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Title: The complete servant: Being a practical guide to the peculiar duties and business of all descriptions of servants, from the housekeeper to the servant of all-work, and from the land steward to the foot-boy. With useful receipts and tables
Author: Adams, Samuel, Adams, Sarah Holland
Language: English
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*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "The complete servant: Being a practical guide to the peculiar duties and business of all descriptions of servants, from the housekeeper to the servant of all-work, and from the land steward to the foot-boy. With useful receipts and tables" ***

                         Transcriber’s Note

In what follows, italic text is denoted by _underscores_ while bold
text is denoted by =equal signs=. Small capitals in the original text
have been transcribed as ALL CAPITALS. Superscripted characters are
prefixed by the '^' symbol.


The word “receipt” appears frequently in this book and is an archaic
form of the word “recipe”.


See the end of this document for details of corrections and other

          —————————————————— Start of Book ——————————————————

                           COMPLETE SERVANT;

                                BEING A

                            PRACTICAL GUIDE

                                 TO THE

                      PECULIAR DUTIES AND BUSINESS

                         OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF


                       AND FROM THE LAND STEWARD
                            TO THE FOOT-BOY;


                      USEFUL RECEIPTS AND TABLES,

                       BY SAMUEL AND SARAH ADAMS,

             _Fifty years Servants in different Families_.

                     PUBLISHED BY KNIGHT AND LACEY,

                 At the James Watt, in Paternoster-Row.

                 _Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence._

  D. SIDNEY & CO. Printers,
  Northumberland-street, Strand.



As no relations in society are so numerous and universal as those of
Masters and Servants—as those of Household Duties and the performers of
them—so it is proportionally important that they should be well defined
and understood. It is a species of knowledge as important to the head
of a family as necessary to the servant; and, if thoroughly studied,
would relieve life of half its anxieties and vexations.

Yet, till the present book, no special attempt to define these
relations, and illustrate these duties has ever been made. We have had
Sermons on the moral obligations of masters and servants, and many
books of religious advice, addressed to the latter, all good in their
way; but we have had no work, which, like the present, addresses itself
to the actual personal practice of their duties; which defines them as
they actually belong to the various classes; and instructs servants in
the way and mode of performing them with skill, advantage, and success.

The want of such a manual of duty and practice having often been
noticed in servants’ halls, in families in which the authors of this
book have resided, it occurred to them, many years since, to make
notes, with a view to a work like the present. They hoped long ago
to have been able to submit them to the public; but the constant
avocations of servitude rendering it impossible to digest their
materials, the task has been deferred till they have been enabled to
retire on a moderate competency; the publication may therefore be
regarded as the legacy of their old age to servants of the present and
future generations, and as the last duty which in this world they are
likely to perform.

The author, educated in a foundation school, entered service as a
footboy, in 1770, and during fifty years he served successively as
groom, footman, valet, butler, and house-steward. His Wife began the
world as maid of all work, then served as house-maid, laundry-maid,
under-cook, housekeeper and lady’s maid, and, finally, for above twenty
years, as housekeeper in a very large establishment. Their experience
is, therefore, such as has fallen to the lot of few, and they have
freely and fully displayed it in the following pages.

They profess no skill in authorship, their sole object having been
to set down every thing likely to be useful, in language that may be
understood by all.

At the same time, important and necessary as the book will be to all
SERVANTS who desire to perform their duty with ability, and to rise
in their career to higher and more profitable situations, yet it
will prove equally useful in the parlour, by assisting MASTERS and
MISTRESSES of families in arranging their establishments, advising
them of their own duties, and enabling them to estimate the merits of
valuable servants. It may, indeed, be a question, whether the volume
will not be as desirable to those who are served as to those who serve.

Conviction of its probable use to all classes, led A LADY OF HIGH RANK,
in whose family Mrs. Adams resided, to honour her with advice and
assistance in some articles, particularly in that of Governess, and it
is to be regretted that a delicate reserve prevents the acknowledgement
being made by name.

At the time the work was prepared there existed no general collection
of Receipts like that published two years since by Mr. MACKENZIE,
consequently, a variety of practical receipts, which the Authors
had taken much pains to assemble, were rendered less necessary.
Nevertheless, as many of these receipts were identified with the duties
of the several servants, they have retained the most important of them,
and it is believed that they will be considered as adding much to the
value of the work.

Being desirous of rendering the volume as perfect as possible,
they will thankfully receive, and incorporate in new editions, any
suggestions with which intelligent servants may favour them, if
addressed to them at their publishers.

  _June, 1825_.


           _Respectfully addressed to the Heads of Families_

                                 OF THE

                            UNITED KINGDOM.


We feel persuaded that the following work, professedly written for the
use and instruction of Domestic Servants, may, with great propriety,
be dedicated to the Illustrious Heads of Families in the United
Kingdom;—to you, who are the immediate _Patrons_ of that numerous Class
of the Community. We are aware too, that, by endeavouring to instruct
and improve those around you in the moral and practical Duties of their
respective Stations, we best evince our attention to your particular
Interests, and indirectly promote your Domestic Comforts:—and we feel
further assured, that the same precepts that are calculated to teach
servants the duties of their several occupations, will serve to remind
their masters and mistresses of what they have to expect from them.
Under these impressions we presume, with the greatest deference and
respect, to claim your patronage and protection.

And, though Domestic Servants are the principal Agents by means of
whom the greater part of all Household Concerns are transacted, yet,
there are many important branches of family arrangement, the direction
and controul of which, either directly or indirectly, fall within the
sphere of the Heads of Families, some of which are exclusively their
own Concerns, and others necessarily and unavoidably connected with
the business of Servants, but respecting which no instruction can be
given to _them_. On these points, therefore, we shall, in this place,
take the liberty, respectfully, to offer a few observations previous to
entering on a subject of so comprehensive and complicated a nature as
that of _A General Directory for Servants_.

DR. JOHNSON held as a _maxim_, that “_Every man’s first care
is necessarily Domestic_.” Independent, therefore, of public
Engagements,—of Politics, the Arts, Sciences, and Literature;—of
attention to Horses, Hounds, &c. it is considered that the first care,
and the peculiar province of the Master of a Family, is his _Revenue_;
and that attention to his Land-Stewards, Agents, and Tenants, and to
his _Expenditure_, are the principal objects that most immediately
solicit his regard; and when a gentleman has satisfied himself that
his real or _net_ Income exceeds his Expenditure, then, and _not till
then_, may he consider himself as an Independent Man—for, “it is not
abundance that maketh rich, but Economy;” and Lord Chesterfield has
truly remarked, that “great Fortunes frequently seduce their possessors
to ruinous profusion.” The great _Bacon_ has also observed, “that he
would live _even_ with the world should calculate his Expenses at
_half_ his Income, and he who would grow Rich; at _one-third_.” A few
Minutes in every Day, spent in keeping a regular Account of all Monies
_received_ and _spent_, _Dr._ and _Cr._ will afford any gentleman the
satisfaction of knowing the true state of his affairs,—will operate
actively against excess of Expenditure,—will imperceptibly teach him
the art of _practical Economy_, and will enable him to appropriate due
portions of his Income to the support of his different Establishments.

With a view to this latter point, the following _Rule_, though given
in round numbers, may be considered as affording Gentlemen a brief,
but tolerably correct, idea of the most eligible and practical mode of
appropriating a large Income.—

  Viz. 33 per Cent. or One-third, for Household Expenses, including
       Provisions and all other Articles of Household Consumption.

       25 per Cent. or One-fourth, for Servants and Equipage including
       Horses, Carriages, and Liveries.

       25 per Cent. or One-fourth, for Clothes, Education of Children,
       Medical Assistance, Pocket, Private, and Extra Expenses; including
       Entertainments, &c.

       12½ per Cent. or One-eighth, for Rent, Taxes, and Repairs of
       House and Furniture.

       4½ per Cent. as a Reserve for Contingencies.

Hence may be deduced the following general Table of Expenses according
to Income, viz.—

  |Net Ann.|Househ^d. |Servants &|Clothes & | Rent and  |        |
  |Income. |Expenses. |Equipage. | Extras.  |  Repairs. |Reserve.|
  |        |33 pr. Ct.|25 pr. Ct.|25 pr. Ct.|12½ pr. Ct.| 4½ per |
  |        |or 1-3rd. |or 1-4th. |or 1-4th. |or 1-8th.  | Cent.  |
  |   £.   |     £.   |     £.   |     £.   |     £.    |   £.   |
  |   1000 |    333   |    250   |    250   |     125   |   42   |
  |   2000 |    666   |    500   |    500   |     250   |   84   |
  |   3000 |   1000   |    750   |    750   |     375   |  126   |
  |   4000 |   1333   |   1000   |   1000   |     500   |  168   |
  |   5000 |   1666   |   1250   |   1250   |     625   |  210   |
  |   6000 |   2000   |   1500   |   1500   |     750   |  252   |
  |   7500 |   2500   |   1875   |   1875   |     937   |  315   |
  | 10,000 |   3333   |   2500   |   2500   |    1250   |  420   |

Thus may any Gentleman, with very little trouble, apportion his
Income:—and as no two Gentlemen live _exactly_ alike, this Table
will shew, by inspection only, what branch of Expense may best be
curtailed, so as to afford an addition to any other branch, and still
keep his whole Expenses short of his actual Revenue. It will also
point out, to those who are economically disposed, in what departments
_saving_ may best be effected, as an addition to the fund of reserve,
for the augmentation of the fortunes of Children, or for unforeseen

Smaller Incomes must be appropriated in a different manner; and
according to the number of Children in the family: thus the Expense
of a family with Children will be from 1-4th to 1-3rd for each of the
Principals, and about 1-10th or 1-12th for each Child.

As Hints to the _Formation_ of a Household, or the _Reformation_ of
an Establishment, we insert the following list of the number and
description of Servants that are usually employed, according to Income;

Income per Annum.

  £100 or guineas. _A Widow_ or other _unmarried Lady_, may keep a
                   _Young Maid Servant_, at a low salary; say from
                   5 to 10 Guineas a year.

  £150 to £180.  _A Gentleman and Lady without Children_, may afford
                 to keep a better _Servant-Maid_, at about 10 or 12

  About £200.    _Ditto. A professed Servant-Maid of All-Work_, at
                 from 12 to 14 Guineas.

        £300.    _Ditto, with one, two, or three Children._ Two

        £400.    _Ditto, Ditto._ Three female Servants, or two and
                 a Boy; viz.—A Cook, House-Maid, and Nursery-Maid, or
                 else, instead of the latter, a Boy,—with a Gardener

        £500.    _Ditto, Ditto._ Three females and a Boy; viz.—A Cook,
                 House-Maid, and Nursery-Maid, with a Boy as Groom, and
                 to assist in the House and Garden. A Gardener

  £500 to £600.  _A Gentleman and Lady with Children._ Three Females and
                 one Man; viz.—A Cook, House-Maid, and a Nursery-Maid,
                 or other Female-Servant; with a Livery-Servant, as Groom
                 and Footman. A Gardener occasionally.

  £600 to £750.  _Ditto, Ditto._ Three Females and two Men; viz.—A Cook,
                 House-Maid, and another Female servant; a Footman, and
                 a Groom, who may assist in the Garden, and a Gardener

  £1000 to £1500. _Ditto, Ditto._ Four Females and three Men;
                  viz.—A Cook, two House-Maids, a Nursery-Maid,
                  or other Female Servant; a Coachman, Footman,
                  and a Man to assist in the Stable and Garden.

  £1500 to £2000. _Ditto, Ditto._ Six Female and five Men-Servants;
                  viz.—A Cook, Housekeeper, two House-Maids,
                  Kitchen-Maid, and Nursery-Maid, or other Female
                  Servant; with a Coachman, Groom, Footman, Gardener,
                  and an assistant in the Garden and Stable.

  £2000 to £3000. _Ditto, Ditto._ Eight Female and eight Men-Servants;
                  viz.—A Cook, Lady’s-Maid, two House-Maids, Nurse,
                  Nursery-Maid, Kitchen-Maid, and Laundry-Maid; with
                  a Butler, Valet, Coachman, two Grooms, a Footman, and
                  two Gardeners.

  £3000 to £4000. _Ditto, Ditto._ Nine Female and eleven Male
                  Servants; viz.—A Housekeeper, Cook, Lady’s-Maid,
                  Nurse, two House-Maids, a Laundry-Maid, Kitchen-Maid,
                  and a Nursery-Maid; with a Butler, Coachman, two
                  Grooms, Valet, two Footmen two Gardeners, and a

  £4000 to £5000. _Ditto, Ditto._ Eleven Female and thirteen Male
                  Servants; viz.—A Housekeeper, Cook, Lady’s-Maid,
                  Nurse, two House-Maids, Laundry-Maid, Still-Room
                  Maid, Nursery-Maid, Kitchen-Maid, and Scullion,
                  with Butler, Valet, House-Steward, Coachman, two
                  Grooms, one Assistant Ditto, two Footmen, three
                  Gardeners, and a Labourer.

We have been favoured with the following as the present Household
Establishment of a respectable Country Gentleman, with a young family,
whose Net Income is from 16,000l. to 18,000l. a Year, and whose
expenses do not exceed 7000l.; viz.—

  House-Keeper                          24
  Female Teacher                        30
  Lady’s-Maid                           20
  Head Nurse                            20
  Second Ditto                          10
  Nursery-Maid                           7
  Upper House-Maid                      15
  Under House-Maid                      14
  Kitchen-Maid                          14
  Upper Laundry-Maid                    14
  Under Ditto                           10
  Dairy-Maid                             8
  Second Ditto                           7
  Still-Room Maid                        9
  Scullion                               9
  A French Man-Cook                     80
  Butler                                50
  Coachman                              28
  Footman                               24
  Under Ditto                           20
  Groom.—His Liveries and a Gratuity.
  Lady’s Groom                          12
  Nursery-Room Boy, Clothes and a gratuity.
  Head Game-Keeper 70 Guineas a year, and
    13s. per Week for Board-Wages;—a
    Cottage and Firing.
  Under Ditto, one Guinea per Week.
  Gardener 40 Guineas a year, and 13s. per
    Week for Board-Wages;—a House and
  Assistant Ditto, 12s. per Week.

The Board Wages of Servants in general, when the family is absent, is
10s. per Week, for the females, and 12s. per Week for males.—Perhaps
all the servants on a large establishment may be reckoned at an average
of 10s. per head, per Week, expense, for Board. The Men are allowed a
Pot of Ale per day, and the Women a Pint, besides table-beer.

Besides the ordinary Establishment of Servants, Noblemen and Gentlemen
of superior fortune employ Land-Stewards, Bailiffs, Wood-Wards,
Game-Keepers, Park-Keepers, Hunts-Men, Whippers-in, Racing-Grooms,
Jockies, and others of inferior capacities: also Men-Cooks, Groom
of the Chambers, Page, Lady’s-Coachman, Postillion and Footman,
Seamstress, Second Lady’s-Maid, Chamber-Maids, Boy for the Steward’s
Room, another for the Hall, and various other Servants.

Having premised thus much as to income, and its proportionate
appropriation, we next proceed to offer a few hints on such parts of
interior management, as in most families are considered as belonging to
the lady, or mistress of the house.

The first is, naturally, the attention due to her husband and
children—to make home, “_sweet home_,” the pleasing refuge of a
husband, fatigued, perhaps, by his intercourse with a jarring world,—to
be his enlightened companion, and the chosen friend of his bosom.

    “Oh, speak the joy, ye, whom the tender tear
    Surprizes often, when ye look around,
    And nothing strikes your eyes but sights of bliss.”

The attention of an amiable woman, will next be directed to the care of
her offspring,—to raise them up in the ways of virtue and usefulness,—

              “——To rear the tender thought,
    To teach the young idea how to shoot,—
    To pour the fresh instruction o’er the mind,—
    To breathe the enlivening spirit,—and to fix
    The gen’rous purpose in the glowing breast;”

“these, these are woman’s duties, and delightful ones they are! Happy
the man who can call her his wife; blessed are the children who call
her mother!” For the foregoing sentiments we are indebted to an amiable
and celebrated authoress of the present day, and to the no less
celebrated and amiable _Thomson_; and we feel impelled to quote the
concluding sentence of the above-mentioned lady, on this interesting

“When we thus observe the mistress of a family exercising her activity
and best abilities in appropriate cares and increasing excellence, are
we not ready to say she is the agent for good, of that benevolent being
who placed her on earth to fulfil such sacred obligations, and not to
waste the talents committed to her charge.”

“Next to the care and attention due to your husband and children,”
says another female writer, “your servants claim, as your nearest
dependents; and to promote their good, both spiritual and temporal,
is your indispensable duty.—Let them join your family devotions, and
endeavour to make them spend their Sabbath properly.” She further adds,
“It was the remark of an old domestic, that the worst mistresses a
servant can live with are young married women—They are unreasonable,”
said she, “in their commands; they expect too much; nor do they rightly
know when to commend, or when to blame.”

