
oyster-shell or piece of pottery which was going to be used as a vote
against him? 4. Without just (exactly) this help, the peasant could
not have voted. 5. Doing him the service requested, Aristeides said,
as if ("250") he himself were not the man under-discussion ("205"),
"Why do you hate Aristeides? 6. Could you tell me how he has sinned
against the city?" 7. The silly-creature ("132") replied, "Oh, I know
nothing about him, but I am weary [of] always hearing him called the
just." 8. Ought such persons as that ignorant peasant have-the-right
to vote about important affairs? 9. The ancient law about ostracism
was a strange [one]. 10. The name of the person to-be-exiled ("199")
was usually written upon an oyster-shell, and the meaning of the word
signifying the custom comes from that. 11. Through ("per") ostracism,
any leader could be banished, justly or unjustly, without trial of any
kind, or explanation of the reasons.

                               LESSON LV.

                          THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.

254. For expressions of command, exhortation, entreaty, etc., there
is an "imperative mood", as in English. The ending of the imperative
mood is "-u". Beside the aoristic tense, six compound tenses are formed
by combining the participles with the imperative mood "estu" of the
auxiliary verb, but these tenses are seldom used. The conjugation of
"vidi" in the aoristic tense of this mood, together with a synopsis in
the compound tenses, is as follows:

                            Aoristic Tense.

         mi vidu! = let me see!       ni vidu! = let us see!
         (vi) vidu! = (you) see!      (vi) vidu! = (you) see!
         li (sxi, gxi) vidu! =        ili vidu! = let them see!
            let him (her, it) see!

                            Compound Tenses.

                 Active.                       Passive.

        Present:   mi estu vidanta    Present:   mi estu vidata
        Past:      mi estu vidinta    Past:      mi estu vidita
        Future:    mi estu vidonta    Future:    mi estu vidota

                        RESOLVE AND EXHORTATION.

255. The "first person singular" of the imperative mood is used
to express the speaker's resolve concerning his own action, or an
exhortation to himself concerning such action. The "first person plural"
is used to express resolve or exhortation concerning the joint action of
the speaker and the person or persons addressed:

   Mi pensu pri tio! Let me think about that!
   Mi ne forgesu tion! I must not (do not let me) forget that!
   Ni ekzilu lin! Let us exile him!
   Ni ne sidigxu tie! Let us not sit down there!
   Ni estu grize vestitaj! Let us be dressed in gray!

[Footnote: This force is usually expressed in English by "let" with an
accusative and infinitive construction.]

                       COMMANDS AND PROHIBITIONS.

256. The "second" and "third" persons of the imperative are used to
express peremptory commands and prohibitions.

a. In the second person the pronoun is usually omitted, as in English,
unless special emphasis is placed upon it:

   Estu trankvila! Be calm! (One person is addressed.)
   Estu pretaj por akompani min!
      Be ready to accompany me! (Two or more persons are addressed.)
   Parolu kvazaux vi komprenus! Talk as though you understood!
   Ne fermu tiun pordon! Do not shut that door!
   Ne estu vidata tie! Do not be seen there!

b. In the third person a circumlocution in English is necessary in
translation (as "let", "must", "are to", "is to", etc.):

   Li estu zorga! Let him be careful (he must be careful)!
   Sxi ne faru tion! Do not let her do that (she is not to do that)!
   Cxio estu pardonata! Let everything be forgiven!
   Oni lasu min trankvila! People are to let me alone!
   Ili neniam revenu! Let them never (do not let them ever) return!
   La kulpuloj estu punataj! Let the culprits be punished!


257. By an extension of its use in resolve, exhortation, command
and prohibition, the imperative mood may be employed for less
peremptory expressions, such as "request", "wish", "advice", etc.,
and in "questions of deliberation or perplexity", or "requests for

Request:  Cxesu tiun bruon, mi petas! Stop that noise, I beg!
          Bonvolu fari tion! Please do that!
          Pardonu al ni niajn pekojn! Forgive us our sins!
Wish:     Ili estu felicxaj! May they be happy!
          Dio vin benu! God bless you!
          Vivu la regxo! (Long) live the king!
Advice:   Pensu antaux ol agi! Think before acting!
          Foriru, se vi ne estas kontenta!
               Go away, if you are not satisfied!
Consent:  Nu, parolu, sed mi ne auxskultos!
               Well, talk, but I shall not listen!
          Iru tuj, se vi volas. Go at once, if you like.
Question: Cxu mi faru tion aux ne? Am I to do that or not?
          Cxu ni disdonu la librojn? Shall we distribute the books?
          Cxu li estu kondamnita? Shall he be condemned?
          Cxu ili venu cxi tien? Are they to (shall they) come here?

                        THE USE OF "MOSXTO".

258. The word "mosxto" may be used alone, or after a title, to denote
respect. When used after a title, the title becomes an adjective:

   Lia regxa mosxto, his majesty.
   Lia jugxista mosxto, his honor the judge.
   Sxia regxina mosxto, her majesty.
   Lia urbestra mosxto, his honor the mayor.
   Cxu via mosxto lin auxdis?
      Did your honor (excellency, etc.) hear him?


   Afrik-o = Africa.                  mosxt-o = a title (see 258).
   barbar-o = barbarian.              ordon-i = to order, to bid.
   Damokl-o = Damocles.               permes-i = to permit.
   flank-o = side.                    placx-i = to please.
   imperi-o = empire.                 sklav-o = slave.
   konsent-i = to consent.            sol-a = sole, only.
   konsil-i = to advise.              volont-e = willingly.

                          LA GLAVO DE DAMOKLO.

Antaux pli multe ol dumil jaroj vivis en Sirakuzo, sur la insulo
Sikelio, tre kruela tirano. Li diris al si "Mi estu cxiopova
("all-powerful")!" Tial li faris multe da militadoj, kaj venkis ne nur
barbarajn popolojn, sed ankaux multajn urbojn en Italujo kaj norda
Afriko. Detruinte cxion sen kompato, li ordonis "La logxantoj estu
vendataj por sklavoj!" Li deziris fari por si, el la venkitaj kaj
sklavigitaj popoloj, unu grandan imperion. Sed la urboj cxie, ecx en
Grekujo, ne kasxis al li sian grandan malamon al tia tirano. Tial li
cxiam timis pri sia vivo, timante ke iu subite mortigos lin. Unufoje
Damoklo, amiko de la tirano, diris al li, "Se mi estus tiel ricxa
kaj pova kiel via regxa mosxto, mi estus treege felicxa!" La tirano
respondis, "Venu al festo cxe mi, se tio placxas al vi, kaj eltrovu cxu
mi devus esti felicxa aux ne." "Mi venos tre volonte," ekkriis Damoklo,
"kaj mi dankas vian mosxton pro tia afableco!" La tirano gxentile
respondis "Ho, estas nenio (="you are welcome")! Nur ne forgesu la
deciditan horon!" Je la gxusta horo Damoklo iris al la festo, kie oni
donis al li segxon flanke de la tirano mem. "Mangxu kaj trinku kiom ajn
vi volas," konsilis la tirano, "kaj poste ni parolos pri la felicxeco."
Damoklo tuj konsentis al tia propono, kaj agis laux la permeso tiel
afable donita al li. Mangxante bonegan mangxajxon, kaj trinkante dolcxan
vinon, li tute ne enuis cxe la festo. Baldaux la tirano diris "Rigardu
supren, kaj vidu gxuste kian felicxecon mi havas!" Supren rigardinte,
Damoklo ekvidis akran glavon, antauxe kasxitan al li de kurteno.
Subtenate de unu sola haro, la glavo sxajnis kvazaux tuj falonta sur la
kapon de Damoklo. "La dioj min helpu!" li ekkriis, forsaltinte de la
tablo. Pro la jxus dirita stranga rakonto, oni ankoraux nun nomas la
atendadon por io timeginda, kio sxajnas cxiam okazonta sed efektive ne
okazas, "la glavo de Damoklo."

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. The word ostracism comes from the Greek word signifying
"oyster-shell." 2. It has its present meaning because oyster-shells
or pieces of pottery were used for the voting. 3. The story about
Aristeides is interesting, but that about the sword of Damocles is also
interesting. 4. His friend, the Syracusan tyrant, had permitted all
sorts of injustices, against not only barbarians but even Greeks. 5.
His only bidding usually was "Let every inhabitant be sold as a slave!"
6. He thought "Let me make one sole empire out of Africa, Italy and
Sicily!" 7. Damocles said to him "Your royal highness ought to be very
happy!" 8. The tyrant answered, "Come to a feast tomorrow, and find
out. I will give you a seat (214, b) beside me." 9. Damocles willingly
consented, and went thither. 10. The tyrant advised "Let us eat and
drink until midnight, if that would be-pleasing to you. Then let us
discuss the problem about happiness." 11. After a few hours Damocles
heard a slight sound over his head, and the tyrant said to him, "Look
up and you will see what kind of happiness mine is." 12. "Heaven defend
me!" exclaimed Damocles, catching sight of a sharp sword hanging by a
single (sole) hair.

                              LESSON LVI.


259. The imperative mood is used in a subordinate clause, with a meaning
similar to that in its independent use, after a main verb expressing
"command", "exhortation", "resolve", "consent", "wish", etc., or after
any word or general expression of "command", "intention", "necessity",
"expedience", etc. Such clauses are introduced by the conjunction ke:

                        Command and Prohibition.

   Li diras ke vi iru, he says that you are to go.
   Sxi skribis al li ke li venu, she wrote him to come.
   Mi malpermesas ke vi restu, I forbid you to remain.
   Ni ordonos ke li estu punata, we shall order that he be punished.

                           Request and Wish.

   Mi petas ke vi ne lasu min, I beg that you do not leave me.
   Mi petegas ke vi estu trankvilaj, I implore you to be calm.
   Li deziras ke ili estu sklavigitaj, he desires that they be enslaved.
   Ni volis ke li ne forgesu tion, we wished him not to forget that.

                      Advice, Consent, Permission.

   Mi konsilis al li ke li iru, I advised him to go.
   Mi konsentis ke li restu, I consented that he remain.
   Ili permesos ke la barbaroj forkuru,
      they will permit the barbarians to escape
      (that the barbarians escape).


   Li demandas cxu ili foriru, he inquires whether they are to go away.
   Oni demandis cxu lia mosxto eniru,
      they asked whether his honor was to enter.
   Mi miras cxu mi faru tion, I wonder whether I am to do that.

                 Intention, Expedience, Necessity, etc.

   Ni intencas ke vi estu helpata,
      we intend that you shall be helped.
   Lia propono estas ke ni ricevu la duonon,
      his proposal is, that we receive the half.
   Lia lasta ordono estis, ke vi venu,
      his last order was that you come.
   Estos bone ke vi ne plu nomu lin,
      it will be well for you not to (that you do not)
      mention him any more.
   Estas dezirinde ke ni havu bonan imperiestron,
      it is desirable that we have a good emperor.
   Estis necese ke cxiu starigxu,
      it was necessary for everyone to rise.
   Placxos al li ke vi iru,
      he will be pleased to have you go.

[Footnote: In English and some other languages an imperative idea may
often be expressed by the infinitive, as "I wish you to go," but in
Esperanto this must be expressed by the equivalent of "I wish that you
go." The infinitive may not be used except when it can itself be the
subject of the verb in such general statements as "it is necessary to

                         THE PREPOSITION "JE".

260. Since prepositional uses are not exactly alike in any two
languages, it is not always possible to translate a preposition of
one language by what is its equivalent in some senses in another. In
order to insure some means of translating correctly into Esperanto any
prepositional phrase of the national languages, the preposition "je"
is regarded as of rather indefinite meaning. In addition to its use in
dates and allusions to time (89, 185), it may be employed when no other
preposition gives the exact sense required, especially in protestations
and exclamations, expressions of measure (see also 139), and of
indefinite connection:

   Je la nomo de cxielo! In the name of Heaven!
   Je mia honoro mi ja elfaros tion!
      On my honor I will accomplish that!
   Gxi estas longa je du mejloj,
      it is two miles long (long by two miles).
   Ili venis je grandaj nombroj, they came in great numbers.
   Li estas tenata de la policano, je la brako, per forta sxnurego,
      he is held by the policemen, by the arm, with (by) a strong rope.

The preposition "je" is used to express indefinite connection after
the following words (other prepositions sometimes used are given in

   ekkrii je (pro), to cry out at.    (sin) okupi je, busy (oneself) at.
   enui je, to be bored with.         plena je (de), full of.
   fiera je (pri), proud of.          preni je, to take by.
   fidi je (al), to rely upon.        provizi je (per), to provide with.
   gxoji je (pri), to rejoice at.     ricxigi je (per), to enrich with.
   gratuli je (pri), congratulate on. ridi je, to laugh at.
   honti je (pri), to be ashamed of.  satigxi je, to be sated with.
   inda je, worthy of.                senigi je, to deprive of.
   interesigxi je, take interest in.  simila je (al), similar to.
   kapti je, to seize by.             sopiri je (al), to yearn for.
   kontenta je (kun), content with.   sxargxi je, to load with.
   kredi je, to believe in.           teni je, to hold by.

[Footnote: The translation given for a preposition in any dictionary is
the general one which serves in the majority of cases. The finer shades
of meaning and real or apparent exceptions can merely be touched upon if
mentioned at all.]

                           THE SUFFIX "-OP-".

261. The suffix "-op-" is used to form "collective" numerals:

   duope = by twos, in pairs.     milope = by thousands.
   kvarope = by fours.            sesopigi = to form into groups of six.


   cel-i = to aim.                    prokrast-i = to delay (trans.).
   Cirus-o = Cyrus.                   proviz-i = to provide.
   fidi = to rely.                    rezult-i = to result.
   gxu-i = to enjoy.                  sopir-i = to yearn, to sigh.
   honor-o = honor.                   spac-o = space.
   krom = beside, save, but.          terur-a = terrible.
   plen-a = full.                     ver-o = truth.


Iam Ciruso, nepo de Ciruso Granda, sopiris je la imperio de sia pli
maljunafrato, kiu sekvis la patron de ambaux fratoj kiel regxo, aux
pli gxuste imperiestro. Decidinte forigi de la regxeco ("to dethrone")
sian fraton, Ciruso petis la grekojn ke ili partoprenu ("take part") en
kelkaj negravaj militadoj. Multaj tiamaj grekoj tre volonte sin okupis
je la batalado, pro la granda pago ricevata. La venditaj sklavoj kaj la
detruitaj konstruajxoj cxiam provizis ilin je multe da ricxajxo, kaj
krom tio la militistoj sxajnis gxui ecx la militadon mem. Estis tute
indiferente al ili cxu la kauxzo de la militado estas prava kaj justa
aux ne. Unue Ciruso nur petis ke ili helpu liajn proprajn soldatojn
kontraux iuj najbaroj. Li kasxis al ili sian veran celon, cxar se la
grekoj estus suspektintaj tion, kion li intencis fari, ili neniam estus
akompanintaj lin tiel malproksimen de sia patrolando. Grade li kondukis
ilin trans tutan Azion, kaj fine la dekmil grekoj komprenis cxion, kaj
treege kolerigxis. Paroladante al ili, Ciruso tuj diris "Mi ne permesas
ke vi reiru, kaj mi petegas ke vi antauxen marsxadu kun mi, sen plua
("further") prokrasto! Se mi sukcesos kontraux mia frato, mi certigas
vin je mia honoro ke cxiu el vi revenos havante sakojn plenajn je
ricxajxo! Estas nur necese ke vi fidu je mi, kaj cxio estos bona!" Tiam
la soldatoj hontis je sia antauxa timo, kaj kuragxe antauxen marsxadis.
Fine, apud granda urbo, la frato de Ciruso elvenis havante okcentmil
soldatojn, por batali kontraux la centmil de Ciruso. Per la helpo de
siaj grekoj, Ciruso estis preskaux venkinta en terura batalo, kiam
subite li ekvidis sian fraton, je malgranda interspaco. Ekkriante "Mi
vidas la viron!" li rajdis rekte al la regxo, jxetante sian pezan lancon
al li. La sola rezulto estis la morto de Ciruso mem, cxar la amikoj de
la regxo, kvinope kaj sesope atakinte Ciruson, lin tuj mortigis.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Cyrus did not desire that his brother should remain king. 2. He
decided, "Let me myself become ("farigxi") king! I should much enjoy
that!" 3. So he asked the Greeks to help him in some battles against
nearby enemies. 4. Gradually an army (126) of a hundred thousand men,
ten thousand of whom were Greeks, gathered (232, b) around him. 5. He
led them farther and farther, into the middle of Asia, until finally the
Greeks suspected his true aim. 6. They said to each other in terror, "He
did not at first propose that we fight against the Great King. Let us
return home without delay!" 7. Cyrus addressed (218) them as follows:
"Must I permit you to go back? I implore you to be courageous, and I
do advise you not to forget your longing for (260) honor! 8. Only be
worthy of your leader, and rely upon me! Do you not wish to return home
provided with wealth, beside the money which I shall pay to you?" 9.
Immediately the soldiers were ashamed of their fear, and advanced by
hundreds, full of courage. 10. Soon the brother of Cyrus approached,
with ("havante") eight hundred thousand men. 11. By the aid of the
Greeks, Cyrus won the battle, but he himself lost his life. 12. So
neither he nor the Greeks could enjoy the result of their efforts.

                              LESSON LVII.

                      CLAUSES EXPRESSING PURPOSE.

262. Purpose may be expressed by a subordinate imperative clause,
introduced by "por ke":

   Mi faras gxin por ke li helpu vin,
      I do it in order that he may help you.
   Mi ekkriis por ke vi auxdu,
      I cried out in order that you should hear.
   Li venos por ke ni estu felicxaj,
      he will come that we may be happy.
   Mi studas por ke mi lernu,
      I study that I may learn.
   Ili restu por ke ni punu ilin,
      let them stay for us to punish them.

[Footnote: Cf. the expression of purpose by the infinitive with "por"
(98), which however cannot be used except when the subject of the main
verb is the subject of the subordinate verb, or when the object of the
main verb is the subject of the subordinate verb.]


[Footnote: Cf. the accusative of direct object (23), direction of motion
(46, 121), time (91), and measure (139).]

263. The accusative of direction of motion is used after nouns from
roots expressing motion:

   Lia eniro en la urbon estis subita,
      his entrance into the city was sudden.
   La irado tien estos plezuro,
      (the) going thither will be a pleasure.
   Gxia falado teren timigis min,
      its falling earthward terrified me.

264. a. An intransitive verb may be followed by a noun in the accusative
case, if the meaning of the noun is related to that of the verb:

   Li vivas agrablan vivon, he lives an agreeable life.
   Sxi dancis belan dancon, she danced a beautiful dance.
   Ili ploris maldolcxajn larmojn, they wept bitter tears.

b. Verbs of motion ("iri", "veni", "pasi", "marsxi", "veturi", etc.)
compounded with prepositions or adverbs (121) indicating direction,
also compounds of such verbs as "esti" and "stari" with prepositions
expressing situation, may be followed by the accusative, instead of by
a prepositional phrase in which the preposition is repeated:

   La viro preterpasis la domon,
      the man passed (by) the house.
   Lin antauxvenis du sklavoj,
      there preceded (came before) him two slaves.
   Ni supreniru la sxtuparon,
      let us go up the stairs.
   Mi cxeestis la feston,
      I attended (was present at) the entertainment.
   Mi kontrauxstaras vian opinion,
      I oppose (withstand) your opinion.

c. The slight change in meaning given by "pri" used as a prefix may
render intransitive verbs transitive. The same is true of "el" prefixed
to intransitive verbs not expressing motion:

   Sxi priploris la mortintan birdon, she mourned the dead bird.
   Mi pripensos la aferon, I shall consider (think over) the matter.
   Ni gxin priparolos, we shall talk it over.
   Li klare elparolas la vortojn, he pronounces the words clearly.

[Footnote: In this use "pri" resembles the English and German
inseparable prefix "be-", as in English "bemoan", "bewail", "bethink",
"bespeak", German "beklagen", "besprechen", "sich" , etc.]

265. The accusative may be used after verbs of such meaning that either
a prepositional phrase or an accusative would seem correct:

   Mi pardonas lin (al li), I pardon (grant pardon to) him.
   Mi helpis lin (al li), I helped (gave aid to) him.
   Gxi placxas min (al mi), it pleases (is pleasing to) me.
   Li obeis nin (al ni), he obeyed (was obedient to) us.
   Sxi ridis mian timon (je mia timo),
      she ridiculed (laughed at) my fear.

[Footnote: When ambiguity would be caused, as by the presence of another
accusative, this construction may not be employed. One may say "pardonu
nin", but must say "pardonu al ni niajn pekojn".]

266. The accusative may be used after certain adverbs which are normally
followed by a prepositional phrase:

   Rilate tion (rilate al tio), in regard to that.
   Escepte tion (escepte de tio), with the exception of that.
   Koncerne la aferon (koncerne je la afero), concerning the affair.
   Kompare la alian (kompare kun la alia), in comparison with the other.
   Konforme la legxon (konforme al la legxo), in conformity to the law.


267.                         vidi, to see.

              ACTIVE.                          PASSIVE.


         (Aoristic) mi vidas                mi estas vidata
         (Progressive) mi estas vidanta

         (Aoristic) mi vidis                mi estis vidata
         (Imperfect) mi estis vidanta

         (Aoristic) mi vidos                mi estos vidata
         (Progressive) mi estos vidanta

         mi estas vidinta                   mi estas vidita

         mi estis vidinta                   mi estis vidita

                            Future Perfect.
         mi estos vidinta                   mi estos vidita

                         Periphrastic Futures.

         mi estas vidonta                   mi estas vidota

         mi estis vidonta                   mi estis vidota

         mi estos vidonta                   mi estos vidota


         (Aoristic) mi vidus                mi estus vidata
         (Progressive) mi estus vidanta

         mi estus vidinta                   mi estus vidita

         mi estus vidonta                   mi estus vidota


         (Aoristic) mi vidu                 mi estu vidata
         (Progressive) mi estu vidanta

         mi estu vidinta                    mi estu vidita

         mi estu vidonta                    mi estu vidota


         (Aoristic) vidi                    esti vidata
         (Progressive) esti vidanta

         esti vidinta                       esti vidita

         esti vidonta                       esti vidota

                           THE SUFFIX "-UM-".

268. The indefinite suffix "-um-" serves the same general purpose in
word formation which "je" serves as an indefinite preposition (260):

   aerumi = to air.                   kolumo = collar.
   busxumo = muzzle.                  plenumi = to fulfil.
   gustumi = to taste.                proksimume = approximately.


   eben-a = level, even.           nepr-e = inevitably, certainly.
   escept-o = exception.           obe-i = to obey.
   esper-i = to hope.              obstin-a = obstinate.
   fremd-a = foreign.              promes-i = to promise.
   histori-o = history.            rilat-o = relation.
   kompar-i = to compare.          sat-a = satiated.
   koncern-i = to concern.         sav-i = to save.
   konform-i = to conform.         verk-i = to compose (books or music).

                       LA REIRADO DE LA DEKMILO.

La grekaj militistoj sentis grandan teruron kiam Ciruso ne plu vivis. La
celo de la longa marsxado ne povis esti plenumata, pro la morto de la
obstina trokuragxa militestro mem. Kvankam la grekoj estis venkintoj,
ili estis tute solaj en fremda lando, cxirkauxitaj de barbaroj kiuj,
per trompemaj proponoj kaj falsaj promesoj pri amikaj interrilatoj,
tuj okazigis la morton de la grekaj estroj. Senigite je siaj estroj,
la kompatindaj viroj tute malesperis. Sed kelkaj subestroj, rapide
kunveniginte la soldatojn, diris, "Ni mem kondukos vin per kiel eble
plej rekta vojo hejmen! Ni faros nian eblon ("utmost") por ke ni
cxiuj estu savitaj!" Cxar restis nenio alia por fari, la malfacila
malgaja reirado de la grekoj komencigxis sen prokrasto. Ili transiris
varmegajn ebenajxojn ("plains"), supreniris kaj malsupreniris krutajn
negxkovritajn montojn, meze de la vintro, kaj sen pontoj transiris
largxajn riverojn. Cxie la malfidindaj barbaroj atakis ilin, kvazaux
por ke neniu greko restu viva. Krom tio, la grekoj mortis dekope kaj
dudekope cxiutage, pro varmegeco, malvarmegeco, laceco kaj malsateco
("hunger"). Fine, post nekredeblaj suferoj, la restajxo de la dekmil
soldatoj alvenis sur monton, kaj ekvidis la maron. Lauxta ekkriego "La
maro! La maro!" eksonis inter la lacaj viroj, el kiuj multaj ploris
larmojn de gxojo. De infaneco ili alkutimis al la vojagxado per akvo,
kaj post iom da ripozo ili sin provizis je sxipoj, por transiri la maron
al la patrujo je kiu ili estis tiel longe sopirintaj. Treege interesa
historio koncerne la tutan aferon estas verkita de fama greka verkisto
("writer"), kiu estis akompaninta Ciruson por ke li povu gxui kaj studi
cxion interesan sur la vojo. Tiu azia militado de Ciruso nepre estas unu
el la plej rimarkindaj okazintajxoj iam priskribitaj, ecx sen escepto de
la posta irado tien de Aleksandro Granda.

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. After the death of Cyrus, the leaders of the Greek warriors did not
know what to do. 2. In the course of the following day, one of the
leaders of the enemy sent a messenger (205) with deceitful promises
about help. 2. He said "Assemble in our leader's tent, in order that
you may all discuss the matter." 3. The Greek leaders went, although
they suspected danger, because they did not know how else to save
their men. 4. But they never returned, and soon the Greeks understood
that the barbarians had killed them. 5. They wept tears of despair,
and said "The barbarians will inevitably destroy us, for we are in
a foreign land, where we know neither the languages nor the roads,
and the peoples are without exception hostile to us." 6. But the
leaders-of-lesser-rank said "Obey us and follow us, and we shall do our
best to save you!" 7. Their return, across hot plains and snow-covered
mountains, made-more-difficult by hunger and by the unceasing attacks
of the barbarians, is related in the history written by a famous Greek
historian. 8. One can still read this interesting narrative, in Greek or
in a translation.

                             LESSON LVIII.

                      PERMISSION AND POSSIBILITY.

269. Permission is usually expressed by the use of "permesi", "lasi", or
the imperative mood:

   Cxu vi permesas ke mi restu? May I (do you permit me to) stay?
   Jes, mi permesas (jes, restu), yes, you may (yes, stay).
   Ne estas permesate eniri tien, it is not allowed to enter there.
   Lasu lin veni, let him come.

270. The idea of possibility or probability is given by the use of some
such adverb as "eble", "kredeble", "versxajne", etc.:

   Eble li obeos al vi, he may (perhaps he will) obey you.
   Kredeble li sukcesos, probably he will succeed.
   Versxajne vi estas prava, you are probably right.
   Eble oni lin savus, they might (possibly they would) save him.
   Ili nepre ne batis lin,
      they could not have (surely did not) beat him.
   Tio estas neebla! That can not be (that is impossible)!

                           THE PREFIX "GE-".

271. Words formed with the prefix "ge-" indicate the two sexes together:

   gepatroj = parents.          gefiloj = son(s) and daughter(s).
   geavoj = grandparents.       gefratoj = brother(s) and sister(s).
   genepoj = grandchildren.     geedzoj = husband(s) and wife (wives).
   gesinjoroj = Mr. and Mrs., lady (ladies) and gentleman (gentlemen).

                        THE SUFFIX "-ACX-".

272. The suffix "-acx-" has a disparaging significance:

   domacxo = a hovel.                 pentracxi = to daub.
   hundacxo = a cur.                  popolacxo = rabble, mob.
   obstinacxa = obstinate.            ridacxi = to guffaw.


273. Interjections are words used to express feeling or call attention.
Among the more common interjections are:

   Adiaux! Farewell! (171).           Hura! Hurrah!
   Fi! Fie!                           Nu! Well!
   Ho! Oh! Ho!                        Ve! Woe! (Ho ve! Alas!).

[Footnote: Verbs in the imperative, and adverbs, are frequently used as
interjections, as "Atentu!", Look out!, "Auxskultu!", Hark!, "Bonvenu!",
Welcome!, "Antauxen!", Forward!, "Bone!", Good!, "For!", Away!, "Ja!",
Indeed!, "Jen!", There!, Behold!]

[Footnote: The interjection "fi" is sometimes used as a disparaging
prefix, like "-acx-" (272), as "fibirdo", ugly bird, "ficxevalo", a
sorry nag.]


   Aleksandri-o = Alexandria.         fond-i = to found, establish.
   Amerik-o = America.                hispan-o = Spaniard.
   Aristotel-o = Aristotle.           kapabl-a = capable.
   Auxstrali-o = Australia.           komun-a = common, mutual.
   bibliotek-o = library.             kontinent-o = continent.
   eduk-i = to bring up, educate.     Krist-o = Christ.
   Egipt-o = Egypt.                   milion-o = million.
   estim-i = to esteem.               spite = in spite of.
   firm-a = firm.                     vast-a = vast, extensive.

                           ALEKSANDRO GRANDA.

Permesu ke mi diru kelkajn vortojn pri la vivo de Aleksandro Granda,
kiu ne estis matura viro sed havis nur dudek jarojn kiam li farigxis
regxo. Liaj gepatroj estis tre zorge edukintaj lin, kaj la filozofo
Aristotelo, kiun li tre alte estimis, estis unu el liaj instruistoj.
Aleksandro firme tenadis sian propran regxolandon, kaj ankaux Grekujon,
kiun lia patro estis venkinta; krom tio, li faris militadojn kontraux
diversaj fremdaj landoj, unue en Azio, tiam en Afriko, kie li fondis
urbon, kaj gxin nomis Aleksandrio. Aleksandrio nepre estis belega ricxa
urbo. Tie trovigxis* poste la fama Aleksandria biblioteko. Se gxi ne
estus detruita de fajro, en la dauxro de iuj militadoj, ni sendube konus
multe pli bone la sciadon de la antikvaj grekoj, kiuj versxajne estis la
plej klera popolo iam vivinta en Euxropo. Venkinte Egipton, Aleksandro
reiris en Azion, gxis tre orienta kaj suda partoj, venkante cxiujn cxie,
kvazaux ili estus la plej malkuragxaj popolacxoj en la mondo. Sed spite
cxies petoj li estis obstinacxe nezorgema pri sia sano, kaj subite,
ho ve, li mortis pro febro, tricent dektri jarojn antaux Kristo. Se
li ne estus tiel frue mortinta, kiel multe li estus eble elfarinta!
Li esperis venki Hispanujon, Italujon, kaj, mallongavorte, tiom de la
okcidenta mondo kiom li jam posedis de la orienta. Tiam li celis kunigi
cxion en unu vastan imperion, kvazaux por fari el la mondo unu grandan
familion. Li intencis ke la milionoj da enlogxantoj akceptu komunajn
legxojn kaj kutimojn, ecx komunan lingvon, -- kredeble la grekan. Eble
li ja havis la kapablecon por fari cxion cxi. Estas pro tio ke oni ofte
auxdas la diron "Aleksandro sopiris je aliaj mondoj por venki." Tamen,
kiel malgranda estis tiu mondo kiun li konis! La tiamuloj konis nur
malgrandan parton de Afriko, de Azio, ecx de Euxropo. Ili sciis nenion
pri Anglujo, aux pri la vastaj kontinentoj Auxstralio, norda kaj suda

[Footnote: The use of "trovigxi", and also of "sin trovi", "kusxi",
"stari" and "sidi", in a sense not greatly differing from that of
"esti", avoids the monotonous repetition of forms of "esti", just as
English uses "lie", "sit", "perch", etc., in narration for similar
Multaj vilagxoj trovigxas tie,
   many villages are (situated) there.
Egipto trovigxas en la nordorienta parto de Afriko,
   Egypt is (found) in the northeastern part of Africa.
Li sin trovis sola en la dezerto,
   he found himself (he was) alone in the desert.
La urbo kusxis inter du lagoj,
   the city lay between two lakes.
Sur la montflanko sidis vilagxeto,
   on the mountainside perched a tiny village.]

                       SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION.

1. Alexander the Great wished to unite the whole world into one vast
empire. 2. He intended that all the different peoples should conform to
common laws and that their sons-and-daughters should speak one common
language, and in spite of their love for their national languages,
should leave-off speaking them. 3. Possibly he might have accomplished
his object to some extent (217), if he had not died suddenly when he
was only thirty-two years old. 4. His soldiers marched weeping past his
tent, to bid farewell to their dying leader. 5. They must have esteemed
him very highly! 6. It was Alexander who founded the city of Alexandria,
in Egypt, where approximately three hundred years before Christ the
famous Alexandrian library was located. 7. It contained an enormous
collection-of-books -- almost seven hundred thousand. 8. Alas, this
extensive library was destroyed by fire! 9. Alexander, who "sighed for
other worlds to conquer," did not even know of the existence of North
and South America, Australia, or even of England and Northern Europe.
10. Beside his Asiatic empire, he knew very little of Asia, even of
China, with its millions of inhabitants. 11. How small the world was in
those days!

                              LESSON LIX.


274. An unemphatic personal, indefinite or demonstrative pronoun
very frequently precedes the verb of which it is the object. This is
especially true if the verb in question is an infinitive:

   Mi volas lin vidi, I wish to see him.
   Li povos tion fari, he will be able to do that.
   Vi devus ion mangxi, you ought to eat something.
   Cxu vi gxin kredis? Did you believe it?
   Se li min vidus, li min savus, if he should see me, he would save me.

[Footnote: Cf. in other languages, as in German "ich moechte ihn
sehen", French "je veux le voir", Latin "se alunt, me defendi", etc.
That such pronouns "are" unemphatic can be seen from English "let
her come" (= "let'er come"), "make him stop" (= "make'im stop"),
etc., in which the unemphatic forms "er, im", replace "him, her", in
pronunciation (cf. the Greek enclitic pronouns "mou, moi, me, son,
soi, se, ou, oi, e,", the Sanskrit enclitic forms "ma, me, tva, te,
nas, vas, enam, enat, enam," also "sim", and the Avestan "i, im").
The same phenomenon is indicated in "prithee" (= "pray thee"), and in
the spellings "gimme" (= "give me"), "lemme" (= "let me"), in dialect

                        SOME INTRANSITIVE VERBS.

275. Some intransitive verbs have English meanings which do not differ
in form from the transitive English verbs to which they are related.
In Esperanto the suffix "-ig-" (214) must be used when the transitive
meaning is desired. Some examples are given in the following table:

   Verb.        Intransitive Use.       Transitive Use.

   Boli . . . . La akvo bolas           Li boligas la akvon
                The water boils         He boils the water

   Bruli. . . . La fajro brulas         Li bruligis la paperon
                The fire burns          He burned the paper

   Cxesi. . . . La bruo cxesas          Li cxesigas la bruon
                The noise stops         He stops the noise

   Dauxri . . . La bruo dauxras         Li dauxrigas la bruon
                The noise continues     He continues the noise

   Degeli . . . La glacio degelas       Li gxin degeligas per fajro
                The ice thaws           He thaws it with fire

   Droni. . . . La knabino dronis       La viro sxin dronigis
                The girl drowned        The man drowned her

   Eksplodi . . Pulvo eksplodas         Li gxin eksplodigos
                Gunpowder explodes      He will explode it

   Halti. . . . Li haltis timigite      Li haltigis la soldatojn
                He halted in alarm      He halted the soldiers

   Lumi . . . . La suno lumas           Li lumigis la lampon
                The sun shines          He lighted the lamp

   Pasi . . . . La tempo pasas          Tiel li pasigis la tagon
                Time passes             Thus he passed the day

   Pendi. . . . Gxi pendas de brancxo   Li gxin pendigis de brancxo
                It hangs on a branch    He hung it on a branch

   Soni . . . . La saluta pafo sonis    Oni sonigis la salutan pafon
                The salute sounded      They sounded the salute

   Sonori . . . La sonorilo sonoris     Oni sonorigis la sonorilon
                The bell rang           They rang the bell

[Footnote: A transitive use of such intransitive verbs would be like
using the English intransitive verb "learn" for the transitive verb
"teach," as in the "I'll learn you" (for "I'll teach you") of illiterate

                           THE SUFFIX "-ER-".

276. The suffix "-er-" is used to form words expressing units or
component parts of that which is indicated in the root:

   fajrero = spark (of fire).         negxero = snowflake.
   monero = coin.                     sablero = grain of sand.

                    THE PREFIXES "BO-" AND "DUON-".

277. The prefix "bo-" indicates relationship by marriage. To indicate
half-blood relationship, or step-relationship, "duon-" (166) is used:

   bopatro = father-in-law.           duonpatro = stepfather.
   bofratino = sister-in-law.         duonfrato = half-brother.


278. a. Letters should be dated as indicated in the following:

   Bostono, je la 24a de decembro, 1912a.
   Nov-Jorko, la 24an decembro, 1912a.
   Sirakuzo, 24/XII/1912.

b. The usual methods of address are (to strangers and in business
letters): "Sinjoro, Sinjorino, Estimata Sinjoro, Karaj Sinjoroj, Tre
estimata Frauxlino," etc.; (to friends and relatives) "Kara Frauxlino,
Karaj Gefratoj, Kara Amiko, Kara Mario, Patrino mia," (placing the
possessive adjective after the noun in this way gives an affectionate
sense, as in English "Mother mine," etc) etc.; (to persons whose
opinions on some subject are known to agree with those of the writer)
"Estimata (Kara) Samideano" ("follower of the same idea").

c. Among the more usual forms of conclusion are (to strangers and in
business letters): "Tre fidele la via, Tre vere, Kun granda estimo, Kun
plej alta estimo," etc., (to friends): "Kun amika saluto, Kun cxiuj
bondeziroj, Kun samideanaj salutoj, Frate la via," etc.


   adres-o = address.                krajon-o = pencil.
   apart-a = separate.               mend-i = to order (of stores, etc).
   bedaur-i = to regret.             Nov-Jorko = New York.
   cxef-a = chief.                   numer-o = number (numeral).
   do = so, then.                    ofic-o = office, employment.
   fontan-o = fountain.              posxt-o = post (letters, etc.).
   hotel-o = hotel.                  respekt-o = respect.
   ink-o = ink.                      special-a = special.
   konven-a = suitable.              stat-o = state (political body)
   kovert-o = envelope (for letters) tram-o = tram.

[Footnote: "Cxef-" is often used in descriptive compounds (167, b),
as "cxefkuiristo", chief (head) cook, chef, "cxefurbo", chief city,
capital, "cxefangxelo", archangel.]

                   *       *       *       *       *

                            KELKAJ LETEROJ.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                                  Sirakuzo, la 2an de marto, 1911.

Kara Amiko,

   Sendube vin surprizos ricevi leteron skribitan de mi cxe hotelo en
cxi tiu urbo, ne tre malproksime de via propra oficejo! Via bofrato,
kiun mi okaze renkontis hieraux en la posxtoficejo, donis al mi vian
adreson. Gxis nun, mi estas tiel okupata ke mi ne havis la tempon ecx
por telefoni al vi. Sed nun mi havas du aux tri minutojn da libera
tempo, kaj mi tuj ekkaptas la okazon por skribi letereton, petante ke
vi vespermangxu kun mi hodiaux vespere, cxe la hotelo kie, kiel vi
vidas, mi logxas de antaux unu tago. (Pardonu, mi petas, "ke" mi finas
cxi tiun leteron per krajono, sed mi jxus eltrovis ke restas neniom
plu da inko en mia fontanplumo.) Venu je la sesa, se tiu horo estas
konvena. Bedauxrinde ("unfortunately"), mi devos forresti de la hotelo
la tutan posttagmezon, pri komercaj aferoj, alie mi vin renkontus cxe
la tramvojo, kie haltas la tramveturiloj ("streetcars"). Estos plej
bone, mi opinias, ke vi iru rekte al mia cxambro, numero 26, kie mi
senprokraste vin renkontos, se mi ne estos efektive jam vin atendanta.
Ni esperu ke la cxefkuiristo preparos al ni bonan mangxon! Mi esperas
ke vi malatentos la falantajn negxerojn, kaj nepre venos, responde al
mia iomete subita invito, cxar ni ja havos multe da komunaj travivajxoj
por priparoli. Do gxis la baldauxa revido je la vespermangxo!

                                          Kun plej amikaj salutoj,


[Footnote: The word "tial" may be omitted from the combination "tial ke"
(83), if the meaning is obvious.]

                   *       *       *       *       *

                                              Boston, 13/VII/1911.

Wilson kaj Jones,
Estimataj Sinjoroj:--
   Bonvolu sendi al mi per revenanta posxto vian plej novan prezaron
("price-list"). Ni baldaux bezonos iujn novajn meblojn por niaj
oficejoj, precipe skribtablojn, tablojn konvenajn por skribmasxinoj
("typewriters"), kaj specialajn librujojn, farotajn laux niaj bezonoj.
Se viaj prezoj estas konvenaj, ni sendube volos mendi de vi tian
meblaron.                 Kun respekto,
                                           J. F. Smith,
                                      cxe Brown kaj Brown.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                                           Nov-Jorko, 17/VII/1911.

Sinjoro J. F. Smith,
   cxe Brown kaj Brown,
Estimata Sinjoro:--
   Ni havas la honoron sendi al vi en aparta koverto nian plej novan
prezaron, al kiu ni petas ke vi donu vian atenton, precipe al pagxoj
15-29. Tie vi trovos priskribitaj niajn plej bonajn oficejajn meblarojn.
Ni senpage metos cxiujn acxetitajn meblojn sur la vagonaron, sed
kompreneble ni ne pagos la koston de la sendado.
   Ni plezure fabrikos specialajn librujojn laux viaj bezonoj, kaj
volonte ricevos viajn ordonojn pri tio. Niaj prezoj estos kiel eble plej
   Esperante ke la meblaroj priskribitaj en nia prezaro, kune kun la
tie-presitaj prezoj, estos plene kontentigaj, kaj certigante al vi ke ni
zorge plenumos cxiun mendon, ni restas,
                         Tre respekte la viaj,
                                           Wilson kaj Jones.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                                            Bostono, la 27an Majo.

Sinjoro B. F. Brown,
      Sirakuzo, Nov-Jorka Sxtato.
Kara Sinjoro:--
   Vian adreson ni dankas al niaj komunaj amikoj Sinjoroj Miller kaj
White, kaj per cxi tio ni permesas al ni proponi al vi niajn servojn por
la vendado de tiaj infanludiloj, kiajn vi fabrikas. Ni havas bonegajn
montrajn fenestrojn ("show-windows"), en nia butiko, preskaux meze de la
cxefstrato en la urbo, kaj en nia butiko trovigxas suficxe da grandaj
vitramebloj ("show-cases"). Tial ni povus tre oportune administri
tian aferon. Ni multe gxojos se vi respondos kiel eble plej baldaux,
sciigante al ni kiom da procento vi donos, kaj kiajn arangxojn vi volus
fari. Ni certigas al vi ke en cxiu okazo ni penos fari nian eblon por
via plej bona intereso.
                            Kun alta estimo,
                                                 D. Rose.

                               LESSON LX.

                         SOME TRANSITIVE VERBS.

279. Some transitive verbs have English meanings which do not differ in
form from the "intransitive" English verbs to which they are related
(conversely to the use explained in 275). In Esperanto the suffix
"-igx-" (232), or a different root, must be used when an intransitive
meaning is desired. Following are the more common verbs of this
character, together with examples of the intransitive use of several of

   balanci = to balance.            renversi = to upset, to overturn.
   etendi = to extend, to expand.   rompi = to break.
   fermi = to close, to shut.       ruli = to roll, (wheel, ball, etc.).
   fini = to end, to finish.        skui = to shake.
   fleksi = to bend, to flex.       strecxi = to stretch.
   hejti = to heat.                 svingi = to swing.
   klini = to incline, to bend.     sxanceli = to cause to vacillate.
   kolekti = to gather, to collect. sxangxi = to change.
   komenci = to begin, to commence. sxiri = to tear.
   mezuri = to measure.             turni = to turn.
   montri = to show.                veki = to wake.
   movi = to move.                  versxi = to pour.
   pasxti = to pasture, to feed.    volvi = to roll (around something).

   La laboro nun finigxas, the work is now coming to an end.
   La glavo fleksigxis, the sword bent.
   La folioj disvolvigxas, the leaves unroll (develop).
   Cxiu kutimo sxangxigxos, every custom will change.
   La vintro jam komencigxas, the winter is already beginning.
   Mi vekigxos je la sesa, I shall awake at six (o'clock).
   La montrilo sxanceligxis, the indicator trembled (vacillated).
   Vasta ebenajxo etendigxis antaux li,
      a vast plain extended before him.


280. Elision is not common, and its use in writing as well as in
speaking is best avoided. It occurs most frequently in poetry.

a. The "-a" of the article may be elided before a word beginning with
avowel, or after a preposition ending in a vowel:

   L' espero, l' obstino kaj la pacienco.
   De l' montoj riveretoj fluas.
   Kaj kantas tra l' pura aero.

b. The final "-o" of a noun may be elided in poetry. The original accent
of the noun remains unchanged:

   Ho, mia kor', ne batu maltrankvile.
   Sur la kampo la rozet'.

c. The final "-e" of an adverb is very rarely elided (except in the
expression "dank' al", which occurs in prose as well as in poetry):

   Ke povu mi foj' je eterno ekdormi!
   Dank' al vi, mi sukcesis. (Thanks to you, I succeeded.)

                           THE PREFIX "EKS-".

281. The prefix "eks-" is used to form words expressing a previous
incumbent of a position, or removal from such position:

   eksprezidanto, ex-president.
   eksregxo, ex-king.
   eksigi, to put out of office, to discharge.
   eksigxi, to withdraw from one's office, to resign.

                           THE PREFIX "PRA-".

282. The prefix "pra-" is used to form words expressing precedence in
the line of descent, or general remoteness in past time:

   praavo = great grandfather.       prapatroj = forefathers, ancestors.
   pranepo = great grandson.         pratempa = primeval.

                  THE SUFFIXES "-CXJ-" AND "-NJ-".

283. The suffix "-cxj-" is used to form affectionate diminutives, from
the first syllable or syllables of masculine names or terms of address.
The suffix "-nj-" forms similar feminine diminutives:

   Jocxjo = Johnnie, Joe.             Manjo = May, Mamie.
   Pacxjo = Papa.                     Panjo = Mamma.

                         WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

284. National systems of weights and measures translated into
international form (as "mejlo", mile, "funto", pound) cannot convey a
very definite meaning to one not familiar with the particular system
used. Consequently the metric system (already used by scientists
everywhere and by the general public in many countries) is adopted for
the international system of weights and measures:

                          Length and Surface.

   milimetro = millimeter (.0394 inch).
   centimetro = centimeter (.3937 inch).
   decimetro = decimeter (3.937 inches).
   metro = meter (39.37 inches).
   dekametro = dekameter (393.7 inches).
   hektometro = hektometer (328 feet 1 inch).
   kilometro = kilometer (3280 feet 10 inches; .62137 mile).
   kvadrata metro = square meter (1550 square inches).
   hektaro = hektare (2.471 acres).


   gramo = gram (15.432 grains avoirdupois).
   dekagramo = dekagram (.3527 ounce avoirdupois).
   hektogramo = hektogram (3.5274 ounce avoirdupois).
   kilogramo = kilogram (2.2046 pounds avoirdupois).


   decilitro = deciliter (6.1022 cubic inches; .845 gill).
   litro = liter (.908 quart, dry measure; 1.0567 quart, liquid).
   dekalitro = dekaliter (9.08 quart, dry measure; 2.6417 gallons).
   hektolitro = hektoliter (2 bushels 3.35 pecks; 26.417 gallons).
   kilolitro = kiloliter (1.308 cubic yards; 264.17 gallons).


285. Names of national coins translated into international form (as
"dolaro", dollar, "cendo", cent) cannot convey a very definite meaning
to persons not familiar with these coins. Consequently the system
devised for international use (not for actual coins, but for calculation
and price quotations) is based upon a unit called the "speso". The
multiples of this unit are the "spesdeko" (10 spesoj), "spescento" (100
spesoj), and "spesmilo" (1000 spesoj). Ten spesmiloj have approximately
the value of a five-dollar gold piece, twenty marks, twenty-five francs,
one pound sterling, etc. The spesmilo, equivalent to about $0.4875 in
the money of the United States and Canada, is the unit commonly used.
(To reduce dollars to spesmiloj, multiply by 2.051.)


286. The following abbreviations are often used (for those of the metric
system see any English dictionary):

   Dro. = Doktoro, [Dr.]          Sm. = spesmilo(j).
   Fino. = Frauxlino, [Miss].     Sd. = spesdeko(j).
   Pro. = Profesoro, [Prof.]      k.t.p. = kaj tiel plu, [and so forth].
   Sro. = Sinjoro, [Mr.]          k.c. = kaj ceteraj, [etc.]
   Sino. = Sinjorino, [Mrs.]      k.sim. = kaj simila(j), [et. sim.]
   Ko. = K-io., Kompanio, [Co.]   t.e. = tio estas, [i.e.]
   No. = N-ro., Numero, [No.]     e. = ekzemple, [e.g.]
   & = kaj, &.                    p.s. = postskribajxo, [P.S.]


   abon-i = to subscribe to, take.    led-o = leather.
   aparat-o = apparatus.              metal-o = metal.
   auxtomat-a = automatic.            moment-o = moment.
   bov-o = ox.                        negativ-o = negative.
   dimensi-o = dimension.             objektiv-o = lens, objective.
   ekzempl-o = example.               original-o = original.
   fokus-o = focus.                   plat-o = plate (photographic,etc)
   fotograf-i = to photograph.        prov-i = to try.
   funkci-i = to function, work.      reklam-i = to advertise.
   kamer-o = camera.                  strecx-i = to stretch (trans.).

[Footnote: Cf. the difference between "provi", to try, in the sense of
testing, making an essay or endeavor, "peni", to try, in the sense of
taking pains or making an effort, and "jugxi", to try, in a judicial

                   *       *       *       *       *

                             PRI LA KAMERO.

                                                 Bostono, 12/XI/1910.

Brown kaj Ko.,
      Vidinte vian reklamon en gazeto al kiu mi abonas, mi skribas por
peti ke vi sendu al mi priskribajxon de via kamero nomita "La Infaneto,"
kiun eble mi deziros provi.
   Bonvolu ankaux sendi dekduonon da platoj, 6 x 9 centimetrojn, por kiu
mi cxi* kune sendas spesmilon kaj duonon.
                             Kun respekto,
                                                J. C. Smith.

[Footnote: The particle "cxi" (used with "tiu, tio, ties, cxiu, cxio")
may also be used with certain adverbs, as "cxi sube", "here below", "cxi
supre", "here above", "cxi kune", "herewith", etc.]

                   *       *       *       *       *

                                      Nov-Jorko, 18an novembro, 1910.

Kara Sinjoro:--
   Respondante al via estimata letero de la 12a, ni donas cxi sube
mallongan priskribajxon de nia bonega fotografilo nomita "La Infaneto."
   "La Infaneto" kamero havis neesperitan sukceson, kaj estas vendita
po miloj da ekzempleroj. Cxie oni unuvocxe lauxdas gxian malgrandan
kaj tamen bonegan konstruon, kaj ankaux gxian firman samtempe facilan
funkciadon. Gxi ne estas pli granda ol monujo, tial gxi ne bezonas pli
multe da spaco ol tiu, kaj povas esti portata kaj uzata treege konvene.
   La dimensioj de la fermita kamero estas 8 x 5 x 6.5 centimetroj. La
pezo, kun objektivo, tri platingoj, kaj malbrila ("ground") vitro, estas
365 gramoj. "La Infaneto" estas konstruita tute el metalo, kaj kovrita
de bonega bovledo. Kiam oni malfermas la aparaton, la objektivo samtempe
enfokusigxas, tiamaniere ke la kamero estas preta por uzado post unu
sekundo, cxar la objektivfermilo ("shutter") estas cxiam strecxita.
Sekve: neniaj preparadoj, nenia prokrasto je la ekfotografado.
   La negativoj estas klaraj gxis la bordo, kaj tial konvenaj por
pligrandigo. Cetere, oni scias ke bona pligrandigo ofte pli kontentigas
ol malgranda originalo. Precipe cxe promenoj kaj vojagxoj oni tial
volonte preferas la malgrandan "Infaneton," por poste pligrandigi la
   Por la pligrandigo ni fabrikas specialajn taglum-pligrandigajn
aparatojn, kies prezoj estas malaltaj (vidu en nia prezaro).
   Ni ne sxangxis la konstruon de "La Infaneto" de post 1909, cxar
gxis nun gxi estas cxiurilate kontentiga. Sole la rapideca reguligo
de la momenta ("instantaneous") fermilo estas plibonigita, cxar ni
gxin fabrikas kun speciala auxtomata fermilo, kiu estas arangxita por
malfermoj dauxraj ("time exposures"), kaj momentaj, je unu sekundo
gxis unu centono da sekundo.
   Esperante ke ni baldaux ricevos mendon de vi, kaj certigante al vi
ke ni tre zorge plenumos iun ajn mendon, ni restas.
                         Tre respekte la viaj,
                                          Brown & Ko.
                                                   Per C.

                   *       *       *       *       *


The following vocabulary includes all roots used in the preceding
Lessons, all primary words of the language, and a large number of
additional roots (to facilitate original composition). No attempt has
been made, however, to include all of the roots in the language, for
which an Esperanto-English Dictionary should be consulted.

References are to sections, unless the page (p.) is given. For other
parts of speech than those indicated under each root or primary word,
see Word Formation, 116, 120, 159, 171. See also the references given
under each prefix and suffix. For formation of compound words, see 160,
167, 176, 184. The following abbreviations are used: adj. = adjective;
adv. = adverb; conj. = conjunction; intrans. = intransitive; prep. =
preposition; trans. = transitive; -- = repetition of the word.


abel-o = bee.
abi-o = fir.
abiturient-o = bachelor of arts (A.B.).
abomen-a = abominable.
abon-i = to subscribe to, take (magazine, etc.).
abrikot-o = apricot.
acer-o = maple (tree).
acid-a = acid, sour.
-acx- = derogatory suffix (272).
acxet-i = to buy.
-ad- = suffix indicating duration (218).
adiaux = (adv. and interjection), farewell, good-bye (171, 273).
adjektiv-o = adjective.
administr-i = to administer, to manage.
admir-i = to admire.
admon-i = to exhort, admonish.
ador-i = to worship, adore.
adres-o = address (on letters, etc.).
adverb-o = adverb.
advokat-o = lawyer, barrister.
aer-o = air.
afabl-a = affable, amiable.
afer-o = affair, matter, thing, cause.
afisx-o = handbill, placard, poster.
afrank-i = to frank (letters), prepay; --ite, post-paid.
Afrik-o = Africa.
ag-i = to act, perform action.
agac-i = to set on edge (of teeth).
agent-o = agent.
agit-i = to agitate.
agl-o = eagle.
agoni-o = agony.
agrabl-a = agreeable, pleasant.
agx-o = age.
ajn = (adv.), ever (236).
-ajx- = (suffix forming concrete words) (227).
akademi-o = academy.
akcel-i = (trans.), to accelerate, hasten.
akcent-o = accent, stress.
akcept-i = to accept, receive, welcome.
akcident-o = accident.
akir-i = to acquire.
akompan-i = to accompany.
akr-a = sharp, acute, shrill.
akrid-o = grasshopper.
aks-o = axis, axle.
akt-o = act (of a play).
aktiv-a = active (grammatical).
aktor-o = actor (player).
akurat-a = accurate, exact.
akuz-i = to accuse.
akuzativ-o = accusative.
akv-o = water.
akvarel-o = water-color painting.
akvari-o = aquarium.
al = (prep.), to, toward (46, 160, 251, 252).
alauxd-o = lark (bird).
ale-o = avenue, walk, path (of garden, park, etc.).
Aleksandri-o = Alexandria.
Aleksandr-o = Alexander.
alfabet-o = alphabet.
Alfred-o = Alfred.
algebr-o = algebra.
ali-a = other.
alk-o = elk.
alkohol-o = alcohol.
alkov-o = alcove, recess.
almanak-o = almanac.
almenaux = (adv.), at least (66).
almoz-o = alms; --ulo, beggar.
alt-a = high, tall.
altar-o = altar.
alud-i = to allude to.
alumet-o = match (for fire).
am-i = to love.
amas-o = crowd, throng, mass.
ambaux = (pronoun), both (of two objects naturally in pairs,or of
   persons or things assumed or already known to be thus grouped) (238).
ambos-o = anvil.
amel-o = starch.
Amerik-o = America.
amfibi-a = amphibious.
amfiteatr-o = amphitheatre.
amik-o = friend.
amindum-i = to woo, make love.
ampleks-o = extent, dimension.
amuz-i = to amuse.
-an- = suffix denoting membership, etc. (145).
analiz-i = to analyse.
ananas-o = pineapple.
anas-o = duck.
anekdot-o = anecdote.
Angl-o = Englishman.
angul-o = angle, corner.
angxel-o = angel.
anim-o = soul.
ankaux = (adv.), also.
ankoraux = (adv), still, yet.
ankr-o = anchor.
anonc-i = to announce.
ans-o = latch, door-handle.
anser-o = goose.
anstataux = (prep.), instead of (98, 159).
antaux = (prep.), before (89, 90, 120, 159, 160),
   "antaux ol" (conj.), 97, 98.
antikv-a = ancient, antique.
antilop-o = antelope.
antipati-o = antipathy.
aparat-o = apparatus.
apart-a = separate.
apartament-o = apartment, suite (of rooms).
aparten-i = to belong.
apati-o = apathy.
apenaux = (adv.), scarcely, hardly.
aper-i = to appear.
apetit-o = appetite.
aplauxd-i = to applaud.
aplomb-o = assurance, self-command.
apog-i = to lean, to rest (upon).
apologi-o = apology, vindication.
apotek-o = pharmacy, drugstore, chemist's shop.
april-o = April.
aprob-i = to approve.
apud = (prep.), near to, close by (120, 159).
-ar- = suffix forming collectives (126).
Arab-o = Arab.
arane-o = spider.
arangx-i = to arrange.
arb-o = tree.
arbitraci-i = to arbitrate.
ardez-o = slate (stone).
aren-o = arena.
arest-i = to arrest.
argil-o = clay.
argument-i = to argue.
argxent-o = silver (metal).
arhxitektur-o = architecture.
Arhximed-o = Archimedes.
ari-o = tune, air (music).
Aristejd-o = Aristeides.
aristokrat-o = aristocrat.
Aristotel-o = Aristotle.
aritmetik-o = arithmetic.
ark-o = arc.
arkad-o = arcade.
arm-i = to arm.
arme-o = army.
armoraci-o = horse-radish.
arogant-a = arrogant.
arom-o = aroma, fragrance.
art-o = art.
artik-o = joint.
artikol-o = article (grammatical or literary).
Artur-o = Arthur.
asekur-i = to insure (with a company).
asoci-o = association (organization).
asparag-o = asparagus.
aspekt-o = aspect, appearance.
astr-o = heavenly body, star.
atak-i = to attack.
atend-i = to wait, wait for, expect.
atent-a = attentive.
atest-i = to attest, give witness, certify.
ating-i = to attain, reach.
atlas-o = satin.
atlet-o = athlete.
atmosfer-o = atmosphere.
atribut-o = attribute.
aux = (conj.), or, either.
auxd-i = to hear.
auxgust-o = August.
auxskult-i = to listen.
Auxstrali-o = Australia.
auxtomat-a = automatic.
auxtor-o = author.
auxtun-o = autumn.
av-o = grandfather.
avar-a = avaricious, miserly.
avel-o = hazel-nut.
aven-o = oats.
avert-i = to warn, caution.
avid-a = eager.
aviz-i = to give notice.
azen-o = ass, donkey.
Azi-o = Asia.
azot-o = nitrogen.


babil-i = to chatter, babble.
bagatel-o = trifle, bagatelle.
bal-o = ball (dance).
bak-i = to bake.
bala-i = to sweep (a floor, etc.).
balanc-i = (trans.), to balance, poise; --i la kapon, to nod the head.
baldaux = (adv.), soon.
balen-o = whale.
ban-i = (trans.), to bathe.
banan-o = banana.
bandagx-i = to bandage.
bank-o = bank (financial).
bankrot-i = to become bankrupt, fail.
bant-o = bow (of ribbon).
bar-i = (trans.), to bar, to obstruct.
barakt-i = to wrestle, struggle.
barb-o = beard.
barbar-o = barbarian.
barel-o = barrel.
bariton-o = barytone.
bas-o = bass (voice).
baston-o = stick.
bat-i = to beat.
batal-i = to fight, battle.
batat-o = sweet potato.
bedauxr-i = to regret.
bek-o = beak, bill.
bel-a = beautiful, handsome.
belg-o = Belgian.
ben-i = to bless.
benk-o = bench.
ber-o = berry.
best-o = animal, beast.
bet-o = beet.
bezon-i = to need, want.
bibliotek-o = library.
bicikl-o = bicycle.
bien-o = land, property, estate.
bier-o = beer.
bifstek-o = beefsteak.
bild-o = picture, image.
bilet-o = ticket, note; bank--, bank-note, bill.
bird-o = bird.
bis = (adv.), once more, a second time, encore.
biskvit-o = biscuit.
blank-a = white.
blek-i = to neigh, bleat, give its cry (of any animal).
blind-a = blind.
blov-i = to blow.
blu-a = blue (color).
bluz-o = blouse.
bo- = prefix expressing relationship by marriage (277).
boat-o = boat.
boj-i = to bark (of dogs).
bol-i = (intrans.), to boil.
bombon-o = bonbon, sweet.
bon-a = good; --veni, to welcome.
bor-i = to bore (holes).
bord-o = shore, bank, edge (of rivers, etc.).
Boston-o = Boston.
bot-o = boot.
botel-o = bottle.
bov-o = ox; --ajxo, beef; --idajxo, veal; --viro, bull.
brak-o = arm (of the body).
brancx-o = branch, bough.
brand-o = brandy.
brasik-o = cabbage; (florbrasiko), cauliflower.
brav-a = brave.
bret-o = shelf, bracket.
brid-o = bridle (of harness).
brik-o = brick, tile.
bril-i = to shine (116).
Brit-o = Briton.
brod-i = to embroider.
bronz-o = bronze.
bros-i = to brush.
brosxur-o = pamphlet, brochure.
brov-o = eyebrow.
bru-o = noise.
brul-i = (intrans.), to burn (275).
brun-a = brown.
brut-o = cattle, dumb animal.
bub-o = street arab, gamin.
bucx-i = to slaughter, butcher.
buf-o = toad.
buk-o = buckle (metal).
buked-o = bouquet.
bukl-o = curl, ringlet (of hair).
bulb-o = onion, bulb.
bulgar-o = Bulgarian.
bulk-o = roll (bread).
bulvard-o = boulevard.
burgxon-o = bud, young shoot.
busx-o = mouth.
buter-o = butter.
butik-o = shop, store.
buton-o = button.