In your manner to your servants, be firm, without being severe, and
kind, without being familiar. Never converse familiarly with them,
unless on business, or on some point connected with their improvement;
but with this reserve, and distance of manner, be particularly careful
to maintain kindness, gentleness, and respect for their feelings.
Their patience is often unnecessarily exercised, and their tempers
wantonly irritated. “I have been sometimes shocked,” says the same
amiable writer, “with the want of politeness, by which masters and
mistresses provoke impertinence from their servants.”—A lady, who
filled every station of life with honour, both to her head and heart,
attending the death-bed of an old domestic, who had been thirty years
in her service—“How do you find yourself, to-day, Mary?” said the
mistress, taking hold of her withered hand. “Is that you, my _darling
mistress_!” and a beam of joy overspread the old woman’s face; “O,
yes,” she added, looking up, “it is you, my kind, my _mannerly_
mistress!” The poor old creature said no more; but she had, by that
last simple sentence, expressed volumes of panegyric on her amiable
mistress. Human nature is the same in all stations; and if you strive
to convince your servants that you have a generous and compassionate
regard for their comfort, they will, in return, evince their gratitude.
If to protect and encourage virtue be the best preventive from vice,
then will your deserving female servants be liberally encouraged.

Let your commands to your servants be consistent and reasonable; and
then mildly, but firmly, insist on obedience to them.—“My servants
never remember what I tell them to do,” is a complaint but too common,
but that might, in some degree, be obviated. Let them see that you
will not pass over any neglect of orders; and when they find that this
decisive measure is accompanied with kindness and consideration, and
that you are not to be disobeyed with impunity, they will soon learn
to remember what you command them to do. A little effort very easily
overcomes a bad memory.

It is very disheartening to a poor servant to be continually found
fault with. Praise and reward them when you can;—human nature will not
bear constant chiding.

Never keep servants, however excellent they may be in their stations,
whom you know to be guilty of immorality.

When servants are ill, their mistress will, doubtless, recollect that
she is their _patroness_ as well as their employer, and will not only
remit their labour, but render them all the assistance of proper
medicine, food, and comfort, in their power.—_Tender assiduity is half
a cure_; it is a balsam to the mind, which has a powerful effect on the
body—soothes the severest pains, and strengthens beyond the richest
cordial. The poor _dependent_ creatures may have no where to go to—no
one else to turn to; and their pale and impaired looks will always have
a claim on your sympathy.

As we shall have occasion to make further remarks on the management of
servants, when treating of the business of the _Housekeeper_, we beg
leave, in order to avoid repetition, to refer to that subject, under

“Economy,” says Mr. Cobbett, “is management.”—The fact is, that
_management and regularity, is Economy verified by practice_; and all
persons ought to regulate their conduct by circumstances. A moderate
income, appropriated to the expenses of housekeeping with prudence
and economy, without _parsimony_, but banishing _superfluities_ and
_preventing waste_, may be made sufficient to furnish every comfort in
life; and, strange as it may appear to those in affluence, an income
of from 150l. to 200l. a year, will be enough to maintain a man and
wife, with two or three children, and a servant girl; _nor “beyond that
amount, need they spend one shilling per week_, whatsoever may be their

It is an excellent plan to have a set of rules for regulating the
ordinary expenses of a family, (such as are given in the Appendix to
the PRACTICAL ECONOMY,) in order to check any innovation or excess,
which otherwise might, unawares, have occurred to derange the proposed
distribution of the annual income.

The mistress of a family will always recollect that, _in all cases_,
the welfare and good character of her household depends on her own
active superintendance.

Though habits of domestic management are now generally precluded in
the education of young ladies of the superior class, yet, happily,
attention to family concerns is not unfrequently found in those of
less exalted rank, whose minds, amidst the blandishments of modern
accomplishments, have been taught to relish, as in days of yore,
the more rational, solid, and lasting pleasures, of a social and
comfortable home. And were young ladies early instructed in the
delights of domestic occupation, before they enter the delusive scenes,
presented by modern modes of dissipation, we should probably find
the number of votaries to private happiness greatly increased, and
a life of domestic employment would become the source of numberless
gratifications. In short, were they on all occasions, when at home,
under the immediate eye of their mother, to be taught the science of
practical economy—the business of examining and keeping accounts,—and
a few other of the leading points in the management of a family, they
would imperceptibly become competent, and the happiest results, as to
their future conduct in life, might be most pleasingly anticipated.
Many families have owed much of their advancement in life to the
propriety of female management.

One of the principal objects of the mistress of the house is, the
economy or management of the _table_, the general display of which
will evince her judgment and taste; and this will be shown, not so
much by the profusion with which the table is covered, as by its _neat
and pleasing appearance_, according to the present fashion, so far as
regards elegance, combined with frugality,—the circumstances of fortune
and condition being also considered.—People in business should not
imitate the pomp and splendour of high rank, nor should those of the
higher circles descend to such frugal arrangements as in them would
appear to be parsimonious.

The prudent manager will consider the _number_ of her guests, and
consult their appetites, rather than feast their _eyes_; thus will she
be enabled to entertain them _much oftener_, and _much better_, at the
same expense.

It is well understood that the mistress of a family should have, at
least, a competent knowledge in the art of carving, not only as it
enables her to do _the honours of the table_ with propriety, but with
a view to frugality also; and if the young ladies of a family were
to practise, under the direction of their mother, when there is no
company, they would, in time, become quite _au fait_ to this graceful
and elegant accomplishment; as much practice is required to make a
good carver, even when the theory has been previously acquired. (_See
Instructions for Carving_, under the head HOUSEKEEPER.)

An esteemed writer of the present day, has introduced to public view,
a pleasing picture of a small and well-regulated family, of which the
following is a slight sketch:—

“The mistress of the family is a good manager, without any
ostentatious display of it.—Elegantly nice, without being a slave to
dress or furniture—Easy and affable with her servants, but firm in
her commands,—every one appearing to be contented and happy.—The
household business going on regularly, like a good clock;—and every
thing being kept in its proper place. No scolding in the kitchen or
servants’-hall.—The table plentifully covered, but not with incitements
to luxury; the food plain and in season, and sent up well dressed;—with
a few well chosen luxuries introduced, when company is asked.”

Ladies, whose minds are framed for the practical enjoyment of domestic
comforts, will admire and copy this beautiful picture!


                        TO SERVANTS IN GENERAL.


The supreme Lord of the universe has, in his wisdom, rendered
the various conditions of mankind necessary to our individual
happiness:—some are rich, others poor—some are masters, and others
servants.—Subordination, indeed, attaches to your rank in life, but
not _disgrace_. All men are servants in different degrees. The nobles
and ministers of state are subservient to the king, and the king
himself is the servant of the nation, and is wisely submissive to its
laws. It manifests a divine superintendance, that civil society should
thus be composed of _subordinate_ and superior classes. By this wise
arrangement, all _may_ enjoy an equal share of real happiness, while
each possesses a due opportunity to communicate and to receive the
various benefits and kindnesses of human life. Every wise and good
person will therefore enquire, what are the _special_ duties of his
or her station; with a steady purpose, by the assistance of God, to
discharge them faithfully; and those are the most worthy characters who
best perform the various duties incumbent on them, _in that state of
life unto which it has pleased God to call them_. Perhaps, there is not
a more _useful_,—a more numerous,—nor a more indispensably necessary
description of persons in society, than those who are denominated
_Servants_; and so entirely dependent are mankind on each other, that
it may truly be said of _these_, in relation of the _social system_,
as Pope has said of the several parts of nature in relation to the
_universe_; that

    “—from this chain whatever link you strike,
    Tenth or ten-thousandth, breaks the chain alike.”

Young persons, on their first entering into service, should endeavour
to divest themselves of former habits, and devote themselves to the
controul of those whom they engage to serve. They will probably find
every thing different from what they have been accustomed to at home,
or in common life; and as their mode of living will be greatly altered,
if not wholly changed, so must be their minds and manners. They should
endeavour to discard every low habit and way of thinking, if such they
have; and as there will be set before them, by those of superior rank,
and cultivated understandings, the best modes of conduct and the most
approved behaviour, they will wisely take advantage of the opportunity
which Providence fortunately presents to them, to cultivate their
_minds_ and improve their _principles_: perhaps, the best proof they
can give of their wisdom, in this respect, is to resolve to conform
with alacrity to the duties required of them, so far as is consistent
with justice and moral government; to be respectful and faithful
to their superiors, obliging and good-natured to their equals, and
charitable to all; as the most grateful return they can make for the
emolument, superior comforts, and gratification they will enjoy. They
will eagerly embrace every opportunity of learning every thing that
may be useful to themselves, and of doing any thing that may be useful
to others. Young persons are too apt to fancy themselves wise, but
that, generally speaking, is impossible, for wisdom is the result of
experience and reflection; and youth must of course be almost as much
strangers to one as to the other.[1] But the instruction we are about
to give, is not intended merely for the _young_ and uninitiated;—but
will be found, we trust, of great advantage to those of _riper years_,
and of some experience; as we are never too old to learn, and can only
approach towards perfection by regular gradations, and, as it were,
step by step:—to those of greater experience our labours may serve as a

The grand foundation of your good character must be _Industry_,
_fidelity_ to your employers, and an inviolable attachment to _truth_,
both in words and deeds. To utter a _falsehood_ to the prejudice of
others, argues malice and baseness—to _lie_ in excuse of one’s self,
guilt and cowardice;—in both cases it evinces a design to deceive,
with a view to benefit one’s self by the deceit;—besides, a liar is
always in fear of being detected, and if once found out, he sinks into
contempt, and is deservedly divested of all credit—all confidence—and
all society.

But truth in speech must be accompanied by integrity and fidelity in
all your dealings; for it is impossible for a dishonest person to be
a good servant; therefore, let no temptation prevail on you to part
with these inestimable jewels; nor suffer yourself even to wish to
convert the property of another to your own use; more especially when
it is _confided_ to your charge; for breach of trust is a heinous
aggravation of dishonesty.[2] And, always remember, that “_Honesty is
the best policy_.” Moreover, it is not only incumbent on you to be
honest yourself, but you must scorn to connive at the dishonesty of
others. _He that winks at an injury he might prevent shares in it_; and
it is as scandalous to fear blame or reproach for doing your duty, as
it is to deserve reproof for the neglect of it; therefore, should there
be a confederacy among your fellow servants to abuse the confidence or
credulity of your employer, divulge it the very instant you perceive
it, for fear your very silence might give rise to a suspicion of your
participation in their guilt.

On the contrary, avoid _Tale-bearing_, for that is a vice of a
pernicious nature, and generally turns out to the disadvantage of
those who practise it. Those who cannot help telling _all_ that they
hear, will be supposed to tell _more_ than they _know_, and will,
consequently, be discredited.

Carefully avoid all reproachful, indecent, or even familiar terms
in speaking of your master, mistress, or superiors; and, on the
other hand, endeavour, at all times, to vindicate them from the open
aspersions or latent insinuations of others. There is nothing more
detestable than defamation.—Avoid it.

    “The man who filches from me my good name,
    Robs me of that which not enriches him,
    But makes me poor indeed!” SHAKSPEARE.

To know—to be thoroughly master of your business in the department
you undertake, is indispensably necessary; and not only to know the
several branches of your duty, both by theory and practice, but to be
determined, from principle, to do it. In order to this, let your whole
conduct be actuated by _diligence_, and governed by _temperance_.
Banish _sloth_ and the love of ease; and, as poor Richard says,
“_up, and be doing_.”—Be ever active.—Let your whole mind be in your
business.—Think of what you have to do—of what must be done, and _do
it_,—even before it is wanted,—and do not wait till you are ordered to
do it. Never think any part of your business _too trifling_ to be _well
done_. Consider your business as a pleasurable amusement and you will
make it so—and,—“do not leave till to-morrow, that which may be done

_Idleness_ is a great source of evil, and whilst we give way to its
enjoyment, we sacrifice both the duties and the best purposes of our

    “Delays are dangerous;—take a friend’s advice,
    Begin,—be bold, and venture to be wise:—
    He who defers his work from day to day,
    Does on a river’s bank expecting stay,
    Till the whole stream that stopt him shall be gone,
    Which, as it runs, for ever will run on.”

But, it is not enough merely to avoid sloth, for you must be guarded
against the allurements of pleasure—_Pleasure_, when it becomes a
business, but too frequently makes business a torment; and as it
is impossible to attend to your duty and follow your pleasures,
the inevitable consequence must be loss of place, disgrace, and
poverty.—Not that you are to debar yourself from innocent amusement,
_at proper times_, and with moderation; it is not, nor can it be
expected of you, who are to get your bread by the sweat of your brow,
that you are not to reap the harvest of your labours; neither the
laws of God nor man exact this of you; but unlawful and intemperate
pleasures are interdicted, as alike detrimental to your employers,—your
morals,—your character,—your health,—and your purse.

_Intemperance_, or excess, is a pleasurable evil,—it smiles and
seduces—enchants and destroys. It assumes a variety of shapes, all
tending to flatter the appetite and inflame desires;—it presents to
each the allurement to which he is most prone, and to all a pleasing
poison that impairs the body, enervates the mind, and imperceptibly
destroys all the energies necessary to our happiness and advancement in

Above all things, then—Be temperate.—Avoid excess in eating and
drinking—“One expensive mouth, will wear out several pairs of
hands,”—and, “one shilling will appease the wants of nature as
effectually as a pound.” Nor is it because you may for a time be able
to indulge those vicious habits at the expense of others, that they are
the less exceptionable.

The loss of health and the loss of character are the certain
consequences; and the debauch of the evening is followed by pains
and sickness in the morning, when that which was before poison, is
administered as the cure! Practice becomes habitual, and thus a whole
life is frequently wasted in debauchery; poverty itself only cutting
off the means, not the inclination; and the unhappy object himself,
destitute of health, character, and friends, is left to pine and sink
in misery and contempt.

Intemperance in _dress_ is another evil that ought to be carefully
guarded against. In most men this argues both weakness and effeminacy;
but in _men-servants_ an affectation of this kind is unpardonable—and
in _females_ it opens a door to temptation and extravagance, which but
too frequently ends in ruin.

The virtue of _Silence_ is highly commendable, and will contribute
greatly to your ease and prosperity. Those who talk much cannot always
talk well; and many much oftener incur censure than praise. The best
proof of wisdom is to talk little, but to hear much—Remember, “_A
silent tongue argues a wise head_.” Never talk of yourself,—but when
others speak of themselves, listen to them;—such attention will please
them, and probably profit yourself, as it is a chance but something
escapes them that may afford a clue to their whole character. If it
be thus dangerous to speak much of one’s self, it is much more so
to take _freedoms_ with others. A jest may tickle, but if it hurt
any one, resentment may follow, that in some way or other may be
injurious.—Always remember to _hold the secrets of the family sacred_,
as none, not even the least of _these_, may be divulged with impunity.

Quarrels are much more easily avoided than made up; let it not,
therefore, be in the power of trifles to ruffle your temper. A
weathercock is the sport of every wind; and a choleric man is sometimes
exposed to the scorn, at others to the resentment, and always to the
abhorrence of all around him. For these reasons rather wink at all
small injuries than study to avenge them—“He that to destroy a single
bee that has offended him, should throw down the hive, instead of one
enemy will have made a thousand.”

It is abundantly better to study the good will of all, than to excite
the resentment of any. Make a trial, therefore, of your _affability_,
and you will find your own happiness and the goodwill of all around
you, to be the certain result.

We would further recommend to you to practise _frugality_; it is a
virtue which is intimately connected with, and leads to our best
prospects in life; and if it be expedient to any, it is more especially
so to such as you, who have, like the silk-worm, to spin your riches
out of your own bosoms. It gives you credit with others, confidence in
yourself, and enables you to look forward with satisfaction.—In short,
it renders even the independent man _doubly independent_. Nothing is
more true, than the old proverb, that, “_a penny saved is a penny
got_;”—nor is that saying less true, that “_if you have sense to save
your pence, your pounds will take care of themselves_.” If out of every
shilling you get you save something, you will soon find yourself in the
direct road to wealth.—Remember, that the most magnificent edifice is
raised from a single stone, and every accession thereto, however small,
helps to raise the superstructure.

Whilst on the important subject of frugality, we cannot do better than
to recommend to your notice THE SAVINGS BANK.

These most useful and excellent establishments are to be found in
every district, and offer, to provident and well-disposed servants, a
means of depositing small sums, in perfect safety, for the purpose of
accumulating with interest, to be resorted to in case of illness,—any
unforeseen occurrence,—or for the purpose of establishing themselves in
some way of business that may make them comfortable to the end of their
days. Indeed, the advantages of savings-banks are become so well known,
that almost every one can appreciate the result of _small savings_ and
prudent foresight. It is an axiom universally admitted, that he who
rests his expectations more on his own care and diligence, than on the
aid of others, will escape many wants and disappointments, and enjoy
many gratifications, which those who are not possessed of this happy
spirit of prudence and independence, can never hope to attain; and we
may add, that the sufferings of those in poverty and distress have been
but too frequently increased, by the recollection that they might have
been averted or decreased by proper attention.