cel-i = to aim, have as purpose or goal.
celeri-o = celery.
cend-o = cent (coin).
cent = hundred (142).
centigram-o = centigram (284).
centilitr-o = centiliter (284).
centimetr-o = centimeter (284).
centr-o = center.
cerb-o = brain.
cert-a = certain, sure.
cerv-o = stag, deer.
ceter-a = remaining.
ci = (pronoun), thou (40).
cidoni-o = quince.
cifer-o = cipher.
cigar-o = cigar.
cigared-o = cigarette.
cign-o = swan.
cilindr-o = cylinder.
cinam-o = cinnamon.
cindr-o = ashes.
cir-o = blacking (for shoes).
cirkonstanc-o = circumstance.
cirkuler-o = circular (letter).
Cirus-o = Cyrus.
cit-i = to quote.
citron-o = lemon.
civiliz-i = to civilize.
col-o = inch (measure).


cxagren-i = (trans.), to grieve, vex, annoy.
cxambr-o = room.
cxap-o = cap.
cxapel-o = hat.
cxapitr-o = chapter (of book).
cxar = (conj.), because, since (83).
cxarm-a = charming, delightful.
cxarnir-o = hinge.
cxas-i = to hunt (game or wild animals).
cxe = (prep.), at, in the house or presence of (125, 160).
cxef-a = chief, principal, head.
cxek-o = cheque.
cxemiz-o = shirt, chemise.
cxen-o = chain (for watch, etc.).
cxeriz-o = cherry.
cxes-i = (intrans.), to cease, leave off (275).
cxeval-o = horse; --viro, stallion.
cxi = (adv.), expresses proximity (60, 66).
cxia = of every kind (177).
cxial = (adv.), for every reason (188).
cxiam = (adv.), always (187).
cxie = (adv.), everywhere (182).
cxiel = (adv.), in every way (193).
cxiel-o = heaven, sky.
cxies = (pronoun, possessive), everybody's (174).
cxifon-o = rag.
cxio = (pronoun), everything, all (233).
cxiom = (adv.), all (194).
cxirkaux = (prep.), around, roundabout (89, 120, 159, 160).
cxiu = (pronoun and adj.), every one, each (173).
-cxj- = suffix forming affectionate diminutives (283).
cxokolad-o = chocolate.
cxu = (adv.), whether (when translated) (30, 66).


da = (prep.), of (after quantitative noun or adv.) (99, 101, 103).
daktil-o = date (fruit).
Damokl-o = Damocles.
dan-o = Dane.
danc-i = to dance.
dangxer-o = danger.
dank-i = to thank.
dat-o = date (chronological).
dauxr-i = (intrans.), to continue, last.
de = (prep.), of, from, by (49, 89, l00, 160, 169, 170).
dec-i = to be proper, decent; "ne decas ke vi iru", it is not proper
   for you to go.
decembr-o = December.
decid-i = to decide.
decigram-o = decigram (284).
decilitr-o = deciliter (284).
decimetr-o = decimeter (284).
defend-i = to defend.
degel-i = (intrans.), to thaw (275).
dejxor-i = to be on duty (of officer, attendant, etc.).
dek = (adj.), ten (136).
dekagram-o = dekagram (284).
dekalitr-o = dekaliter (284).
dekametr-o = dekameter (284).
deklam-i = to declaim, recite.
dekstr-a = right (not left).
deleg-i = to delegate.
delikat-a = delicate, dainty, nice.
demand-i = to ask, inquire.
dens-a = dense, thick, close.
dent-o = tooth.
depesx-o = a dispatch.
des = (adv.), the more (used with "pli", 84).
desert-o = dessert.
detal-o = detail.
detru-i = to destroy.
dev-i = to have to, must (247).
dezert-o = desert, waste.
dezir-i = to desire.
Di-o = God.
diamant-o = diamond.
difekt-i = to damage, spoil.
diferenc-a = different.
difin-i = to define, to destine.
dik-a = thick, corpulent.
dikt-i = to dictate (letters, etc.)
diligent-a = diligent.
dimancx-o = Sunday.
dimensi-o = dimension.
Diogen-o = Diogenes.
diplom-o = diploma.
diplomat-o = diplomat.
dir-i = to say (77).
direkt-i = to direct, guide, manage.
dis- = prefix expressing separation (245).
diskut-i = to discuss.
distanc-o = distance.
disting-i = to distinguish.
distr-i = to distract, take away the attention.
diven-i = to guess.
divers-a = varied, diverse, different.
divid-i = (trans.), to divide.
do = consequently, then, so.
doktor-o = doctor.
dolar-o = dollar.
dolcx-a = sweet, pleasant.
dolor-o = pain, ache.
dom-o = house.
domagx-o = pity, regrettable affair.
don-i = to give.
donac-i = to make a gift, present.
dorlot-i = to caress, fondle, pet.
dorm-i = to sleep.
dorn-o = thorn.
dors-o = back (of the body).
dot-i = to endow.
drap-o = cloth.
drog-o = drug.
dron-i = (intrans.), to drown (275).
du = (adj.), two (136)
dub-i = to doubt.
dum = (prep and conj.), during, while (96, 120, 159).
dung-i = (trans.), to hire (persons).


eben-a = even, flat, level.
-ebl- = suffix expressing possibility (161, 162).
ebri-a = inebriate, intoxicated.
-ec- = suffix forming abstracts (202).
ecx = (adv.), even.
eduk-i = to bring up, educate.
edz-o = husband, married man.
efekt-o = effect.
efektiv-a = real, actual.
efik-i = to be efficacious, act (on), produce a result.
-eg- = suffix forming augmentatives (122).
egal-a = equal.
Egipt-o = Egypt.
ehx-o = echo.
-ej- = suffix forming words indicating place (III).
ek- = prefix expressing suddenness or beginning (206).
eks- = prefix expressing former incumbency (281).
ekscit-i = to excite.
eksperiment-i = to experiment.
eksplod-i = (intrans.), to explode.
ekster = (prep.), outside of (120, 121).
ekzamen-i = to examine, test.
ekzempl-o = example.
ekzempler-o = copy (of book or magazine).
ekzerc-i = (trans.), to exercise.
ekzil-i = to exile, banish
ekzist-i = to exist.
el = (prep.), out of, of, out (75, 106, 138, 197, 264, c).
elekt-i = to choose.
elektr-a = electric.
elokvent-a = eloquent.
-em- = suffix expressing propensity or inclination (192).
eminent-a = eminent.
en = (prep.), in (89,160), into (46).
energi-o = energy.
entrepren-i = to undertake.
entuziasm-o = enthusiasm.
enu-i = to be wearied, be bored.
envi-i = to envy.
epok-o = epoch, period, time.
-er- = suffix expressing a component part (276).
erar-i = to err, make a mistake.
escept-i = to except (266).
esper-i = to hope.
esplor-i = to investigate, explore.
esprim-i = to express.
est-i = to be (109).
establ-i = to establish.
estim-i = to esteem.
esting-i = to extinguish.
-estr- = suffix expressing leadership or authority (253).
-et- = suffix forming diminutives (198).
etagx-o = story (of a house); teretagxo, ground floor;
   unua etagxo, second story.
etend-i = (trans.), to extend, lengthen, widen.
etern-a = eternal.
Euxrop-o = Europe.
evangeli-o = gospel, evangel.
evit-i = to avoid, shun.
evoluci-o = evolution.


fab-o = bean (leguminous fruit).
fabel-o = story, tale.
fabl-o = fable.
fabrik-i = to manufacture.
facil-a = easy.
faden-o = thread.
fajf-i = to whistle.
fajr-o = fire.
fak-o = department, specialty.
fakt-o = fact.
fal-i = to fall.
fald-i = to fold.
fals-i = to falsify, forge, debase.
fam-o = fame, renown, rumor.
famili-o = family.
familiar-a = familiar, accustomed.
fand-i = (trans.), to smelt, fuse (metals, etc.).
fanfaron-i = to boast, vaunt oneself, brag.
fantom-o = phantom, ghost.
far-i = to make, do, render.
faraon-o = pharaoh (Egyptian ruler).
farm-i = to farm (as a tenant).
farmaci-o = pharmacy (knowledge of the use of drugs).
fart-i = to be in (good or bad) health.
farun-o = flour.
fask-o = bundle, bunch.
fason-o = cut, mode, fashion.
fatal-a = fatal, predestined.
fauxk-o = jaw (literal and figurative).
favor-a = favorable.
fazeol-o = bean (garden bean).
fe-o = fairy, fay; --ino, fairy.
febr-o = fever.
februar-o = February.
fel-o = skin, hide (of animals).
felicx-a = happy.
femur-o = thigh.
fend-i = (trans.), to split.
fenestr-o = window.
fer-o = iron; --vojo, railway.
ferdek-o = deck (of ship).
ferm-i = (trans.), to close, shut.
fervor-o = zeal, fervor.
fest-i = to celebrate.
festen-o = banquet.
fi = (interjection), fie! (273).
fiakr-o = cab.
fiancx-o = betrothed man, fiance.
fid-i = to rely upon, trust.
fidel-a = faithful, loyal.
fier-a = proud, haughty.
fil-o = son.
filozof-o = philosopher.
fin-i = (trans.), to finish, end.
fingr-o = finger; "dika fingro", thumb; "montra fingro", index finger;
   "longa fingro", middle finger; "ringa fingro", ring-finger;
   "malgranda fingro", little finger.
firm-a = firm, steady.
fisx-o = fish.
fizik-o = physics, physical science.
flag-o = flag, banner, small standard.
flank-o = side.
flar-i = (trans.), to smell, scent.
flav-a = yellow.
fleks-i = (trans.), to bend, flex.
flik-i = to patch.
flor-o = flower (116).
flu-i = to flow.
flug-i = to fly.
fluid-a = fluid, liquid.
foj-o = time, occasion (127).
fojn-o = hay.
fokus-o = focus.
foli-o = leaf.
fond-i = to found, establish.
font-o = spring (of water), fount.
fontan-o = fountain (artificial).
for = (adv.), away (71).
forges-i = to forget.
fork-o = fork.
form-o = shape, form.
formik-o = ant.
forn-o = stove.
fort-a = strong.
fos-i = to dig.
fotograf-i = to photograph
frag-o = strawberry.
frak-o = evening dress (for men).
frakas-i = to shatter, break to pieces.
framb-o = raspberry.
franc-o = Frenchman.
frand-i = to be fond of sweets, be an epicure.
frangx-o = fringe.
frap-i = to knock, strike.
frat-o = brother.
frauxl-o = bachelor, unmarried man.
fraz-o = sentence, phrase.
Frederik-o = Frederick.
fremd-a = foreign.
frenez-a = crazy, mad.
fresx-a = fresh, new.
fripon-o = rogue, rascal, knave.
frit-i = (trans.), to fry.
fromagx-o = cheese.
frost-o = frost.
frot-i = to rub.
fru-a = early.
frukt-o = fruit.
frunt-o = forehead.
fulm-o = lightning.
fum-i = to smoke.
fund-o = bottom.
fundament-o = foundation, base.
funebr-o = mourning.
fung-o = mushroom.
funkci-i = to function, work.
funt-o = pound.
furioz-a = furious, raging.
fusx-i = to bungle.
fut-o = foot (measure).


gaj-a = gay, merry.
gajn-i = to gain.
galeri-o = gallery.
galop-i = to gallop.
gant-o = glove.
gard-i = to guard, watch over.
gas-o = gas.
gast-o = guest.
gazet-o = gazette, magazine.
ge- = prefix indicating both sexes together (271).
general-o = general (military).
genu-o = knee; --fleksi, to kneel.
geometri-o = geometry.
german-o = German.
Gertrud-o = Gertrude.
gicxet-o = wicket, ticket-window, turnstile.
girland-o = garland, wreath.
glaci-o = ice; --ajxo, an ice (food).
glad-i = to iron (linen, etc.).
glas-o = tumbler, glass.
glat-a = smooth, polished, flat.
glav-o = sword.
glit-i = to glide, slide.
glob-o = globe.
glor-o = glory.
glu-o = glue.
glut-i = to swallow.
gorgx-o = throat.
graci-a = graceful.
grad-o = grade, degree.
graf-o = count; --lando, county.
gram-o = gram (284).
gramatik-o = grammar.
grand-a = great, large, big.
gras-o = fat.
gratul-i = to congratulate.
grav-a = important, serious, grave.
gravit-i = to gravitate.
grek-o = Greek.
gren-o = grain (wheat, corn, etc.).
grimp-i = to climb up, creep up.
grinc-i = to grind, gnash.
griz-a = gray.
grup-o = group.
gurd-o = hurdy-gurdy, barrel organ.
gust-o = taste.
gut-i = to drip.
gvid-i = to guide.


gxarden-o = garden.
gxem-i = to groan.
gxen-i = to disturb, incommode.
gxeneral-a = general, common.
gxentil-a = courteous, polite.
gxi = (pronoun), it (32, 37, 42, 274).
gxis = (prep.), as far as, until (46, 89).
gxoj-i = to rejoice, be glad (116).
gxu-i = to enjoy, find pleasure in.
gxust-a = exact, just.


hajl-o = hail (frozen rain).
hak-i = to chop, hack; --ilo, axe.
halt-i = (intrans.), to halt, stop.
har-o = a hair.
hauxt-o = skin (human).
hav-i = to have.
haven-o = harbor, port.
hazard-o = chance, hazard.
hebre-o = Hebrew.
hejm-o = home.
hejt-i = (trans.), to heat (a place).
hektar-o = hektare (284).
hektogram-o = hektogram (284).
hektolitr-o = hektoliter (284).
hektometr-o = hektometer (284).
hel-a = bright, clear.
help-i = to help, aid, assist.
herb-o = grass, herb.
hero-o = hero.
hezit-i = to hesitate.
hieraux = (adv.), yesterday (93, 171).
Hieron-o = Hiero.
hipokrit-i = to play the hypocrite.
hirund-o = swallow (bird).
hispan-o = Spaniard.
histori-o = history.
ho = (interjection), ho, oh (273).
hodiaux = (adv.), today (93, 171).
Holand-o = Holland.
hom-o = human being.
honest-a = honest.
honor-i = to honor.
hont-i = to be ashamed.
hor-o = hour (185).
horizont-o = horizon.
horizontal-a = horizontal.
horlogx-o = clock; posxhorlogxo, watch.
hotel-o = hotel.
humil-a = humble.
humor-o = humor, temper.
hund-o = dog.
hura! = (interjection), hurrah!


hxemi-o = chemistry.
hxin-o = Chinaman.
hxor-o = choir.


ia = any kind of (208).
ial = (adv.), for any reason (213).
iam = (adv.), ever, at any time, once (212).
-id- = suffix indicating descendant or young of (207).
ide-o = idea.
ideal-o = ideal.
ident-a = identical.
idiom-o = idiom.
idiot-o = idiot.
ie = (adv.), somewhere (209).
iel = (adv.), somehow (216).
ies = (pronoun, possessive), somebody's (204).
-ig- = suffix forming causative verbs (214, 239, 275).
ignor-i = to ignore.
-igx- = suffix forming inchoative and intransitive verbs
   (232, 239, 279).
-il- = suffix forming names of instruments (63).
ili = (pronoun) they (32, 37, 42).
ilustr-i = to illustrate.
iluzi-o = illusion, delusion.
imag-i = to imagine, fancy.
imit-i = to imitate.
imperi-o = empire.
implik-i = to implicate.
impost-o = tax, impost.
impres-i = to impress.
impuls-o = impulse.
-in- = suffix forming feminines (59).
incit-i = to incite, arouse, provoke.
-ind- = suffix expressing worth or merit (154).
indian-o = Indian (American).
indiferent-a = indifferent, unconcerned, unimportant.
industri-o = industry (trade, business).
infan-o = child.
infekt-i = to infect, contaminate.
influ-i = to influence.
inform-i = to give information.
-ing- = suffix expressing a holder or container (237).
ingxenier-o = engineer.
ink-o = ink.
insekt-o = insect.
insist-i = to insist.
inspir-i = to inspire.
instru-i = to instruct, teach.
insul-o = island.
insult-i = to insult.
inteligent-a = intelligent.
intend-i = to intend.
inter = (prep.), between, among (85, 89, 160).
interes-i = (trans.), to interest.
intermit-i = to be intermittent.
intern-a = internal; --e, inside.
interpret-i = to interpret.
intim-a = intimate.
invit-i = to invite.
io = (pronoun), something (233).
iom = (adv.), some, a certain amount;
   iom post iom, little by little (217).
ir-i = to go.
-ist- = suffix indicating profession, etc. (172).
ital-o = Italian.
iu = (pronoun), some one, a certain (one) (203).


ja = (adv.), indeed, in fact (215).
jak-o = jacket, short coat.
jam = (adv.), already.
januar-o = January.
jar-o = year.
je = prep. of indefinite meaning (89, 185, 260).
jen = (adv.), there, behold (228).
jes = (adv.), yes (171).
Jesu-o = Jesus.
Johano = John.
ju = (adv.), the more (used with "pli", 84).
jug-o = yoke.
jugx-i = to judge.
juli-o = July.
jun-a = young.
jung-i = to harness.
juni-o = June.
jup-o = skirt.
jurist-o = jurist.
just-a = just, upright.
juvel-o = jewel.


jxaluz-a = jealous.
jxauxd-o = Thursday.
jxet-i = to throw, cast, hurl.
jxongl-i = to juggle.
jxur-i = to take oath, swear.
jxurnal-o = newspaper, journal.
jxus = (adv.), a moment before, just.


kadavr-o = corpse.
kadr-o = frame (of pictures).
kaduk-a = decaying, in ruin.
kaf-o = coffee.
kagx-o = cage.
kahel-o = tile (for paving).
kaj = (conj.), and; kaj..kaj.., both..and.. (26).
kajer-o = notebook.
kaldron-o = caldron.
kalendar-o = calendar.
kalesx-o = carriage.
kalkan-o = heel (of the foot); --umo, heel of a shoe.
kalkul-i = to calculate, reckon.
kamel-o = camel.
kamen-o = chimney.
kamer-o = camera.
kamp-o = field.
kanajl-o = scoundrel, rascal.
kanap-o = sofa.
kand-o = candy.
kandel-o = candle.
kanot-o = canoe.
kant-i = to sing.
kap-o = head.
kapabl-a = capable.
kapel-o = chapel (for prayer).
kapital-o = capital (money).
kapitol-o = capitol.
kapt-i = to catch, seize.
kar-a = dear, prized.
karakter-o = character.
karb-o = coal.
karcer-o = jail.
kares-i = to caress.
karn-o = flesh.
karot-o = carrot.
kart-o = card; posxtkarto, postcard; vizitkarto, visiting card.
karton-o = pasteboard.
karusel-o = merry-go-round.
kas-o = money-box, treasury; --isto, cashier, treasurer.
kaskad-o = waterfall, cascade.
kastel-o = castle.
kasx-i = to hide, conceal (252).
kasxtan-o = chestnut.
kat-o = cat.
katen-o = fetter, chain.
kauxz-o = cause.
kav-o = cavity, hole.
kaz-o = case (grammatical).
ke = (conj.), that (53, 83, 105, 259, 262).
kel-o = cellar.
kelk-a = some; --aj, several, more than one or two.
kelner-o = waiter (in hotel or restaurant).
kest-o = chest; tirkesto, drawer.
kia = what kind of (112, 150); kiamanier-e, how.
kial = (adv.), why (129).
kiam = (adv.), when (123, 155).
kie = (adv.), where (118, 151).
kiel = (adv.), how, in which way, as (134, 156).
kies = (pronoun, possessive), whose (107, 147).
kilogram-o = kilogram (284).
kilolitr-o = kiloliter (284).
kilometr-o = kilometer (284).
kio = (pronoun), what (233).
kiom = (adv.), how much (140, 164, 185).
kis-i = to kiss.
kiu = (pronoun), who (106, 146).
klak-i = (trans.), to clap, clatter.
klar-a = clear, distinct.
klav-o = key (of piano, etc.).
klas-o = class.
kler-a = enlightened, well-in-formed.
klimat-o = climate.
klin-i = (trans.), to incline, bend.
kling-o = blade (of knife, etc.).
klopod-i = to undertake initiative work, take steps toward,
   labor for the success or completion of something.
klub-o = club (organization)
knab-o = boy.
kobold-o = sprite, kobold, brownie.
kofr-o = trunk, chest with a lid.
kok-o = cock (domestic fowl).
koket-a = coquettish.
koks-o = hip.
kol-o = neck.
kolbas-o = sausage.
kolegi-o = college.
kolekt-i = (trans.), to collect, gather.
koler-i = to be angry, lose the temper.
kolomb-o = pigeon, dove.
kolon-o = column, pillar.
kolonel-o = colonel.
kolor-o = color.
kolport-i = to peddle.
komand-i = to command (military and naval).
komb-i = to comb.
komedi-o = comedy.
komenc-i = (trans.), to begin, commence.
komerc-i = to trade, engage in commerce.
komfort-o = comfort (freedom from pain, want, etc.).
komisi-i = to entrust with, put in charge of, give the agency for.
komitat-o = committee.
komiz-o = clerk, employee, assistant.
kompani-o = company (commercial organization).
kompar-i = (trans.) to compare, (266).
kompat-i = to pity, have compassion for.
komplet-o = suit (of clothes).
komplez-o = kindness, courtesy, disposition to oblige.
komplik-i = to complicate.
kompost-i = to compose, set (type); --isto, compositor.
kompot-o = jam, preserve,
kompren-i = to understand.
komun-a = common, mutual.
komunik-i = to communicate.
kon-i = to be acquainted with, know; --atigxi kun, to become acquainted
   with (117).
koncern-i = to concern (266).
koncert-o = concert (musical).
kondamn-i = to condemn.
kondicx-o = terms specified, stipulation, condition.
konduk-i = to conduct, lead.
konduktor-o = conductor (of car, train, etc.).
kondut-i = to behave, conduct oneself.
konfes-i = to confess, admit.
konfid-i = to trust, have confidence in.
konfit-i = to preserve, pickle (fruits, etc.).
konform-i = to be in conformity with (266).
konfuz-i = to confuse, confound.
kongres-o = congress (assembly).
konk-o = shell (of mollusk, etc.).
konkur-i = to vie, compete.
konkurenc-o = competition (in business, etc.).
konkurs-o = prearranged trial of skill, formal competition (for
   prizes, etc.).
konsci-i = to be conscious.
konscienc-o = conscience.
konsent-i = to consent, agree.
konserv-i = to keep, preserve, save.
konservativ-a = conservative.
konsil-i = to advise, counsel.
konsist-i = to consist.
konsol-i = to console, comfort.
konsonant-o = consonant.
konspir-i = to conspire, plot.
konstant-a = constant.
konstat-i = to verify, ascertain the truth of, certify.
konstituci-o = constitution.
konstru-i = to build.
konsul-o = consul.
konsult-i = to seek advice of, consult.
kont-o = account (book-keeping, commercial).
kontent-a = content, satisfied.
kontinent-o = continent (geographical).
kontrakt-i = to contract, agree.
kontralt-o = contralto.
kontraux = (prep.), against, opposite, opposed to (159, 160).
kontrol-i = to control, inspect, examine and check.
kontur-o = outline, contour.
kontuz-i = to bruise.
konven-i = to be suitable, be fitting or convenient.
konvink-i = to convince, persuade.
kopi-i = to copy.
kor-o = heart (of the body).
korb-o = basket.
korekt-i = to correct.
korespond-i = to exchange letters, correspond.
koridor-o = corridor, passage.
kork-o = cork (bark).
korn-o = horn.
korp-o = body, --a, corporeal.
korpus-o = corps (military).
kort-o = courtyard, court.
kortego = court (royal, etc.).
korv-o = raven.
kost-i = to cost.
kostum-o = costume.
kot-o = mud.
kotiz-i = to pay dues, pay one's share of an assessment.
kotlet-o = cutlet, chop.
koton-o = cotton.
kov-i = to brood (of birds).
kovert-o = envelope
kovr-i = to cover.
krab-o = crab.
krad-o = grating, grate, lattice.
krajon-o = pencil.
krak-i = to clack, crackle.
kran-o = faucet, tap.
kravat-o = cravat.
kre-i = to create.
kred-i = to believe (265).
krem-o = cream.
krepusk-o = twilight, half-light of dawn or evening.
kresk-i = to grow.
krestomati-o = chrestomathy, collection of selected passages.
kret-o = chalk.
krev-i = (intrans.), to burst, crack open (suddenly and with noise).
kri-i = to cry out.
kribr-i = to sift (with a sieve).
krim-o = crime.
kring-o = ring-shaped biscuit.
kripl-a = crippled.
Krist-o = Christ.
kritik-i = to criticise.
krocx-i = to hook.
krom = (prep.), beside, aside from, except, save, but.
kron-o = crown.
kruc-o = cross; --umi, to crucify.
krucx-o = pitcher, jug; tekrucxo, tea-pot.
kruel-a = cruel.
krur-o = leg.
krust-o = crust.
krut-a = steep.
kubut-o = elbow.
kudr-i = to sew.
kugl-o = bullet.
kuir-i = to cook.
kuk-o = cake; --ajxo, pastry.
kukum-o = cucumber.
kukurb-o = pumpkin.
kuler-o = spoon.
kulp-a = guilty.
kultur-i = to cultivate; terkulturi, to till the soil, farm.
kun = (prep.), with (70, 76, 120, 160, 159).
kunikl-o = rabbit.
kupon-o = coupon.
kupr-o = copper (metal).
kur-i = to run.
kurac-i = to treat for illness, cure; --ato, a patient;
   --isto, a physician, medical man.
kuragx-o = courage.
kurb-o = curve.
kurioz-a = uncommon, curious.
kurs-o = course (of lessons).
kurten-o = curtain.
kusen-o = cushion.
kusx-i = to lie, recline (239).
kutim-o = custom, habit.
kuv-o = tub, large basin.
kuz-o = cousin.
kvadrat-o = square (equilateral rectangle).
kvalit-o = quality, texture.
kvankam = (conj.), though, although, while (concessive).
kvant-o = quantity, amount.
kvar = (adj.), four (136).
kvartal-o = quarter (of a city).
kvazaux = (conj.), as though, as if (250).
kverk-o = oak.
kviet-a = calm, quiet.
kvin = (adj.), five (136).
kvitanc-o = receipt (for payment).


la = (article), the (II, 47, 201, 280, a).
labor-i = to work, labor.
lac-a = tired, weary.
lacx-o = string, lace (of shoe, etc.).
lad-o = tin plate (sheet iron covered with tin).
lag-o = lake.
lakt-o = milk.
laktuk-o = lettuce.
lam-a = lame.
lamp-o = lamp.
lan-o = wool.
lanc-o = lance, spear.
land-o = land, country.
lang-o = tongue (of the body).
lantern-o = lantern.
lanug-o = down (hairs, feathers).
lard-o = bacon.
largx-a = wide, broad.
larm-o = tear (of the eye).
las-i = (trans.), to leave, let, permit.
last-a = last (in a series).
latin-a = Latin.
laux = (prep.), in accordance with, along, by (191).
lauxb-o = arbor, summer-house.
lauxd-i = to praise.
lauxt-a = loud.
lav-i = to wash.
lecion-o = lesson.
led-o = leather.
leg-i = to read.
legom-o = vegetable.
legx-o = law.
lek-i = to lick.
leon-o = lion.
lepor-o = hare.
lern-i = to learn.
lert-a = clever, skilful.
leter-o = letter (epistle).
lev-i = to raise, lift.
li = (pronoun), he, him (32, 37, 42).
liber-a = free.
libr-o = book.
lig-i = to tie, bind, fasten; --ilo, bond; that which ties or fastens;
   --ajxo, knot; --o, league, alliance.
lign-o = wood.
lim-o = limit, boundary.
limonad-o = lemonade.
lingv-o = language.
lini-o = line; --ilo, ruler.
lip-o = lip; --haroj, moustache.
lit-o = bed (for sleeping).
liter-o = letter of the alphabet; lauxlitera, literal.
literatur-o = literature.
litr-o = liter (284).
liver-i = to deliver, supply, furnish.
log-i = to allure.
logx-i = to dwell, reside (133).
lok-o = place; --a, local.
lokomotiv-o = locomotive.
long-a = long.
lonicer-o = honeysuckle.
lorn-o = telescope, spyglass; --eto, opera-glasses.
lu-i = to hire, rent (engage and pay rent for).
lud-i = to play.
luks-o = luxury.
lul-i = to lull to sleep; --ilo, cradle.
lum-i = to shine (275).
lun-o = moon.
lunatik-o = lunatic.
lund-o = Monday.
lup-o = wolf.


macx-i = to chew, masticate.
magazen-o = warehouse.
magi-o = magic.
magistr-o = master of arts (A.M.).
maiz-o = maize, Indian corn.
maj-o = May.
majest-a = majestic.
majones-a = mayonnaise.
majstr-o = master (of his art or profession).
makaroni-o = macaroni.
maksimum-o = maximum.
makul-o = spot, stain.
makzel-o = jaw; --osto, jawbone.
mal- = prefix forming opposites (67).
maleol-o = ankle.
malgraux = (prep.), notwithstanding.
malic-a = malicious.
man-o = hand.
mandat-o = money-order.
mangx-i = to eat.
manier-o = manner, way.
manik-o = sleeve.
mank-i = (intrans.), to be lacking, wanting.
mantel-o = cloak, mantle.
manuskript-o = manuscript.
mar-o = sea.
marcx-o = swamp, marsh.
mard-o = Tuesday.
Mari-o = Mary.
mark-o = mark.
marmelad-o = marmalade.
marmor-o = marble (stone),
marsx-i = to walk.
mart-o = March.
martel-o = hammer.
mastr-o = master (of a house, etc.)
masxin-o = machine.
maten-o = morning (93).
material-o = material.
matur-a = ripe, mature.
mebl-o = piece of furniture.
medicin-o = medicine (the science).
mehxanik-o = mechanics.
mejl-o = mile.
meleagr-o = turkey.
melk-i = to milk.
melodi-o = melody.
melon-o = melon.
mem = (pronoun), self, selves (219).
membr-o = limb, member.
memor-i = to remember, keep in mind; rememori, to recall to memory.
mend-i = to order (of a store, etc.).
mensog-i = to lie, tell lies.
menton-o = chin.
menu-o = menu.
merit-i = to deserve, merit.
merkred-o = Wednesday.
merl-o = blackbird.
met-i = to put, place.
metal-o = metal.
meti-o = trade, handicraft.
metod-o = method, way.
metr-o = meter (284).
mez-o = middle.
mezur-i = to measure.
mi = (pronoun), I, me (32, 37).
miel-o = honey.
mien-o = appearance, mien.
miks-i = (trans.), to mix.
mil = (adj.), thousand (142).
mild-a = mild.
milimetr-o = millimeter (284).
milion-o = million.
milit-i = to fight, wage war.
min-o = mine (of coal, silver, etc.).
minac-i = to threaten.
mineral-o = mineral.
minimum-o = minimum.
ministr-o = minister (political).
minut-o = minute.
miop-a = shortsighted.
mir-i = to wonder.
mister-o = mystery.
mizer-o = misery.
mod-o = mode, fashion.
model-o = model.
moder-a = moderate.
modest-a = modest.
mok-i = to mock.
mol-a = soft.
moment-o = moment; --a, momentary, instantaneous.
mon-o = money.
monahx-o = monk.
monarhxi-o = monarch.
monat-o = month.
mond-o = world.
mont-o = mountain.
montr-i = (trans.), to show.
mor-o = conduct (in regard to right or wrong); --oj, morals.
moral-a = moral; --eco, morality.
mord-i = to bite.
morgaux = (adv.), tomorrow (171).
mort-i = to die; --igi, to kill.
mosxt-o = title of respect (258).
mov-i = (trans.), to move, put in motion.
muel-o = mill (for grinding).
mugx-i = to roar, bellow.
mult-a = much (81).
mur-o = wall.
murmur-i = to murmur.
mus-o = mouse.
mustard-o = mustard.
musx-o = fly.
mut-a = dumb, mute.
muze-o = museum.
muzik-o = music.


naci-o = nation.
nagx-i = to swim.
naiv-a = artless, naive, ingenuous.
najbar-o = neighbor.
najl-o = nail (of metal).
nap-o = turnip.
nask-i = to produce, bring forth, give birth to.
natur-o = nature.
naux = (adj.), nine (136).
naz-o = nose.
ne = (adv.), no, not (27, 66, a, 171).
nebul-o = fog, mist.
neces-a = necessary.
negativ-o = negative (photographic).
negx-o = snow.
nek = (negative conj.), neither, nor (31).
nenia = no kind of (224).
nenial = (adv.), for no reason (229).
neniam = (adv.), never (226).
nenie = (adv.), nowhere (225).
neniel = (adv.), in no way (230).
nenies = (pronoun, possessive), nobody's (221).
nenio = (pronoun), nothing (233).
neniom = (adv.), none, not any (231).
neniu = (pronoun), no one, nobody, no (220).
nep-o = grandson.
nepr-e = inevitably, certainly, unfailingly.
nerv-o = nerve.
nest-o = nest.
neuxtral-a = neutral, non-partisan.
nev-o = nephew.
ni = (pronoun), we, us (32, 37).
nigr-a = black.
nivel-o = level.
-nj- = suffix forming affectionate diminutives (283).
nobel-o = nobleman.
nobl-a = noble (in character).
nokt-o = night.
nom-o = name; --i, to name, mention.
nombr-o = number (quantity).
nord-o = north.
norveg-o = Norwegian.
nostalgi-o = homesickness.
not-o = note.
nov-a = new, recent, novel; denove, anew, again.
novembr-o = November.
nu = (interjection), well! (273).
nuanc-o = shade, tint, hue.
nub-o = cloud.
nud-a = bare, naked, nude.
nuks-o = nut.
nul-o = zero, naught.
numer-o = number, numeral (No.).
nun = (adv.), now (171).
nur = (adv.), merely, only.
nutr-i = to nourish, to feed.


obe-i = to obey (265).
objekt-o = object, thing.
objektiv-o = lens, objective.
-obl- = suffix forming multiples (186).
oblikv-a = oblique, slanting.
observ-i = to observe, take note of.
obstin-a = obstinate.
ocean-o = ocean.
odor-i = to smell (good or bad).
ofend-i = to offend.
ofer-i = to sacrifice, offer.
ofic-o = office, employment; --isto, officer (of firm or organization);
   --ejo, office (the place).
oficial-a = official.
oficir-o = officer (military or naval).
oft-a = frequent.
ok = (adj.), eight (136).
okaz-i = to happen, occur, take place.
okcident-o = west.
oktobr-o = October.
okul-o = eye.
okup-i = to occupy.
ol = (conj.), than (82, 97, 98).
ole-o = oil.
oliv-o = olive.
ombr-o = shadow, shade.
ombrel-o = umbrella.
-on- = suffix forming fractions (166).
ond-o = wave.
oni = (pronoun), one, they (54).
onkl-o = uncle.
-op- = suffix forming collective numerals (261).
oper-o = opera.
opini-i = to have the opinion, think.
oportun-a = handy, convenient, opportune.
or-o = gold.
orangx-o = orange (fruit).
ord-o = order (methodical or proper arrangement).
ordinar-a = ordinary; eksterordinara, extraordinary.
ordon-i = to order, bid, command.
orel-o = ear (of the body).
orf-o = orphan.
organ-o = organ (physical).
organiz-i = to organize.
orgen-o = organ, (musical instrument).
orient-o = east.
original-o = original.
orkestr-o = orchestra.
ornam-i = to ornament, adorn.
ort-a = right-angled.
osced-i = to gape, yawn.
ost-o = bone.
ostr-o = oyster.
ostracism-o = ostracism.
ov-o = egg.


pac-o = peace.
pacienc-o = patience.
padel-i = to paddle.
paf-i = to shoot (with gun, etc.).
pag-i = to pay.
pagx-o = page (of a book, etc.).
pajl-o = straw.
pak-i = to pack.
pal-a = pale.
palac-o = palace.
palis-o = stake; --aro, palisade.
palp-i = to feel (with the fingers, etc.); --ado, touch (the sense).
palpebr-o = eyelid.
pan-o = bread.
pantalon-o = trousers.
pantofl-o = slipper.
paper-o = paper (material).
papili-o = butterfly.
par-o = pair.
paradiz-o = paradise.
paragraf-o = paragraph.
paralel-a = parallel.
pardon-i = to forgive, pardon (265).
parenc-o = relative (person).
parfum-o = perfume.
park-o = park.
parker-e = by rote, by heart, from memory.
parol-i = to speak (77).
part-o = part, share.
particip-o = participle.
pas-i = (intrans.), to pass.
pasagxer-o = passenger.
paser-o = sparrow.
pasi-o = passion.
pasiv-a = passive.
Pask-o = Easter.
pastecx-o = patty, small pie.
pastinak-o = parsnip.
pastr-o = pastor, clergyman, priest.
pasx-i = to step.
pasxt-i = (trans.), to pasture, feed; --isto, shepherd.
pat-o = pan, frying-pan.
patr-o = father.
pauxz-o = pause.
pavim-o = pavement.
pec-o = piece, morsel.
pejzagx-o = landscape.
pek-i = to sin.
pekl-i = to pickle (meat, etc.).
pel-i = to chase away, drive off.
pelt-o = coat or wrap of fur.
pen-i = to strive, try.
pend-i = (intrans.), to hang.
penetr-i = to penetrate.
penik-o = paintbrush, hair pencil.
pens-i = to think.
pent-i = to repent.
pentr-i = to paint.
pep-i = to chirp, twitter.
per = (prep.), by means of, with, by (64).
perd-i = to lose.
pere-i = to perish.
perfekt-a = perfect.
perfid-i = to betray; --a, perfidious, treacherous.
period-a = periodic.
perl-o = pearl.
permes-i = to permit, allow, let.
peron-o = platform (railway), stoop (entrance porch).
persekut-i = to persecute, prosecute.
persik-o = peach.
persist-i = to persist, persevere.
person-o = person.
peruk-o = wig.
pes-i = (trans.), to ascertain the weight of; --ilo, scales, balance.
pet-i = to request, beg, ask.
petol-i = to be mischievous, saucy, roguish.
petrol-o = petroleum, kerosene.
petrosel-o = parsley.
pez-i = (intrans.), to be heavy, weigh.
pi-a = pious.
pice-o = spruce (tree).
pied-o = foot; --iranto, pedestrian.
piedestal-o = pedestal.
pik-i = to prick, sting.
pilgrim-i = to go on a pilgrimage.
pilk-o = ball (to play with).
pin-o = pine (tree).
pinakotek-o = picture gallery.
pincx-i = to pinch.
pingl-o = pin.
pint-o = point, pinnacle, summit.
pionir-o = pioneer.
pip-o = pipe (for smoking).
pipr-o = pepper.
pir-o = pear.
pist-i = to crush, mash; --ajxo, puree.
pitoresk-a = picturesque.
piz-o = pea.
plac-o = public square, place (broad, short street or open space).
placx-i = to please, to be pleasing (265).
plad-o = flat dish.
plafon-o = ceiling.
plan-o = plan, scheme.
pland-o = sole (of the foot).
planed-o = planet.
plank-o = floor.
plant-i = to plant.
plat-a = flat, plane.
plauxd-i = (trans.), to splash, dabble (a liquid).
plej = (adv.), most (74, 79, 81, 162); malplej, least (80).
plekt-i = to weave, plait, braid.
plen-a = full; plenum-i, to fulfil.
plend-i = to complain.
plet-o = tray.
plezur-o = pleasure.
pli = (adv.), more (74, 79, 81); malpli, less (80).
plor-i = to weep, cry.
plu = (adv.), further, more, any more.
plug-i = to plow.
plum-o = pen, feather.
plumb-o = lead (metal); --isto, plumber.
pluv-o = rain.
pneuxmatik-o = pneumatic tire.
po = (prep.), at the rate of (175).
poem-o = poem.
poet-o = poet.
poezi-o = poetry, poesy.
pokal-o = goblet, cup.
pol-o = Pole.
polic-o = police (force).
politik-o = politics.
polm-o = palm (of the hand).
polur-i = to polish, make smooth and glossy.
polus-o = pole (geographical).
polv-o = dust.
pom-o = apple.
pomp-o = pomp, splendor.
pont-o = bridge.
popol-o = a people, folk.
popular-a = popular.
por = (prep.), for (95, 98, 262).
porcelan-o = porcelain, china.
porci-o = portion, share.
pord-o = door.
pork-o = swine, pig, hog.
port-i = to carry, bear.
portret-o = portrait.
posed-i = to possess, own.
post = (prep.), after, behind (89, 120).
postul-i = to require, demand.
posx-o = pocket.
posxt-o = post (mail); --kesto, mailbox; --marko, postage stamp;
   --mandato, postal money order.
pot-o = pot.
potenc-a = powerful, mighty.
pov-i = to be able, can (72).
pra- = prefix indicating remoteness in line of descent (282).
praktik-o = practice.
prav-a = right, in the right.
precip-a = principal, chief.
preciz-a = precise.
predik-i = to preach.
prefer-i = to prefer.
prefiks-o = prefix.
pregx-i = to pray; --ejo, church.
prem-i = to press.
premi-o = premium, prize.
pren-i = to take.
prepar-i = to prepare.
pres-i = to print.
preskaux = (adv.), almost.
pret-a = ready.
pretekst-i = to make pretext of, pretend, sham.
pretend-i = to make pretension to, lay claim to.
preter = (prep.), beyond, past, by.
prez-o = price.
prezent-i = to present, offer.
prezid-i = to preside; --anto, presiding officer, president, chairman.
pri = (prep.), concerning, about, of (160, 264, c).
princ-o = prince.
princip-o = principle.
printemp-o = spring (season).
pro = (prep.), on account of, because of, for (86).
problem-o = problem.
procent-o = interest, percentage.
proces-o = lawsuit, legal process.
produkt-i = to produce.
profesi-o = profession, occupation, calling.
profesor-o = professor.
profil-o = profile.
profit-o = profit; --i, to profit (by).
profund-a = deep, profound.
progres-i = to progress.
projekt-o = project.
proklam-i = to proclaim.
prokrast-i = to delay, procrastinate.
proksim-a = near.
promen-i = to go walking, promenade.
promes-i = to promise.
propon-i = to propose, offer.
proporci-o = proportion.
propr-a = own (one's own); malpropra, other people's;
   --igi al si, to appropriate, make one's own.
prosper-i = to have success, prosper.
protekt-i = to protect.
protest-i = to protest.
protokol-o = minutes (of a meeting).
prov-i = to try, attempt, test.
proviz-i = to provide.
proz-o = prose; --ajxo, prose composition, piece of prose.
prudent-a = reasonable, sensible, rational.
prujn-o = hoar frost.
prun-o = plum.
prunt-o = loan; --i, --e doni, to lend; --e preni, to borrow.
pruv-i = to prove, give proof of.
psalm-o = psalm.
publik-o = public (the); --igi, to publish.
puding-o = pudding.
pudr-i = to powder.
pugn-o = fist.
pulm-o = lung.
pulv-o = gunpowder.
pump-i = to pump.
pun-i = to punish.
punt-o = lace (point, etc.).
pup-o = doll.
pupitr-o = desk.
pur-a = clean, pure.
purpur-a = purple.
pusx-i = to push; repusxi, to repulse.
put-o = well (for water).


rabarb-o = rhubarb.
rab-i = to pillage, plunder; --isto, robber.
rabat-i = to rebate, give a reduction, discount or rebate.
rad-o = wheel.
radi-o = ray (of light), spoke (of wheel), radius.
radik-o = root.
rafan-o = radish.
rafin-i = to refine; --ejo, refinery.
rajd-i = to ride (horse, etc.).
rajt-o = right (to something).
rakont-i = to relate, narrate (77).
ramp-i = to creep, crawl, clamber.
ran-o = frog.
rand-o = edge, border.
rang-o = rank, grade, dignity.
rapid-a = rapid, quick; --o, speed; --emo, haste.
raport-i = to report, give a report.
ras-o = race (tribe, people, nation).
rasp-i = to rasp, grate; --ilo, grater.
rat-o = rat.
rauxk-a = hoarse, raucous.
rav-i = to enchant.
raz-i = to shave.
re- = prefix indicating repetition or return (223).
real-a = real.
reciprok-a = reciprocal, mutual (180).
redakci-o = editorial department.
redakt-i = to edit.
redaktor-o = editor.
redingot-o = frock coat.
refut-i = to refute.
reg-i = to rule, govern, reign.
regal-i = (trans.), to regale, treat (to food or drink).
region-o = region.
registr-i = (trans.), to register, enroll.
regn-o = state, governed body; --ano, citizen, subject.
regul-o = rule, regulation.
regx-o = king.
reklam-i = to advertise.
rekomend-i = to recommend, register (a letter).
rekompenc-i = to recompense, reward.
rekt-a = straight, undeviating, direct.
rel-o = rail.
religi-o = religion.
rem-i = to row.
rembur-i = to upholster, stuff, pad.
renkont-i = (trans.), to meet.
renvers-i = (trans.), to upset.
reprezent-i = to represent.
respekt-i = to respect.
respond-i = to answer.
respublik-o = republic.
rest-i = to remain, stay.
restoraci-o = restaurant.
resum-i = to summarize, give in resume.
ret-o = net, netting.
rev-i = to indulge in revery, dream, fancy.
revu-o = journal, review, magazine.
rezon-i = to reason (exert the power of reasoning).
rezult-i = to result.
ricev-i = to receive.
ricx-a = rich.
rid-i = to laugh (265).
rifuz-i = to refuse.
rigard-i = to look.
rigl-i = to bolt (fasten).
rikolt-i = to harvest, reap.
rilat-i = to have relation (to) (266).
rimark-i = to notice, note.
rimed-o = means, way; vivrimedoj, means of livelihood.
rimen-o = thong, strap.
ring-o = ring.
rip-o = rib.
ripar-i = to mend, repair.
ripet-i = to repeat.
ripoz-i = to repose, rest.
riprocx-i = to reproach.
river-o = river.
riz-o = rice.
rob-o = dress, robe.
Robert-o = Robert.
romp-i = (trans.), to break.
rond-o = circle, ring, round.
ros-o = dew.
rost-i = to roast.
roz-o = rose (flower).
ruband-o = ribbon.
rubus-o = blackberry.
rugx-a = red.
ruin-o = ruin.
rul-i = (trans.), to roll (ball, etc.).
rus-o = Russian.
rust-i = to rust.
rutin-o = routine.
ruz-a = crafty, cunning, sly.


sabat-o = Saturday.
sabl-o = sand.
sag-o = arrow.
sagx-a = wise.
sak-o = sack, bag.
sal-o = salt.
salajr-o = salary, wages.
salat-o = salad.
salon-o = parlor, drawing-room.
salt-i = to jump, leap.
salut-i = to salute, greet.
sam-a = same.
san-a = healthy, well.
sang-o = blood.
sankt-a = sacred, holy.
sap-o = soap.
sarden-o = sardine.
sat-a = sated; malsata, hungry.
sauxc-o = sauce, gravy, dressing.
sav-i = to save; rescue.
sci-i = to know (117).
scienc-o = science.
se = (conj.), if (240).
sed = (conj.), but.
seg-i = to saw.
segx-o = chair.
sek-a = dry.
sekret-o = secret.
sekretari-o = secretary.
sekund-o = second (of time).
sekv-i = to follow.
sel-o = saddle.
sem-o = seed; --i, to sow.
semajn-o = week.
sen = (prep.), without (248).
senat-o = senate; --ano, senator.
senc-o = sense, meaning.
send-i = to send.
sent-i = to feel, perceive.
sep = (adj.), seven (136).
septembr-o = September.
sercx-i = to seek, hunt, look for.
serur-o = lock.
serv-i = to serve.
servic-o = course (of a meal).
ses = (adj.), six (136).
sever-a = severe, stern.
sezon-o = season.
si = (pronoun, reflexive), himself, herself, etc. (40, 44, 274).
sibl-i = to hiss, whistle (wind, etc.).
sid-i = to sit (239).
sigel-i = to seal.
sign-o = sign, trace, mark.
signif-i = to signify, mean.
silab-o = syllable.
silent-i = to be silent (239).
silk-o = silk.
simi-o = monkey.
simil-a = like, similar.
simpl-a = simple.
sinjor-o = gentleman, Mr. (163).
Sirakuz-o = Syracuse.
sitel-o = pail, bucket.
skatol-o = small box or case.
skiz-i = to sketch.
sklav-o = slave.
skot-o = Scot, Scotchman.
skrap-i = to scrape.
skrib-i = to write.
sku-i = (trans.), to shake.
skulpt-i = to carve, sculpture.
societ-o = society.
soif-i = to be thirsty.
sojl-o = threshold.
Sokrat-o = Socrates.
sol-a = alone, sole, only.
soldat-o = soldier.
solen-a = formal, solemn.
somer-o = summer.
son-i = (intrans.), to sound.
songx-i = to dream (in sleep).
sonor-i = (intrans.), to ring, sound; --ilo, bell.
sopir-i = to yearn, long, sigh.
sorb-i = to absorb; --papero, blotting-paper.
sorcx-o = witchcraft; ensorcxi, to bewitch; --isto, sorcerer.
sort-o = destiny, fate, lot.
sovagx-a = wild, savage.
spac-o = space.
spec-o = kind, sort, species.
special-a = special.
specimen-o = specimen, sample.
spegul-o = mirror.
spert-a = experienced, expert.
spes-o = speso (international unit of money, 284).
spez-o = clearing (financial); elspezi, to disburse, expend, spend;
   enspezi, to take in, receive (funds).
spinac-o = spinach.
spir-i = to breathe; elspiri, to exhale.
spite = (prep.), in spite of.
sprit-a = witty.
staci-o = station (railway, boat, etc.).
stamp-i = to mark officially, stamp.
standard-o = standard, flag.
stan-o = tin (metal).
stang-o = pole.
star-i = to stand (239).
stat-o = state (of being), condition.
stel-o = star.
stenografi-o = shorthand, stenography.
stil-o = style.
stimul-i = to stimulate.
stomak-o = stomach.
strang-a = strange, peculiar.
strat-o = street.
strecx-i = (trans.), to stretch.
strek-i = to make a streak, or line; substreki, to underline;
   surstreki, trastreki, to cross off, strike out.
stri-o = streak, stripe, band.
strik-o = strike (of labor).
stud-i = to study.
student-o = student (college, etc.).
stuf-i = (trans.), to stew.
stump-o = stump (of tree, etc.).
sub = (prep.), under, beneath (121, 160).
subit-a = sudden, abrupt.
substanc-o = substance.
sud-o = south.
sufer-i = to suffer, endure.
suficx-i = to suffice; --ega, abundant.
sufiks-o = suffix.
sufok-i = (trans.), to suffocate.
sugesti-i = to suggest.
suk-o = sap, juice (of plants, etc.); --a, succulent.
sukces-i = to succeed.
suker-o = sugar.
sulfur-o = sulphur.
sulk-o = furrow, wrinkle.
sum-o = sum, amount.
sun-o = sun.
sup-o = soup.
super = (prep.), above, over (159); --a, superior.
supersticx-o = superstition.
supoz-i = to suppose.
supr-e = (adv.), above; --a, upper, above; --ajxo, surface.
sur = (prep.), on, upon (160).
surd-a = deaf.
surpriz-i = to surprise.
surtut-o = overcoat.
suspekt-i = to suspect.
sved-o = Swede.
sven-i = to faint, swoon.
sving-i = (trans.), swing, brandish.
svis-o = Swiss.


sxaf-o = sheep; --ajxo, mutton; --ido, lamb; --idajxo, lamb (meat);
   --viro, ram.
sxajn-i = to seem, appear.
sxal-o = shawl.
sxanc-o = luck, chance; bonsxance, luckily.
sxancel-i = (trans.), to oscillate, vacillate, make tremble.
sxangx-i = (trans.), to change, alter.
sxargx-i = to burden, load.
sxat-i = to like, prize.
sxauxm-o = foam, froth.
sxel-o = shell, peeling, bark.
sxelk-o = suspender, supporter.
sxerc-i = to joke, jest.
sxi = (pronoun), she, her (32, 37, 42).
sxild-o = shield.
sxink-o = ham.
sxip-o = ship.
sxir-i = to tear.
sxirm-i = to shelter, shield; --ilo, screen.
sxlim-o = slime.
sxlos-i = to lock; --ilo, key.
sxmir-i = to anoint, smear.
sxnur-o = string.
sxose-o = broad roadway, drive.
sxov-i = to shove, push.
sxovel-i = to shovel.
sxpar-i = to spare, be economical of.
sxpin-i = to spin.
sxpruc-i = to gush, spout, spurt (of liquids).
sxrank-o = cupboard, wardrobe.
sxrauxb-o = screw.
sxtal-o = steel.
sxtat-o = state (political).
sxtel-i = to steal (252).
sxtip-o = log, block of wood.
sxtof-o = cloth, stuff.
sxton-o = stone.
sxtop-i = to stop up, cork; --ilo, stopper.
sxtrump-o = stocking.
sxtup-o = step, round; --aro, stair-case.
sxu-o = shoe; supersxuo, overshoe.
sxuld-i = to owe, be indebted.
sxultr-o = shoulder.
sxut-o = chute; --i, to pour (as in a chute).
sxvel-i = to swell, become swollen.
sxvit-i = to perspire.


tabak-o = tobacco.
tabel-o = table, index, tabulation.
tabl-o = table (furniture).
tabul-o = board, plank.
tag-o = day; --igxo, dawn; --mezo, noon.
tajlor-o = tailor.
taks-i = to estimate, value, rate.
talent-o = talent.
tali-o = waist; beltalia, shapely, having a good figure.
tambur-o = drum.
tamen = (conj.), nevertheless, however, yet, still.
tantiem-o = percentage of profit, royalty.
tapisx-o = carpet.
tarif-o = tariff, schedule of rates.
tas-o = cup; subtaso, saucer.
task-o = task.
tauxg-i = to be fit for, good for.
tavol-o = layer.
te-o = tea.
teatr-o = theatre; --ajxo, play.
ted-i = to be tedious.
teg-i = to cover, put a covering upon.
tegment-o = roof.
teks-i = to weave.
telefon-i = to telephone.
telegraf-i = to telegraph.
teler-o = plate; --meblo, sideboard.
tem-o = theme, subject.
temp-o = time.
tempi-o = temple (of the head).
templ-o = temple (building).
ten-i = to hold, keep.
tend-o = tent.
tenor-o = tenor (voice).
tent-i = to tempt.
teori-o = theory.
ter-o = earth, soil; enterigi, to inter.
teras-o = terrace.
teritori-o = territory.
termin-o = term, definition (word).
tern-i = to sneeze.
terpom-o = potato.
terur-o = terror.
tia = that kind of, such (65).
tial = (adv.), therefore (78, 83).
tiam = (adv.), then, at that time (73).
tibi-o = shin bone, tibia; --karno, calf (of the leg).
tie = (adv.), there (68).
tiel = (adv.), thus, so (88, 156).
tigr-o = tiger.
tikl-i = to tickle.
tili-o = linden.
tim-i = to fear, be afraid of.
timon-o = pole, tongue, shaft.
tint-i = to jingle, tinkle.
tio = (pronoun), that (233, 234).
tiom = (adv.), that much, so much (104, 164).
tir-i = to pull, draw.
tiran-o = tyrant.
titol-o = title.
tiu = (pronoun), that one, that (56); tiu cxi, this one, this (60).
tost-o = toast (sentiment).
tol-o = linen.
toler-i = to tolerate.
tomat-o = tomato.
tomb-o = tomb, grave.
ton-o = tone.
tond-i = to shear; --ilo, shears, scissors.
tondr-i = to thunder.
tord-i = to twist; --a, crooked, winding.
tra = (prep.), through (46, 160).
trab-o = beam (wooden).
traduk-i = to translate.
traf-i = to reach, attain (that which was aimed at or sought);
   maltrafi, to miss.
trajt-o = feature.
trakt-i = to treat of (in essay, speech, etc.); --ato, treatise.
tram-o = tram; --vojo, tramway, street-car line; --veturilo, street-car.
trancx-i = to cut, sever.
trankvil-a = serene, tranquil, calm.
trans = (prep.), across, the other side of (160).
tre = (adv.), very, very much.
trem-i = to tremble.
tremp-i = to drench, dip.
tren-i = to drag, haul, draw; --ajxo, train (of a dress).
trezor-o = treasure.
tri = (adj.), three (136).
trik-i = to knit.
trink-i = to drink.
tritik-o = wheat.
triumf-o = triumph.
tro = (adv.), too, too much.
tromp-i = to deceive.
tron-o = throne.
tropik-o = tropic.
trot-i = to trot.
trotuar-o = sidewalk, pavement.
trov-i = to find.
tru-o = hole.
trud-i = to force upon, impose; altrudema, importunate.
trunk-o = trunk (of tree or body).
tualet-o = toilet.
tub-o = tube, pipe.
tuber-o = bulb, knot, tuber.
tuj = (adv.), at once, immediately
tuk-o = piece of cloth.
tur-o = tower.
turk-o = Turk.
turment-i = to torment.
turn-i = (trans.), to turn.
tus-i = to cough.
tusx-i = to touch; kortusxi, to touch (the heart of).
tut-a = entire, whole, all.


-uj- = suffix indicating receptacle, that which bears or contains (181).
-ul- = suffix indicating person characterized by that in the root (132).
ulm-o = elm.
-um- = indefinite suffix (268).
ung-o = nail (of finger); --ego, claw, talon.
univers-o = universe.
universitat-o = university.
unu = (adj.), one (136, 137, 180); unuigxo, union.
uragan-o = hurricane.
urb-o = city; cxefurbo, capital.
urgx-i = to be urgent or pressing.
urs-o = bear.
Uson-o = United States of America.
util-a = useful.
uz-i = to use; trouzi, to abuse.


vad-i = to wade.
vafl-o = waffle.
vag-i = to wander, to roam; --isto, vagabond.
vagon-o = car, railway carriage.
vak-i = to be vacant.
vaks-o = wax.
val-o = valley.
valiz-o = valise, satchel, bag.
valor-i = to be worth.
vals-i = to waltz.
van-a = vain, fruitless.
vang-o = cheek.
vant-a = vain, conceited.
vapor-o = steam, vapor.
varb-i = (trans.), to enlist, recruit.
varm-a = warm.
vast-a = vast, spacious, extensive.
vaz-o = vase, basin.
ve! = (interjection), woe! ho ve! alas! (273).
veget-i = to vegetate, grow (as plants).
vegetar-a = vegetarian.
vejn-o = vein.
vek-i = (trans.), to wake, awake.
vel-o = sail.
velk-i = to fade, wither, wilt.
velur-o = velvet.
ven-i = to come.
vend-i = to sell.
vendred-o = Friday.
venen-o = poison.
vengx-i = to avenge.
venk-i = to conquer, vanquish.
vent-o = wind.
ver-o = truth.
verand-o = veranda, porch.
verd-a = green.
verk-i = to compose (music or literature).
verm-o = worm.
vermicxel-o = vermicelli.
vers-o = verse.
versx-i = to pour (a liquid).
vertikal-a = vertical.
vesper-o = evening (93).
vest-i = to clothe, dress.
vesxt-o = vest, waistcoat.
vet-i = to wager, bet.
veter-o = weather.
vetur-i = to ride, go (in vehicle, boat, etc.).
vi = (pronoun), you (32, 37, 274).
viand-o = meat.
vibr-i = to vibrate.
vic-o = turn, place in a series; lauxvice, in turn; siavice,
   in his (her, its, their) turn; vicprezidanto, vice-president.
vid-i = to see.
vidv-o = widower; --ino, widow.
vigl-a = alert, brisk.
vilagx-o = village.
vin-o = wine.
vinagr-o = vinegar.
vinber-o = grape; sekvinbero, raisin.
vintr-o = winter.
viol-o = violet.
violon-o = violin.
vip-i = to whip.
vir-o = man
virt-o = virtue.
visx-i = to wipe.
vitr-o = glass (material).
viv-i = to live (133).
vizagx-o = face, visage.
vizit-i = to visit.
vocx-o = voice; --doni, to vote.
voj-o = road, way.
vojagx-i = to journey, travel, voyage.
vok-i = to call.
vokal-o = vowel.
vol-i = to be willing, will, wish.
volont-e = willingly.
volum-o = volume (book).
volumen-o = volume (of a body).
volv-i = to roll (something around something).
vort-o = word; --aro, dictionary.
vost-o = tail.
vual-o = veil.
vulgar-a = common, vulgar.
vulp-o = fox.
vund-i = to wound.


zenit-o = zenith.
zigzag-o = zigzag.
zingibr-o = ginger.
zink-o = zinc.
zon-o = girdle, belt, zone.
zoologi-o = zoology.
zorg-i = to care (for), be anxious (about).
zum-i = to hum, buzz.

                   *       *       *       *       *


The following vocabulary includes all Esperanto roots used in the
preceding lessons, all primary words of the language, and a large number
of additional roots (to facilitate original composition). No attempt
has been made, however, to include all of the roots of the language,
or their various English meanings, for which an English-Esperanto
Dictionary should be consulted.