The encouragement which these depositories hold out to young persons
for the safe deposit of _trifling_ sums, (even so low as a shilling,)
is not unfrequently attended with the salutary effect of inducing a
perseverance in saving, and of stimulating to habits of industry and
frugality that lead to the happiest results. Those who adopt this plan,
soon begin to feel their independence; and this feeling once acquired,
the most pleasing consequences inevitably follow; for he who labours
for his daily bread, and has _learnt to live within his income_, has
learnt the _art of independence_; and he that is _above want_, though
_but a little_, looks upon every fellow subject for his equal: indeed,
so advantageous is an early habit in the art of _saving_, that no
patrimony can be equal to it, and it will generally be found, that he
who is sagacious enough to save a fortune, will enjoy it infinitely
better than he who inherits it by patrimony, or has one given to him.

Every savings-bank has its appointed days and hours for transacting
business, at which times, a committee of trustees and managers attend
to pay and receive monies. Among other advantages which these banks
give, they admit of the deposits and interest being taken out at a very
short notice, at any time, by the depositers themselves, or by his
or her executors, administrators, or other lawful claimants. Printed
particulars of the specific terms and regulations, may be had _gratis_,
at the respective offices.

The following is a sketch of the way in which _money is made by
saving_, according to the terms of many savings-banks, established in
and near the metropolis; and there are some (the Southwark, Limehouse,
and others,) that give interest at the rate of a halfpenny per calendar
month for every twelve shillings deposited, which is upwards of four
per cent. per annum.

  |Y |                                    |         |        |         |
  |e |                                    |         |        |         |
  |a |                                    | SAVINGS |INTEREST|  TOTAL  |
  |r |                                    |         |        |         |
  |s |                                    |         |        |         |
  |  |                                    +---------+--------+---------+
  | 1| Suppose, that in the course of this| £ |s.|d.|£ |s.|d.| £ |s.|d.|
  |  |year, you deposit in the Savings    |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |Bank, the sum of                    |  4| 0| 0|  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |                                    |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |In the last day of next year, the   |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |Savings Bank will add as interest   |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |on that deposit, at least,          |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |the sum of                          |   |  |  | 0| 3| 0|   |  |  |
  |  |                                    |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |And suppose that in the same year,  |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |you deposit the further sum of      |  4| 0| 0|  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |                                    |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  | 2|Your Stock at the end of the 2nd    |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |year, will be, at least             |.. |..|..|..|..|..|  8| 3| 0|
  |  |                                    |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  | 3|On the course of the third year,    |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |add                                 |  4| 0| 0| 0| 6| 6| 12| 9| 6|
  | 4|         4th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 0|10| 0| 16|19| 6|
  | 5|         5th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 0|13| 6| 21|13| 0|
  | 6|         6th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 1|17| 6| 26|10| 6|
  | 7|         7th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 0| 1| 0| 31|11| 6|
  | 8|         8th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 1| 5| 0| 36|16| 6|
  | 9|         9th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 1| 9| 6| 42| 6| 0|
  |10|        10th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 1|14| 0| 48| 0| 0|
  |11|        11th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 1|18| 6| 53|18| 6|
  |12|        12th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 2| 3| 0| 60| 1| 6|
  |13|        13th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 2| 8| 0| 66| 9| 6|
  |14|        14th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 2|13| 0| 73| 2| 6|
  |15|        15th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 2|18| 6| 80| 1| 0|
  |16|        16th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 3| 4| 0| 87| 5| 0|
  |17|        17th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 3|10| 0| 94|15| 0|
  |18|        18th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 3|16| 0|102|11| 0|
  |19|        19th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 4| 2| 0|110|13| 0|
  |20|        20th year                   |  4| 0| 0| 4| 8| 6|119| 1| 6|
  |  |                                    |---|--|--|--|--|--|   |  |  |
  |  |                                    |   |  |  |  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |             Principal deposited  £ | 80| 0| 0|39| 1| 6|   |  |  |
  |  |             Interest added       £ | 39| 1| 6|  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |                                    |---|--|--|  |  |  |   |  |  |
  |  |Total made by saving in 20 years  £ |119| 1| 6|  |  |  |   |  |  |

Again, let us admonish you, as at first, to _be Industrious_. “Teach
a man to be industrious and you will soon make him rich.” And, “money
got by Industry, is heaven’s gift.” Frugality and temperance, are
virtues to be practised chiefly on _your own account_, but _Industry_
is an indispensable duty that you owe to your employers and to society.
“Without frugality few would be rich, and with it few would be poor.”
The man who promises himself success without endeavours, or despairs
at the sight of difficulties, is always disappointed; but, on the
contrary, he that is determined, and is indefatigable, succeeds even
beyond his expectation. Depend upon it, there is not a more certain
sign of a cowardly spirit than to have the edge of one’s activity
soon blunted by opposition: on the other hand, there is no disputing
the fortitude of him who boldly contends with obstacles, and pursues
his object till he has attained it. To men of such temper few things
are impossible. It was an ingenious device that a man made use of, by
way of sign:—A pair of compasses, with this motto, _By constancy and
labour_; one foot being _fixed_ and the other in _motion_.—Make this
_your motto_, and you will be very little in the power of chance or

What we have already said, may be considered as addressed chiefly to
_men_ servants; we have therefore to add a few admonitory precepts,
particularly appropriated to our _female_ readers.

One of the most advantageous qualifications in all servants, and
particularly in females, is that of preserving a _good temper_, and
endeavouring, to the utmost of their abilities, to give satisfaction.
Possessed of a strong desire to please, you will seldom fail of doing
so. Persons of a good disposition will be charmed with your readiness,
and those of a bad one, will be disarmed of a great part of their
harshness; and though you may, in some instances, be deficient in
the due performance of your business, if it be apparent that your
fault proceeds not from disobedience, indolence, or obstinacy, great
allowance will be made, and you will rather be _instructed as to the
future_ than _blamed_ for the past. If you are fearful of offending
you will scarcely ever offend. In short, _humility_ is a commendable
virtue, and, combined with good temper, is the most valuable of female
qualifications, and will, infallibly, conduct its possessors with ease
and tranquillity through life.

_Cleanliness_ is another qualification incumbent on every female
servant, and particularly in _Cooks_, and those employed in the
department of the kitchen. These should be very careful to keep
themselves,—every place,—and all the utensils used in cooking,
perfectly clean and neat.

We have already remarked, that those who are fond of telling all that
they hear, are very naturally suspected of telling more than they hear.
The best rule is, to do your own duty conscientiously, and leave others
to take care of theirs: by this means you will preserve peace and
acquire the love of all your fellow servants, without offending your
employers; who, even though they may appear to give countenance to your
tale, will not in their hearts approve of your conduct.

Take great care how you contract _new Acquaintances_, for to be easily
drawn into a familiarity with strangers must be attended with ill
consequences to yourselves, and those with whom you live. Never accept
the invitations of other servants, nor go to feast at the expense of
their masters and mistresses; as you must, in that case, be deemed
an interloper, at least;—besides, it lays you under an obligation to
return the treat, and induces you, after their example, to make free
with the property of your own employers, under a consciousness of
guilt, and a continual fear of detection.

Give nothing away without the knowledge and approbation of your
employers, nor commit wilful waste, for that is a crime which seldom
goes unpunished.

All duties are reciprocal. If you hope to obtain favour, endeavour to
deserve it. A steady perseverance in the duties of your station is the
only sure course infallibly to promote your progress to independence.

In addition to the foregoing, we should deem ourselves guilty of the
sin of omission, were we not to insert the very excellent _moral
hints to female servants_, written by the Rev. H. G. Watkins, in
furtherance of the views of the LONDON SOCIETY, for the improvement and
encouragement of female servants.

[_We have great pleasure in mentioning this society, the object of
which is, to promote the moral and religious improvement of female

The society bestows _annual rewards_, on those who are _duly
nominated_, to encourage them to view their employers as their friends,
to be correct and trust-worthy in their conduct, and to continue as
long as possible in the same service.

To prevent, also, the hazard to good servants of resorting to
_common_ Register Offices, a Registry is instituted, to which—cooks,
house-maids, and nurses, wanting situations, who have lived two years
in one service—servants of all work who have lived one year in their
last place—and young women _above sixteen_, who have never been in
service—may apply, without any expense whatever.

Plans of the institution, and rules of the registry, may be had gratis,
at the society’s house, No. 110, Hatton Garden, where attendance is
given on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays only, from ten o’clock to

Though much of this address is applicable to servants of both _sexes_,
yet, it is for the assistance of _domestic female servants_, that such
plain advice is here offered, as, it is hoped, may be found useful in
the direction of their conduct, and for the promotion of their comfort.
As many servants cannot enjoy the daily counsel of their _parents_, we
endeavor to supply their place, by entering into _more particulars_, in
the way of caution and advice, than we otherwise should have thought it
right to do.

When young persons _first enter upon service_, they should be thankful
to God if they have obtained a situation where they may be _instructed_
in those domestic duties which are to be the business of their lives.
They ought also to be very thankful, and very submissive, to those
who will take the trouble to teach them. Such cannot shew their
gratitude in a better way than by continuing, as long as possible, in
their _first_ service. Endeavour, during this season, to remember, by
thinking often upon, every direction you receive. This will prevent
the trouble and vexation of often repeating to you the same thing—a
circumstance which frequently makes even good mistresses fretful, and
occasions many changes of places and servants.—Habituate yourself, as
much as possible, to _every_ kind of domestic service; it will make
you to be more generally useful, and less likely to be long unengaged.
Here may be hinted, the great importance to your character, of lodging,
when out of place, with only _respectable_ persons. Avoid sauntering in
the street, especially in the evening, and ask your way, not from those
who are passing, but at a shop.

Make it your daily study and concern in all things to _maintain
an unblemished character_. You may then always hope to find a new
situation, if you need one, through the medium of your last mistress,
or your own _friends_; for _very_ good employers, or _very_ good
servants, seldom need apply to _common_ Register Offices. It is a fact
well ascertained, that many females, totally unconscious of their
danger, have been hired from such offices, _as servants_, by keepers of
infamous houses, for no other actual purpose than that of seduction, or
prostitution! Many decent looking, but wicked _women_, are employed,
even in the streets, to find out, and strongly recommend, young girls
to places as servants. By this horrible deceit, many artless females
are unawares drawn into disgrace, disease, and hasty death!

In your application at any time for a _new service_, express yourself
with frankness and sincerity on every point of enquiry—Avoid the error
of requiring too high wages—many good situations have been lost through
it. Do not undertake a service to which you are not competent. It is no
disgrace not to know every thing; but it is dishonest to say you can do
things which are beyond your capacity.

It is really important to your good here and hereafter, to stipulate
for attending _public worship_ once at least on every _Sabbath-day_. A
_good_ mistress, who wishes to keep a good servant, will afford _other_
and better opportunities for seeing your friends. _Sunday pleasures_,
in which there is generally a sad mixture of company, put a young woman
in the highway of danger—and of ruin!

In _commencing_ a new service, determine to do your duty in it; and
avoid every thing that you found was displeasing in your former place.
Judge of your employers from your _own_ observation, and _their_
behaviour to _you_, and not from any idle reports you may hear to their
prejudice. Should you find yourself in a reputable situation, but yet
are _uncomfortable_, through the unkind or unfeeling tempers of your
superiors, double your own diligence and _civility_, and avoid every
thing, as much as possible, that might, however unwarrantably, excite
their suspicion. By this you may improve their temper and conduct
towards yourself; and the very vexation they _have_ occasioned, may
dispose them to make their domestics more comfortable, and themselves
more happy.

Endeavour to serve with such _good will_, readiness of mind, and
attention to the _lawful_ interest and convenience of your employers,
as to render your services almost _necessary_ to them; that they may
know and feel that they are blessed, above many of their neighbours, in
having gotten a _good servant_, one who serves, not with eye-service as
a man-pleaser, but in simplicity of heart as a Christian. You will be
sure to gain esteem by _cheerfully_ doing any lawful necessary service;
though it were not agreed for when you were hired.

Whatever qualifications you may possess, if you are not _scrupulously_
HONEST, you will soon be detected—considered as worthless—and dismissed
your service. No civility or diligence can be a recompence for
dishonesty. The more you are entrusted, the more careful you should
be to maintain the confidence reposed in you. Avoid all _lotteries_,
gaming, and _secret_ modes of spending money. Take care that you are
not deceived by the name of _privileges and perquisites_, beyond what
_was agreed_ upon.

A WASTE of household necessaries, and the breaking of articles through
_carelessness_, are a sort of robbery of your employer—raise bad
passions—and mostly deprive a servant of many extra encouragements that
she would otherwise receive. These things are therefore to be strictly
guarded against. There should be painted over every kitchen fire-place,

Every employer has a right to establish _rules_ for his household;
therefore, do nothing in your master’s house, or with your mistress’s
business, that you feel obliged to conceal, _to keep your situation_;
for then, you may depend upon it, whatever it be, it is wrong in
itself, and will bring you to harm.

Industry is necessary for ALL, that they may lead a useful life;
but it is especially needful to those who engage to _serve_ others.
Idleness hath clothed many with rags. Your wages are the yearly pay
for your honesty, and your time; therefore lying late in bed, or being
over long on errands, or making frivolous excuses to be from home,
have occasioned many suspicions—deprived many of good places, and
eventually of good characters. “_He that is slothful in his work is
brother to him that is a great waster._” Exercise due diligence as to
what are the particular duties of your station. Make it your study to
put it out of the power of a _reasonable_ mistress to find fault.

DRESS _as becomes your station_, if you desire to please your
employers,—to avoid personal harm, and to diminish the number and power
of _your_ temptations. The happiness of society arises from each of us
keeping in our station, and being contented with it. Among other ways
of shewing your wisdom, _dressing clean and neat_, is of the greatest
importance. By this means, you may save a little money to assist your
relations, or yourself when unemployed, or in time of need.[3]

MILDNESS _of behaviour_ will help you through many difficulties. If
your temper be hasty, your duty and interest are to govern and subdue
it. Our comfort requires us to be patient with other people, and very
watchful over our _own tempers_. “Do all things without murmuring or
disputing. A soft answer turneth away wrath, but grievous words stir up
strife.” Mere _hastiness_ of temper and of _tongue_, or the neglect to
_consider_ consequences, has crowded the gaols with malefactors,—the
streets with prostitutes,—and the workhouses with poor.

Young Persons, Female Servants, and others of a similar rank in
life, we more especially address ourselves to you! You think with
horror of murder, and of prostitution; but you perhaps little
reflect, that idleness and self-will,—that the love of dress, and
of indulgence,—that petty acts of dishonesty,—that misbehaviour in
a place—that refusing to submit to reproof,—that _rashly throwing
yourselves out of a situation in a regular family_,—that wasting
your money, and thus leaving yourselves unprovided for when out of
employment,—that breaking the Sabbath, and particularly rambling about
in idle company on the evenings of the Sabbath-day—you perhaps little
reflect that these, or any of these evil practices, or habits, may lead
you, and that by no very long or winding path, to the atrocious crimes
which I have mentioned. Act therefore on consideration and reason, and
not by passion. You know not how you may irritate, and what mischief
may follow. Many a servant has lost a comfortable home, and a mistress
a useful assistant, by suffering passion to run headlong into imprudent
expressions. _You_ are more interested in retaining a good service,
than your employer in retaining _you_; for _she_ will continue to find
suitable servants, while you may be depriving yourself, for a long
time, of bread!

A female servant should never make _friendships_ with, or take the
advice of, milk people, butchers’ or bakers’ servants, keepers of
chandlers’ shops, green-stalls, charwomen, &c.; for mostly they
seek only their own interest and profit in every thing. If any proposal
that is new, or unexpectedly profitable, force itself on your notice,
do not act on your own opinion, nor hastily, but, confidentially,
consult your mistress, or some relation, else you may be as hastily
ensnared to your utter undoing.

For want of the confidence and esteem I allude to, there seems to be,
in most families, two _separate interests_—that of the employers,
and that of the servants.—Some servants communicate none of their
_personal_ affairs to their mistresses, and therefore mistresses are
not incited to take any special interest in _their_ future welfare.
Hence, although such parties may live a considerable time together,
they are almost strangers, and nothing like _friendship_ can take
place. This is a great loss to a _servant_. If you expect to have
confidence placed in _you_, be sincere in all your expressions, and
open, explicit, and communicative in all your dealings.

In regard of your _fellow-servants_—conduct yourselves with great
_caution_ towards those whose habits are immoral and irreligious—with
_studied_ discretion and _modesty_ towards fellow-servants of the
other sex, and with a constant good example before them all. This
will _oblige_ them to respect you, and speak well of you: but _place
yourself_ under obligation to none of them. Do nothing that you would
wish _them_ to keep secret for _your_ sake. Whatever demands secrecy,
you may be sure it is wrong for you to do, or suffer to be done. If
you connive with fellow-servants, or low tradesmen, at any thing
fraudulent, _you are defrauding_ a master or mistress, whose property
you are bound to watch and protect; and you incur the guilt and shame
of the fraud, though you may not participate in the gain.

As far as you can, give good advice to your fellow-servants, especially
younger ones—read the Bible to those who cannot, and, if you have time,
teach them to read it for themselves, and pray with them, and for
them. This conduct will promote good will, and may preserve the young
and unwary from evil.[4]

Servants in _other_ families ought not to be told the peculiar
habits and conduct of your own employers, except it be done to their
commendation; for it may create disrespect, and _can_ do no good.

In all cases, one way to escape harm is to be _diligent_ and _useful_.
Let others see that you are _virtuous_ from principle, and wish to set
a good example, and you will not be assailed by the temptations of the
designing and wicked, as vain and trifling girls render themselves
liable to be.

Be very careful of your _reputation_ for virtue and discretion in
regard of the other sex; for it is the foundation of your happiness
in this world; and the loss of it will bring you to misery. Avoid
as much as possible going out in the _evening_, especially on
frivolous errands. Be cautious as to whom you give your company.
“Evil communications corrupt good manners.” Never go to _fairs_,
_dances_, nor to the theatres. Ask yourself, before you engage in any
_pleasuring_ scheme—what may be the probable end of it?

On all unnecessary occasions, avoid as much as possible being alone
with the other sex: as the greatest mischiefs happen from small
circumstances. Who that is wise would risk the loss of her virtue and
happiness on mere _promises_, made by men of worthless character, and
which are made only to be broken? Never trust entirely to your own
fortitude—it can only be tried by opportunity; and if, in this case,
it fail but _once_, you are undone! The best resolve you can form is,
never to give opportunity to the tempter. A reserved modesty is the
best safeguard of virtue.

If a virtuous affection seems to be rising, be sure you instantly
calculate on the age and temper, religious conduct, and probable
ability of the man to maintain a family, before you suffer your mind to
be carried away, lest your affections run headlong, and at length are
taken advantage of, to the complete loss of your comfort.

_Servants_, as well as others, are under peculiar obligation, to
manifest a MEEK and QUIET SPIRIT—to follow, in their practice, Him who
said, “I am meek and lowly in heart.” They will, therefore, submit to
a few inconveniences, if, by so doing, they may be useful to their
fellow-servants, by shewing a Christian spirit, and will consider
daily, that _self-denial_, when our station may require it, is the
_duty_ of all.

Our Saviour has thus commanded us:—“_Whatsoever ye would that men
should do to you, do ye even so to them._” This is a summary of the law
and the prophets as to our conduct. It is a general rule, applicable in
a thousand cases to persons in every situation. On its due observance
by all the people of a house, each toward the other, depends the
measure of comfort which may be attained in the present state. The
_Rule_ is so _reasonable_, so _just_, and so _useful_, that the neglect
of it shews the sad state of our fallen nature. Put yourself, for a
moment, in the place of your master, mistress, or fellow-servants; and
then judge what _you_ might fairly and justly expect from the servants
in the same house. Were _you_ a mistress, you would expect all those
duties to be discharged by _your_ servants, which we recommend, and
consequently, the MISTRESS, whom you actually serve, justly expects
these things from _you_. Where this mode of thinking and acting is
adopted, it prevents many disputes—maintains peace in the house—or soon
restores it, if, on some uncomfortable occasion, it happens to have
been lost. None of us are without some failings. The best of people are
very far from being, at all times, so good as they should be, therefore
_good_ servants and _good_ employers will endeavour to put the best
construction they can on each others conduct; and judge of each other
rather by the _general behaviour_, than by any particular action.

_Obedience_ is the grand duty which includes almost every other, in the
relation between masters and mistresses, and servants. _Disobedience_
to lawful commands in a servant is dishonesty. Act therefore with
submission to the will and judgment of your superiors. If they require
things to be done, that are contrary to the laws of God or man, you
may with meekness decline them. If they _constantly_ require the
performance of what is beyond the _reasonable_ limit of your strength,
your ability, or your time, shew your _obedience_ and _respect_, by
explaining your reasons, when you signify your intention to leave.
Whatever personal inconvenience you may feel, do not slander your
employers, either abroad or at home, respecting it, but apply to
_them_ for its removal. Always be contented and cheerful in your
service, or respectfully retire from it. It is very unworthy to behave
improperly, or to watch an opportunity to give warning, merely because
you hope to gain _higher wages_ in the next place. Rather respectfully
ask for advance, and if you are a good servant, and your wish is not
unreasonable, it will be granted. Never suffer yourself to leave a
family, without leaving your best wishes for the welfare of those whom
you have served.

It is a more serious thing to _leave_ a good situation than many
are aware of. You may never obtain such another place, all things
considered; and may be long unsettled. “A rolling stone gathers no
moss.” A servant that is not stationary seldom obtains _friends_
that are able and willing to assist her. You now know _all_ the
inconveniences that attend your present situation, but you cannot know
whether _much greater_ may not be found in the next you obtain. Most
situations have their advantages and disadvantages. Calculate, as far
as you can, upon both, as they are found in the place where you _now_
are. Higher wages for another service is no proof that it would be a
_better_ one, all things considered.

Nothing is so comfortable and _creditable_ to all parties, as when a
servant lives _many years_ in the same family. Such servants never want
a _real_ friend. Though you _may_ perhaps obtain a new service by a
three months’ character, you will be respected if you have lived three
years in your situation, but still more, if you have lived seven.

The great master principle of all faithful service is an earnest
desire and endeavor to act according to the WILL OF GOD. The reason
why _servants_ as well as others, are so defective and partial in the
discharge of their duties, and therefore are so often uncomfortable
and distressed, is, that they are not influenced as they ought to be,
by this principle. Those, who think of their need of God’s help, and
love him with their hearts, and minds, and strength, _he_ will love
and honor. “I love them that love me,” saith the Almighty. “They that
honor _me_, I will honor; and those who despise me, shall be lightly


The celebrated Dean Swift, of facetious memory, who was a man of great
genius and talent, and had an extensive knowledge of the world, in his
_burlesque_ Advice to Servants, by holding up their faults and vices
as _laudable examples_ for imitation, teaches them, in one continued
vein of sarcastic irony, what _they ought not to do_;—we therefore
transcribe a considerable portion thereof, by way of _negative_
advice.—_Good servants will applaud this artifice, and bad ones will
feel its force._

  “When your master or lady calls a servant by name, if the servant be
  not in the way, none of you are to answer, for then there will be no
  end of your drudgery: and masters themselves allow, that if a servant
  comes when he is called, it is sufficient.

  “When you have done a fault, be always pert and insolent, and behave
  yourself as if you were the injured person; this will immediately put
  your master or lady off their mettle.

  “If you see your master wronged by any of your fellow-servants, be
  sure to _conceal_ it, for fear of being called a tell-tale: however,
  there is one exception in case of a favourite servant, who is justly
  hated by the whole family; and you are bound in prudence to lay all
  the faults you can upon the favourite.

  “The cook, the butler, the groom, the market-man, and every other
  servant who is concerned in the expenses of the family, should act as
  if his master’s _whole estate_ ought to be applied to that servant’s
  particular business. For instance, if the cook computes his master’s
  estate to be a thousand pounds a year, she reasonably concludes that
  a thousand pounds a year will afford _meat_ enough, and therefore,
  he need not be sparing; the butler makes the same judgment, so may
  the groom and the coachman; and thus every branch of expense will be
  filled to your master’s _honour_.

  “When you are chid before company, it often happens that some
  stranger will have the good-nature to drop a word in your excuse;—in
  such a case you will have a good title to justify yourself, and may
  rightly conclude, that, whenever he chides you afterwards, on other
  occasions, he may be in the wrong; in which opinion you will be the
  better confirmed by stating the case to your fellow-servants in your
  own way, who will certainly decide in your favour;—therefore, as I
  have said before, whenever you are chidden, complain as if you were

  “It often happens, that servants sent on messages are apt to stay
  out somewhat longer than the message requires, perhaps two, four,
  six, or eight hours, or some such trifle; for the temptation to be
  sure was great, and flesh and blood cannot always resist: when you
  return, the master storms, the lady scolds; stripping, cudgelling,
  and turning off, is the word. But here you ought to be provided with
  a set of excuses, enough to serve on all occasions: for instance,
  your uncle came fourscore miles to town this morning on purpose to
  see you, and goes back by break of day to-morrow:—a brother servant
  that borrowed money of you when he was out of place, was _running to
  Ireland_:—you were taking leave of an old fellow-servant, who was
  shipping for _Barbadoes_:—your father sent a cow to you to sell, and
  you could not get a chapman for her till nine at night:—you wrenched
  your foot against a stone, and were forced to stay three hours in a
  shop, before you could stir a step:—a bailiff, by mistake, seized you
  for a debtor, and kept you the whole evening in a spunging house, &c.

  “Take all tradesmen’s parts against your master; and when you are
  sent to buy anything, never offer to cheapen it, but generously pay
  the full demand. This is highly to your master’s _honour_; and may
  be some shillings in your pocket; and you are to consider, if your
  master has paid too much, he can better afford the loss than a poor

  “Never submit to stir a finger in any business, but that for which
  you were particularly hired. For example, if the groom be drunk, or
  absent, and the butler be ordered to shut the stable-door, the answer
  is ready, An’t please your honour, I don’t understand _horses_. If
  a corner of the hangings wants a single nail to fasten it, and the
  footman be directed to tack it up, he may say, he doth not understand
  that sort of work, but his honour may send for the upholsterer.

  “Masters and ladies are usually quarrelling with the servants for
  not shutting the doors after them: for neither masters nor ladies
  consider, that those doors must be open before they can be shut, and
  the labour is double to open and shut them; therefore the best, the
  shortest, and the easiest way is to do _neither_. But if you are so
  often teazed to shut the door, that you cannot easily forget; then
  give the door such a clap as you go out, as will shake the whole
  room, and make every thing rattle in it, to put your master and lady
  in mind that you observe their directions.

  “If you find yourself to grow in favour with your master or lady,
  take some opportunity in a very mild way to give them warning; and
  when they ask the reason, and seem loth to part with you, answer
  that you would rather live with them than any body else, but a poor
  servant is not to be blamed if he strives to better himself;—that
  service is no inheritance,—that your work is great, and your wages
  very small. Upon which, if your master hath any generosity, he will
  add five or ten shillings a quarter rather than let you go: but if
  you are baulked, and have no mind to go off, get some fellow-servant
  to tell your master, that he hath prevailed upon you to stay.

  “Whatever _tid bits_ you can _pilfer_ in the day, save them to
  juncket with your fellow-servants at night, and take in the _butler_,
  provided he will give you _drink_.

  “Write your own name, and your sweet-heart’s, with the smoke of a
  candle, on the ceiling of the kitchen, or the servants’-hall, to shew
  your learning.

  “If you are a young sightly fellow, whenever you whisper your young
  mistress at tea-table, run your nose full in her cheek; or, if your
  breath be good, breath full in her face; this I have known to have
  had very good consequences in some families.

  “Never come till you have been called three or four times, for none
  but _dogs_ will come at the first whistle: and when the master calls,
  _Who’s there?_ no servant is bound to come; for _Who’s there_ is
  nobody’s name.

  “When you have broken all your earthen drinking-vessels below stairs
  (which is usually done in a week), the copper pot will do as well;
  it can boil milk, heat porridge, hold small beer, or, in case of
  necessity, serve other purposes; therefore apply it indifferently to
  all these uses; but never wash or scour it, for fear of taking off
  the tin.

  “Let it be a constant rule, that no chair, stool, or table, in the
  servants’-hall, or the kitchen, shall have above three legs, which
  hath been the ancient and constant practice in all the families I
  ever knew, and is said to be founded upon two reasons; first, to shew
  that servants are ever in a _tottering_ condition; secondly, it was
  thought a point of _humility_, that the servants’ chairs and tables
  should have at least one leg fewer than those of their masters. I
  grant there hath been an exception to this rule with regard to the
  cook, who by old custom was allowed an easy chair to _sleep_ in
  after dinner; and yet I have seldom seen them with above three legs.
  Now this epidemical lameness of servants’ chairs is by philosophers
  imputed to two causes, which are observed to make the greatest
  revolutions in states and empires; I mean, _love and war_. A stool, a
  chair, or a table, is the first weapon taken up in a general romping
  or skirmish; and after a peace, the chairs are apt to suffer in the
  conduct of _an amour_, the cook being usually fat and heavy, and the
  butler a little in drink.

  “When you stop to tattle with some crony servant, in the same street,
  leave your own street-door _open_, that you may get in without
  knocking when you come back; otherwise your mistress may know you are
  gone out, and you may be chidden.

  “I do most earnestly exhort you all to unanimity and concord: but
  mistake me not: you may quarrel with each other as much as you
  please; only always bear in mind, that you have a _common enemy_,
  which is your master and lady, and you have a common cause to
  defend. Believe an old practitioner; whoever, out of malice to a
  fellow-servant, carries a tale to his master, will be ruined by a
  general confederacy against him.

  “The general place for rendezvous for all the servants, both in
  winter and summer, is the kitchen: there the grand affairs of the
  family ought to be consulted; whether they concern the stable,
  the dairy, the pantry, the laundry, the cellar, the nursery, the
  dining-room, or my lady’s chamber: there, as in your own proper
  element, you can laugh, and squall, and romp in full security.

  “When any servant comes home drunk, and cannot appear, you must all
  join in telling your master, that he is gone to bed very sick; upon
  which your lady will be so good-natured as to order some comfortable
  thing for the poor man, or maid.

  “When your master and lady go abroad together, to dinner, or on a
  visit for the evening, you need leave _only one_ servant in the
  house, or even one black-guard boy to answer at the door, and
  attend the children, if there be any. Who is to stay at home is to
  be determined by long and short cuts; and the stayer at home may be
  comforted by a visit from a sweet-heart, without danger of being
  caught together. These opportunities must _never_ be missed, because
  they come but seldom, and all is safe enough while there is a servant
  in the house.

  “When your master or lady comes home, and wants a servant who happens
  to be abroad, your answer must be, that he had but just that minute
  stept out, being sent for by a cousin who was dying.

  “If your master calls you by name, and you happen to answer at the
  fourth call, you need not hurry yourself; and if you be chidden for
  staying, you may lawfully say, you came no sooner, because you did
  not know _what_ you were called for.

  “When you are chidden for a fault, as you go out of the room, and
  down stairs, _mutter_ loud enough to be plainly heard; this will make
  him believe you are innocent.

  “Whoever comes to visit your master or lady when they are abroad,
  _never_ burthen your memory with the person’s name; for, indeed, you
  have too many other things to remember. Besides, it is a porter’s
  business, and your master’s fault he does not keep one; and who can
  remember names? and you will certainly mistake them; as you can
  neither write nor read.

  “If it be possible, never tell a lie to your master or lady, _unless_
  you have some hopes that they cannot find it out in less than half
  an hour. When a servant is turned off, all his faults must be told,
  although most of them were never known by his master or lady; and all
  mischiefs done by others, charged to him. [Instance them.] And when
  they ask any of you, why you never acquainted them before? the answer
  is, Sir, or Madam, really I was afraid it would make you angry; and
  besides, perhaps, you might think it was malice in me. Where there
  are little masters and misses in a house, they are usually great
  impediments to the diversions of the servants; the only remedy is to
  bribe them with _goody goodies_, that they may not tell tales to papa
  and mamma.

  “I advise you of the servants, whose master lives in the country, and
  who expect vales, always to stand rank and file when a stranger is
  taking his leave, so that he must of necessity pass between you; and
  he must have more confidence or less money than usual if any of you
  let him _escape_; and according as he behaves himself, remember to
  treat him the _next time_ he comes.

  “If you are sent with ready money to buy any thing at a shop and
  happen at that time to be out of cash, _sink the money_, and take
  up the goods on your master’s account. This is for the _honour_ of
  your master and yourself; for he becomes a man of credit at your

  “When your lady sends for you up to her chamber to give you any
  orders, be sure to stand at the door, and keep it open, fiddling with
  the lock all the while she is talking to you; and keep the handle in
  your hand, for fear you should forget to shut the door after you.

  “If your master or lady happen once in their lives to accuse you
  wrongfully, you are a _happy_ servant; for you have nothing more
  to do, than, for _every_ fault you commit while you are in their
  service, to put them in mind of that false accusation, and protest
  yourself equally innocent in the present case.

  “When you have a mind to leave your master, and are too bashful to
  break the matter for fear of offending him, the best way is to grow
  rude and saucy of a sudden, and beyond your usual behaviour, till
  he finds it necessary to turn you off; and when you are gone, to
  _revenge_ yourself, give him and his lady _such_ a character to all
  your brother-servants who are out of place, that _none_ will venture
  to offer their service.

  “Some nice ladies, who are afraid of catching cold, having observed
  that the maids and fellows below stairs often forget to shut the
  doors after them, as they come in, or go out into the back yards,
  have contrived that a pulley and a rope, with a large piece of lead
  at the end, should be so fixt, as to make the door shut of itself,
  and require a strong hand to open it, which is an immense toil to
  servants, whose business may force them to go in and out fifty times
  in a morning: but _ingenuity_ can do much, for prudent servants have
  found out an effectual remedy against this insupportable grievance,
  by _tying up_ the pulley in such a manner, that the weight of lead
  shall have no effect; however, as to my own part, I would rather
  chuse to keep the door _always open_, by laying a heavy stone at the
  bottom of it.