References are to sections, unless the page (p.) is given. [Since page
numbers have no relevance in this etext version, such references were
deleted.] For other parts of speech than those indicated, see Word
Formation, 116, 120, 159, 171, also the references under Prefixes and
Suffixes in the Index. For formation of compound words other than
those given, see 160, 167, 176, 184. The following abbreviations are
used: adj. = adjective; adv. = adverb; conj. = conjunction; intrans. =
intransitive; prep. = preposition; trans. = transitive; -- = repetition
of the English word.


abandon = forlas-i.
abash = hontig-i.
(be) able = pov-i (72).
abominable = abomen-a.
about = (prep.), cxirkaux; (concerning) pri; (adv.),
   (approximately, proksimum-e.
above = (prep.), super (159); (adv.), supr-e; cxi supre.
abrupt = subit-a.
absorb = sorb-i.
abundant = suficxeg-a.
academy = akademi-o.
accelerate = (trans.), akcel-i.
accent = akcent-o.
accept = akcept-i.
accident = akcident-o; (chance) okaz-o.
accompany = akompan-i.
(in) accordance with = (prep.), laux (191).
account = kont-o; (bill) kalkul-o; (story) rakont-o.
(on) account of = (prep.), pro (86).
accurate = akurat-a.
accusative = akuzativ-o.
accuse = akuz-i, kulpig-i.
accustomed = familiar-a, kutimit-a.
ache = dolor-o.
acid = acid-o.
(be) acquainted with = kon-i (117); become --, konatigx-i.
   acquire, akir-i.
across = (prep.), trans.
act = ag-i; --on, efik-i; (behave) kondut-i; (of play) akt-o.
active = agema; (grammatical), aktiv-a.
actor = aktor-o.
actual = efektiv-a, ver-a.
acute = akr-a.
add = aldon-i (160).
address = (on letters, etc.) adres-o; (lecture) parolad-o.
adequate = suficx-a.
adjacent = apud-a (159).
adjective = adjektiv-o.
administer = (manage), administr-i.
admire = admir-i.
admit = konfes-i; (let in) allas-i.
admonish = admon-i.
adore = ador-i.
adorn = ornam-i.
adverb = adverb-o.
advantage = util-o, profit-o.
advertise = reklam-i.
advise = konsil-i.
affable = afabl-a.
affair = afer-o; regrettable --, domagx-o.
affirmative = jes-a (171).
(be) afraid = tim-i.
Africa = Afrik-o.
after = (prep.), post (89).
afternoon = posttagmez-o.
again = denov-e, re-e (223).
against = (prep.), kontraux.
age = agx-o; of --, plenagx-a; old --, maljunec-o.
(give an) agency = komisi-i.
agent = agent-o.
agitate = agit-i.
agony = agoni-o.
agree = konsent-i; (contract) kontrakt-i.
agreeable = agrabl-a.
aid = help-i.
aim at = cel-i.
air = aer-o; to --, aerum-i; (music) ari-o.
alas! = ho ve (273).
alcohol = alkohol-o.
alcove = alkov-o.
alert = vigl-a.
Alexander = Aleksandr-o.
Alexandria = Aleksandri-o.
Alfred = Alfred-o.
algebra = algebr-o.
alive = viv-a.
all = (pronoun and adj.), cxiuj (173); (indefinite pronoun) cxio (233);
   (adv. of quantity) cxiom (194); (whole, entire) tut-a.
alliance = lig-o.
allow = permes-i.
allude = alud-i.
allure = log-i.
almanac = almanak-o.
almost = (adv.), preskaux.
alms = almoz-o.
alone = sol-a.
along = (prep.), laux (191); -- with, kune kun.
aloud = lauxt-e.
alphabet = alfabet-o.
already = (adv.), jam.
also = (adv.), ankaux.
altar = altar-o.
alter = (trans.), sxangx-i, aliig-i.
although = (conj.), kvankam.
always = (adv.), cxiam (187).
America = Amerik-o.
amiable = afabl-a, amind-a.
amid = meze de, inter (85).
among = (prep.), inter (85).
amount = sum-o, kvant-o; a certain --, iom (217).
amphibious = amfibi-a.
amphitheatre = amfiteatr-o.
amuse = amuz-i.
analyse = analiz-i.
ancestor = prapatr-o (282).
anchor = ankr-o.
ancient = antikv-a.
and = (conj.), kaj (26).
anecdote = anekdot-o.
anew = denov-e.
angel = angxel-o.
angle = angul-o.
angry = koler-a.
animal = best-o.
ankle = maleol-o.
announce = anonc-i.
annoy = cxagren-i.
anoint = sxmir-i.
answer = respond-i.
ant = formik-o.
antelope = antilop-o.
antipathy = antipati-o.
antique = antikv-a.
anvil = ambos-o.
anxious = maltrankvil-a.
any = (pronoun and adj.), iu (203); (adv. of quantity) iom (217);
   --kind, --time, --thing, etc., see table, 235.
any more = (adv.), plu.
apartment = apartament-o.
apathy = apati-o.
apologise = pardonon pet-i.
apology = (defence), apologi-o.
apparatus = aparat-o.
appear = (come in sight), aper-i; (seem) sxajn-i.
appearance = (aspect), aspekt-o, mien-o, vidigx-o.
appetite = apetit-o.
applaud = aplauxd-i.
apple = pom-o.
apply = (put on), almet-i; -- to (for information, etc.), sin turni al.
approach = alproksimigx-i al.
appropriate = proprigi al si; (suitable), konven-a, dec-a.
approve = aprob-i.
approximate = proksimum-a.
apricot = abrikot-o.
April = april-o.
apron = antauxtuk-o.
aquarium = akvari-o.
Arab = arab-o; street --, bub-o.
arbitrate = arbitraci-i.
arbor = lauxb-o.
arc = ark-o.
arcade = arkad-o.
archer = pafarkist-o.
Archimedes = Arhximed-o.
architecture = arhxitektur-o.
arena = aren-o.
argue = argument-i.
Aristeides = Aristejd-o.
aristocrat = aristokrat-o.
Aristotle = Aristotel-o.
arithmetic = aritmetik-o.
arm = (of the body), brak-o; (weapon) armil-o.
army = arme-o.
aroma = arom-o.
around = (prep.), cxirkaux (89, 160).
arouse = incit-i, vek-i.
arrange = arangx-i.
arrest = arest-i.
arrive = alven-i.
arrogant = arogant-a.
arrow = sag-o.
art = art-o.
Arthur = Artur-o.
article = (grammatical, literary) artikol-o.
artificial = artefarit-a.
artless = naiv-a.
as = (adv.) kiel; as ... as ... tiel ... kiel ... (156);
   -- if, -- though, kvazaux (250); -- far as, gxis (prep., 46);
   -- much ... as ..., tiom ... kiom (164).
ascertain = certigx-i; -- the truth of, konstat-i.
(be) ashamed = hont-i.
ashes = cindr-o.
Asia = Azi-o.
aside from = (prep.), krom.
ask = (inquire), demand-i; (request), pet-i.
asparagus = asparag-o.
aspect = aspekt-o, mien-o.
ass = azen-o.
assemble = kunven-i, kunvok-i.
assist = help-i.
association = (organization), asoci-o.
assurance = aplomb-o, certigo.
at = (prep.), cxe (125, 160), je (260); -- the rate of, po (175).
athlete = atlet-o.
atmosphere = atmosfer-o.
attack = atak-i.
attain = ating-i, traf-i.
attempt = prov-i.
attentive = atent-a.
attest = atest-i.
attribute = atribut-o.
August = auxgust-o.
Australia = Auxstrali-o.
author = auxtor-o, verkist-o.
automatic = auxtomat-a.
autumn = auxtun-o.
avaricious = avar-a.
avenge = vengx-i.
avenue = ale-o, bulvard-o.
avoid = evit-i.
awake = (trans.), vek-i.
away = (adv.), for (71); (distant), malproksim-e (170).
axe = hakil-o.
axis = (axle), aks-o.


babble = babil-i.
baby = infanet-o.
bachelor = frauxl-o; -- of arts (A.B.), abiturient-o.
back = (of the body), dors-o; to the rear (adv.), malantauxen (121).
bacon = lard-o.
bag = sak-o, valiz-o.
bagatelle = bagatel-o.
bake = (trans.), bak-i.
balance = (trans.), balanc-i; (scales), pesil-o.
ball = (to play with), pilk-o; (dance), bal-o; (globe), glob-o.
banana = banan-o.
band = (stripe), stri-o; (music), orkestr-o; (group), ar-o (126).
bandage = bandagx-i.
banish = ekzil-i.
bank = (financial), bank-o; (shore), bord-o.
(become) bankrupt = bankrot-i
banner = flag-o, standard-o.
banquet = festen-o.
bar = bar-i.
barbarian = barbar-o.
bare = nud-a.
bark = (of trees), sxel-o; (of dogs), boj-i.
barrel = barel-o; -- organ, gurd-o.
barren = senfrukt-a.
barrister = advokat-o.
barytone = bariton-o.
base = (foundation), fundament-o, baz-o; (ignoble), malnobl-a.
basin = vaz-o, kuv-o.
basket = korb-o.
bass = (voice), bas-o.
bathe = (trans.), ban-i.
battle = batal-i.
be = est-i (109).
beak = bek-o.
beam = (wooden), trab-o; (light), radi-o.
bean = (leguminous fruit), fab-o; (garden bean), fazeol-o.
bear = (animal), urs-o; (carry), port-i; (endure), elport-i, sufer-i;
   (produce, give birth to), nask-i.
beard = barb-o.
beast = best-o.
beat = bat-i; (surpass), super-i, venk-i.
beautiful = bel-a.
because = (conj.), cxar (83), tial ke  (83); -- of  (prep.), pro (86).
become = igx-i, farigx-i (232); (be suitable), konven-i, dec-i.
bed = lit-o.
bee = abel-o.
beef = bovajx-o (227, c).
beefsteak = bifstek-o.
beet = bet-o.
before = (prep.), antaux (89, 90, 120, 159, 160); (conj.),
   antaux ol (97, 98); (adv.), antauxe, jxus antauxe.
beg = (request), pet-i; (ask alms), almozon pet-i.
beggar = almozul-o.
begin = (trans.), komenc-i (see also prefix "ek-", 206).
behave = kondut-i.
behind = (prep.), post.
behold = rigard-i, vid-i; (adv.), jen (228).
Belgian = belg-o.
believe = kred-i (265).
bell = sonoril-o.
belong = aparten-i.
below = (prep.), sub; (adv.), sub-e, malsupr-e.
belt = zon-o.
bench = benk-o.
bend = (trans.), klin-i, fleks-i.
benevolence = bonfar-o.
berry = ber-o.
beside = (prep.), krom; (near), apud; (at the side of), flanke de.
bet = vet-i.
betray = perfid-i.
betrothed = (man), fiancx-o.
between = (prep.), inter (85, 89).
bewitch = ensorcx-i.
beyond = (prep.), preter.
bicycle = bicikl-o.
bid = (order), ordon-i; -- farewell, adiaux-i.
big = grand-a.
bill = (of bird), bek-o; bank --, bankbilet-o; hand--, afisx-o;
   (reckoning), kalkul-o.
bind = (fasten), lig-i; (wounds), bandagx-i.
bird = bird-o.
biscuit = biskvit-o; (ring-shaped), kring-o.
bit = (piece), pec-o; (adv.), iom (217).
bite = mord-i.
black = nigr-a; to -- (shoes, etc.), cir-i.
blackberry = rubus-o.
blackbird = merl-o.
blacking = cir-o.
blade = (of knife, etc.), kling-o.
bleat = blek-i.
bless = ben-i.
blind = blind-a.
block = (of wood), stip-o.
blood = sang-o.
bloom = flor-i (116).
blot = (spot), makul-o.
blotter = sorbil-o, sorbpaper-o.
blouse = bluz-o, kitel-o.
blow = blov-i; (stroke), bat-o.
blue = blu-a; --ish, dubeblu-a.
blush = rugxigx-i.
board = (plank), tabul-o; (food), nutrad-o.
boast = fanfaron-i.
boat = boat-o, sxipet-o.
body = korp-o.
boil = (intrans.), bol-i (275).
bolt = (fasten), rigl-i.
bonbon = bombon-o.
bond = (fastening), ligil-o.
bone = ost-o.
book = libr-o; note--, copy--, kajer-o.
boot = bot-o.
border = (edge), rand-o.
bore = (holes), bor-i; (weary), enuig-i.
(be) born = naskigx-i.
borrow = pruntepren-i.
Boston = Boston-o.
both = (pronoun and adj.), ambaux (238); (adv.), kaj (26).
bottle = botel-o.
bottom = fund-o, malsupr-o.
bough = brancx-o.
boulevard = bulvard-o.
boundary = lim-o.
bouquet = buked-o.
bow = (of ribbon), bant-o; (for shooting), pafark-o.
bow = (bend), klinigx-i, salut-i.
box = kest-o; small --, skatol-o.
boy = knab-o.
bracket = (shelf), bret-o.
brag = fanfaron-i.
braid = plekt-i.
brain = cerb-o.
branch = (of tree), brancx-o; (of work or study), fak-o.
brandish = sving-i.
brandy = brand-o.
brave = brav-o.
bread = pan-o.
break = (trans)., romp-i; -- to pieces, frakas-i.
breakfast = matenmangx-o.
breathe = spir-i.
brick = brik-o.
bridge = pont-o.
bridle = brid-o.
bright = (clear), hel-a.
bring = alport-i; -- forth (produce), nask-i; -- up (educate), eduk-i.
brisk = vigl-a.
Briton = Brit-o.
broad = largx-a.
brochure = brosxur-o.
bronze = bronz-o.
brood = (birds), kov-i.
brother = frat-o.
brown = brun-a.
brownie = kobold-o.
bruise = kontuz-i.
brush = bros-i.
brute = brut-o.
bucket = sitel-o.
buckle = buk-o.
bud = burgxon-o.
build = konstru-i.
bulb = tuber-o, bulb-o.
Bulgarian = Bulgar-o.
bull = bovvir-o.
bullet = kugl-o.
bunch = fask-o.
bundle = fask-o, pakajx-o.
bungle = fusx-i.
burden = sxargx-i.
burn = (intrans.), brul-i (275).
burst = (intrans.), krev-i.
bury = enterig-i.
but = (conj.), sed; (prep.), krom.
butcher = bucx-i.
butter = buter-o.
butterfly = papili-o.
button = buton-o; to --, butonum-i.
buy = acxet-i.
buzz = zum-i.
by = (prep.), per (64); de (169, 170); (past), preter; (according to),
   laux (191).


cab = fiakr-o.
cabbage = brasik-o.
cage = kagx-o.
cake = kuk-o.
calculate = kalkul-i.
caldron = kaldron-o.
calendar = kalendar-o.
calf = bovid-o; (of the leg), tibikarn-o.
call = vok-i; (visit), vizit-i.
calling = (profession), profesi-o.
calm = kviet-a, trankvil-a.
camel = kamel-o.
camera = kamer-o.
can = (be able), pov-i (72); (preserve fruit, etc.), konfit-i.
candle = kandel-o.
candy = kand-o.
canoe = kanot-o.
cap = cxap-o.
capable = kapabl-a.
capital = (money), kapital-o; (excellent), boneg-a; (city), cxefurb-o.
capitol = kapitol-o.
car = vagon-o.
card = kart-o; visiting --, vizitkart-o.
care = (for), zorg-i (pri).
caress = dorlot-i, kares-i.
carpet = tapisx-o.
carriage = kalesx-o, veturil-o.
carrot = karot-o.
carry = port-i.
carve = skulpt-i.
case = (small box), skatol-o; (chest), kest-o; (legal), proces-o;
   (holder), uj-o (181), ing-o (237); (occasion), okaz-o;
   (grammatical), kaz-o.
cashier = kasist-o.
cascade = kaskad-o.
cast = jxet-i.
castle = kastel-o.
cat = kat-o.
catch = kapt-i.
cattle = brut-o, brutar-o.
cauliflower = florbrasik-o.
cause = ig-i (214); (produce a result), kauxz-i; (motive), kial-o;
   tial-o; (espoused or advocated), afer-o; (legal), proces-o.
caution = avert-i.
cavity = kav-o.
cease = (intrans.), cxes-i.
ceiling = plafon-o.
celebrate = fest-i, solenig-i; --ed, fama.
celery = celeri-o.
cellar = kel-o.
cent = cend-o.
center = centr-o.
centigram = centigram-o (284).
centiliter = centilitr-o (284).
centimeter = centimetr-o (284).
certain = cert-a; a -- (one), iu (pronoun and adj., 203);
   -- amount, etc., see table, 235.
certainly = nepr-e, cert-e, ja (215).
certify = atest-i, certig-i, konstat-i.
chain = cxen-o; (fetter), katen-o; (of mountains), montar-o.
chair = segx-o.
(be) chairman = prezid-i.
chalk = kret-o.
chance = sxanc-o; (hazard), hazard-o; (opportunity), okazo.
change = (trans.), sxangx-i; (coins), moner-oj.
chapel = kapel-o.
chapter = cxapitr-o.
character = karakter-o.
charge = (commission), komisi-o; (burden), sxargx-o; (price, cost),
   prez-o, kost-o.
charm = cxarm-i.
chase = (game, etc.), cxas-i; (drive off), forpel-i.
chatter = babil-i.
check = (on bank), cxek-o.
cheek = vang-o.
cheese = fromagx-o.
chemise = cxemiz-o.
chemistry = hxemi-o.
chemist's shop = apotek-o.
cheque = cxek-o.
cherry = cxeriz-o.
chest = (box), kest-o; (with a lid), kofr-o.
chestnut = kasxtan-o.
chew = macx-i.
chief = cxef-a, precip-a; (leader), estr-o (253).
child = infan-o, id-o (207).
chimney = kamen-o.
chin = menton-o.
china = (porcelain), porcelan-o; (country), Hxinuj-o.
Chinaman = hxin-o.
chirp = pep-i.
chocolate = cxokolad-o.
choir = hxor-o.
choose = elekt-i.
chop = hak-i; (cutlet), kotlet-o.
chrestomathy = krestomati-o.
Christ = Krist-o.
church = (building), pregxej-o.
chute = sxut-o.
cigar = cigar-o.
cigarette = cigared-o.
cinnamon = cinam-o.
cipher = cifer-o.
circle = cirkl-o, rond-o.
circular = (letter, etc.), cirkuler-o.
circumstance = okaz-o, detal-o, cirkonstanc-o.
citizen = regnan-o, urban-o.
city = urb-o.
civilise = civiliz-i.
clack = krak-i.
claim = pretend-i.
clamber = ramp-i.
clap = (trans.), klak-i.
class = klas-o.
clatter = (trans.), klak-i.
claw = ungeg-o.
clay = argil-o.
clean = pur-a.
clear = (bright), hela; (distinct), klar-a.
clearing = (financial), spez-o.
clergyman = pastr-o.
clerk = komiz-o.
clever = lert-a.
climate = klimat-o.
climb up = grimp-i, supren ramp-i.
cloak = mantel-o.
clock = horlogx-o.
close = (trans.), ferm-i; (dense), dens-a; -- to (prep.), apud;
   proksim-e de (170).
cloth = (in general), sxtof-o; (woollen, etc.), drap-o;
   (piece of), tuk-o; table--, tablotuk-o.
clothe = vest-i.
cloud = nub-o.
club = (organization), klub-o; (weapon), bastoneg-o.
coal = karb-o.
coat = vest-o; (short), jak-o; (frock), redingot-o; over--, surtut-o.
cock = (fowl), kok-o.
coffee = kaf-o.
collect = (trans.), kolekt-i.
college = kolegi-o.
colonel = kolonel-o.
color = kolor-o.
column = kolon-o.
comb = komb-i.
come = ven-i.
comedy = komedi-o.
comfort = (console), konsol-i; (freedom from pain, etc.), komfort-o.
command = ordon-i; (military and naval), komand-i.
commerce = komerc-o.
commission = (entrusted), komisi-o; (percentage of profit), tantiem-o,
committee = komitat-o.
common = (general), gxeneral-a; (mutual), komun-a; (vulgar), vulgar-a.
communicate = komunik-i.
company = (commercial), kompanio; (guests), gastar-o;
   (presence), cxeest-o.
compare = (trans.), kompar-i (266).
compassion = kompat-o.
compete = konkur-i.
competition = konkurad-o; (for prizes), konkurs-o;
   (in business), konkurenc-o.
complain = plend-i.
complicate = komplik-i.
compose = (music or literature), verk-i.
compositor = (of type), kompostist-o.
conceal = kasx-i (252).
concern = koncern-i (266); (anxiety), maltrankvilec-o.
concerning = (prep.), pri. (264, c).
concert = (musical), koncert-o.
condemn = kondamn-i.
condition = cirkonstanc-o; (stipulation), kondicx-o; (state), stat-o.
conduct = (lead), konduk-i; -- oneself (behave), kondut-i.
conduct = (behavior), kondut-o; (in regard to right or wrong), mor-o.
conductor = (of car, etc.), konduktor-o.
confess = konfes-i.
confide = konfid-i.
conform = konform-i (266).
confound = (confuse), konfuz-i.
congratulate = gratul-i.
congress = kongres-o.
conquer = venk-i.
conscience = konscienc-o.
(be) conscious = konsci-i.
consent = konsent-i.
consequently = sekv-e, do; tial (78).
(be) conservative = konservativ-a.
consist = konsist-i.
console = konsol-i.
consonant = (letter), konsonant-o.
conspire = konspir-i.
constant = konstant-a.
constitution = konstituci-o.
consul = konsul-o.
consult = konsult-i, pet-i konsilon de.
contaminate = infekt-i.
content = kontent-a.
continent = (land), kontinent-o.
continue = dauxr-i, dauxrig-i.
contour = kontur-o.
contract = (commercial and legal), kontrakt-i.
contralto = kontralt-o.
contrary = mal-o (67); kontrauxstarem-a.
control = kontrol-i; (govern), reg-i.
convenient = konven-a, oportun-a.
convince = konvink-i.
cook = kuir-i.
copper = kupr-o.
copy = kopi-i; (of a book, etc.), ekzempler-o.
coquettish = koket-a.
cork = sxtop-i; (bark of cork tree), kork-o.
corner = angul-o.
corporal = corporeal, korp-a.
corps = (military), korpus-o.
corpse = kadavr-o.
correct = korekt-i; (right), prav-a.
correspond = korespond-i.
corridor = koridor-o.
cost = kost-i.
costume = kostum-o.
cotton = koton-o.
cough = tus-i.
counsel = konsil-i.
count = kalkul-i, sum-i, nombr-i; (person), graf-o.
county = grafland-o.
country = land-o; (as opposed to city), kampar-o.
coupon = kupon-o.
(be) courageous = kuragx-i.
course = (of lessons), kurs-o; (of a meal), servic-o;
   of --, kompreneble; in the -- of, en la dauxro de.
court = kort-o, korteg-o, jugxej-o.
courteous = gxentil-a.
courtesy = gxentilec-o; (kindness), komplez-o.
cousin = kuz-o.
cover = kovr-i; (put covering upon), teg-i.
crab = krab-o.
crack = (split) (trans.), fend-i; (crackle), krak-i;
   (burst open) (intrans.), krev-i.
cradle = lulil-o.
crafty = ruz-a.
cravat = kravat-o.
crawl = ramp-i.
crazy = frenez-a.
cream = krem-o.
create = kre-i.
creep = ramp-i; -- up, grimp-i.
crime = krim-o.
crippled = kripl-a.
criticise = kritik-i.
crooked = tord-a, malrekt-a, kurb-a.
cross = kruc-o; (angry), koler-a; -- off, trastrek-i.
crowd = amas-o, anar-o (145, 126).
crown = kron-o.
crucify = krucum-i.
cruel = kruel-a.
crush = pist-i, premeg-i.
crust = krust-o.
cry = (weep), plor-i; (shout), kri-i; (of animals), blek-i.
cucumber = kukum-o.
cultivate = kultur-i; -- the soil, terkultur-i.
cunning = ruz-a.
cup = tas-o; (goblet), pokal-o.
cupboard = sxrank-o.
curious = (odd), kurioz-a; (inquisitive), scivol-a.
curl = (of hair), bukl-o.
curtain = kurten-o.
curve = kurb-o.
cushion = kusen-o.
custom = kutim-o; (tax), impost-o.
cut = trancx-i; (of a garment), fason-o.
cutlet = kotlet-o.
cylinder = cilindr-o.
Cyrus = Cirus-o.


dabble = (a liquid), plauxd-i.
dainty = delikat-a.
damage = difekt-i.
Damocles = Damokl-o.
Dane = dan-o.
danger = dangxer-o.
dance = danc-i.
date = (fruit), daktil-o; (time), dat-o.
dawn = tagigx-o.
day = tag-o.
deaf = surd-a.
dear = (prized), kar-a; (expensive), multekost-a.
debase = (adulterate), fals-i; (make bad), malbonig-i.
decay = (mould), sxim-o; (in health), kaduk-i.
deceive = tromp-i.
December = decembr-o.
decide = decid-i.
decigram = decigram-o (284).
deciliter = decilitr-o (284).
decimeter = decimetr-o (284).
deck (of ship) = ferdek-o; (adorn), ornam-i.
declaim = deklam-i.
deep = profund-a.
deer = cerv-o.
defend = defend-i.
define = defin-i, priskrib-i.
degree = grad-o.
dekagram = dekagram-o (284).
dekaliter = dekalitr-o (284).
dekameter = dekametr-o (284).
delay = prokrast-i.
delegate = deleg-i.
delicate = delikat-a.
delightful = cxarm-a, placxeg-a.
deliver (supply) = liver-i; (set free), liberig-i.
delusion = iluzi-o.
demand = postul-i.
dense = dens-a.
deny = ne-i (171).
department (of work, etc.) = fak-o.
desert = dezert-o; (just reward), merit-o.
deserve = merit-i.
desire = dezir-i.
desk = pupitr-o, skribtabl-o.
dessert = desert-o.
destine = destin-i; difin-i.
destiny = destin-o; (lot), sort-o.
destroy = detru-i, neniig-i.
detail = detal-o.
dew = ros-o.
diamond = diamant-o.
dictionary = vortar-o.
dictate (letters) = dikt-i.
die = mort-i.
different = divers-a, malsam-a, diferenc-a.
differentiate = diferencig-i.
dig = fos-i.
dignity (rank) = rang-o.
diligent = diligent-a.
dimension = dimensio; (size), ampleks-o.
Diogenes = Diogen-o.
dip (in liquid) = tremp-i.
diploma = diplom-o; holder of --, diplomit-o.
diplomat = diplomat-o.
direct (guide) = direkt-i; (undeviating), rekt-a.
disburse = elspez-i, elpag-i.
discount = rabat-i.
discuss = diskut-i, priparol-i.
disdain = malsxat-i, malestim-i.
dish (flat) = plad-o.
dispatch (letter) = depesx-o.
distance = distanc-o.
distinct = klar-a.
distinguish = disting-i.
distract (the attention) = distr-i; (confuse), konfuz-i.
disturb = gxen-i, maltrankvilig-i.
diverse = divers-a.
divide = (trans.), divid-i.
do = far-i; (suffice), suficx-i.
doctor = doktor-o; (medical), kuracist-o.
dog = hund-o.
doll = pup-o.
dollar = dolar-o.
donkey = azen-o.
door = pord-o; --handle, ans-o.
doubt = dub-i.
down (hair or feathers) = lanug-o; (downward) (adv.), malsupren.
dove = kolomb-o.
drag = (trans.), tren-i.
draw (pull) = tir-i; (sketch), skiz-i.
drawer = tirkest-o.
drawing-room = salon-o.
dream (in sleep) = songx-i; (fancy), rev-i.
drench = tremp-i.
dress = vest-i (sin); (frock), rob-o; --suit, frak-o.
dressing (sauce) = sauxc-o.
drink = trink-i.
drip = gut-i.
drive (off) = pel-i; (vehicle), veturig-i; (roadway), sxose-o.
drown = (intrans.), dron-i.
drug = drog-o; --store, apotek-o.
drum = tambur-o.
dry = sek-a.
duck = anas-o.
dues = kotizajx-o; pay --, kotiz-i.
dumb = mut-a; -- animal, brut-o.
during = (prep.), dum (96); en la dauxro de-.
dusk = krepusk-o.
dust = polv-o; remove the --, senpolvig-i.
duty = dev-o; be on --, dejxor-i.
dwell = logx-i.


each = (adj. and pronoun), cxiu (173).
eager = avid-a.
eagle = agl-o.
ear (of the body) = orel-o.
early = fru-a.
earth = ter-o; (the planet), terglob-o.
east = orient-o.
Easter = Pask-o.
easy = facil-a.
eat = mangx-i.
echo = ehx-o.
economical = sxparem-a.
edge = rand-o; (of rivers, etc.), bord-o.
edit = redakt-i.
editor = redaktor-o.
editorial body = redakci-o.
educate = (rear), eduk-i; (teach), instru-i.
effect = efekt-o.
effective = efektiv-a.
(be) efficacious = efik-i.
egg = ov-o.
Egypt = Egipt-o.
eight = (adj.), ok (136).
either = (pronoun and adj.), iu (203); cxiu (173); unu aux la alia;
   (adv.), aux; on -- side (adv.), ambauxflanke (238).
elbow = kubut-o.
electric = elektr-a.
elk = alk-o.
elm = ulm-o.
eloquent = elokvent-a.
embroider = brod-i.
eminent = eminent-a.
empire = imperi-o.
employ = (hire), dung-i; -- oneself, sin okupi; (use), uz-i.
employee = komiz-o, dungit-o, oficist-o.
employment = ofic-o, okupad-o.
enchant = ensorcx-i, rav-i.
encore = (adv.), bis.
end = (trans.), fin-i.
endow = dot-i.
endure = sufer-i, elport-i.
engineer = ingxenier-o.
Englishman = angl-o.
enjoy = gxu-i; -- oneself, sin amuz-i.
enlightened = kler-a.
enlist = (trans.), varb-i.
enroll = (trans.), registr-i, varb-i.
enthusiasm = entuziasm-o.
entire = tut-a.
entrust = komisii, alkonfid-i.
envelope = (of letter), kovert-o.
envy = envi-i.
(be an) epicure = frand-i.
epoch = epok-o.
equal = egal-a.
err = erar-i.
establish = establ-i, fond-i; (prove, etc.), konstat-i.
estate = bien-o.
esteem = estim-i.
estimate = taks-i.
eternal = etern-a, cxiam-a.
Europe = Euxrop-o.
evangel = evangeli-o.
even = (level), eben-a; -- number, parnombro; (actually) (adv.), ecx.
evening = vesper-o (93); -- dress (of man), frak-o.
ever = (adv.), iam (212); (indefinite adv.), ajn (236);
   (always), cxiam (187).
every = (one), (pronoun and adv.), cxiu (173); --thing, -- way, etc.,
   see table, 235.
evolution = evoluci-o.
exact = akurat-a, gxust-a; (demand), postul-i.
examine = ekzamen-i; -- and check, kontrol-i.
example = ekzempl-o; (model), model-o.
Excellency = (title), mosxt-o (258).
except = escept-i (266); (prep.), krom.
excite = ekscit-i.
exercise = (trans.), ekzerc-i.
exhale = elspir-i.
exhort = admon-i.
exile = ekzil-i.
exist = ekzist-i.
expect = atend-i.
expend = (money), elspez-i; (energy, etc.), uz-i, eluz-i.
experienced = spert-a.
experiment = eksperiment-i.
expert = spert-a, lert-a.
explode = (intrans.), eksplod-i (275).
explore = esplor-i.
express = esprim-i; (train), rapida vagonaro.
extend = (trans.), etend-i, pligrandig-i, plilongig-i.
extensive = vast-a, vastampleks-a.
extent = (size), ampleks-o.
extinguish = esting-i.
extraordinary = eksterordinar-a.
eye = okul-o; --brow, brov-o; --lid, palpebr-o.