  “The servants’ candlesticks are generally broken, for nothing
  can last for ever. But you may find out many expedients; you may
  conveniently stick your candle in a bottle, or with a lump of butter
  against the wainscot, in a powder-horn, or in an old shoe, or in a
  cleft stick, or in the barrel of a pistol, or upon its own grease on
  a table, in a coffee-cup, or a drinking-glass, a horn-can, a tea-pot,
  a twisted napkin, a mustard-pot, an ink-horn, a marrow-bone, a piece
  of dough, or you may cut a hole in the loaf, and stick it there.

  “When you invite the neighbouring servants to junket with you at
  home in an evening, teach them a peculiar way of tapping or scraping
  at the kitchen-window, which you may hear, but not your master or
  lady, whom you must take care not to disturb or frighten at such
  unseasonable hours.

  “Lay all faults upon a lap-dog, or favourite cat, a monkey, parrot,
  a child; or on the servant who was last turned off: by this rule you
  will excuse yourself, do no hurt to any body else, and save your
  master or lady from the trouble and vexation of chiding.

  “When you want proper instruments for any work you are about, use
  all expedients you can invent, rather than leave your work undone.
  For instance, if the poker be out of the way, or broken, stir the
  fire with the tongs; if the tongs be not at hand, use the muzzle of
  the _bellows_, the wrong end of the fire-shovel, the handle of the
  fire-brush, the end of a mop, or your master’s cane. If you want
  paper to singe a fowl, _tear_ the first book you see about the house.
  Wipe your shoes, for want of a clout, with the bottom of a curtain,
  or a damask napkin. Strip off your livery lace for garters. If the
  butler wants a jordan, he may use the great silver cup.

  “There are several ways of putting out candles, and you ought to
  be instructed in them all: you may run the candle-end against the
  wainscot, which puts the snuff out immediately: you may lay it on
  the ground, and tread the snuff out with your foot: you may hold it
  upside down, until it is choaked with its own grease; or cram it
  into the socket of the candlestick: you may whirl it round in your
  hand till it goes out: you may spit on your finger and thumb, and
  pinch the snuff till it goes out. The cook may run the candle’s nose
  into the meal-tub, or the groom into a vessel of oats, or a lock of
  hay, or a heap of litter: the house-maid may put her candle out by
  running it against a looking-glass, which nothing cleans so well as
  candle-snuff: but the quickest and best of all methods is, to blow it
  out with your breath, which leaves the candle clear, and readier to
  be lighted.

  “There is nothing so pernicious in a family as a tell-tale, against
  whom it must be the principal business of you _all_ to unite:
  whatever office he serves in, take all opportunities to spoil the
  business he is about, and to cross him in every thing. For instance,
  if the butler be a tell-tale, break his glasses whenever he leaves
  the pantry door open; or lock the cat or the mastiff in it, who will
  do as well: mislay a fork or a spoon, so as he may never find it. If
  it be the cook, whenever she turns her back, throw a lump of soot or
  a handful of salt in the pot, or smoking coals into the dripping-pan,
  or daub the roast meat with the back of the chimney, or hide the key
  of the jack. If a footman be suspected, let the cook daub the back
  of his new livery; or when he is going up with a dish of soup, let
  her follow him softly with a ladle-full, and dribble it all the way
  up stairs to the dining-room; and then let the house-maid make such
  a noise, that her lady may hear it. The waiting-maid is very likely
  to be guilty of this fault, in hopes to ingratiate herself: in this
  case, the laundress must be sure to tear her shifts in the washing,
  and yet wash them but half; and, when she complains, tell all the
  house that she sweats so much, and her flesh is so nasty, that she
  fouls a shift more in one hour, than the kitchen-maid doth in a week.”


                           COMPLETE SERVANT.


                            THE HOUSEKEEPER.

Although it is obvious that a good education can be no impediment
to domestic management, but may be of material assistance in the
furtherance of family comforts, yet it is pleasing to reflect that many
of the essential duties of life are within the reach of less exalted
attainments; and that the woman who has been reared in useful pursuits,
and whose chief aim is to perform the social obligations, will seldom
fail of acquitting herself with credit and satisfaction, and especially
if accompanied with that well-directed ductility of mind which bends
its attention to the lesser objects of life, and is frequently found to
be essential in the management of a family.

A housekeeper possessed of such facilities, as a ground-work for other
qualifications, must be a desirable acquisition in a family where the
mistress is of rank and consideration, and feels herself superior to
the management of her own household affairs. Indeed, the situation of
a housekeeper, in almost every family, is of great importance.—She
superintends nearly the whole of the domestic establishment,—has
generally the controul and direction of the servants, particularly
of the female servants—has the care of the household furniture and
linen—of all the grocery—dried and other fruits, spices, condiments,
soap, candles, and stores of all kinds, for culinary and other domestic
uses. She makes all the pickles, preserves, and sometimes the best
pastry—She generally distils and prepares all the compound and simple
waters, and spirits, essential and other oils, perfumery, cosmetics,
and similar articles that are prepared at home, for domestic purposes.
In short, she is the _locum tenens_, the _Lady Bountiful_, and the
active representative of the mistress of the family; and is expected to
do, or to see done, every thing that appertains to the good and orderly
management of the household.

She ought to be a steady middle-aged woman, of great experience in her
profession, and a tolerable knowledge of the world.—In her conduct, she
should be moral, exemplary, and assiduous, as the harmony, comfort, and
economy of the family will greatly depend on her example; and she must
know, that no occurrence can be too trifling for her attention, that
may lead to these results, and whereby waste and unnecessary expense
may be avoided.

When the entire management of the servants is deputed to her, her
situation becomes the more arduous and important. She will invite and
excite their integrity, frugality, and assiduity, by her own liberal
conduct towards them, and will shew them, that “_according to their
pains will be their gains_.” Thus will she give encouragement to
merit, ensure to herself respectful attention, inspire zeal, and
exact a grateful return from all whose dispositions are tractable;
she will also find such conduct tend much to her own comfort, and
greatly to promote the interest of her principals. She will never
discharge a good servant for a slight offence; but will remember,
that “_to bear and to forbear is the great art of living_.” She will
endeavour to govern with _suavity_ and _mildness_; ever stimulating
to good conduct, by _admonition_ or _praise_, when deserved, rather
than seeking by _threats_ or harsh measures to correct trifling faults
or inadvertencies;—imposing no commands that are unreasonable, nor
reproving but with _justice_ and _temper_. If servants have hardships
to undergo, she will let them see, that she feels for the necessity
of urging them. To cherish the desire of pleasing in them, she will
convince them, that they may succeed in their endeavours to please
her. Human nature is the same in all stations. Convince the servants
that you have a considerate regard for their comforts, and they will
be found to be grateful, and to reward your attention by their own
assiduity: besides, nothing is so endearing as being courteous to our
inferiors. A most excellent maxim is,

    “Be to their faults a _little blind_,
    And to their _virtues very kind_.”

By these, and similar means, _bad_ servants may be converted into _good
ones_, and the whole household rendered comfortable and happy.

The prudent housekeeper will carefully avoid all approaches to
familiarity; as that destroys subordination, and ultimately induces
contempt; and then, “Her occupation’s gone.” When servants are
indisposed, she will best consult the feelings of her superiors, as
well as her own, by remitting their labours, paying them attention,
giving them advice, and the assistance of suitable food and comfort.
_Tenderness and assiduity_, in such cases, have great effect;—and in
the language of humanity, _is half a cure_.

Female servants who would pursue an honest course, have numberless
difficulties to contend with, and should, therefore, be treated kindly.
The housekeeper in a great family, has ample means of doing good; and
she will, doubtless, recollect that it is a part of her duty to protect
and encourage virtue, as the best preventive from vice.

It behoves every servant to maintain a good character, nor ought it
to be refused when due.—Servants have nothing to depend on but their
good name, which it would be the height of injustice wantonly to
deprive them of.[5] It ought to be made a point, by all persons hiring
servants, most scrupulously to enquire into their characters, from
their last places.—To refuse countenance to the bad, and to encourage
the good servant, are indispensable duties which we owe to society.

In families where there is a house-steward, the marketing will be done,
and the tradesmen’s bills will be collected, examined, and discharged,
by him; but in many families, the business of marketing, and of
keeping the accounts, devolves on the housekeeper. It is, therefore,
incumbent on her to be well informed of the prices and qualities of
all articles of household consumption in general use; and of the
best times and seasons for procuring them, in order that by comparing
prices and qualities, she may be able to substitute those that are most
reasonable, but equally to her purpose, and best attainable, for others
that are more costly or more scarce.[6]

Before the housekeeper goes to market, she will look over the larder
with the cook, especially when company is expected, and on a Saturday,
and consider well what things are wanted, not forgetting even the
smaller articles, that so there may be no necessity for sending out in
a hurry, or on a Sunday, for any thing.

The best and most economical way possible for marketing, is to pay
_ready money_ for all that you can, especially for miscellaneous
articles, and to deal for the rest with the most respectable tradesmen,
whose bills should be settled weekly, or, at any rate, frequently,
to prevent mistakes; without these precautions, even those of much
experience, may chance to be cheated by unprincipled strangers, with
old poultry—stale fish—tough mutton—or cow beef.—It should always be
recollected, that without good provisions the skill of the cook will
avail nothing.

But, by whomsoever the provisions may be bought, it behoves the
housekeeper to examine them as they come in,—to see that in weight and
measure they agree with the tickets sent with them,—and to make the
necessary arrangements, in conjunction with the cook, for their due

Besides being a good market-woman, the housekeeper ought to be ready at
figures, and to understand the nature of common accounts, as it will
generally be her business to keep the detailed accounts of the family,
to examine the tradesmen’s bills by the checks, to pay them, and pay
for all miscellaneous articles as they are brought in, for which
vouchers must be given, to be produced when the account is settled;
and to avoid the possibility of mistake, this should be done weekly,
or at short and stated periods; for this purpose, a book must be kept,
in which entry should immediately be made, of all monies paid, and in
the evening, the book should be cast up, and compared with the cash
in hand, by which means, any omission that might have taken place in
the course of the day may easily be recollected and set right, and the
account will be ready for inspection when called for.

The elegant and tasteful arrangement of the table is a very essential
object in every Establishment; and when that department devolves on
the housekeeper, will require her very serious consideration; as
much of the credit and respectability of the family will depend on
her.—Economy, taste, and tact must necessarily be displayed, and its
execution involves much judgment, great attention, and unceasing
assiduity. In order to have a table well served, and tastefully
arranged, the skill and ingenuity of the cook, as well as the
housekeeper, will be required—of the cook to dress it according to the
_fashion_, and of the housekeeper, afterwards, to see that it be dished
and served up according to the present _costume_.[8]

The etiquette of the table being arranged by the _bill of fare_,
previously made out, and the dishes laid in order below stairs; it is
the province of the housekeeper, when dinner is served up, to see that
the butler has placed them properly on the table above; this requires a
quick glance of the eye, and a correct taste to measure distances,—and
to see that the dishes accord with each other, and thereby form a
pleasing, inviting, and well-grouped picture.[9]

The housekeeper will employ the little leisure time she may have before
the servants’ dinner hour, which in most families is generally early,
in preparing the best pastry, or in doing any other things she can
assist in, preparatory to the family dinner; at any rate, she will
look around and see that the household business is, every where, going
on regularly, and the culinary preparations getting forward. She then
takes her seat at the head of the table, in the steward’s, or her own
room, with the principal female servants and the men not in livery.
In this situation she will have to carve, and as she will occasionally
be required to assist the cook in dissecting a dish to be sent up
stairs, it is indispensably necessary that she be proficient in the art
of carving: and besides, to carve meat well, is a great saving.[10]
It would argue prudence and economy in her, to see that the pieces of
bread which are brought down stairs, be eaten at this table, or in the
servants’-hall, and it would be extravagance to suffer _new_ bread to
be eaten below stairs.

When the dinner is gone up, her attention will be directed to the
_dessert_, which she prepares and lays out in her own room, previous to
the removal of the cloth above stairs; when she makes her appearance
with it, and arranges it on the dining-room table.

The Housekeeper now begins to find herself at leisure; by this time
too, the maids will have done the principal part of their work above
stairs, and the cook, kitchen-maid, and scullion, have washed up, and
cleared away every thing, and cleaned up the kitchen.—After tea, the
provident housekeeper will begin to think about _to-morrow_; evening
being the best time for preparing all things that are likely to be
wanted soon.—Small quantities of spices should be pounded and ground,
and laid by in bottles, well corked, ready for use.—Much less spices
are necessary, in gravies, &c. when thus prepared, than when boiled
whole.—Raisins may be stoned, if wanted next day.—Currants may be
washed, picked, and perfectly dried. White sugars should be broken,
or pounded, rolled with a bottle, and sifted. Some of the oranges and
lemons, to be used for juice, should be pared, and the rind put by to
dry; and of some, when squeezed, and the pulp scraped out, the rinds
may be kept dry for grating.

[The Salary of the Housekeeper is from twenty-five to fifty guineas per
annum, dependent on the extent of the family, and the nature of the
business she undertakes.]

                         _Useful Memorandums._

Provisions that will keep, should be laid in in quantities when
cheapest, to be ready when wanted.—The best of all kinds are the most
economical, not only because they _are best_, but also, because they go

As sugar is an article of considerable expense, it is to be understood
that, of the _white_ sugars, the most refined goes furthest and
sweetens best. Chuse those that are close, heavy, and shining.—The best
sorts of the _brown_ have a bright gravelly look. The coarser sorts are
strongest and fittest for wines, sweetmeats, &c.

The only certain road to regularity, is to do every thing in its proper
time—keep every thing in its proper place—and apply every thing to its
proper use.

The great Dutch statesman, De Witt, attributed the whole art of
dispatching a multitude of business, to the _doing of one thing at a

The want of regularity gives to families the appearance of chance and
confusion; on the contrary, order in a family is productive of much

Accustom all the servants under your direction to _rise early_, and
let them breakfast at an early hour. If orders be given betimes in
the morning, there will be more time to execute them,—servants will
perform their work with more ease,—and less hands will be required. If
the economy of time were duly considered, and a regular plan of daily
employment laid down, much business may be effected without hurry or

As some preparation is necessary in all families for accidental
visitors, care should be taken to have things in readiness for lunch,
chocolate, sandwiches, &c.

An inventory of furniture, linen, china, plate, &c. should be kept,
and the articles examined by it twice a year, at least, or oftener if
the servants be changed, and a correct list of the articles delivered
into the care of the new servants should be kept.—House-cloths,
knife-cloths, &c. should be numbered, and always be accounted for,
either whole or in part—which would be done if a note were inserted at
the top of the list of the articles delivered out.

Tin fenders, and other things that are painted, should be painted every
year or two.—Tin vessels, if suffered to become damp, soon rust, and
are eaten into holes.

The best way to scald fruits or to boil vinegar is, to put it in a
stone jar on an iron hearth—or to put the jar in a saucepan of boiling
water, called a _water bath_.

                     THE STORE-ROOM AND STILL-ROOM.

These rooms are entirely under the management of the housekeeper.
The STORE-ROOM is appropriated as a depository for such imperishable
articles of household consumption as are in continual request, and may
be laid up, when purchased in quantities,—at times when cheapest,—most
in season, or best—to be ready at hand when wanted.

☞ Let every thing, not only here, but all over the house, be kept in
its _proper place_, applied to its _proper use_, and _replaced_ when
worn out or destroyed.

_N. B. To save the trouble of referring to different places, for the
several methods of storing or preserving many articles which are
proper to be kept, we shall insert under this head every thing of this
description that may occur to us._

SOAP will be the better for keeping—indeed, it should not be used
when newly made. The cakes should be cut with a wire or string, into
oblong squares, and laid up, on a dry shelf, a little distance apart,
and across each other, so as to admit the air betwixt them, to harden
it.—This method will save one third. _Note_,—If dried fast, soap will
crack and break when wetted.

CANDLES and SOAP made in cold weather, are best; and when the price of
these articles are likely to be high, a reasonable stock of both should
be laid in.—Candles, if kept packed in a chest, will be the better for
keeping eight or ten months, and may be kept well, if necessary, for
two years.

STARCH should be bought when flour is cheap, and may be kept in a dry
warm place, if closely covered, as long as may be necessary.

LOAF SUGARS should be kept tied up in paper, and hung up in a dry
place. Brown sugars should be kept covered up, and in a moderately dry

SWEETMEATS, PRESERVES, &c. must be carefully kept from the air, and in
a very dry place.

TEAS, COFFEE, CHOCOLATE, DRIED FRUITS, and generally, all kinds of
Grocery and Condiments require to be kept dry and free from air.

The various kinds of SEEDS and RICE, PEARL-BARLEY, OATMEAL, &c. must
be kept in a dry place, and be _covered close_, to preserve them from

BREAD is best kept in an earthern pan with a cover. A loaf should not
be cut till it is a day old. The bread that is cut unnecessarily in the
parlour, should be eaten at the second table before more is cut.

Writing and other papers, that are constantly wanted, should be bought
by the ream or bundle, and kept in a dry place.