fable = fabel-o.
face = vizagx-o.
fact = fakt-o; in --, fakt-e, efektiv-e, ja (215).
fade = velk-i.
fair = (just), just-a; (beautiful), bel-a.
fairy = fe-o, fein-o.
faint = sven-i.
faithful = fidel-a.
fall = fal-i; (autumn), auxtun-o.
false = fals-a; (treacherous), perfid-a.
fame = fam-o.
familiar = familiar-a, kutim-a.
family = famili-o.
fancy = imag-i, rev-i.
far = malproksim-e; as -- as (prep.), gxis (46).
farm = (as a tenant), farm-i; (till the soil), terkultur-i.
farewell = (adv. and interjection), adiaux (171, 273).
fashion = fason-o, mod-o.
fasten = lig-i.
fat = gras-o; (corpulent), dik-a.
fatal = fatal-a.
fate = sort-o, fatal-o, destin-o.
father = patr-o.
faucet = kran-o.
favor = favor-i; a --, komplezo.
favorable = favor-a.
fay = fe-o, fein-o.
fear = tim-i.
feather = plum-o.
feature = trajt-o.
feed = nutr-i; -- flocks, pasxt-i.
feel = sent-i; (with fingers, etc.), palp-i.
female = in-o (59).
fervor = fervor-o.
fetter = (chain, etc.), katen-o.
fever = febr-o.
fiance = fiancx-o.
fie = (interjection), fi (273).
field = kamp-o.
fight = batal-i, milit-i.
fill = plenig-i.
find = trov-i.
fine = bel-a, delikat-a; (of money), monpun-o.
finger = fingr-o; index --, montra fingro; little --, malgranda fingro;
   middle --, longa fingro; ring --, ringa fingro.
finish = (trans.), fin-i.
fir = abi-o.
fire = fajr-o; set -- to, ekbrulig-i.
firm = firm-a.
fish = fisx-o; (catch fish), fisxkapt-i.
fist = pugn-o.
fit = almezur-i; (be) --, tauxg-i.
(be) fitting = konven-i; (decent), dec-i.
five = (adj.), kvin (136).
flag = flag-o; standard-o.
flat = glat-a, eben-a; plat-a.
flesh = karn-o.
flex = (trans.), fleks-i.
floor = plank-o.
flour = farun-o.
flow = flu-i.
flower = flor-o (116).
fluid = fluid-a.
fly = flug-i; (insect), musx-o.
foam = sxauxm-o.
focus = fokus-o.
fog = nebul-o.
fold = fald-i.
folk = popol-o.
follow = sekv-i, postven-i, postir-i.
(be) fond of sweets = frand-i.
fondle = dorlot-i.
foot = (of the body), pied-o; (measure), fut-o.
for = (prep.), por (95, 98, 262); pro (86); (conj.), cxar (83).
force = fort-o; (compel), devig-i; -- (upon), altrud-i (al).
fore- = pra- (282).
forehead = frunt-o.
foreign = fremd-a.
forge = (falsify), fals-i.
forget = forges-i.
forgive = pardon-i.
fork = fork-o.
form = form-i, alform-i, model-i.
formal = solen-a.
found = fond-i.
foundation = fundament-o.
four = (adj.), kvar (136).
fount = font-o.
fountain = fontan-o.
fox = vulp-o.
fragrance = arom-o, bonodor-o.
frame = (of picture), kadr-o.
frank = afrank-i.
Frederick = Frederik-o.
free = liber-a.
Frenchman = franc-o.
frequent = oft-a; (visit often), vizitad-i.
fresh = fresx-a, nov-a.
Friday = vendred-o.
friend = amik-o.
fringe = frangx-o.
frivolous = malserioz-a.
frock coat = redingot-o.
frog = ran-o.
from = (prep.), de (89, 170); el; (cause), pro (86).
frost = frost-o; (hoar), prujn-o.
froth = sxauxm-o.
fruit = frukt-o.
fruitless = (vain), van-a.
fry = (trans.), frit-i.
function = (of machinery, etc.), funkci-i.
funereal = funebr-a.
fulfil = plenum-i.
full = plen-a.
fur = fel-o; (coat or wrap), pelt-o.
furious = furioz-a.
furnish = (supply), liver-i; (provide), proviz-i; (a house), mebl-i.
furniture = (piece of), mebl-o.
furrow = sulk-o.
further = (adv.), plu.
fuse = (trans.), fand-i.
futile = van-a.
future = estontec-o; (grammatical), estont-o; (adj.), estont-a.


gain = gajn-i, obten-i.
gallery = galeri-o; (for pictures), pinakotek-o.
gallop = galop-i.
gamin = bub-o.
gape = (yawn), osced-i.
garden = gxarden-o.
garland = girland-o.
gas = gas-o.
gather = (trans.), kolekt-i.
gay = gaj-a.
gaze = fikse rigard-i.
gazette = gazet-o.
general = gxeneral-a, komun-a; (military), general-o.
gentleman = sinjor-o.
geometry = geometri-o.
German = german-o.
Gertrude = Gertrud-o.
ghost = fantom-o.
gift = donac-o.
ginger = zingibr-o.
girdle = zon-o.
give = don-i; (as a gift), donac-i; -- information, inform-i;
   -- notice, aviz-i; -- witness, atest-i; -- birth to, nask-i.
(be) glad = gxoj-i (116).
glass = (material), vitr-o; (tumbler), glas-o.
glide = glit-i.
globe = glob-o.
glory = glor-o.
glossy = (polished), polurit-a.
glove = gant-o.
glue = glu-i.
gnash = grinc-i.
go = ir-i; (in vehicle, boat, etc.), vetur-i;
   -- on a pilgrimage, pilgrim-i.
goal = cel-o.
goblet = pokal-o.
God = Di-o.
good = bon-a; be -- for, tauxg-i por.
good-bye = (adv. and interjection), adiaux (171, 273).
goose = anser-o.
gospel = evangeli-o.
govern = reg-i.
graceful = graci-a.
grade = grad-o; (rank), rang-o.
grain = (wheat, etc.), gren-o; (unit) er-o (276).
gram = gram-o (284).
grammar = gramatik-o.
grandfather = av-o.
grandson = nep-o.
grape = vinber-o.
grass = herb-o.
grasshopper = akrid-o.
grate = rasp-i; grater, raspil-o.
grating = (bar or lattice), krad-o.
grave = tomb-o; (serious), grav-a.
gravitate = gravit-i.
gravy = sauxc-o.
gray = griz-a.
grieve = (trans.), cxagren-i, malgxojig-i; (intrans.) malgxoj-i.
grind = grinc-i.
great = grand-a; (remote in ancestry), pra- (282).
Greek = grek-o.
green = verd-a; --ish, dubeverd-a.
greet = salut-i.
groan = gxem-i.
group = grup-o, ar-o (126).
ground = ter-o; -- floor, teretagx-o.
grow = kresk-i, veget-i.
guard = gard-i.
guess = diven-i.
guest = gast-o.
guide = gvid-i, direkt-i.
guilty = kulp-a.
gunpowder = pulv-o.
gush = (of liquids), sxpruc-i.


habit = kutim-o.
hack = hak-i; (carriage), fiakr-o.
hail = (frozen rain), hajl-o.
(a) hair = har-o; -- pencil, penik-o.
half = duon-o (166, 277).
halt = (intrans.), halt-i.
ham = sxink-o.
hammer = martel-o.
hand = man-o; (of clock), montril-o.
handbill = afisx-o.
handicraft = meti-o.
handsome = bel-a.
hang = (intrans.), pend-i.
handy = oportun-a.
happen = okaz-i.
happy = felicx-a.
harbor = haven-o.
hardly = (adv.), apenaux.
hare = lepor-o.
haricot = (bean), fazeol-o.
harness = jung-i.
harvest = rikolt-i.
hasten = (trans.), akcel-i; (intrans.) rapid-i.
hat = cxapel-o.
haughty = fier-a.
haul = tren-i.
have = hav-i; -- to, dev-i.
hay = fojn-o.
hazard = hazard-o.
hazel-nut = avel-o.
he = (pronoun), li (32, 37, 42).
head = kap-o; (adj.), cxef-a.
health = san-o; state of (good or bad) --, fart-o.
hear = auxd-i.
heart = kor-o; by --, (by rote), parker-e.
heat = (trans.), hejt-i, varmig-i.
heaven = cxiel-o; heavenly body, astr-o.
heavy = pez-a.
Hebrew = hebre-o.
heel = (of foot), kalkan-o; (of shoe), kalkanum-o.
hektare = hektar-o (284).
hektogram = hektogram-o (284).
hektoliter = hektolitr-o (284).
hektometer = hektometr-o (284).
help = help-i (265).
hen = kokin-o.
herb = herb-o.
hero = hero-o.
hesitate = hezit-i.
hide = kasx-i (252); (skin of animals), fel-o.
Hiero = Hieron-o.
high = alt-a.
hinge = cxarnir-o.
hip = koks-o.
hire = (persons), dung-i; (houses, etc.), lu-i.
hiss = sibl-i.
history = histori-o.
ho = (interjection), ho (273).
hoar = (frost), prujn-o.
hoarse = rauxk-a.
hog = pork-o.
hold = ten-i.
holder = (handle), tenil-o, ans-o; (receptacle), uj-o (181);
   ing-o (237).
hole = tru-o; (cavity), kav-o.
Holland = Holand-o.
holy = sankt-a.
home = hejm-o; at --, cxehejme.
homesickness = nostalgi-o.
honest = honest-a.
honey = miel-o.
honeysuckle = lonicer-o.
honor = honor-i; (as term of address), mosxt-o (258).
hook = krocx-i.
hope = esper-i.
horizon = horizont-o.
horizontal = horizontal-a.
horn = korn-o.
horse = cxeval-o.
horse-radish = armoraci-o.
hose = sxtrump-oj; -- supporter, sxelk-o.
hotel = hotel-o.
hour = hor-o (185).
house = dom-o; at the -- of (prep.), cxe (125, 160).
how = (adv.), kiel (134); kiamanier-e; -- much, kiom (140, 185).
however = (conj.), tamen; (adv.), ajn (236).
hue = nuanc-o.
hum = zum-i.
human being = hom-o.
humble = humil-a.
humor = humor-o.
hundred = (adj.), cent (142).
hungry = malsat-a.
hunt = sercx-i; (game or wild animals), cxas-i.
hurdy-gurdy = gurd-o.
hurl = jxet-i.
hurrah = (interjection), hura (273).
hurricane = uragan-o.
hurry = rapid-i.
husband = edz-o.
hypocrite = hipokrit-o.


I = (pronoun), mi (32, 37, 274).
ice = glaci-o; (food), glaciajx-o.
idea = ide-o.
ideal = ideal-o.
identical = ident-a.
idiom = idiom-o.
idiot = idiot-o.
if = (conj.), se (240); as --, kvazaux (250); (whether), cxu.
ignore = ignor-i.
illusion = iluzi-o.
illustrate = ilustr-i.
image = bild-o.
imagine = imag-i.
imitate = imit-i.
immediate = tuj-a (171).
implicate = implik-i.
important = grav-a, serioz-a.
importunate = altrudem-a.
impose = trud-i.
impost = impost-o.
impress = impres-i.
impulse = impuls-o.
in = (prep.), en (46, 89, 160); -- the presence of, cxe (125, 160).
inch = col-o.
incite = incit-i.
incline = (trans.), klin-i.
incommode = gxen-i.
(be) indebted = sxuld-i.
indeed = (adv.), ja (215); do; efektiv-e.
index = tabel-o.
Indian = (American), indian-o, rugxhauxtul-o; -- corn, maiz-o.
indifferent = indiferent-a.
industry = (trade), industri-o.
inebriate = ebri-a.
inevitable = nepr-a, neevitebl-a.
infect = infekt-i.
influence = influ-i.
inform = inform-i, sciig-i.
ingenuous = naiv-a.
inhabitant = logxant-o, an-o (145).
inhale = enspir-i.
ink = ink-o.
inquire = demand-i.
insect = insekt-o.
inside = (adv.), intern-e; (prep.), en.
insist = insist-i.
inspect = inspekt-i, ekzamen-i, rigard-i, kontrol-i.
inspire = inspir-i.
instantaneous = moment-a.
instead of = (prep.), anstataux (98, 159).
instruct = instru-i; (order), ordon-i.
insult = insult-i.
insure = (with a company), asekur-i; (make certain), certig-i.
intelligent = inteligent-a.
intend = intenc-i.
interest = interes-i; (of money), procent-o.
(be) intermittent = intermit-i.
internal = intern-a.
interpret = interpret-i.
intimate = intim-a.
intoxicated = ebri-a.
investigate = esplor-i, ekzamen-i, elsercx-i.
invite = invit-i.
iron = (metal), fer-o; (linen), glad-i.
island = insul-o.
it = (pronoun), gxi (32, 37, 42, 274); see also 50, 51.
Italian = ital-o.


jacket = jak-o.
jail = karcer-o.
jam = kompot-o, fruktajx-o.
January = januar-o.
jaw = (orifice, opening), fauxk-o; (of the skull), makzel-o;
   --bone, makzelost-o.
jealous = jxaluz-a.
jest = sxerc-i.
Jesus = Jesu-o.
Jew = hebre-o.
jewel = juvel-o.
jingle = (intrans.), tint-i.
John = Johan-o.
joint = artik-o.
joke = sxerc-i.
journal = jxurnal-o, revu-o.
journey = vojagx-i.
judge = jugx-i.
jug = krucx-o.
juggle = jxongl-i.
July = juli-o.
jump = salt-i.
June = juni-o.
jurist = jurist-o.
just = (upright), just-a; (exact), gxust-a; (adv.), gxust-e, jxus.


keep = ten-i, gard-i; (preserve), konserv-i; -- in mind, memor-i.
kerosene = petrol-o.
key = sxlosil-o; (of piano, etc.), klav-o.
kill = mortig-i.
kilogram = kilogram-o (284).
kiloliter = kilolitr-o (284).
kilometer = kilometr-o (284).
kind = (species), spec-o; (good), bon-a, bonkor-a; that --, what --,
   etc., see table, 235.
kindness = komplez-o, bonkorec-o.
king = regx-o; --dom, regxolando.
kiss = kis-i.
knave = fripon-o.
knee = genu-o.
kneel = genufleks-i.
knit = trik-i.
knock = frap-i.
knot = tuber-o; (tied), ligajx-o; (of ribbon), bant-o.
know = sci-i; (be acquainted with), kon-i (117).
kobold = kobold-o.


labor = labor-i; -- for the success or completion of something,
lace = punt-o; (of a shoe), lacx-o.
(be) lacking = (intrans.) mank-i.
lake = lag-o.
lamb = sxafid-o; (meat), sxafidajx-o.
lame = lam-a.
lamp = lamp-o.
lance = lanc-o.
land = land-o; (estate), bien-o; (soil), ter-o.
landscape = pejzagx-o.
language = lingv-o.
lantern = lantern-o.
large = grand-a.
lark = (bird), alauxd-o.
last = (intrans.), dauxr-i; (in a series), last-a; (previous) pasint-a,
latch = ans-o.
late = malfru-a.
Latin = latin-a.
latter = cxi-tiu (61, 62).
lattice = krad-o.
laugh = rid-i (265).
law = legx-o; --suit, proces-o; (rule), regul-o.
lawyer = advokat-o, legxist-o.
lay = meti, kusxig-i; -- aside, demet-i; -- claim, pretend-i.
layer = tavol-o.
lead = konduk-i.
lead = (metal), plumb-o.
leaf = foli-o.
league = (alliance), lig-o.
lean = (trans.), apog-i, klin-i; (not fat), malgras-a.
leap = salt-i; --year, superjar-o.
learn = lern-i; (news, etc.), sciigx-i.
learned = kler-a.
least = (adv.), malplej (80), malpli multe (81); at --, almenaux.
leather = led-o.
leave = (trans.), las-i; -- off (intrans.), cxes-i.
leg = krur-o.
legal = legx-a; -- process, proces-o.
lemon = citron-o.
lemonade = citronajx-o, limonad-o.
lend = prunt-i, pruntedon-i.
lens = objektiv-o.
lengthen = (trans.), etend-i, plilongig-i.
less = (adv.), malpli (80); malpli multe (81).
lesson = lecion-o.
let = (trans.), las-i; (rent), luig-i; (permit), permes-i.
letter = (epistle), leter-o; (of the alphabet), liter-o.
lettuce = laktuk-o.
level = nivel-o; (flat), eben-a.
library = bibliotek-o; (collection of books), librar-o.
lick = lek-i.
lie = (recline), kusx-i (239); (tell falsehoods), mensog-i.
lift = lev-i.
light = lum-a, hel-a; (not heavy), malpez-a.
lightning = fulm-o.
like = sxat-i; (similar), simil-a; see also 250.
limb = membro; (of a tree), brancx-o.
limit = lim-i.
linden = tili-o.
line = lini-o, vic-o, strek-o.
linen = tol-o.
lion = leon-o.
lip = lip-o.
liquid = fluid-a.
listen = auxskult-i.
liter = litr-o (284).
literal = lauxliter-a.
literature = literatur-o.
little = malgrand-a; (with slightly affectionate sense), et-a (198);
   (adv.), malmulte, iom (217); -- by --, iom post iom.
live = viv-i; (dwell), logx-i (133).
load = sxargx-i.
loan = prunt-i, pruntedon-i.
local = lok-a.
lock = sxlos-i; (fastening), serur-o.
locomotive = lokomotiv-o.
lodge = logx-i.
log = sxtip-o.
long = long-a; -- for, sopir-i je.
look = rigard-i; -- for, sercx-i.
lose = perd-i; (fail to profit), malgajn-i; -- time, malfru-i.
lot = (fate), sort-o.
loud = lauxt-a.
love = am-i; make --, amindum-i.
loyal = fidel-a, lojal-a.
luck = sxanc-o; lucky, bonsxanc-a.
lull = kvietig-i; (to sleep), lul-i.
lunatic = lunatik-o.
lung = pulm-o.
luxury = luks-o.


macaroni = makaroni-o.
machine = masxin-o.
mad = frenez-a.
magazine = gazet-o, jxurnal-o, revu-o.
magic = magi-o.
mail = posxt-o, enposxtig-i; -- box, posxtkest-o.
maize = maiz-o.
majestic = majest-a.
majesty = (term of address), mosxt-o (258).
make = far-i (see also 214); -- mistakes, erar-i; -- love, amindum-i.
malicious = malic-a.
man = vir-o.
manage = administr-i, direkt-i; (a household), mastrum-i.
manner = manier-o; (right or wrong), mor-o; in that --, in every --,
   etc., see table, 235.
mantle = mantel-o.
manufacture = fabrik-i.
manuscript = manuskript-o.
maple = acer-o.
marble = (stone), marmor-o.
march = marsxad-i.
March = mart-o.
mark = mark-o, sign-o; (official), stamp-o.
marmalade = marmelad-o.
marry = (become married), edzigx-i.
master = mastr-o; (of his profession or art), majstr-o;
   -- of Arts (A.M.), magistr-o.
match = (for fire), alumet-o.
material = material-o; (cloth), sxtof-o.
matter = afer-o.
mature = matur-a.
maximum = maksimum-o.
May = maj-o; (auxiliary verb), see 269, 270.
mayonnaise = majones-a.
mean = signif-i, intenc-i, malnobl-a.
meaning = senc-o.
means = rimed-o; by -- of (prep.), per (64).
measure = (trans.), mezur-i.
meat = viand-o.
mechanics = mehxanik-o.
medical = medicin-a, kuracist-a.
medicine = (drug, etc.), kuracil-o; (science), medicin-o, kuracart-o.
meet = (trans.), renkont-i, traf-i; (assemble), kunven-i.
melody = melodi-o.
melon = melon-o.
melt = fluidig-i, fluidigx-i, degel-i.
member = membr-o, an-o (145).
memory = memor-o; by --, parker-e, memor-e.
mend = ripar-i; (patch), flik-i.
mention = nom-i; cit-i.
menu = menu-o.
merely = (adv.), nur.
merit = merit-i.
merry = gaj-a; make --, festen-i.
merry-go-round = karusel-o.
metal = metal-o.
meter = metr-o (284).
method = metod-o.
middle = mez-o, centr-o.
mien = mien-o.
mild = mild-a.
mile = mejl-o.
milk = lakt-o; (draw the milk of), melk-i.
mill = muel-o.
millimeter = milimetr-o (284).
million = milion-o.
mine = (coal, etc), min-o; (possessive adj.), mi-a (43).
mineral = mineral-o.
minimum = minimum-o.
minister = (political), ministr-o; (clergyman), pastr-o.
minute = (time), minut-o; (adj.), detal-a, malgrand-a.
minutes = (of a meeting), protokol-o.
mirror = spegul-o.
miserly = avar-a.
misery = mizer-o.
miss = (fail to reach), maltraf-i; (be missing), mank-i;
   (notice the absence of), senti la foreston de;
   (young lady), frauxlin-o (163).
mist = nebul-o.
mistake = erar-o.
Mister = Sinjor-o (163, 286).
mix = (trans.), miks-i.
mock = mok-i.
mode = fason-o, mod-o.
model = model-o.
moderate = moder-a.
modest = modest-a.
moment = moment-o; a -- ago, (adv.), jxus.
monarch = monarhx-o.
Monday = lund-o.
money = mon-o; -- box, kas-o; -- order, mandat-o.
monk = monahx-o.
monkey = simi-o.
month = monat-o.
moon = lun-o.
moral = moral-a, bonmor-a; morals, moroj.
more = (adv.), pli (74, 79); (quantity), pli multe (81);
   (further), plu; the --, ju pli, des pli (84).
morning = maten-o (93).
morsel = pec-o.
most = (adv.), plej (74, 79); (quantity), plej multe (81).
mould = sxim-o.
mountain = mont-o.
mourning = funebr-o.
mouse = mus-o.
moustache = lipharoj.
mouth = busx-o; (of river), enflu-o, elflu-o.
move = (trans.), mov-i; (change residence) translogx-i.
much = mult-a (81); (very), tre.
mud = kot-o.
murmur = murmur-i.
museum = muze-o.
mushroom = fung-o.
music = muzik-o.
must = dev-i (247).
mute = mut-a.
mutton = sxafajx-o.
mutual = reciprok-a (180), komun-a.
myopic = miop-a.
mystery = mister-o.


nail = (metal), najl-o; (of the finger or toe), ung-o.
naive = naiv-a.
naked = nud-a.
name = nom-o.
narrate = rakont-i.
nation = naci-o.
nature = natur-o.
naught = nul-o; (none), neniom (231).
near = proksim-a (170); (prep.), apud (120, 159).
necessary = neces-a.
neck = kol-o.
need = bezon-i.
needle = kudril-o.
negative = ne-a (171); (photographic), negativ-o.
neighbor = najbar-o.
neither = (conj.), nek (31); (pronoun and adj.), neniu (220).
nephew = nev-o.
nerve = nerv-o.
nest = nest-o.
net = ret-o.
neutral = neuxtral-a.
never = (adv.), neniam (226).
nevertheless = (conj.), tamen.
new = nov-a, fresx-a; news, novajx-o.
newspaper = jxurnal-o, tagjxurnal-o.
nice = delikat-a.
night = nokt-o.
nine = (adj.), naux (136).
nitrogen = azot-o.
no = (adv.), ne (27, 66, a); (adj.), neniu (220); -- one, --where,
   etc., see table, 235.
noble = nobl-a,
nobleman = nobel-o.
nobody = (pronoun), neniu (220).
nod = (the head), balanc-i (la kapon).
noise = bru-o.
none = (adj. and pronoun), neniu (220); (adv.), neniom (231).
non-partisan = neuxtral-a.
noon = tagmez-o.
nor = (conj.), nek (31).
north = nord-o.
Norwegian = norveg-o.
not = (adv.), ne (27, 66, a).
note = not-o, bilet-o; --book, kajer-o; (notice), rimark-i, not-i.
nothing = nenio (233).
notice = rimark-i; not-i; give --, aviz-i.
notwithstanding = (prep.), malgraux; (conj.), tamen.
nourish = nutr-i.
novel = nov-a; (book), roman-o.
November = novembr-o.
now = (adv.), nun.
nude = nud-a.
nullify = nulig-i, neniig-i.
number = (quantity), nombr-o; (numeral), numer-o.
nut = nuks-o.


oak = kverk-o.
(make) oath = jxur-i.
oats = aven-o.
obey = obe-i (265).
object = objekt-o; (aim), cel-o; (oppose), kontrauxparol-i,
   kontrauxstar-i, protest-i.
objective = objektiv-o.
obligation = (financial), sxuld-o; (moral), dev-o.
oblige = (compel), devig-i; (render service), far-i komplezon, serv-i.
oblique = oblikv-a.
observe = observ-i, rimark-i, not-i.
obstinate = obstin-a.
obstruct = bar-i.
occasion = foj-o (127); okaz-o.
occupation = profesi-o, okup-o, meti-o.
occupy = okup-i.
occur = okaz-i.
ocean = ocean-o.
October = oktobr-o.
odor = odor-o.
of = (prep.), de (49, 100, 160, 170); da (99, 101, 103); el;
   (concerning), pri (160, 264, c).
offend = ofend-i.
offer = propon-i, prezent-i, ofer-i.
office = ofic-o; (place), oficej-o.
officer = (of organization or firm), oficist-o;
   (military or naval), oficir-o.
official = oficial-a.
often = (adv.), oft-e, multfoj-e.
oh = (interjection), ho (273).
oil = ole-o.
olive = oliv-o.
on = (prep.), sur; -- account of, pro (86).
once = (adv.), unufoj-e; -- on a time, iam (212); at --, tuj;
   -- more, bis.
one = (adj.), unu (136, 137, 180); (pronoun), oni (54). See 235.
onion = bulb-o.
only = sol-a; (mere), nur-a.
opera = oper-o; -- glasses, lornet-o.
opinion = opini-o.
opportune = oportun-a.
opposed to = (prep.), kontraux.
opposite = (converse), mal-o (67); (prep.), kontraux.
or = (conj.), aux.
orange = (fruit), orangx-o.
orchestra = orkestr-o.
order = ordon-i; (of store, etc.), mend-i; (methodical or proper
   arrangement), ord-o; money --, mandat-o.
ordinary = ordinar-a.
organ = (physical), organ-o; (musical), orgen-o.
organize = organiz-i.
original = original-o.
ornament = ornam-i.
orphan = orf-o.
oscillate = (intrans.), balancigx-i.
ostracism = ostracism-o.
other = ali-a; (remaining), ceter-a; -- people's, malpropr-a;
   --wise, ali-e.
out of = el.
outline = kontur-o; (profile), profil-o; (sketch), skiz-o.
outside = (prep.), ekster (120, 121).
over = (prep.), super; (across), trans; (concerning), pri;
   --coat, surtut-o; --shoe, supersxu-o; (adv.), (too), tro.
owe = sxuld-i.
own = posed-i, propr-a.
ox = bov-o.
oyster = ostr-o.