APPLES should be spread, separately, on clean dry straw, on a dry
upper floor, and care must be taken to preserve them from frost.—The
Americans throw a clean canvas cloth over them, which will answer the

PEARS should be hung up, singly, by the stalk in a dry place.

GRAPES should be gathered before they are ripe, and may also be
preserved hung up in single bunches the same way;—or they may be kept
in saw-dust, in boxes with covers, to exclude the air—Every bunch being
laid apart.

ORANGES and LEMONS, if bought when cheapest, may be preserved a long
time, packed in fine, dried sand, with their stems upwards, and kept
from the influence of the air.

FRESH MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, &c. should be kept in a cool, airy place.

All SALTED and DRIED MEATS, hams, tongues, &c. should be tied up in
strong paper, and must be kept in a cold, dry place, (not in the
kitchen) else they will become musty and rancid.

GREEN VEGETABLES should be kept on a damp stone floor, and excluded
from the air by a damp cloth thrown over them.

CARROTS, PARSNIPS, and BEET-ROOTS, must be kept in layers of dry sand
for winter use. Neither these nor potatoes should be washed till wanted.

POTATOES must be carefully covered, to protect them from frost, in

ONIONS should be tied in traces, and hung up in a cold dry place. If
the root of each onion be seared, it can never grow.

PARSLEY should be cut close to the root, and dried in a warm room.

TRUFFLES, MORELS, &c. must be kept in bags in a dry place.

A bag should be kept to save all the waste rags; this will not only be
economical, but will prevent litter.

☞ For the management of SAVOURY and SWEET HERBS, see Vegetables, p. 87.

                          THE STILL-ROOM MAID.

The business of this servant is to wait on and assist the housekeeper;
not only in the distillation of aromatic waters, spirits, and oils,—in
the making of essences, perfumery, &c. but also, in the making of
pickles, preserves, pastry, and confectionary; in making coffee,
&c. to go up stairs; in washing up the china; in the management and
arrangement of the STORE-ROOM; and whatever else she may have to employ
her in.

[Wages from eight to twelve guineas per annum.]

                          THE ART OF CARVING.


The art of carving is an useful and elegant accomplishment; and,
according to the fashion of the present day, cannot be too well
understood by the _Heads of Families_. It may best be acquired by
observation and practice; and to _Young Ladies_ who can attend to the
example of their parents, the following plain and familiar instructions
may not be unacceptable.—A previous knowledge of the conformation of
the several parts, and the peculiar nature of the article to be carved,
will, with due attention, render the business easy, and it would be
still more so, if the loins, breasts, and necks of mutton, lamb, and
veal, were to be _properly jointed_ and divided, before they are sent

The master and mistress of the family, who do _The honours of the
table_, when dinner is announced, will see, of course, that the upper
places are taken by the married ladies of the highest quality that are
then present; the dowagers or widows next, and lastly, the unmarried
ladies; all, nearly according to their respective ages. The gentlemen
will be seated according to the same etiquette, which is perfectly
understood by the fashionable world.[11]

BEEF.—_The Surloin._ This joint is brought to table with the skin side
upwards—Cut off the outside, in the direction of the ribs, quite down
to the bone, and take off slice after slice of a moderate thickness, in
the same direction.—Or, you may cut through the middle of the sirloin.
Give a little of the soft fat with each slice, which will be found
covering the roll, on the inside. Give also, a little of the roll,
when preferred, as it is short-grained and tender. To get at this and
the fat, turn the joint up, upon the chine-bone, and cut it across the

_The Ribs_ are to be carved exactly in the same way.

_The Edge-bone_ or _isch (hip)_ bone. Cut off a _thick_ outside slice
from the upper surface, the whole length, horizontally, and follow the
cut. The delicious soft fat, resembling marrow, will be found at the
back of the bone, and the hard fat may be taken, in thin, horizontal
slices, from the edge of the joint. The upper part of this joint is the
richest and best.

_The Buttock_ is to be carved in the same way.

_The Breast-cut._—Cut off thin slices, either parallel with the ribs,
or across. The fat on the upper side is firm and gristly, that on the
under side soft, and more delicate; therefore offer that which is best

VEAL.—_The Fillet._ This is the joint similar to a round of beef.
Cut off a slice from the upper surface, evenly, as from a round or
edge-bone of beef, and this outside is often preferred. The next slices
should be cut thin and smoothly. With every slice give a little fat,
and some of the stuffing, which lies under the flap.

_The Breast._ Separate the ribs from the brisket, across, where the
bones are broken, and again, the gristly part of the breast-cut from
the ribs, in the same direction. Give some of the gristly part, with a
bone of the ribs or neck, and a little of the sweetbread, cut across
the middle, to each person.

_The Calf’s-head._ Every part of this joint is rich and delicious. Cut
it lengthwise, from the nose to the neck, passing the knife through
the flesh under the eye, quite to the bone, all the way. The throat
sweetbread lies in the thick part of the neck end, and delicious short
slices of it may be taken off from the lower side, crosswise, to be
given with the former. The eye is esteemed a great delicacy and may
be taken out with the point of a knife, and divided into two parts.
Some fine lean will be found under the jaw-bone, when taken off, and
the palate in the lower or under part of the head is deemed a dainty.
Both sides of the head are to be carved alike. A part of the tongue and
brains, which are usually served up in a separate dish, with egg sauce,
must be given to each person.

MUTTON.—_The Shoulder._ This joint should be sent to table with the
back upwards, and with paper twisted round the shank. When properly
roasted, it is very full of gravy, and has many nice parts. The first
cut should be made in the thin, hollow part, and several slices may be
taken thence. When that is all cut away, some fine slices may be taken
from both sides of the ridge of the blade-bone, cutting straight up
the back from the thick end towards the shank. The under side affords
several nice cuts of fat and lean intermixed, and is full of gravy.
Some prefer the jelly part near the knuckle;—the lean on the under
side of the blade-bone, is the most tender. The fat lies in the round
prominent part or flap, opposite the hollow part of the shoulder,
which is cut lengthwise and a thin bit of this should be given to each
person.—A shoulder of mutton _over_ roasted is _spoiled_.

_The Leg._ When boiled, it should be served up lying on its back; but
when roasted, with the back upwards. Cut into the hollow part a little
distant from the knuckle, through the pope’s-eye, quite to the bone,
and take out thin deep slices towards the thickest part. The back of
the leg affords some nice slices at the thick end, which must be cut
out the long way of the joint.—Slices of fat may also be taken from
the under side, or back part of the leg, in the same direction. Some
prefer the knuckle part, which, though dry, is full of jelly and very
nutricious. The cramp-bone forms a slight prominence at the back of the
leg, near the shank, and may be cut out by passing the knife round it.
As this is a heavy joint, some writing paper should be wrapped round
the shank, to enable the carver the better to turn it up, with his left

_The Haunch_, is to be carved in the same manner as venison.

_The Saddle_, is the two loins together. Cut out long thin slices
on each side of the chine-bone, from the tail to the end. If any
person like a part of the tail, it may be readily divided, the joints
being about an inch apart. Rich gravy is found in the cut along the
chine-bone, where the incision has been made.

_The Loin_ may be carved the same way; or it may be cut the other way,
in the direction of the bones.

LAMB.—_The Fore-quarter._ Separate the shoulder from the ribs or
breast, (by some called the crust or scoven,) taking care not to
leave the bones bare. Then squeeze half a lemon or Seville orange,
rub a slice of butter, and sprinkle a little pepper and salt over the
ribs, and replace the shoulder for a few moments; after which, put
the shoulder on another dish; and proceed to divide the neck from the
breast, where the bones have been previously broken; then separate the
gristly part from the breast, the whole length, and give a little of
the gristle with each bone of the breast or neck, as may be chosen.
If any part of the breast is to be put by to be eaten cold, let it be
sprinkled while hot, with chopped parsley. All parts of young lamb are
nice, but the shoulder of a fore-quarter is the least approved. It is
to be carved as mutton.

_The Hind-quarter_, is usually divided into the leg and loin, and is to
be carved as mutton. The close firm flesh about the knuckle is reckoned
the best.

PORK.—_The Leg_, whether roasted or boiled, is sent to table with the
back upwards, like a leg of mutton roasted: it is to be carved as

A HAM may be carved three several ways; viz. The _first_ and most
common way is to cut off the hock, and then to take off thin slices,
in a circular manner, round the bone, towards the thick part and
proceed as with venison. This is the most economical way.

The _second_ way is to cut a round hole in the top of the ham with a
sharp pointed knife, and to enlarge the circle by cutting out thin
slices. This is a good way, as it keeps the meat moist, and preserves
the gravy.

The _other_ way is, to cut across, near the middle of the ham, quite
down to the bone, and then to take off thin slices each way.

TONGUE.—A tongue is to be cut _across_ towards the thickest end; slices
taken from that part, both ways, are the most tender and juicy; towards
the tip of the tongue, the meat is hardest and dryest. For the fat and
kernel, cut off a slice from the lower side of the root.

SUCKING PIG.—The head and collar is usually cut off, and the carcase
slit down the back into two equal parts; the head being also divided
and laid at each end, and the ears on each side. But if the pig be sent
up whole, before any one be helped, the shoulders and legs should be
separated from the body, and the ribs divided into two or more parts;
the shoulders may each be divided into two or more parts, also; and
nice slices may be taken from the gammon and fleshy parts. The ribs are
very delicious, but the collar and neck are most esteemed; the chaps
are also much approved by many.

VENISON.—_The Haunch._ First make a deep incision across, down to the
bone, towards the knuckle end, to let out the gravy; then turn the
broad end towards you, and take off thinnish deep slices, _lengthwise_,
from the cross cut to the end. The fat, which is the most delicious
part, lies, as in a shoulder of mutton, in the round prominent part,
which, when the broad end is towards you, will be on the left side.
Give some of this, and also some of the gravy, with each slice.

HARE.—The best and readiest way to cut up a hare, is to put the point
of the knife under the point of the shoulder, and cut all the way
down to the rump, on both sides of the back at equal distances from
the back-bone, dividing the body into three parts; the middle or back
may then be cut across the spine, into four or more pieces. These are
by far the most tender and delicate, and the fullest of gravy. The
shoulders or wings must be taken off in a circular direction, and the
legs may be easily separated from the belly. The shoulders and legs may
each be divided. The pieces of the back, and the fleshy parts of the
shoulders and legs, should be given with a spoonful of the stuffing
and gravy to those most respected. This method can only be practised
when the Hare is young. If it be old, do not endeavour to divide it
lengthwise, but put the knife between the leg and back, and give it
a turn inwards, at the joint, which you must try to hit.—A nice cut
or two may then be taken from each side of the back-bone;—then divide
the back into parts, and take off the wings, which are called the
sportsman’s pieces. When all are helped, cut off the head, and separate
the ears, close to the roots, which some may approve; then with your
knife divide the upper from the lower jaw, and laying the upper one
flat on your plate, enter the point of your knife in the centre near
the back of the skull, and divide it in two. The head and brains are
liked by some.

RABBIT.—A rabbit is to be carved as a hare in the latter way; but it
being smaller, the body may be divided into fewer parts, and the head,
the ears having been taken off, may be given, to any one who likes it.

GOOSE.—A goose, fowl, turkey, pheasant, and partridge, are to be cut
up nearly alike. First cut off the apron of the goose, and pour into
the body a glass of port wine, and the gravy, well mixed with a large
teaspoonful of ready made mustard; then turn the neck towards you,
and cut the whole breast into long slices quite down to the bone, and
take them off; turn the goose upon one side, and proceed to take off
the leg, by putting the fork through the small end of the bone, and
pressing it close to the body, which will raise the leg from the body
and shew the direction in which the knife may be passed, in order to
separate it; this may then be done by turning it back, but if it be an
old bird, it will require some strength. To take off the wing, pass
the fork into the small end of the pinion, and press it close to the
body, then enter the knife at the point of the wing, and divide the
joint (which requires some practice to hit cleverly) and separate it
from the side. Next take off the merry-thought, at the neck end, across
the body, and where it joins the body, on each side, you will find
the joint of the neck bones, then put in the knife, and pass it the
longest part of the bone, when you will lift it up and break it off
from the breast bone, to which it is attached. All parts being thus
separated from the carcase, divide the breast from the back by cutting
through the tender ribs on each side from one end to the other. Then
lay the back upwards, fix your fork under the rump, and pressing the
edge of your knife hard across the back, lift up the rump, and the
body will divide into two parts. The rump part may then be divided
into three, cutting it lengthwise through the bones on each side of
the back, and taking off the side-bones. It is not always necessary to
cut up the whole goose, at once, but as you proceed, the breast may be
distributed, the fleshy parts of the wings, when disjointed from the
pinions, and the thigh parts of the legs, (the drum sticks being taken
off), may next be given, remembering to draw out the sage and onions,
gravy, &c. from the inside, and give a spoonful on each plate. The
neck-bone and merry-thought are approved by some, and others approve
different parts of the carcase, which are very savoury.

A GREEN GOOSE must be cut up the same way; and the best parts are the
breast, and the gristle at the lower end of it.

FOWL.—Fowls, whether roasted or boiled, are to be cut up alike. The
best way is to take the bird on your plate, and sticking your fork
into the breast, upright, cut of slices, down the breast on each side,
as long as you can; then proceed to take off the legs, by passing the
knife between the legs and the body from the upper part of the thigh
towards the rump. Next take off the wings by entering your knife at
the point of the shoulder, and with your fork lift up the pinion and
drawing the wing towards you, by which means it will separate very
nicely without cutting. After this, take off the merry-thought, the
neck-bones, and all the remaining parts, as described in the goose. The
prime parts of a fowl are the wings, breast, and merry-thought: the
legs are coarse dry, and of a darker colour, except those of a chick,
which are full of gravy and most esteemed. The drum-sticks should be
cut off from the legs of the fowl at the joint, when given.

TURKEY.—A turkey is to be dissected as a fowl or goose, but it has no
merry-thought. The white meats of a Turkey are best. The gizzard is
sometimes scored in different directions, and when salted and peppered,
it is sent down to be broiled; is divided into several parts, and sent
round to the company as a _bonne bouche_.

PHEASANT.—This bird is to be carved the same way as a fowl, first
cutting off the head. The best parts of the pheasant are the breast,
wings, and merry-thought; but the leg has a higher flavour. The head is
sometimes preferred, because of the brains.

PARTRIDGE.—Partridges are to be carved as fowls.—The prime parts, as of
nearly all birds, are the white meats; viz. the wings (the tip of which
is reckoned the most delicious morsel,) the breast, and merry-thought.

PIGEONS.—Pigeons are generally divided into two parts, to do which
there are several ways; the most fashionable of which is, to cut from
the top of the leg on each side, quite through and across the body to
the breast bone.

FISH,—in general, requires but little carving.

_A Cod’s head._ The thick fleshy part on the back and shoulders, close
to the head, is most esteemed, but many parts of the jowl are very
delicious, particularly those about the jaw-bones, which consist of a
fine jelly. The tongue, palate, and firm parts about the back-bone on
the shoulders are also considered as dainties.

Take off a large piece across the shoulders, close to the head, and
quite through to the back-bone, this will lay bare the sound, which
is under the back-bone, some of which should be taken out with a
spoon, and given with every slice. Care must be taken to preserve the
beautifully fine flakes of this fish entire.

SALMON and all other fish that have a short grain, should be cut with
the slices the long way of the fish, and not across. The belly part is
the richest and most esteemed of salmon, but the head, and particularly
the jowl, afford many rich and delicate bits, which are much prized.

                     DIRECTIONS FOR MARKETING.[12]

  [_We presume that the following will be found to be the best
     instructions on this important subject that have ever yet
     appeared in print._]


                            BUTCHERS’ MEAT.

                 _General observations respecting it._

  ☞ _The best of every kind of provision is cheapest, affords most
  nourishment, and goes farthest._

As this is the most nourishing of all animal food, and constitutes a
considerable portion of our constant aliment, a knowledge, not only
of the nature and properties of the several kinds of animals destined
for our use, but also of the manner in which they have been bred and
fed, would be very essential if to be obtained, as it would enable us
to judge of their wholesomeness, and their fitness for our healthful
support and nourishment.

The flesh of cattle, of all kinds, fatted in confined and filthy
places, on oil-cakes, or rank and half-decayed vegetables, should be
rejected, as unfit for use. On the contrary, those animals which have
been bred and pastured in open situations, on high lands, extensive
downs, dry commons, heaths, and large enclosures, where the air is
pure, and particularly where the grass is short and sweet, and where
they require much exercise to obtain their sustenance, have their
juices pure, their flavour excellent, and the texture of their flesh
delicate, nutritive, and wholesome. Hence the superiority of the Welch
and South Down mutton, the Scotch and Welch beef, &c. This fact is
clearly evinced in the superior qualities that venison, and the flesh
of all wild animals possess over that of tame ones.

Buttocks of beef, fillets of veal, and legs of mutton and lamb, as they
have most solid meat and least bone, in proportion, are best for large

The most economical way for marketing, is to buy what roasting and
boiling pieces you want in one lot. Butchers will sell quantities, thus
assorted, much cheaper than they will sell single joints; and prime
roasting joints, when bought alone, are always charged extravagantly.