pack = pak-i.
pad = rembur-i.
paddle = padel-i.
page = (of book, etc.), pagx-o.
pail = sitel-o.
pain = dolor-o; (effort), pen-o; take pains, pen-i.
paint = pentr-i; (material), kolorigil-o; --brush, penik-o.
pair = par-o.
palace = palac-o.
pale = pal-a.
palisade = palisar-o.
palm = (of the hand), polm-o.
pamphlet = brosxur-o.
pan = pat-o.
paper = (material), paper-o; news--, jxurnal-o.
paradise = paradiz-o.
paragraph = paragraf-o.
pardon = pardon-i (265).
parallel = paralel-a.
park = park-o.
parlor = salon-o.
parsley = petrosel-o.
parsnip = pastinak-o.
part = part-o; of a work or book, kajer-o;
   separate (trans.), disir-i, apartig-i, disdivid-i.
participle = particip-o.
pass = (intrans.), pas-i.
passage = koridor-o.
passenger = pasagxer-o.
passion = pasi-o.
passive = pasiv-a.
past = (prep.), preter; (time), estintec-o;
   (grammatical), estint-o; (bygone), estint-a.
paste = (glue), glu-i.
pasteboard = karton-o.
pastor = pastr-o.
pastry = kukajx-o.
pasture = (trans.), pasxt-i.
patch = flik-i.
path = vojet-o.
patience = pacienc-o.
patient = (ill person), kuracat-o.
patty = pastecx-o.
pause = pauxz-i.
pavement = pavim-o; (sidewalk), trotuar-o.
pay = pag-i; -- dues, kotiz-i.
pea = piz-o.
peace = pac-o.
peach = persik-o.
pear = pir-o.
pearl = perl-o.
peculiar = strang-a, kurioz-a.
peddle = kolport-i.
pedestal = piedestal-o.
pedestrian = piedirant-o.
peeling = sxel-o.
pen = plum-o; (enclosure), ej-o (III).
pencil = krajon-o; hair--, penik-o.
penetrate = penetr-i.
people = popol-o; (indefinite pronoun), oni (54).
pepper = pipr-o.
perceive = sent-i; (see), vid-i.
percentage = procent-o; (of profit), tantiem-o.
perfect = perfekt-a.
perfidious = perfid-a.
perform = (act), ag-i; (fulfil), plenum-i; (do), far-i.
perfume = parfum-o; (odor), bonodor-o.
period = period-o; (of time), epok-o; (punctuation), punkt-o.
perish = pere-i.
permit = permes-i.
persecute = persekut-i; (worry), turment-i, gxen-i.
persevere = persist-i.
person = person-o.
perspire = sxvit-i.
persuade = konvink-i.
pet = dorlot-i.
petroleum = petrol-o.
phantom = fantom-o.
Pharaoh = faraon-o.
pharmacy = farmaci-o; (shop), apotek-o.
philosopher = filozof-o.
photograph = fotograf-i.
phrase = fraz-o.
physician = kuracist-o.
physics = fizik-o.
pick = (choose), elekt-i; (gather), kolekt-i.
pickle = pekl-i.
picture = bild-o; (portrait), portret-o; -- gallery, pinakotek-o.
picturesque = pitoresk-a, pentrind-a.
pie = kukajx-o; (patty), pastecx-o.
piece = pec-o.
pig = pork-o.
pigeon = kolomb-o.
(be a) pilgrim = pilgrim-i.
pillage = rab-i.
pillar = kolon-o.
pin = pingl-o.
pinch = pincx-i.
pine = (tree), pin-o; -- for, sopir-i je.
pineapple = ananas-o.
pinnacle = pint-o.
pioneer = pionir-o.
pious = pi-a.
pipe = tub-o; (for smoking), pip-o.
pitcher = krucx-o.
pity = kompat-i; (regrettable affair), domagx-o.
placard = afisx-o.
place = lok-o; (for something), -ej-o (111);
   (broad, short street or open space), plac-o; (put), met-i.
plait = plekt-i.
plan = plan-o, projekt-o, skiz-o.
plane = plat-a.
planet = planed-o.
plank = tabul-o.
plant = plant-i; (vegetable growth), kreskajx-o, vegetajx-o.
plate = plat-o; (dish) teler-o.
platform = (railway), peron-o.
play = lud-i; (music), muzik-i; (theatrical), teatrajx-o.
player = (theatrical), aktor-o.
pleasant = agrabl-a, dolcx-a, afabl-a.
please = placx-i (265); kontentig-i, far-i plezuron al;
   (in requests), bonvolu, mi petas.
pleasure = plezur-o; take -- in, gxu-i.
plot = konspir-i.
plow = plug-i.
plum = prun-o.
plumber = plumbist-o.
plunder = rab-i.
plural = multenombr-o.
pneumatic = pneumatik-a.
pocket = posx-o.
poem = poem-o.
poet = poet-o.
poetry = poezi-o.
point = punkt-o; (sharp), pint-o; -- out, montr-i.
poise = (trans.), balanc-i; (of manner), aplomb-o.
poison = venen-o.
pole = stang-o; (shaft of vehicle), timon-o; (geographical), polus-o.
Pole = pol-o.
police = polic-o.
polite = gxentil-a.
politics = politik-o.
polish = polur-i; polished, polurit-a, glat-a.
pomp = pomp-o.
popular = popular-o, popol-a.
porcelain = porcelan-o.
porch = verand-o; (stoop), peron-o; (balcony), balkon-o.
pork = porkajx-o.
port = haven-o.
portion = porci-o, part-o.
portrait = portret-o.
possess = posed-i.
possible = ebl-a (161, 162); kredebl-a (270).
post = (pole), stang-o; (mail), posxt-o; --card, posxtkart-o;
   --paid, afrankit-e.
postage = (cost), posxtelspezo; -- stamp, posxtmark-o.
poster = afisx-o.
pot = pot-o.
potato = terpom-o; sweet --, batat-o.
pound = pist-i; (measure), funt-o.
pour = (liquids), versx-i; (as in a chute), sxut-i.
powder = pudr-o.
power = pov-o, potenc-o.
practice = praktik-i.
praise = lauxd-i.
pray = pregx-i.
preach = predik-i.
precise = preciz-a, gxust-a.
predestined = fatal-a.
prefer = prefer-i.
prefix = prefiks-o.
premium = premi-o.
prepare = prepar-i.
prepay = afrank-i.
presence = cxeest-o, apudest-o; in the -- of (prep.), cxe (125), antaux.
present = (gift), donac-o; (time), estantec-o, estant-a, nun-a (171);
   (in attendance), cxeestant-a.
present = prezent-i, donac-i, don-i.
preserve = (keep), ten-i; (keep safe), konserv-i;
   (food), kompot-o, konfitajx-o.
preside = prezid-i.
president = prezidant-o.
press = prem-i; (print), pres-i; (wardrobe), sxrank-o;
   (be urgent), urgx-i.
pretend = (make pretext of), pretekst-i;  (feign), sxajnig-i;
   (lay claim), pretend-i.
price = prez-o, kost-o.
prick = pik-i.
priest = pastr-o.
prince = princ-o, regxid-o.
principal = precip-a, cxef-a.
print = pres-i.
prize = sxat-i; (premium), premi-o.
prized = kar-a, altetaksat-a, sxatat-a.
problem = problem-o.
process = metod-o; (legal), proces-o.
proclaim = proklam-i.
procrastinate = prokrast-i.
produce = produkt-i; -- a result, efik-i; (give birth to), nask-i.
profession = profesi-o.
professor = profesor-o.
profile = profil-o.
profit = profit-i; (percentage), tantiem-o.
profound = profund-a.
progress = progres-i.
project = projekt-o.
promenade = promen-i.
promise = promes-i.
propensity = inklin-o, em-o (192).
(be) proper = dec-i.
property = proprajx-o, posedajx-o; (land), bien-o;
   (characteristic), ec-o (202).
proportional = proporci-a.
propose = propon-i, sugesti-i.
prose = prozo; piece of --, prozajxo.
prosecute = persekut-i.
prosper = prosper-i.
protect = protekt-i, gard-i.
protest = protest-i.
proud = fier-a
prove = pruv-i; (test), prov-i.
provoke = incit-i, ekscit-i, kauxz-i, nask-i, kolerig-i.
psalm = psalm-o.
public = publik-o.
publish = publikig-i, eldon-i.
pudding = puding-o.
pull = tir-i.
pump = pump-i.
pumpkin = kukurb-o.
punish = pun-i.
pure = pur-a.
puree = pistajx-o.
purple = purpur-a.
purpose = cel-i, intenc-i.
push = pusx-i; (shove), sxov-i.
put = met-i; -- off, prokrast-i.


quality = ec-o (202); (texture, etc.), kvalito.
quantity = kvant-o; any --, a certain --, iom (217); see table, 235.
quarter = (of a city), kvartal-o; (fourth), kvaron-o; --ly, trimonat-a.
question = demand-o; (problem), problem-o; (doubt), dub-o.
quick = rapid-a; (lively), viv-a.
quiet = kviet-a, trankvil-a, silent-a.
quince = cidoni-o.
quite = (adv.), tut-e.
quote = cit-i.


rabbit = kunikl-o.
race = (people), ras-o.
radish = rafan-o; horse--, armoraci-o.
radius = radi-o.
rag = cxifon-o.
raging = furioz-a.
rail = rel-o; --way, fervoj-o; --way carriage, vagon-o;
   --way station, stacidom-o.
rain = pluv-o; --bow, cxielark-o.
raise = lev-i.
raisin = sekvinber-o.
rank = rang-o; (grade), grad-o.
rap = frapet-i.
rapid = rapid-a.
rascal = fripon-o, kanajl-o.
rasp = rasp-i.
raspberry = framb-o.
rat = rat-o.
rate = taks-i; (schedule of prices), tarif-o, prezar-o;
   (percentage), procent-o; at the -- of (prep.), po (175).
rational = prudent-a, racional-a.
raucous = rauxk-a.
raven = korv-o.
ravishing = rav-a.
raw = nekuirit-a.
ray = (of light), radi-o.
reach = ating-i; (a goal), traf-i.
read = leg-i.
ready = pret-a.
real = efektiv-a, real-a; ver-a.
reap = rikolt-i.
reason = (exert the power of reasoning), rezon-i; (cause), kauxz-o;
   (motive), kial-o; for what --, for any --, etc., see table, 235.
reasonable = prudent-a.
rebate = rabat-i.
recall = revok-i; (to memory), rememor-i;
   (to another's memory), rememorig-i.
receive = ricev-i; (accept), akcept-i; (money), enspez-i.
receipt = (for payment), kvitanc-o.
reckon = kalkul-i.
recent = nov-a, antauxnelong-a (90).
receptacle = uj-o (237); (for one object), ing-o (181).
recess = (alcove), alkov-o; (vacation), libertemp-o.
reciprocal = reciprok-a (180).
recite = deklam-i.
recline = kusx-i (239).
recommend = rekomend-i.
recompense = rekompensx-i.
recover = (find), retrov-i; (get well), resanigx-i.
red = rugx-a; reddish, duberugx-a.
reduction = (of price), rabat-o.
refine = rafin-i.
refuse = rifuz-i, malpermes-i.
refute = refut-i.
regale = regal-i.
region = region-o.
register = (trans.), registr-i; (letters), rekomend-i.
regret = bedauxr-i; (be penitent for), pent-i.
regrettable = bedauxrind-a; -- affair (pity), domagx-o.
regulation = regul-o, legx-o.
reign = reg-i.
rejoice = gxoj-i (116).
relate = rilat-i (266); (tell), rakont-i.
relative = (person), parenc-o.
religion = religi-o.
rely = konfid-i; fid-i.
remain = rest-i; remaining (other), ceter-a.
remember = memor-i; (recall to memory), rememor-i.
render = far-i, ig-i (214); (an account), don-i, prezent-i, liver-i.
renown = fam-o, glor-o.
rent = lu-i; (let), luig-i; (farm out), farm-i; (price), luprez-o.
repair = ripar-i; (patch), flik-i.
repeat = ripet-i.
repent = pent-i.
report = raport-i.
repose = ripoz-i.
represent = reprezent-i.
reproach = riprocx-i.
republic = respublik-o.
repulse = repusx-i, repel-i.
request = pet-i.
require = postul-i; (need), bezon-i.
rescue = sav-i.
reside = logx-i.
respect = respekt-i.
rest = (repose), ripoz-i; (remain), rest-i; (-- upon), apog-i sur.
restaurant = restoraci-o.
result = rezult-i.
resume = resum-o.
return = (go back), reir-i; (come back), reven-i; (give back), redon-i.
revery = rev-o.
review = (magazine), revu-o.
reward = rekompenc-i.
rhubarb = rabarb-o.
rib = rip-o.
ribbon = ruband-o.
rice = riz-o.
rich = ricx-a.
ride = rajd-i; (in vehicle, boat, etc.), vetur-i.
ridicule = mok-i; worthy of -- (ridiculous), ridind-a.
right = prav-a; (to something), rajt-o; (not left), dekstr-a.
right-angled = ort-a.
ring = (intrans.), sonor-i; (circlet), ring-o.
ringlet = (of hair), bukl-o.
ripe = matur-a.
river = river-o.
road = voj-o; (broad roadway), sxose-o.
roam = vag-i.
roar = mugx-i.
roast = rost-i.
rob = rab-i, sxtel-i.
robber = rabist-o.
robe = rob-o.
Robert = Robert-o.
roguish = petol-a; (rascally), fripon-a.
roll = (trans.), rul-i; (something around something else), volv-i;
   (bread), bulk-o; (list), list-o, registr-o.
roof = tegment-o.
room = cxambr-o; (space), spac-o.
root = radik-o.
rose = roz-o.
(by) rote = parker-e.
round = rond-o; (of ladder), sxtupet-o;
   (roundabout) (prep.) cxirkaux (89, 120, 159, 160).
routine = rutin-o.
row = (boats), rem-i.
royalty = regxec-o; (share of profit) tantiem-o.
rub = frot-i.
ruin = ruin-o.
rule = reg-i; (draw lines), lini-i; (regulation), regul-o.
rumor = fam-o; rumored, lauxdir-a.
run = kur-i; (of fluids), flu-i.
Russian = rus-o.
rust = rust-i.


sack = sak-o; (plunder), rab-i.
sacred = sankt-a.
sacrifice = ofer-i, oferdon-i.
saddle = sel-o.
safe = sendangxer-a, senrisk-a; (chest), monkest-o.
sail = vel-o.
salad = salat-o.
salary = salajr-o.
salt = sal-o.
salute = salut-i.
same = sam-a.
sample = specimen-o.
sand = sabl-o.
sap = suk-o.
sardine = sarden-o.
satchel = valiz-o.
sated = sat-a.
satin = atlas-o.
satisfied = kontent-a; (of hunger), sat-a.
Saturday = sabat-o.
sausage = kolbas-o.
sauce = sauxc-o.
saucer = subtas-o, teleret-o.
saucy = petol-a, malgxentil-a, insultem-a.
savage = sovagx-a.
save = sav-i; (keep), konserv-i; (economize), sxpar-i;
   (prep.), krom, escepte de.
saw = seg-i.
say = dir-i (77).
scales = (for weighing), pesil-o.
scarcely = (adv.), apenaux.
scent = (trans.), flar-i.
schedule = (of rates), tarif-o.
science = scienc-o.
scissors = tondil-o.
Scot = (Scotchman), skot-o.
scoundrel = kanajl-o, fripon-o.
scrape = skrap-i.
screen = sxirm-i.
screw = sxrauxb-o; --driver, sxrauxbturnil-o.
sculpture = skulpt-i.
sea = mar-o.
seal = sigel-i.
season = (of the year), sezon-o.
second = (of time), sekund-o; (in order), dua;
   a -- time (adv.), duafoje, bis.
secret = sekret-o.
secretary = sekretari-o.
section = sekci-o, part-o, er-o (276).
see = vid-i; -- to, zorg-i pri.
seed = sem-o.
seek = sercx-i; -- advice of, konsult-i.
seem = sxajn-i; --ing, sxajn-a, kvazaux-a.
seize = kapt-i.
select = elekt-i.
self = (reflexive), see 39, 40, 44; (intensive), mem (219).
self-command = aplomb-o.
sell = vend-i.
senate = senat-o.
send = send-i.
sense = prudent-o, sagx-o; (meaning), senc-o; (feeling), sent-o.
sentence = fraz-o; (legal), jugx-o, kondamn-o.
separate = (intrans.), disigx-i, disir-i; (distinct), apart-a.
September = septembr-o.
serene = trankvil-a.
series = seri-o, vic-o.
serious = serioz-a, grav-a.
serve = serv-i; (be good for), tauxg-i por.
set = met-i; (of the sun), subir-i; (type), kompost-i;
   -- free, liberig-i; -- out (start), forir-i, ekir-i.
seven = (adj.), sep (136).
several = kelk-aj, kelk-e.
severe = sever-a.
sew = kudr-i.
shade = (shadow), ombr-o; (tint) nuanc-o; (screen), sxirmil-o.
shaft = (of vehicle), timon-o.
shake = (trans.), sku-i; (oscillate), sxancel-i; -- hands, manprem-i.
sham = pretekst-i.
shape = form-o; --ly, beltali-a.
share = partopren-i, divid-i, part-o, porci-o.
sharp = akr-a; (pointed), pint-a.
shatter = frakas-i.
shave = raz-i.
shawl = sxal-o.
she = (pronoun), sxi (32, 37, 42).
shear = tond-i.
sheep = sxaf-o.
shelf = bret-o.
shell = sxel-o; (of mollusk), konk-o; to remove the --, sensxelig-i.
shelter = sxirm-i.
shepherd = pasxtist-o.
shield = sxild-o; (protect), sxirm-i.
shin-bone = tibi-o.
shine = bril-i, lum-i.
ship = sxip-o.
shirt = cxemiz-o.
shoe = sxu-o.
shoot = (with gun, etc.), paf-i.
shop = butik-o.
shore = bord-o, marbord-o.
short = mallong-a; --sighted, miop-a; --hand, stenografi-o.
shoulder = sxultr-o.
shove = sxov-i.
shovel = sxovel-i.
show = (trans.), montr-i.
shrill = akr-a, akrason-a.
shun = evit-i.
shut = (trans.), ferm-i.
side = flank-o; --board, telermebl-o; --walk, trotuar-o;
   --wise, oblikv-a.
sift = kribr-i.
sigh = sopir-i.
sign = sign-o; -- the name, subskrib-i.
signify = signif-i.
silent = silent-a (239).
silk = silk-o.
silver = argxent-o.
similar = simil-a.
simple = simpl-a.
sin = pek-i.
since = (conj.), cxar, tial ke (83); (prep.), de, depost (89);
   (adv.), de tiam.
sing = kant-i.
single = sol-a, unuop-a; -- man (unmarried man), frauxl-o.
sit = sid-i (239).
six = (adj.), ses (136).
sketch = skiz-i.
skill = lertec-o; trial of --, konkurs-o.
skin = (human), hauxt-o; (of animals), fel-o.
skirt = jup-o.
sky = cxiel-o.
slanting = oblikv-a, klin-a.
slate = (stone), ardez-o.
slaughter = bucx-i.
slave = sklav-o.
sleep = dorm-i; lull to --, lul-i.
sleeve = manik-o.
slide = glit-i.
slime = sxlim-o.
slipper = pantofl-o.
sly = ruz-a.
smear = sxmir-i.
smell = (trans.), flar-i; (intrans.), odor-i.
smile = ridet-i.
smoke = fum-i.
smooth = glat-a; (polished), polurit-a.
sneeze = tern-i.
snow = negx-i.
so = (conj.), do; (adv.), (thus), tiel (88, 156);
   (therefore), tial (78); -- much, tiom (104, 164).
society = societ-o.
Socrates = Sokrat-o.
sofa = kanap-o.
soft = mol-a.
soil = ter-o; soiled, malpur-a.
soldier = soldat-o; (professional), militist-o.
sole = sol-a; (of foot), pland-o; (of shoe), ledpland-o.
solemn = solen-a.
some = kelk-a, kelk-e, iom (217); --one, --how, etc., see table, 235.
son = fil-o.
soon = (adv.), baldaux.
sorcerer = sorcxist-o.
sort = spec-o, klas-o; (put in order), ordig-i, enfakig-i.
soul = anim-o.
sound = (intrans.), son-i; (of bells), sonor-i;
   (in good condition), bonstat-a.
soup = sup-o.
sour = acid-a, maldolcx-a.
south = sud-o.
sow = sem-i.
space = spac-o.
spacious = vast-a, grandspac-a, grandampleks-a.
Spaniard = hispan-o.
spare = (save), sxpar-i; (pardon), pardon-i.
sparrow = paser-o.
speak = parol-i (77).
spear = lanc-o.
special = special-a, apart-a.
specialty = fak-o.
species = spec-o.
specimen = specimen-o, model-o.
spectre = fantom-o.
speed = rapid-o, rapidec-o.
spell = silab-i; (witchcraft), sorcxajx-o.
spend = (money), elspez-i; (time), pasig-i.
speso = spes-o (285).
spider = arane-o.
spin = sxpin-i.
spinach = spinac-o.
spite = malic-o; in -- of, (prep.), malgraux, spite.
splash = (trans.), plauxd-i.
splendor = pomp-o, bril-o, belegec-o.
split = (trans.), fend-i.
spoil = (trans.), difekt-i.
spoke = (of wheel), radi-o.
spoon = kuler-o.
spot = makul-i.
spout = (liquids), sxpruc-i.
spring = (season), printemp-o; (of water), font-o.
sprite = kobold-o, fe-o.
spruce = (tree), pice-o.
spurt = (of liquids), sxpruc-i.
spy = spion-o; (catch sight of), ekvid-i; --glass, lorn-o.
square = kvadrat-o; (public), plac-o.
stain = makul-i.
stair = (staircase), sxtupar-o.
stag = cerv-o.
stake = (of palisade), palis-o.
stamp = (officially), stamp-i; (with foot), piedfrap-i;
   postage --, posxtmark-o.
stand = star-i (239); (endure), sufer-i, elport-i.
standard = (model), model-o; (flag), standard-o.
star = stel-o; (any heavenly body), astr-o.
starch = amel-o.
state = (condition), stat-o; (political), sxtat-o;
   (governed body), regn-o.
station = (state), stat-o; (railway, etc.), staci-o, stacidom-o.
stay = rest-i.
steady = firm-a, konstant-a, nemovebl-a.
steal = sxtel-i, rab-i (252).
steam = vapor-o.
steel = sxtal-o.
steep = krut-a.
step = pasx-i; (of stairs), sxtup-o.
stern = sever-a.
stew = (trans.), stuf-i.
stick = baston-o; (adhere), algluigx-i.
still = (silent), silent-a; (adv.), ankoraux; jam; (conj.), tamen.
stimulate = stimul-i, incit-i.
sting = pik-i.
stipulate = kondicx-o.
stocking = sxtrump-o.
stomach = stomak-o.
stone = sxton-o.
stoop = klinigx-i; (entrance porch), peron-o.
stop = (intrans.), halt-i; (leave off), cxes-i; -- up, sxtop-i.
stopper = sxtopil-o.
store = (shop), butik-o; (warehouse), magazen-o, konservej-o, tenej-o.
story = (tale), fabel-o, rakont-o; (of house), etagx-o.
stove = forn-o.
straight = rekt-a.
strange = strang-a, kurioz-a; (foreign), fremd-a.
strap = rimen-o.
straw = pajl-o.
strawberry = frag-o.
streak = stri-o; make a --, strek-i.
street = strat-o; -- arab, bub-o.
street-car = tramveturil-o; -- line, tramvoj-o.
stress = akcent-o; (force), fort-o.
stretch = (trans.), etend-i; (forcibly), strecx-i.
string = sxnur-o; (shoelace), lacx-o; -- bean, fazeol-o.
strike = frap-i, bat-i; (of laborers), strik-o; -- out, trastrek-i.
strip = (of paper, cloth, etc.), banderol-o; -- off, senig-i.
stripe = stri-o.
strive = pen-i.
strong = fort-a.
struggle = barakt-i.
student = student-o; (person studying), studant-o.
study = stud-i.
stuff = sxtof-o; (furniture, etc.), rembur-i.
stump = stump-o.
style = stil-o, mod-o, fason-o.
subject = (theme), tem-o; (grammatical), subjekt-o; (ruled), regat-o.
subscribe = subskrib-i; (to magazine, etc.), abon-i.
substance = substanc-o.
succeed = sukces-i; (fare well), prosper-i; (follow), sekv-i, postven-i.
succulent = suk-a, sukplen-a.
such = tia (65); (adv.), tiel (88).
sudden = subit-a, neatendit-a.
suffer = sufer-i, toler-i; (permit), permes-i.
suffice = suficx-i.
suffix = sufiks-o.
suffocate = (trans.), sufok-i.
sugar = suker-o.
suggest = sugesti-i, propon-i.
suit = (of clothes), vest-oj, komplet-o; (at law), proces-o.
suitable = konven-a, konform-a, tauxg-a, dec-a.
suite = (of rooms), apartament-o.
sulphur = sulfur-o.
sum = sum-o; (total), tut-o.
summarize = resum-i.
summer = somer-o; --house, lauxb-o.
summit = pint-o, supr-o.
sun = sun-o.
Sunday = dimancx-o.
superior = super-a; (person), superul-o.
superstition = supersticx-o.
supply = liver-i, proviz-i.
suppose = supoz-i; opini-i.
sure = cert-a.
surface = suprajx-o.
surprise = surpriz-i.
suspect = suspekt-i.
suspend = pendig-i.
suspenders = sxelk-o.
swallow = glut-i; (bird), hirund-o.
swamp = marcx-o.
swan = cign-o.
swear = jxur-i.
Swede = sved-o.
sweep = (floors, etc.), bala-i.
sweet = dolcx-a; --potato, batat-o.
sweetmeat = bombon-o, sukerajx-o, konfitajx-o; be fond of --, frand-i.
swim = nagx-i.
swine = pork-o.
swing = (trans.), sving-i; (balance), balanc-i (279).
Swiss = svis-o.
swoon = sven-i.
sword = glav-o.
syllable = silab-o.
Syracuse = Sirakuz-o.


table = (furniture), tabl-o; (tabulation), tabel-o.
tail = vost-o.
tailor = tajlor-o.
take = pren-i; (magazines, etc.), abon-i; -- in (money), enspez-i;
   -- place, okaz-i; -- note of, observ-i, rimark-i; -- oath, jxur-i;
   -- steps toward accomplishing, klopod-i; -- pleasure in, gxu-i;
   -- the attention of, distr-i.
tale = fabel-o.
talent = talent-o.
tall = alt-a, altkresk-a, grand-a.
talon = ungeg-o.
tap = (rap), frapet-i; (faucet), kran-o.
tariff = tarif-o.
task = task-o.
taste = gust-o, gustum-i.
tax = impost-o.
tea = te-o; -- caddy, teuj-o (181); --pot, tekrucx-o.
teach = instru-i.
tear = sxir-i; (of the eye), larm-o.
tease = turmentet-i, cxagren-i.
tedious = ted-a, enuig-a, lacig-a.
telegraph = telegraf-i.
telephone = telefon-i.
telescope = teleskop-o.
tell = dir-i, rakont-i (77); -- lies, mensog-i.
temper = humor-o; lose the --, koler-i.
temple = (of the head), tempi-o; (building), templ-o.
tempt = tent-i.
ten = (adj.), dek (136).
tender = delikat-a, mol-a, kares-a.
tenor = (voice), tenor-o; (course), dauxr-o.
tent = tend-o.
term = (word), termin-o; (condition), kondicx-o; (time), templim-o.
terrace = teras-o.
territory = teritori-o.
terror = terur-o.
test = prov-i, ekzamen-i.
texture = kvalit-o; (thing woven), teksajx-o.
than = (conj.), ol (82, 97, 98).
thank = dank-i (265).
that = (conj.), ke (53, 83, 105, 259, 262); (pronoun), tiu (56);
   tio (233, 234); -- kind, tia (65); (adv.), tiel (88, 156);
   -- way, tiamanier-e, tiel (88); --  much, tiel mult-e, tiom
   (104, 164); (when) (adv.), kiam (155).
thaw = (intrans.), degel-i.
the = (article), la (11, 47, 201, 280, a); (adv.), ju, des (84).
theatre = teatr-o.
theme = tem-o.
then = (conj.), do; (adv.), tiam (73); (afterwards), post-e.
theory = teori-o.
there = (adv.), tie (68); (adv. calling attention), jen (228);
   see also 51.
therefore = (adv.), tial (78); pro tio, sekv-e.
they = (pronoun), ili (32, 37, 42); (indefinite), oni (54).
thick = dik-a, dens-a.
thigh = femur-o.
thing = afer-o, objekt-o, ajx-o (227); any--, what --, etc.,
   see table, 235.
think = pens-i; (have the opinion), opini-i.
(be) thirsty = soif-i.
this = (pronoun), tio cxi (233, 234);
   (pronoun and adj.), tiu cxi (60); all --, cxio cxi. See table, 235.
thong = rimen-o.
thorn = dorn-o.
thou = (pronoun), ci (40).
though = (conj.), kvankam; as --, kvazaux (250).
thousand = (adj.), mil (142).
thread = faden-o; -- a needle, enkudrilig-i fadenon.
threaten = minac-i.
three = (adj.), tri (136).
threshold = sojl-o.
thrifty = sxparem-a.
throat = gorgx-o.
throne = tron-o.
throng = amas-o, ar-o (126).
through = (prep.), tra (46, 160); (by means of), per (64);
   (because of), pro (86), de (170).
throw = jxet-i.
thumb = dika fingr-o.
thunder = tondr-i.
Thursday = jxauxd-o.
thus = (adv.), tiel (88, 156), tiamanier-e.
ticket = bilet-o; -- window, gicxet-o.
tickle = tikl-i.
tie = lig-i; (shoes, etc.), lacx-i.
tiger = tigr-o.
tile = kahel-o; (brick), brik-o.
till = (money box), kas-o; (prep.), gxis (46, 89);
   -- the soil, terkultur-i.
time = (in general), temp-o; (occasion), foj-o (127);
   (epoch), epok-o; (of day), hor-o.
tin = (metal), stan-o; -- plate (sheet iron covered with tin), lad-o.
tinkle = tint-i.
tint = nuanc-o, kolor-o.
tire = (trans.), lacig-i, enuig-i; (pneumatic), pneuxmatik-o.
to = (prep.), al (46, 160, 251, 252); gxis (46, 89).
toad = buf-o.
toast = (bread), panrostajx-o; (sentiment), tost-o.
tobacco = tabak-o.
today = (adv.), hodiaux (93, 171).
toe = piedfingr-o.
toilet = tualet-o.
tolerate = toler-i, sufer-i.
tomato = tomat-o.
tomb = tomb-o.
tomorrow = (adv.), morgaux (93, 171).
tone = ton-o.
tongue = (of the body), lang-o; (of vehicle), timon-o;
   (language), lingv-o.
too = (adv.), tro; (too much), tro multe, tro.
tool = il-o (63).
tooth = dent-o.
top = supr-o.
torment = turment-i.
total = tut-o.
touch = tusx-i; (feel with the fingers, etc.), palp-i;
   sense of --, palpad-o; -- the heart of, kortusx-i.
toward = (prep.), al (46, 160, 251, 252).
tower = tur-o; -- above, superstar-i.
trace = sign-o, postsign-o.
trade = (occupation), meti-o; (commerce), komerc-o;
   (exchange), intersxangx-i.
train = (of cars), vagonar-o; (of dress), trenajx-o.
tram = tram-o; --way, tramvoj-o; -- car, tramveturil-o.
tranquil = trankvil-a; kviet-a.
translate = traduk-i.
travel = vojagx-i; (by vehicle), vetur-i.
tray = plet-o.
treacherous = perfid-a.
treasure = trezor-o.
treasurer = kasist-o.
treasury = kas-o.
treat = (in speech or writing), trakt-i; (for illness), kurac-i;
   (act towards), kondut-i kontraux; (regale), regal-i.
treatise = traktat-o.
tree = arb-o.
tremble = trem-i; (vacillate), sxanceligx-i.
trial = jugxa auxskultado, esplorad-o; (of skill), konkurs-o;
   (affliction), malgxoj-o, sufer-o; (test), prov-o, ekzamen-o;
   (attempt), prov-o.
trifle = bagatel-o.
triumph = triumf-o.
tropic = tropik-o.
trot = trot-i.
trousers = pantalon-o.
trunk = (chest with lid), kofr-o; (of tree), trunk-o.
trust = fid-i, konfid-i; (financial), trust-o.
truth = ver-o.
try = (legally), jugx-i; (strive), pen-i; (attempt, test), prov-i.
tub = kuv-o.
tube = tub-o.
tuber = tuber-o.
Tuesday = mard-o.
tumbler = (for drinking), glas-o; (juggler), jxonglist-o.
tune = ari-o, melodi-o.
Turk = turk-o.
turkey = meleagr-o.
turn = (trans.), turn-i; (in a series), vic-o.
turnip = nap-o.
turnstile = gicxet-o.
twilight = krepusk-o.
twist = (trans.), tord-i.
twitter = pep-i.
two = (adj.), du (136).
tyrant = tiran-o.


umbrella = ombrel-o.
uncle = onkl-o.
unanimous = unuvocx-a, unuanim-a.
uncommon = kurioz-a, nekomun-a.
unconcerned = indiferent-a; nezorgem-a.
under = (prep.), sub (121, 160).
underline = substrek-i.
understand = kompren-i.
undertake = entrepren-i; -- initiative work, klopod-i.
undeviating = rekt-a.
unfailing = (adv.), nepr-e, cert-e.
unimportant = indiferent-a, negrav-a.
union = unuig-o, unuigx-o, kunig-o, kunigx-o.
universe = univers-o.
university = universitat-o.
until = (prep.), gxis (89)
up = (adv.), supre, supren (121); -- to, gxis (46).
upholster = rembur-i.
upper = supr-a.
upon = (prep.), sur (160).
upright = just-a; (vertical), vertikal-a.
urge = urgx-i, insiste pet-i.
upset = (trans.), renvers-i.
utmost = ekstrem-a, ebl-o (161, see also 162).


(be) vacant = vak-i, esti neokupata.
vacillate = sxanceligx-i.
vagabond = vagist-o.
vain = (futile), van-a; senutil-a, senfrukt-a;
   (proud), vant-a, fier-a; in --, vane.
valise = valiz-o.
valley = val-o.
value = (appraise), taks-i; (like), sxat-i; have the -- of, valor-i.
vanquish = venk-i.
vapor = vapor-o.
varied = divers-a, malsimil-a.
vase = vaz-o.
vast = vast-a, grand-a.
vaunt = fanfaron-i, vantparol-i.
veal = bovidajx-o (207, c).
vegetable = (edible), legom-o; (plant growth), vegetajx-o,
   kreskajx-o (227, a).
vegetarian = vegetar-a.
vegetate = veget-i.
veil = vual-o.
vein = vejn-o.
velvet = velur-o.
veranda = verand-o.
verify = konstat-i, kontrol-i.
vermicelli = vermicxel-o.
verse = vers-o; (poesy), poezi-o.
vertical = vertikal-a.
very (very much) = (adv.), tre, tre multe; (adj.), sam-a,
   ident-a, (intensive) mem (219).
vex = cxagren-i.
vibrate = (intrans.), vibr-i.
vice = (wickedness), malvirt-o; (prefix), vic-.
vie = konkur-i.
village = vilagx-o.
vindication = apologi-o.
vinegar = vinagr-o.
violet = viol-o.
violin = violon-o.
virtue = virt-o.
visage = vizagx-o.
visit = vizit-i.
vivid = hel-a.
voice = vocx-o.
volume = (book), volum-o; (of a body), volumen-o.
vote = vocxdon-i, balot-i.
vowel = vokal-o.
voyage = vojagx-i.


wade = vad-i.
waffle = vafl-o.
wager = vet-i.
wages = salajr-o.
wait = (wait for), atend-i; -- on, serv-i.
waiter = (in restaurant, etc.), kelner-o.
waist = tali-o; --coat, vesxt-o
wake = (trans.), vek-i.
walk = marsx-i; (for pleasure), promen-i; (of park, etc.), ale-o;
   side--, trotuar-o.
wall = mur-o.
waltz = vals-i.
wander = vag-i.
want = (need), bezon-i; (desire), dezir-i, vol-i;
   (be lacking), mank-i; (extremity), mizereg-o.
war = milit-i.
wardrobe = (garments), vestar-o; (furniture), sxrank-o, vestosxrank-o.
warehouse = magazen-o.
warm = varm-a; make --, varmig-i, hejt-i.
warn = avert-i; (give notice), aviz-i, antauxsciig-i.
wash = lav-i.
waste = (prodigality), malsxpar-o; (refuse), forjxetajx-o;
   (desert), dezert-o.
watch = (look at), rigardad-i; (timepiece), posxhorlogx-o;
   -- over, gard-i.
water = akv-o; -- color, akvarel-o; --fall, kaskad-o.
wave = ond-o; (flutter, brandish), flirt-i, sving-i.
wax = vaks-o.
way = (manner), manier-o; (custom), kutim-o; (method), metod-o;
   (means), rimed-o; (road), voj-o; -- in, enirejo;
   this --, any--, etc., see table, 235.
we = (pronoun), ni (32, 37).
wear = port-i; -- out, eluz-i.
(be) wearied = enu-i.
weather = veter-o; --cock, ventoflag-o.
weave = teks-i; (plait), plekt-i.
Wednesday = merkred-o.
week = semajn-o.
weep = plor-i.
weigh = (trans.), pes-i; (intrans.), (be heavy), pez-i;
   (meditate upon), pripens-i (264, c).
welcome = bonven-i; bone akcept-i; you are --, ("no thanks needed"),
   estas nenio, volonte farite.
well = (healthy), san-a; (for water), put-o; (adv.), bon-e;
   (interjection), nu (273), bon-e; -- informed, kler-a;
   -- nigh (adv.), preskaux.
west = okcident-o.
wet = malsekig-i, tremp-i.
whale = balen-o.
what = (pronoun), kio (233, 234); (pronominal adj.), kiu (106, 146);
   -- kind, -- way, -- time, etc., see table, 235.
wheat = tritik-o.
wheel = rad-o.
when = (adv.), kiam (125, 155); (while), dum (96).
where = (adv.), kie (118, 151); --fore, kial (129), tial (78).
whether = (conj.), cxu (30, 66, a).
which = (pronoun), kio (233, 234); (pronoun and adj.), kiu (106, 146);
   -- way, -- kind, etc. see table, 235.
while = (prep.), dum (120, 159); (conj.), dum (96);
   (concessive), kvankam; a --, iom da tempo.
whip = vip-i.
whistle = fajf-i; (hiss), sibl-i.
white = blank-a; whitish, dubeblank-a.
who = (pronoun), kiu (106, 143); whose, kies (107, 147).
whole = (entire), tut-a.
why = (adv.), kial (129), pro kio.
wicket = gicxet-o.
wide = largx-a; make --, plilargxig-i, etend-i.
widow = vidvin-o; widower, vidv-o.
wig = peruk-o.
wild = sovagx-a.
(be) willing = vol-i.
willingly = volont-e.
wilt = velk-i.
wind = vent-o, survolv-i; (twist), tord-i; (a watch), strecx-i.
winding = tord-a.
window = fenestr-o; ticket --, gicxet-o.
wine = vin-o.
winter = vintr-o.
wipe = visx-i.
wise = sagx-a.
wish = vol-i, dezir-i.
witch = sorcxistin-o; --craft, sorcx-o.
with = (prep.), kun (70, 76, 120, 159, 160); (by means of), per (64);
   (agent of the passive), de (169); je (260);
   -- regard to, rilate (266); --draw, elir-i, forir-i;
   (= having), havante (222).
wither = velk-i.
without = (prep.), sen (248).
(give) witness = atest-i.
witty = sprit-a.
woe = malgxoj-o; (interjection), ve (273).
wolf = lup-o.
wonder = mir-i.
woo = amindum-i.
wood = lign-o.
wool = lan-o.
word = vort-o; (spoken), parol-o.
work = labor-i; (of machinery), funkci-i;
   (literary composition), verk-o.
world = mond-o.
worm = verm-o.
worship = ador-i; (divine service), Diserv-o.
(be) worth = valor-i.
worthy = ind-a (154).
wound = vund-i.
wreath = girland-o.
wrestle = barakt-i.
wretch = fripon-o, kanajl-o; --ed, mizer-a, acx-a (272).
wrinkle = sulket-o, faldet-o.
write = skrib-i; (books, articles, music), verk-i.
wrong = malprav-a, erar-a, maljust-a.


yawn = osced-i; (open), fendigx-i.
year = jar-o.
yearn = sopir-i; dezireg-i.
yellow = flav-a; --ish, dubeflav-a.
yes = (adv.), jes (171).
yesterday = (adv.), hieraux (93, 171); day before --, antaux-hieraux.
yet = (adv.), ankoraux; jam; (conj.), tamen.
yoke = jug-o.
you = (pronoun), vi (32, 37, 39); see also oni (54).
young = jun-a; (offspring), id-o (207).


zeal = fervor-o.
zenith = zenit-o.
zero = nul-o.
zigzag = zigzag-o.
zinc = zink-o.
zone = zon-o.
zoology = zoologi-o.


The references are to sections, unless the page (p.) is given. The
following abbreviations are used: ace. = accusative; adj. = adjective;
adv. = adverb; expr. = expressed; ftn. = footnote; inf. = infinitive;
intrans. = intransitive; prep. = preposition; trans. = transitive. For
Esperanto words whose use or meaning is specially explained, references
are given in the Vocabulary.


Abbreviations, 286; of ordinals, p. 107, ftn.
Abstract nouns, 202.
Accent, 8; of elided word, 280, b.
Accompaniment, 70; distinguished from instrumentality and opposition,
   p. 49, ftn.
Accordance, expr. by "laux", 191.
Active voice, participles of, 108, 119, 152; tenses of, see Tenses;
   synopsis of, 267.
Accusative, ending, 23; of adj., 24; of pronoun, 37; of adv., 69, 121;
   of direction, 46, 108; of measure, 139; of time, 91; distinguished
   from temporal adv., 94; with temporal adv., 93; when avoided, 92;
   after adv., 266; with intrans. verb, 264; with nouns expressing
   motion, 263; in composition, p. 132, ftn.; instead of prepositional
   phrase, 265, 266; not used after prep., 36, ("al, gxis, tra") 46,
   ("preter") p. 139, ftn.; not used with article, 25; not used with
   predicates, 25, 210; "cognate," see acc. with intrans. verbs, 264,
Adjectives, defined, 12; ending of, 12; formation of, 116, (from adv.)
   171, (from prep.) 159; attributive, 13; acc. of, 24; plural of,
   17; agreement, (with nouns) 17, 21, 24, (with pronouns) 33, (with
   words connected by "nek") 31; comparison of, 74; possessive, 43,
   (pronominal use of) 45; predicate, 19, (after trans, verbs) 210;
   use of, distinguished from adv. with "da", 103; demonstrative, 65;
   distributive, 177; indefinite, 208; interrogative, 112; negative,
   224; reflexive possessive, 44; relative, 150; causative verbs from
   roots of, 214, a; intrans. verbs from roots of, 232, c; cardinal,
   136; ordinal, 149.
Adverbs, defined, 66; primary, 66; derived, 79; (from prep.) 120;
   demonstrative, ("tie") 68, ("tiam") 73, ("tial") 78, ("tiel") 88,
   ("tiom") 104; interrogative, ("kie") 118, ("kiam") 123, ("kial")
   129, ("kiel") 134, ("kiom") 140, ("cxu") 30, p. 38, ftn.; relative,
   ("kie") 151, ("kiam") 155, ("kiel") 156, p. 170, ftn., ("kiom") 164;
   distributive, ("cxie") 182, ("cxiam") iS7, ("cxial") 188, ("cxiel")
   193, ("cxiom") 194; indefinite, ("ie") 209, ("iam") 212, ("ial")
   213, ("iel") 216, ("iom") 217; negative, ("nenie") 225, ("neniam")
   226, ("nenial") 229, ("neniel") 230, ("neniom") 231, ("ne") 27,
   66, a; generalizing, ("ajn") 236; numeral, 158; position of, 66,
   a; expressing direction of motion, 69, 121; with expressions of
   time, 93; distinguishing from acc. of time, 94; with acc., 266; with
   prep., 87; calling attention, ("jen") 228; causative verbs from,
   214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d; as interjections, p. 216, ftn.;
   derivation of words from primary, 171.
Adverbial clauses, p. 168, ftn.; participle, 222, (translating
   "without") p. 193, ftn.
Adversative conjunctions, p. 32, ftn.
Advice, expression of, 257, 259.
Affectionate diminutives, 283 (also 198, and ftn., p. 221).
Affirmation, 66.
Affixes, see Prefixes, Suffixes.
Agency, expr. by "de", 169.
Agreement, of attributive adj., 17, (with acc.) 24; of predicate noun
   and adj., 21; of adj. with two or more nouns, 17; of adj. with words
   connected by "nek", 31; of adj. with pronouns, 33; of participle,
   108; of nouns in apposition, 48.
Alphabet, I.
Anticipation, expr. by clause, 97; by inf. with prep., 98.
Aoristic tenses, explained, p. 78, ftn.; conjugation of, (present) 14,
   (past) 35, (future) 55, (conditional) 241, (imperative), 254.
Apposition, 48.
Argumentative conjunction, p. 32, ftn.
Article, definite, 11; invariable, 18, 25; for possessive adj., 47;
   with possessive adj., 45; generic, 201, 218, b, elision of, 280, a;
   no indefinite, II.
Assumption, defined, 240; implied, 244.
Augmentatives, 122.
Auxiliary verbs, 109.


Cardinal numerals, 136; formation of, 142.
Case, see Accusative, Dative, Nominative, Possessive.
Causative verbs, 214.
Cause, expr. by clause, 83; by "pro", 86; by "ke", p. 222, ftn.
Characteristic, expr. by "kun", 76; by adverbial participle, 222.
   Clauses, defined, p. 34, ftn.; adverbial, p. 168, ftn.; causal,
   83; of anticipation, 97; of duration of time, 96; of imaginative
   comparison, 250; of purpose, 262; of result, 105; subordinate
   imperative, 259.
"Cognate acc.," see acc. with intrans. verbs, 264.
Collective nouns, 126.
Collective sense given by use of "da", 103.
Commands, expression of, 256; in subordinate clause, 259.
Complement of prep., 36.
Complementary inf., 29.
Comparison, of adj., 74; of adv., 79; of words expressing quantity, 81;
   containing "ol", 82; "ju" and "des" in, 84.
Composition, see Compounds.
Compound tenses, explained, 109; of impersonal verbs, 179; conjugation
   of, see Tenses.
Compounds, dependent, 176; descriptive, 167; possessive, 184.
Conclusion (of conditions) defined, 240; (of letters),
   see Correspondence.
Concrete nouns, formation of, 227.
Conditional mood, 241; compound tenses of, 242; in contrary to fact
   conditions, 246; in less vivid conditions, 243; independent use of,
   244; of "devi", 247; conditional sentences, see Conditions.
Conditions, defined, 240; contrary to fact, 246; factual, 240; less
   vivid, 243; vivid, p. 189, ftn.; summary of, 249.
Conjugation, 34; synopsis of, 267; of tenses, see Tenses.
Conjunctions, defined, 52; coordinating, 52; subordinating, 53, (not
   omitted) p. 34, ftn.; "aux", p. 32, ftn.; "kaj", 26, p. 32, ftn.;
   "ke", (in indirect statements), 53, (in causal clauses) 83, p.
   222, ftn.; (in result clause) 105, (in purpose clause) 262, (in
   subordinate imperative clause) 259; "kvazaux", 250; "nek", 31, p. 32,
   ftn.; "se", 240; "sed", p. 32, ftn.; "tamen", p. 32, ftn.; "do", p.
   32, ftn.; see p. 110, ftn.
Connection, expr. by "de", 49; indefinite, expr. by "je", 260.
Consent, expression of, 257, (in subordinate clauses) 259.
Consonants, combinations of, 6; pronunciation of, 3, names of, 4.
Contrary to fact conditions, 246.
Coordinating conjunctions, 52.
Copulative conjunctions, p. 32, ftn.
Correlative words, 235.
Correspondence, 278.


Dates, expr. by acc., 91; expr. by "antaux", 90; expr. by prep., 89;
   on letters, see Correspondence, 278.
"Dative," ethical, of reference, of separation, p. 197, ftn.
Definite quantity, nouns of, followed by "de", 100.
Degree, advs. of, 66, ("tiel") 88, ("kiel") 134, 156; highest
   possible, 162; see also Comparison.
Deliberation, expression of, 257, (in subordinative clause) 259.
Demonstrative, pronoun, ("tiu") 56, ("cxi tiu") 60, ("tio, cxi tio")
   233; adjective, 65; adv., see Adverbs.
Dependent compounds, 176.
Derivation, of adv., 79, (from prep.) 120; of words from prep., 159; of
   words from primary adv., 171.
Descriptive compounds, 167.
Diminutives, 198; affectionate, 283.
Diphthongs, 5.
Direct object, defined, 23; inf. as, see Complementary inf., 29; clause
   as, 53, 259; of complementary inf., 29; of participle, 108; of prep.,
   see Complement, 36.
Direction, expr. by acc. (of noun) 46, 263, (of adv.) 121.
Disjunctive conjunctions, p. 32, ftn.
Distributive, prep., see "po", 175; pronoun, ("cxiu") 173, ("cxio") 233;
   adj., 177; adv., see Adverbs.
Double letters, 6, e.


Elision, 280.
Emphasis, by "ecx", 66; by "ja", 215.
Emphatic negation, 27.
Ending, of acc., 23; of adj., 12; of adv., 79; of noun, 10; of plural,
   16; of inf., 28; of indicative, 14, 35, 55; of conditional, 241, of
   imperative, 254; of participle, see Participles.
"Ethical dative," p. 197, ftn.
Exclamations, 115; use of "je" in, 260.
Exhortation, 255.
Expedience, expressions of, 259.


Factual conditions, 240.
Feminine nouns, formation of, 59.
Formation, of words, 116; of opposites, 67, of feminines, 59; with
   "-ig-" and "-igx-", 239; from primary words, 159, 171.
Fractions, 166.
Frequentative verbs, 218, a.
Future participle, (active) 152, (passive) 199.
Future tense, 55, (progressive) 114, (passive) 183, periphrastic, 153,
Future perfect tense, 148, (passive) 196.


Generic article, 201. 218, b.
Generalizing adv. "ajn", 236.


Highest degree possible, 162.


Imaginative comparison, 250.
Imperative mood, 254; in commands and prohibitions, 256; in resolve and
   exhortation, 255, in subordinate clauses, 259;. less peremptory uses
   of, 257; to express purpose, 262.
Imperfect tense, 113, (passive) 178.
Impersonal verbs, 50, compound tenses of, 179; modifiers of, 141.
Impersonally used verbs, explained, 141; modifiers of, 141.
Inchoative verbs, 232, a.
Indefinite connection, expr. by "je", 260.
Indefinite, pronoun, ("iu") 203, ("io") 233; (personal) 54; adj., 208;
   advs., see Adverbs; prep., 260; suffix, 268; quantity, expressions
   of, with "da", 99, 101.
Independent use of conditional mood, 244.
Indicative mood, defined, 241; tenses of, see Synopsis, 267.
"Indirect object," see "al".
Indirect quotation, tenses in, 58; statements in, 53; questions in,
   p. 38, ftn.; p. 170, ftn.
Infinitive, defined, 28, 241; ending of, 28; complementary, 29; as
   subject, 29; modifiers of, 130; synopsis of, 267; with prep., 98;
   replaced by noun, 218, b.
Instruction, (orders), requests for, 257, 259.
Instrumentality, expr. by "per", 64; distinguished from accompaniment,
   p. 49, ftn.
Instruments, formation of names of, 63.
Intensive pronoun, "mem", 219.
Intention, expr. by clause, 259.
Interjections, 273.
International money system, 285; weights and measures, 284.
Interrogation, 30, 66, a.
Interrogative, pronoun, ("kiu") 106, (kio) 233; adj., 112; advs.,
   see Adverbs.
Intransitive verbs, defined, 22; no passive, p. 122, ftn.; from adj.
   roots, 232, c; from noun roots, advs., preps., suffixes, prefixes,
   232, d; from trans, verb roots, 232, b, (table of), 279.
Introductory particle, not needed, 50, 51.
Invariability, of article, 18; of "mem", 219; of verb, 18; of
   cardinals, 136.
Inversion, not needed in questions, 30.


Less peremptory uses of imperative, 257.
Less vivid conditions, 243.
Letters, names of, 4; double, pronunciation of, 6, e; see also
   Correspondence, 278.
Limitation of third personal pronoun, 42.


Manner, expr. by "kun", 76; expr. by. "per", p. 53, ftn.; by
   adverbial participle, 222; advs. of, see Adverbs.
Material, expression of, 197.
Means, expression of, 64.
Measure, ace. of, 139; expr. by "je", 260.
Measures, weights and, 284.
Metric system, 284.
Modifiers of impersonally used verbs, 141.
Money system, The international, 285.
Mood, defined, 241; inf., see Infinitive; conditional, 241; imperative,
   254; indicative, see 267; in conditions, see Conditions.
Moral obligation, 247.
Motive or reason, advs. of, see Adverbs; expr. by clause, 83; expr. by
   prep., 86.


Names, of letters, 4; orthography of proper, 128.
Necessity, expression of, 259.
Negative, pronoun, ("neniu") 220; ("nenio") 233; adj., 224;
   advs., see Adverbs; conjunction, 31.
"Nominative absolute," how rendered, p. 169, ftn.
Nominative case, ending of, (for nouns) 10, (for adj.) 12; of predicate
   noun and adj., 25, 210; with prep., 36, ("al", "gxis", "tra") 46.
Noun, defined, 10, ending of, 10, plural of, 16; acc. of, 23; elision
   of, 280, b; feminine, 59; numeral, 157; participial, 205; predicate,
   20, 211; possessive case of, 49; expressing motion, followed by
   acc., 263; expressing quantity, followed by "da", 99, by "de", 100;
   replacing inf., 218, b; replacing participial phrase, p. 193, ftn.;
   from adv., 171; from prep., 159.
Noun roots, causative verbs from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d.
Number, see Plural.
Numeral nouns, 157; advs., 158.
Numerals, cardinal, 136; formation of, 142; fractional, 166; ordinal,
   149; abbreviation of, p. 107, ftn.; followed by "el", 138.


Object, see Direct object, Indirect object, Complement.
Obligation, 247, (moral) 247.
Opposites, formation of, 67; of "pli" and "plej", 80.
Opposition, distinguished from accompaniment, p. 49, ftn.
Order, of word endings, p. 10, ftn.; see also Position.
Ordinal numerals, 149; advs., 158; abbreviation of, p. 107, ftn.
Orthography, of proper nouns, 128.


Part of the whole, expression of, (after noun) 99, (after adv.) 101.
Participial nouns, 205; advs., 222.
Participle, defined, 108; agreement of, 108; adverbial, 222,
   (translating "without") p. 193, ftn.; present, 108, (passive) 165;
   past, 119, (passive) 189; future, 152, (passive) 199.
Particle, introductory, not needed, 50, 51.
Partitive construction, p. 74, ftn.
Passive voice, agent of, 169; participles of, see Participles; tenses
   of, see Tenses; of "-ig-" formations, 239; distinguished from
   "-igx-" formations, 232, b.
Past tense, 35, (passive) see Imperfect; past participle, see
Past periphrastic future, 153, (passive) 200.
Past inception, present action with, 131.
Peremptory commands and prohibitions, 256, 259.
Perfect tense, 124, (passive) 190; perfect participle, see Past
Periphrastic futures, 153, (passive) 200.
Permission, expression of, 269.
Perplexity, expression of, 257, 259.
Personal pronouns, 32; acc. of, 37; indefinite, 54; reflexive, 39, 40;
   limitation of third personal, 42; position of unemphatic, 274.
Place, expr. by "cxe", 125; advs. of, see Adverbs; expr. by "-ej-",
   III; 128.
Pluperfect tense, 135, (passive), 195.
Plural, of nouns, 16; of pronouns, 56, 106, 203, 173, 220; of adj., 16;
   of "unu", 137; none of article, 18; none of pronouns ending in "-o",
Position, of attributive adj., 13; of adv., 66, a; of emphatic negative,
   27; of unemphatic pronoun, 274; of interrogative adv., 30.
Possession, expr. by "de", 49.
Possessive, adjective, 43; reflexive, 44; article for, 47; ftn., p. 221.
Possessive case of nouns, 49; of pronouns, ("ties") 62, ("kies") 107,
   147, ("cxies") 174, ("ies") 204, ("nenies") 221; see also Possessive
   adjective, 43.
Possessive compounds, 184.
"Possessive pronouns," p. 24, ftn.
Possibility, expression of, 270.
Predicate, adj., 19, agreement of, 21; after trans, verbs, 210; noun,
   20; agreement of, 21; after trans. verb, 211; clause as, 259.
Prefixes, causative verbs from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d;
   prep. as, 160, 248; adverb as, 71, 167, a, interjection as, p. 216,
   ftn.; "bo-", 277; "dis-", 245; "duon-", 277; "ek-", 206; "eks-", 281;
   "ge-", 271; "mal-", 67; "pra-", 282; "re-", 223.
Prepositions, defined, 36; with inf., 98; with adv., 87; with other
   preps., 87; case use with, 36, 46; expressing time relations, 89; as
   prefixes, 160; word derivation from, 159; advs. from, 120; causative
   verbs from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d; making intrans.
   verbs trans., 264, b, c; see also references in Vocabulary.
Prepositional phrase, acc. instead of, 265, 266.
Present action with past inception, 131.
Present periphrastic future, 153, (passive) 200.
Present participle, 108, (passive) 165.
Present tense, 14, (progressive) 110, (passive) 168.
Primary adverbs, defined, 66; derivation of words from, 171.
Probability, expression of, 270.
Progressive tenses, present, 110, future, 114; passive, 200.
Prohibition, expression of, 256, 259.
Pronominal adjective, possessive adj. as, 45; pronoun as, ("tiu")
   57, 60, ("kiu") 106, 146, ("cxiu") 173, ("iu") 203, ("neniu") 220,
   ("ambaux") 238.
Pronouns, defined, 32; agreement with, 33; personal, 32; indefinite
   personal, 54; reflexive, 38, 39, 40, (in composition) p. 132, ftn.;
   possessive, p. 24, ftn.; possessive form of, see Possessive case;
   limitation of third personal, 42; position of unemphatic, 274;
   correlation of predicative or relative, 234; followed by "el",
   173, p. 115, ftn.; series in "-o", 233; demonstrative, 56, 60,
   233; distributive, 173, 233; indefinite, 203, 233; interrogative,
   106, 233; negative, 220, 233; relative, 146; 233; summary, 235;
   "ambaux", 238; intensive, 219.
Proper nouns, orthography of, 128.
Protestations, use of "je" in, 260.
Proximity, expr. by "cxi", 60, 66, p. 229, ftn.
Purpose, expr. by inf., 98; by imperative, 262; by prep., 95.


Quantity, construction with nouns expressing, 99, 100; construction with
   advs. expressing, 101; advs. of, ("tiom") 104, ("kiom") 140, 164,
   ("cxiom") 194, ("iom") 217, ("neniom") 231; comparison of advs.
   expressing, 81.
Questions, 30; indirect, p. 38, ftn., p. 170, ftn.; of deliberation,
   perplexity, or for instructions, 257, 259.
Quotations, indirect, 53, 58.


Reciprocal expressions, 180.
Reference, expr. by "al", 251.
Reflexive pronouns, of first and second persons, 39; of third person,
   40; with substantival inf., 130.
Reflexive possessive adjective, 44.
Reflexive verbs, 41; distinguished from verbs in "-igx-", 232, b.
Relative pronoun, ("kiu") 146, ("kio") 233; not omitted, p. 106, ftn.
Relative adjective, 150; relative adverb, see Adverbs.
Relative clause, see 146, 233, (temporal) 155, (of manner) 156,
   (quantitative) 164.
Request, expression of, 257, 259; for instructions, 257, 259.
Resolve, expression of, 255.
Result, clauses of, 105.
Root, defined, p. 42, ftn.
Route, expression of, 191.


Salutations, 115.
Separation, expr. by "de", 170; expr. by "al", 252; by "for", 71; by
   "dis-", 245.
Situation, expr. by "cxe", 125; by adverbial participle, 222.
Source, expr. by "de", 170.
Statements, indirect, 53; tenses in, 58.
Subject, defined, 15; preceded by verb, 51; inf. as, 130; clause as,
   141, 259; of adverbial participle, 222.
Subordinate clause, defined, 53; imperative in, 259, 262; conditional
   in, see Conditions, 243, 246.
Subordinating conjunctions, "ke", 53, 105, 259 ("tial ke") 83, p. 222,
   ftn.; ("por ke") 262; (not omitted) p. 34, ftn.; "se", 240;
   "kvazaux", 250; "cxu", p. 38, ftn.
Substantive, defined, p. 71, ftn.; inf. as, 98, 130; clause as, 53, 259.
Substitution, expr. by prep., p. 63, ftn.; expr. by prep. with inf., 98;
   of noun for inf., 218, b, p. 193, ftn.
Suffixes, causative verbs from, 214, c; intrans. verbs from, 232, d;
   "-ad-", 218; "-acx-", 272; "-ajx-", 227; "-an-", 145; "-ar-", 126;
   "-cxj-", 283; "-ebl-", 161; "-ec-", 202; "-eg-", 122; "-ej-", 111;
   "-em-", 192; "-er-", 276; "-estr-", 253; "-et-", 198; "-id-" 207;
   "-ig-", 214, 239, 275; "-igx-", 232, 239, 279; "-il-", 63; "-in-",
   59; "-ind-", 154; "-ing-", 237; "-ist-", 172, p. 154, ftn.; "-nj-",
   283; "-obl-", 186; "-on-", 166; "-op-", 261; "-uj-", 181; "-ul-",
   132; "-um-", 268.
Summary of conditions, 249.
Superlatives, (adj.) 74, (adv.) 79; followed by "el", 75.
Syllables, 7.
Synonyms, apparent, ("diri: paroli: rakonti") 77, ("koni: scii") 117,
   ("tempo; fojo") 127, ("logxi: vivi") 133, ("antikva: maljuna:
   malnova") p. 128, ftn., 67, ("cxiu: tuta") p. 130, ftn.,
   ("indiferenta: nezorga") p. 162, ftn., ("provi: peni: jugxi") p. 228,
   ftn., ("gxuste: juste: jxus") p. 198, ftn., ("ankoraux: jam") p. 124,
   ftn., p. 112, ftn., ("trovigxi: sin trovi: kusxi: sidi)" p. 217, ftn.
Synopsis of the verb, 267.
System, correlative, 235; metric, 284; of money, 285.


Temporal clauses, 96, 155.
Temporal adverbs, 66, ("tiam") 73, ("kiam") 123, 155, ("cxiam") 187,
   ("iam") 212, ("neniam") 226, ("jam") p. 124, ftn. ("ankoraux") p.
   112, ftn., ("jxus") p. 116, ftn.
Tenses, aoristic, p. 78, ftn.; compound, 109; (of impersonal verbs) 179;
   in indirect quotations, 58; in conditions, 249; of inf., 267;
   of conditional, 241, 242; of imperative, 254; present, 14,
   (progressive) 110, (passive) 168, past, 35, (passive) 178; future,
   55, (progressive) 114; (passive) 183; imperfect, 113, (passive)
   178; perfect, 124, (passive) 190; pluperfect, 135, (passive) 195;
   future perfect, 148, (passive) 190; periphrastic, 153, (passive) 200;
   synopsis of all, 267.
Terminations, see Endings.
Terms of address, 163; affectionate, 283, p. 221, ftn.
Time, of day, 185; expr. by prep., 89; expr. by acc., 91; expr. by
   clause, 96, 155; expr. by adverbial participle, 222; advs. of, see
   Temporal adverbs.
Titles, 163; use of "mosxto", 258.
Transitive verbs, defined, 22; formed by "-ig-", 214; from intrans.
   roots, 264, b, c; list of some, 275.


Unemphatic words, position of, (negative) 27, (pronoun) 274.


Verbal nouns in "-ad-", 218, b, p. 193, ftn.
Verbal roots, causative verbs from, 214, b.
Verbs, mood of, 241; invariable, 18; causative, 214; frequentative,
   218, a; inchoative, 232, a; impersonal, 50; reflexive, 41; trans.,
   defined, 22; trans, from intrans. roots, 275; intrans., defined,
   22; intrans. from trans. roots, 232, b, 279; from prep., 159; from
   adv., 171; conjugation of, 34, (synopsis) 267, preceding the subject,
   51; as interjection, p. 216, ftn.; implied, (in comparisons) 82,
   156, 250; (in salutations) 115, (in exclamations) 115, 228; with
   prepositional phrase containing "da", 102.
Vivid conditions, p. 189, ftn.
Vowels, pronunciation of, 2.


Way, expression of, (manner) 76, (route) 191.
Weights and measures, 284.
Wish, expression of, 257, 259.
Words, correlative, 235; formation of, 116; from prepositions, 159;
   from primary advs., 171; composition of, see Compounds; order of,
   in question, 30; see also Position.

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