Beef and mutton, of a proper age, is more easy of digestion, and more
nutritious, than veal and lamb. The same remark holds with respect to
pork; for though young pigs are fat and luscious, yet they are not so
nutritive as those of more mature age. The heart and other viscera of
animals are nutritious, but hard to digest. Pork is a strong meat, but
that which is fed at dairies, is mildest and best. Fat meat is not so
easy of digestion as the flesh of well fed animals, though not so fat.
The flesh of old animals is dry and hard of digestion, and affords but
little nourishment.


                    _Instructions for choosing it._

An ox is in its prime, for food, at five or six years old.

BEEF is never out of season, but it is in the _greatest perfection_ in
November, December, and January.

The lean of the finest ox-beef, if of a proper age, has a fine smooth
grain, it is of a bright or carnation red, feels tender, and appears
to be marled or intermixed with fat. The fat parts are firm, of a
cream colour, and rather white than yellow. This latter distinction
is of importance, because, if the beef be old, the fat will be yellow
and skinny; and if the ox has been unnaturally fed, or in a confined
place, and particularly if it has been fed with oil-cake, it will be
very yellow, soft, flabby, and greasy. On the other hand, if the beef
be too young, the fat will be white, almost like mutton fat, and the
lean will be of a pale colour.

The grain of _cow-beef_ is closer than that of the ox, and the lean is
of a darker red.

_Heifer-beef_ has all the appearances and qualities of good ox-beef,
except that the grain of the lean is of a finer texture.

_Bull-beef_ is coarser and redder than any other, the fat hard and
skinny, and it has a strong, rank smell.

   _The_ JOINTS OF BEEF, _according to the London method of cutting_.


  _The Hind Quarter._

   1 Sirloin
   2 Rump
   3 Edge-bone
   4 Buttock
   5 Mouse-buttock
   6 Veiny-piece
   7 Thick-flank
   8 Thin-flank
   9 Leg
  10 Fore-ribs

  _The Fore Quarter._

  11 Middle-ribs
  12 Chuck-ribs
  13 Leg-of-mutton-piece
  14 Brisket or Breast-cut
  15 Clod
  16 Neck or sticking-piece
  17 Shin
  18 Cheek

  A Baron of beef is the two sirloins cut together.]

The best joints are the sirloin, rump, edge-bone, buttock, and the five
or six fore-ribs; and the thin-flank, the sticking-piece, the leg,
shin, and cheek, are the worst.


                    _Instructions for choosing it._

Veal is _best_ and _cheapest_ from _March_ to _July_.

Veal ought to be fine in the grain, firm, white, and fat. The leg bone
should be small. If fresh, the eyes will be full and bright, the flesh
not clammy but dry, and the large vein of the shoulder of a bright red.
The kidney taints soonest, and if that be sweet, and neither soft nor
slimy, the whole calf is fresh. On the contrary, if any part of the
flesh be green or yellow, or feels flabby, it is stale. The fillet of
a cow-calf is preferable on account of the udder, but the meat of the
bull-calf is generally firmest, whitest, and best, when dressed. The
finest calves have the smallest kidneys.

                          THE JOINTS OF VEAL.



  1 Loin, best end
  2 Loin, chump-end
  3 Fillet
  4 Hind-knuckle


  5  Fore-knuckle
  6  Neck, best end
  7  Neck, scrag end
  8  Blade-bone
  9  Breast, best end
  10 Breast, brisket end]

A shoulder is the fore-knuckle and blade-bone together; and a leg is
the fillet and hind-knuckle together.

The best end of the loin, the fillet, and the best end of the breast,
are the choicest pieces: the knuckle, and scrag end of the neck, are
the worst.


                    _Instructions for choosing it._

MUTTON is _best_ from _Christmas_ to _Midsummer_.

When, if in its prime, (that is about four years of age,) it will feel
tender when pinched with the finger and thumb, but if older, it will
feel harder and fibrous. The grain of the lean should be a fine deep
red, the colour bright, and the fat firm and white. Wether mutton is
the best flavoured, and may be known by a prominent lump of fat at the
edge of the broadest part. Ewe mutton is paler than wether mutton, is
of a finer texture and of less value; ram mutton is strong flavoured,
high coloured, and its fat is spungy.

The mutton of the small Welch sheep, which are driven up, and fatted
on Banstead Heath, and the mutton bred and fed on the South Downs, in
Sussex, are the most esteemed in London. At Bath, the short-shanked
Dorsetshire, and the Lansdown mutton are most in request; in Yorkshire
and the northern counties, the Moor mutton; and in Norfolk and Suffolk
the long-shanked is most approved; but the sheep bred in the Fens
and deep lands of Lincolnshire, and that neighbourhood, are large,
coarse-grained, and ill-flavoured.—Mutton tastes strong of the coat in
May and June, or just before shearing.

                         THE JOINTS OF MUTTON.


  1 Leg
  2 Loin, best end
  3 Ditto, chump end
  4 Neck, best end
  5 Neck, scrag-end
  6 Shoulder
  7 Breast

A Chine is the two loins together; and a Saddle is the two necks


                    _Instructions for choosing it._

Lamb, like veal, is fresh when the eyes are full and bright, and the
vein in the neck is of a fine blue colour; but if it be green or
yellow, or if there be a faint smell about the kidney, it is stale. The
earliest house-lamb, in London, is from the Dorsetshire ewes, which are
sold in great numbers at Weyhill-Fair, on the 10th of October, whence
they are driven towards London, quite forward, frequently dropping
their lambs on the road. This comes in at or before Christmas, and is
generally cut into quarters. Grass-lamb comes into season about Easter,
and when large and plentiful is cut up in joints, like mutton.


                     _Directions for choosing it._

The rind of all pork should be thin, and if young and properly fed,
the lean will break when pinched, and will be smooth and of a delicate
white; the fat will be white and fine, and the joints will look blue;
but if the rind be tough and loose, or thick and hard, and the joints
look red, it is old. If the flesh be clammy it is stale. The knuckle
part taints first. When measles are seen in the fat, the meat is
unwholesome, and should not be eaten. A pig is in its prime at two
years old.

                          THE JOINTS OF PORK.


  1 Spare-rib
  2 Hand
  3 Belly or spring
  4 Fore-loin
  5 Hind-loin
  6 Leg]


The rind of good bacon is always thin, the fat firm and white, or
rather inclined to a pink tinge, and the lean is of a bright red,
tender and adhering close to the bone. If there be any appearance of
yellow, it is rusty. The Wiltshire and Hampshire bacon is best, but
the Yorkshire is much esteemed. Irish bacon is, in general, bad; but
this article is now so re-manufactured in London, as to resemble, in
appearance, the most beautiful Wiltshire bacon.

HAMS.—The Westphalia or bear’s hams, are the best; but the Westmorland,
Wiltshire, and Yorkshire are the most desirable, of the English curing.
Choose these latter short in the shank; and to know whether they are
good, thrust a picked-pointed knife under the bone, and if it comes out
clean and sweet, the ham is good, otherwise it is not.


VENISON is chosen by its fat, which should be thick, clear, and bright.
A knife stuck in under the shoulder or shank will shew whether it be
sweet. If venison looks green, or approaching to black, it is stale.

The _Joints_ of Venison are only four; viz. The haunch, neck, breast,
and shoulder.

HARES.—The claws of a young hare are smooth and sharp, the ears are
tender and will easily tear, and the cleft of the lip is narrow; but
the claws of an old hare are blunt and rugged, the ears dry and tough,
and the cleft of the lip is wide, and the haunch is thick.—If fresh the
body will be stiff. A hare is best when kept ten days or a fortnight,
which, in favourable weather, may be done; but it should always be
dressed as soon as it begins to bleed at the nose.

LEVERETS may be distinguished from hares, by their having a knob or
small bone on the fore leg, near the foot, which hares have not.
Leverets will not keep, therefore should be dressed as soon as possible.

RABBITS.—The age of Rabbits, whether wild or tame, may be known by
nearly the same rules as that of Hares: observe also, that if old,
their hairs are intermixed with the wool, their claws will be limber,
and their flesh, instead of being white, will have a blue cast, and be


(POULTRY _is in the greatest perfection when most plentiful. It
is generally dearest from February to Midsummer, and cheapest in

GEESE.—The bill and feet of a young Goose will be yellow, the breast
fat and plump, and the fat white and soft; but if old, the bill and
feet will be red, and the fat yellow and skinny. If fresh, the feet
will be limber, but if stale, stiff and dry. Green-Geese are in season
in April, May, and June. They should be scalded. Stubble-Geese come
into season in September.

TURKEYS.—Choose cock birds. The very best have black legs, but the
white legged birds are nearly as fine. If young their legs will be
smooth, and the spurs of the cock will be very short and tender; but
if old, the legs will be rough, and the spurs long and hard, unless
filed or cut off. But the best criterion, by which to judge of both
Turkeys and Fowls with certainty is, that the toes and bills, if they
be young, will be soft and pliable, but will feel hard and stiff, if
old. A Turkey should be kept without meat thirty-six hours before it
is killed, and should be hung up in its feathers a week before it is

FOWLS.—Young Pullets are in their prime before they begin to lay; but
Hen Fowls are best when full of eggs, at which time the vent is soft.
The comb, skin, and legs of old Hens are rough. A good Capon has a
large rump, and much fat at the shoulders, and its comb is pale.

To know whether any kind of Fowl in its feathers is fit to dress, pull
the feathers off the vent very gently, and if they come off easily, it
ought to be dressed immediately.

DUCKS and DUCKLINGS.—These may be chosen by the same rules as Turkeys
and Fowls; but the bills and feet of wild Ducks are smaller and
redder than those of tame ones; their plumage too is different. Young
wild Ducks will not keep. All young Ducks should be scalded, as that
sweetens them, and improves their flavour.

[Norfolk is famous for Turkeys, Geese, and Ducks; Surrey and Sussex
for Fowls and Ducklings. The Dorking Fowls are in high estimation in

PIGEONS.—These birds should be both young and fresh, and when they are
so, they are fat and full at the vent; their legs are limber and of a
dusky white: young Pigeons have also a yellow down round their necks
and heads. If old, their legs and feet are large, harsh, and red, and
the vent discoloured and flabby. Tame Pigeons are best, as wood Pigeons
are harder and darker coloured.

                               WILD FOWL.

To judge whether these are young and fresh, observe the rules given
above for tame Fowls; recollect also that these birds should be fat,
and when they are so, they will be hard at the vent; if stale, the skin
will peel off when rubbed with the finger.

PHEASANTS.—Cock Pheasants are best. Hens are excellent when full of

WOODCOCKS.—These are fine, high-flavoured birds, and when in the best
condition, they feel thick and firm, and have a vein of fat down the
sides of the breast. When stale they run at the nostrils. _Land Rails
and Snipes_ are chosen by these rules.

PARTRIDGES.—The yellow legs of young partridges become blue when old,
and their bills changed from yellow to a dark hue.

QUAILS.—These come chiefly from France and Germany, but the finest and
best that are sold in London, come from Cambridgeshire, and are fed by
the poulterers with herbs, seed, or boiled bread and milk. They are so
extremely delicate, in feeding, that two of them will not eat out of
the same trough.

TEAL is of a beautiful plumage, and very delicate to eat. Their bills
and feet are black, and are shaped like those of a Duck.

RUFFS and REES are chiefly found in Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire;
and in April or May, when most in season, they are a perfect lump of
fat. If poor, when caught, they should be fattened with white bread and
milk boiled, given them in separate troughs.

MOOR GAME, and even GROUSE, may be kept good a long time. Old birds of
all kinds will keep longest, and will be the better for keeping; but
young birds should be dressed soon.

SMALL BIRDS, of every description, should be dressed immediately.


                    _General Rules for choosing it._

(_The price of fish depends on the supply; and it will often be found,
that one kind of fish, equally as good and seasonable as another, may
be bought for much less money; therefore, never buy at an extravagant

When fish is fresh, it is firm, bright, and stiff; the gills are of
a lively red, hard to open, and smell sweet; and the eyes are full
and clear. If stale, the whole fish, and particularly the gills and
fins, will always be flabby and limber, the gills will be pale,
and the eyes sunk and dull. By these rules alone, good fish may be
distinguished from bad; but besides these, some kinds of fish have
other distinguishing peculiarities, which are as follow; viz.

STURGEON.—The grain of the flesh of a fine Sturgeon is smooth and very
white, interspersed with blue veins. The skin is soft and tender, and
its smell is very pleasant. When the veins and gristles are brown or
yellow, instead of blue, or the skin is hard and dry, the fish is not

CAVIARE.—This is the roe of the female Sturgeon. It should be taken out
and beaten flat, then sprinkled with salt and dried, first in the sun
and air, and afterwards in an oven, till it becomes very dry and of a
reddish brown colour. Thus prepared, it is a fine relish; it is to be
eaten with oil and vinegar.

TURBOT, when good, is thick, firm, and plump; and the nose, and fins
all round the belly, tinged with a pink colour; but if it has lost this
beautiful tinge, or if the belly be changed from a yellowish white to a
blueish cast, the fish is either stale or poor, or both.

SOLES are to be chosen by these rules, particularly as to the pink
tinge round their bellies and under their noses.

COD FISH should be thick at the neck, having the gills red, the flesh
very white, firm, hard, and dear, and the eyes bright.

HADDOCK are to be chosen by these rules. The shortest fish are the best.

SALMON should be chosen for its small head and thick neck; its scales
should be bright, and its gills and flesh of a fine red colour. The
Thames and Severn Salmon are mostly esteemed.

SKATE, MAIDS, and THORNBACKS are all of one species; they ought to be
white and thick. The two latter should be kept a day, or perhaps two,
to make them tender, and Skate may be kept longer. The maiden Skate and
the young male, or Thornback, are the best; but large, old Skate, is
generally coarse and rank.

FLOUNDERS, PLAICE, &c. should be stiff and firm, with bright, full
eyes. If flabby, these and all other kinds of fish are certainly stale.
The Thames Flounders are reckoned best, in London, because they may be
had alive, or nearly so, and they are always best when dressed as soon
as caught.

together. The largest are the best. Their gills should be of a fine
red, their fins stiff, their eyes bright, and their flesh, when best,
is bright and firm. As the Herrings emigrate, in immense shoals, from
the northern regions, they are in the greatest perfection on their
first arrival on the coasts of Scotland, the North of Ireland, and
the Isle of Man. On the coast of the German Ocean also, even so far
south as Yarmouth, they are taken in great quantities, remarkably
fat and fine, and full of spawn; but before they reach the southern
coast of England, they become poor and thin, and are then known by the
denomination of Shotten-Herrings.

MACKEREL look beautifully bright when first caught. These and WHITINGS
should be dressed as soon as possible.

                           FRESH WATER FISH.

PIKE and JACK are taken in rivers; they are very dry eating, and
require much seasoning and sauce.

CARP, TENCH, and PERCH, are best eaten as soon as caught; the latter is
not so much esteemed as the two former.

SMELTS, when fresh, have a fine bright appearance, firm flesh, and a
fragrant smell, like a cucumber.

GUDGEONS, ROACH, and DACE, and most other river fish, must be chosen by
the rules already given.

                       BUTTER, CHEESE, and EGGS.

BUTTER should be chosen by the taste and smell.—The best fresh butter
is the Epping, and next the Cambridge; sometimes the potted weekly
Dorset is very good. Of tub butter, the Welch is best, the Dutch next,
and the Irish worst. In examining tub-butter, and particularly the
Irish, look at and smell to the outside next the cask, which is often
white in appearance like tallow, and quite rank in smell.

CHEESE. Of the common kinds, Cheshire, North Wiltshire and double
Gloucester, are the best. Cheese of the first making, in May, is
usually brought to Market in August. Factors have a pernicious practice
of sticking brass pins into cheese, which gives it the appearance of
blue mould and old age. That cheese which has a smooth, moist coat,
is generally good. Spanish arnatto is often used to give the rind a
beautiful red colour.

EGGS.—If fresh, will feel warm when the tongue is applied to the
biggest end; but if stale, it will be cold. An egg, when quite fresh,
will sink at once when put into cold water; but if rotten, it will swim.


N.B. VEGETABLES _are_ CHEAPEST _soon after they come into full season_.

  | Names.                  | When best.                   |
  | Artichokes              | July to October.             |
  | Asparagus               | May to July.                 |
  | Beans, Windsor, &c.     | Midsummer to September.      |
  | ————— French            | Midsum^r. & onw^d.           |
  | ————— Scarlet           | July to October.             |
  | Beet-root               | All the year.                |
  | Borcole, or Scotch Kale | November and all the Winter. |
  | Brocoli                 | October and ditto.           |
  | Cabbage                 | May & all Summer.            |
  | ——————— red             | July to September.           |
  | ——————— Plants          | All the year.                |
  | Carrots                 | May till Winter.             |
  | Cauliflowers            | June to August.              |
  | Celery                  | June till March.             |
  | Corn Sallad             | May to July.                 |
  | Cucumbers               | June to September.           |
  | Endive                  | June & all Winter.           |
  | Leeks                   | Sept. & all Winter.          |
  | Lettuces                | April & all Summer.          |
  | Onions                  | June to November.            |
  | Parsley                 | All the year.                |
  | Parsnips                | Aug. & all Winter.           |
  | Peas (green)            | June to September.           |
  | Potatoes                | May & all the year.          |
  | Radishes                | March to July.               |
  | Small Salad             | All the year.                |
  | Salsafy and Scarzonera  | July and August.             |
  | Sea Kale                | April and May.               |
  | Spinach (spr^g.)        | March to July.               |
  | Do. (Winter)            | Winter and Spring.           |
  | Turnips                 | May to September.            |
  | Turnip Tops.            | February to May.             |

All VEGETABLES are best if dressed as soon as gathered; and are in
their greatest perfection just before they begin to flower.

MOST ARTICLES FOR PICKLING will be in their prime in July and August;
but walnuts not later than the middle of July; and mushrooms and white
cabbage in September and October.

HERBS, of all kinds, should be gathered in a dry day; and when the
roots are cut off, and the herbs are perfectly well cleaned from dust,
&c. they should be divided into small bunches and dried _very quick_
by the heat of a stove, or in a Dutch oven before a common fire, rather
than by the heat of the sun, taking care that they be not burnt. When
dry put them into bags, and hang them up in a dry place; or pound them
and sift them through a hair sieve, and keep the powder in bottles
closely stopped.

SWEET AND SAVORY HERBS are best in season from May to August, according
to their kinds.

The flavour and fragrance of _fresh herbs_ are much finer than of those
that are dried.

                              PASTRY, &c.


_Here follow a great variety of the most useful and approved_
RECEIPTS IN DOMESTIC ECONOMY, _which are chiefly appropriate to the
Housekeeper’s department; consisting of directions for making_ PASTRY,
WINES, _various articles of_ DISTILLATION, FAMILY MEDICINE, _and many_
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS _of general utility_.

                        OBSERVATIONS ON PASTRY.

An adept in making pastry, never leaves any part of it adhering to the
board used in making it. It is best when rolled on marble or slate. In
hot weather the butter should be put in cold water to make it firm;
and if the pastry be made early in the morning, and preserved from the
air till baked, it will be the better. Salt butter, if good and well
washed, makes a fine flaky crust.

Preserved fruit for pastry need not be baked; but the crust should be
baked in a tin shape, or on a tin and cut out according to taste.

                            ON MAKING CAKES.

Currants should be nicely washed, dried in a cloth, and then set before
the fire. If not quite dry they will make the cake heavy. The cake
will be the lighter if a dust of flour be thrown on the currants and
then shaken.

Eggs should be beaten very long, the whites and the yolks apart, after
which, they must be strained.—Sugar should be rubbed to a powder, on a
clean board, and sifted through a fine hair or lawn sieve. Lemon-peel
should be pared quite thin, and beaten, with a little sugar, in a
marble mortar, to a paste; and then mixed with a little wine or cream,
so as to mix easily with the other ingredients. After all the articles
are put together in the pan, they should be thoroughly beaten for a
long while, as the lightness of the cake greatly depends on their being
well incorporated. Yeast, in either black or white plum cakes, makes
them require less butter and eggs, and yet be equally light and rich.
The dough when made should be set to rise by the fire. If the oven be
not _quick_ the batter will not rise, and the cake will be heavy: if
you think it too quick, put some paper over the cake to prevent its
being burnt.


  Take one pound of fresh butter, one pound of sugar, one pound and a
  half of flour, two pounds of currants, a glass of brandy, one pound
  of sweatments, two ounces of sweet almonds, ten eggs, a quarter of an
  ounce of allspice, and a quarter of an ounce of cinnamon.

  Melt the butter to a cream, and put in the sugar. Stir it till quite
  light, adding the allspice, and pounded cinnamon; in a quarter of an
  hour take the yolks of the eggs, and work them in, two or three at a
  time; and the whites of the same must by this time be beaten into a
  strong snow quite ready to work in; as the paste must not stand to
  chill the butter, or it will be heavy, work in the whites gradually;
  then add the orange-peel, lemon, and citron, cut in fine stripes, and
  the currants, which must be mixed in well, with the sweet almonds.
  Then add the sifted flour and glass of brandy. Bake this cake in a
  tin hoop in a hot oven for three hours, and put twelve sheets of
  paper under it to keep it from burning.


  The following is a receipt for making a good plain cake, to be given
  to children, at breakfast, instead of _buttered bread_.

  Take as much dough as will make a quartern-loaf (either made at home,
  or procured at the baker’s), work into this a quarter of a pound of
  butter, a quarter of a pound of moist sugar, and a handful of caraway
  seeds. When well worked together, pull into pieces the size of a
  golden pippin, and work it together again. This must be done _three_
  times or it will be in lumps, and heavy when baked.


  Put one pound of fine-sifted, treble refined sugar into a basin, and
  the whites of three new-laid eggs; beat the sugar and eggs up well
  with a silver spoon until it becomes very white and thick; dust the
  cake over with flour, and then brush it off, by way of taking the
  grease from the outside, which prevents the iceing from running; put
  it on smooth with a palette knife, and garnish according to fancy:
  any ornaments should be put on immediately; for if the iceing gets
  dry, it will not stick on. Set it in a cool oven to harden.


  Take a pound and a quarter of flour well dried, a pound of butter, a
  pound of loaf sugar, beat and sifted, eight eggs and two ounces of
  caraway seeds, one grated nutmeg, and its weight in cinnamon. Beat
  the butter into a cream, put in the sugar, beat the whites of the
  eggs and the yolks separately, then mix them with the butter and
  sugar. Beat in the flour, spices, and seed, a little before sending
  it away. Bake it two hours in a quick oven.


  Beat one pound of butter in an earthen pan until it is like a fine
  thick cream, then beat in nine whole eggs till quite light. Put in
  a glass of brandy, a little lemon peel, shred fine, then work in a
  pound and a quarter of flour; put it into the hoop or pan and bake
  it for an hour. A pound plum cake is made the same with putting one
  pound and a half of clean washed currants and half a pound of candied
  lemon peel.


  Beat half a pound each of sweet and bitter almonds in fine orange,
  rose, or ratafia water, mix half a pound of fine pounded and sifted
  sugar with the same, add the whites of four eggs well beaten to it,
  set it over a moderate fire in a preserving-pan. Stir it one way
  until it is pretty hot, and when a little cool form it into small
  rolls, and cut into thin cakes. Shake some flour lightly on them,
  give each a light tap, and put them on sugar papers, sift a little
  sugar on them, and put them into a thorough slack oven.

  7. WIGGS.

  Put half a pint of warm milk to three quarters of a pound of fine
  flour: mix in it two or three spoonsful of light yeast. Cover it up,
  and set it before the fire an hour, in order to make it rise. Work
  into it four ounces each of sugar and butter, make it into cakes, or
  wiggs, with as little flour as possible, and a few caraway seeds, and
  bake them quick.


  Mix well together, half a pound of butter, one pound of flour, five
  eggs, and a cupful of yeast. Set the whole before the fire to rise,
  which effected, add a quarter of a pound of fine powered sugar, an
  ounce of caraways well mixed in, and roll the paste out into little
  cakes. Bake them on tins.


  Mix half a pound of butter well beat like cream, and the same weight
  of flour, one egg, six ounces of beaten and sifted loaf sugar, and
  half an ounce of caraway seeds. Form these into a paste, roll them
  thin, and lay them in sheets of tin; then bake them in a slow oven.


  Mix into a pound of fine flour, a pound of loaf sugar, beat and
  sifted, and rub it into a pound of butter, till it is thick, like
  grated white bread; then put to it two spoonsful of rose-water, two
  of sack, and ten eggs: work them well with a whisk, and put in eight
  ounces of currants. Butter the tin pans, fill them half full, and
  bake them. If made without currants they will keep a year.


  Take one pound of sugar, a quarter of a pound of ginger, a pint of
  water, two pounds of flour, and eight caps of orange peel. Pound and
  sift the ginger, and add a pint of water; boil it five minutes, then
  let it stand till cold. Pound the preserved orange-peel, and pass it
  through a hair sieve; put the flour on a pasteboard, make a wall, and
  put in the orange peel and ginger with the boiled water; mix this up
  to a paste and roll it out; prick the cakes before baking them.


  To one pound of fine sifted sugar, put the yolks of ten eggs, (have
  the whites in a separate pan,) and set it, if in summer, in cold
  water: if there is any ice set the pan on it as it will cause the
  eggs to be beat finer. Then beat the yolks and sugar well with a
  wooden spoon for 20 minutes, and put in the rind of a lemon grated;
  beat up the whites with a whisk, until they become quite stiff and
  white as snow. Stir them into the batter by degrees, then add three
  quarters of a pound of well-dried flour; finally put it in a mould in
  a slack oven to bake.


  Take a quartern of fine flour, a pound and a half of butter, three
  ounces of caraway-seeds, six eggs, well beaten, a quarter of an ounce
  of well-beaten cloves and mace, a little pounded cinnamon, one pound
  of sugar, a little rose-water and saffron, a pint and a half of
  yeast, and a quart of milk. Mix them thus: first boil the milk and
  butter, then skim off the butter, and mix it with the flour and a
  little of the milk. Stir the yeast into the rest and strain it; mix
  it with the flour, put in the eggs and spice, rose-water, tincture of
  saffron, sugar, and eggs. Beat it all well up, and bake it in a hoop
  or pan well buttered. Send it to a quick oven, and an hour and a half
  will do it.


  Take a pound of sugar, beat and sift it, a pound of well-dried
  flour, a pound of butter, eight eggs, and half a pound of currants
  washed and picked; grate a nutmeg and an equal quantity of mace and
  cinnamon, work the butter to a cream, put in the sugar, beat the
  whites of the eggs 20 minutes, and mix them with the butter and
  sugar. Then beat the yolks for half an hour and put them to the
  butter. Beat the whole together, and when it is ready for the oven,
  put in the flour, spices, and currants; sift a little sugar over
  them, and bake them in tins.


  Beat the yolks of 15 eggs for nearly half an hour, with a whisk, mix
  well with them 10 ounces of fine sifted loaf sugar, put in half a
  pound of ground rice, a little orange water or brandy, and the rinds
  of two lemons grated, then add the whites of seven eggs well beaten,
  and stir the whole together for a quarter of an hour. Put them into a
  hoop and set them in a quick oven for half an hour, when they will be
  properly done.


  Take one pound of sugar, three quarters of a pound of flour, 14 eggs,
  two table spoonsful of rose-water, the raspings and juice of four
  lemons; when the yolks are well beat up and separated, add the powder
  sugar, the lemon raspings, the juice, and the rose-water; beat them
  well together in a pan with a round bottom, till it becomes quite
  light, for half an hour. Put the paste to the whites previously well
  whisked about, and mix it very light. When well mixed sift in the
  flour and knead it in with the paste, as light as possible; form the
  biscuits and bake them in small oval tins, with six sheets of paper
  under them, in a moderate heat. Butter the tins well or it will prove
  difficult to take out the biscuits, which will be exceedingly nice if
  well made. Ice them previously to baking, but very lightly and even.


  Take a pound of dough made for white bread, roll it out, and put bits
  of butter upon the same as for puff paste, till a pound of the same
  has been worked in; roll it out very thin, then cut it into bits of
  an oval size, according as the cakes are wanted. Mix some good moist
  sugar with a little brandy, sufficient to wet it, then mix some clean
  washed currants with the former, put a little upon each bit of paste,
  close them up, and put the side that is closed next the tin they are
  to be baked upon. Lay them separate, and bake them moderately, and
  afterwards, when taken out, sift sugar over them. Some candied peel
  may be added, or a few drops of the essence of lemon.


  Take six ounces of sweet almonds, half a pound of powdered sugar,
  seven eggs, six ounces of flour, and the raspings of four lemons.
  Pound the almonds very fine, with whole eggs, add the sugar and lemon
  raspings, and mix them well together in the mortar. Take it out, put
  it in a basin and stir it with the yolks of eggs, till it is as white
  as a sponge paste; beat up the whites of the eggs to a strong snow,
  mix them very light with the paste, then take the flour and mix it
  as light as possible; on this the goodness of the paste principally
  depends, as it is impossible to make a good cake with a heavy paste;
  butter the mould and bake in a slack oven for an hour, with ten
  sheets of paper under it and one on the top.


  Mix three pounds of flour with four ounces of moist sugar, half
  an ounce of powdered ginger, and one pound and a quarter of warm
  treacle; melt half a pound of fresh butter in it; put it to the flour
  and make it a paste; then form it into nuts or cakes, or bake it in
  one cake.

  20. _Another Method._

  Mix six pounds of flour with two ounces of caraway seeds, two ounces
  of ground ginger, two ounces of candied orange peel, the same of
  candied lemon peel cut in pieces, a little salt, six ounces of
  moist sugar; melt one pound of fresh butter in about half a pint
  of milk, pour it by degrees into four pounds of treacle, stir it
  well together, and add it, a little at a time, to the flour; mix it
  thoroughly, and make it into a paste; roll it out rather thin, and
  cut into cakes with the top of a dredger or wine glass; put them on
  floured tins, and bake them in rather a brisk oven.


  Beat the whites of nine eggs to a stiff froth, stir it gently with a
  spoon lest the froth should fall, and to every white of an egg grate
  the rinds of two lemons; shake in gently a spoonful of double refined
  sugar sifted fine, lay a wet sheet of paper on a tin, and with a
  spoon drop the froth in little lumps on it near each other. Sift a
  good quantity of sugar over them, set them in the oven after the
  bread is out, and close up the mouth of it, which will occasion the
  froth to rise. As soon as they are coloured they will be sufficiently
  baked; lay them by two bottoms together on a sieve, and dry them in a
  cool oven.


  Set two pounds of flour with a little salt before the fire till quite
  warm; then mix it with warm milk and water till it is as stiff as it
  can be stirred; let the milk be as warm as it can be borne with the
  finger, put a cupful of this with three eggs well beaten, and mixed
  with three spoonsful of very thick yeast; then put this to the batter
  and beat them all well together in a large pan or bowl, add as much
  milk and water as will make it into a thick batter; cover it close
  and put it before the fire to rise: put a bit of butter in a piece of
  thin muslin, tie it up, and rub it lightly over the iron hearth or
  frying pan; then pour on a sufficient quantity of batter at a time to
  make one crumpet; let it do slowly, and it will be very light. Bake
  them all the same way. They should not be brown, but of a fine yellow.

  23. MUFFINS.

  Mix a pint and a half of warm milk and water, with a quarter of a
  pint of good yeast, and a little salt; stir them together for a
  quarter of an hour, then strain the liquor into a quarter of a peck
  of fine flour; mix the dough well and set it to rise for an hour,
  then roll it up and pull it into small pieces, make them up in the
  hand like balls, and lay a flannel over them while rolling to keep
  them warm. The dough should be closely covered up the whole time;
  when the whole is rolled into balls, the first that are made will
  be ready for baking. When they are spread out in the right form for
  muffins, lay them on tins and bake them, and as the bottoms begin to
  change colour turn them on the other side.


  Rub four ounces of butter into two pounds of flour, a little salt,
  four ounces of sugar, a dessert spoonful of caraways, and a tea
  spoonful of ginger; put some warm milk or cream to four table
  spoonsful of yeast; mix all together into a paste, but not too stiff;
  cover it over and set it before the fire an hour to rise, then make
  it into buns, put them on a tin, set them before the fire for a
  quarter of an hour, cover over with flannel, then brush them with
  very warm milk, and bake them of a nice brown in a moderate oven.


  Put two pounds and a half of fine flour into a wooden bowl, and set
  it before the fire to warm; then add half a pound of sifted sugar,
  some coriander seed, cinnamon and mace powdered fine; melt half a
  pound of butter in half a pint of milk: when it is as warm as it can
  bear the finger, mix with it three table spoonsful of very thick
  yeast, and a little salt; put it to the flour, mix it to a paste, and
  make the buns as directed in the last receipt. Put a cross on the
  top, not very deep.

  26. RUSKS.

  Beat up seven eggs, mix them with half a pint of warm new milk, in
  which a quarter of a pound of butter has been melted, add a quarter
  of a pint of yeast, and three ounces of sugar; put them gradually
  into as much flour as will make a light paste nearly as thin as
  batter; let it rise before the fire half an hour, add more flour
  to make it a little stiffer, work it well and divide it into small
  loaves, or cakes, about five or six inches wide, and flatten them.
  When baked and cold put them in the oven to brown a little. These
  cakes, when first baked, are very good buttered for tea; if they are
  made with caraway seeds they eat very nice cold.


  Boil very tender the rind of half a Seville orange, and beat it in
  a mortar until it is very fine; put to it a spoonful of the best
  brandy, the juice of a Seville orange, four ounces of loaf sugar,
  and the yolk of four eggs. Beat them all together for ten minutes,
  and then pour in by degrees a pint of boiling cream; beat them until
  cold, then put them in custard cups, in a dish of hot water; let
  them stand till they are set, then take them out and stick preserved
  orange peel on the top; this forms a fine flavoured dish, and may be
  served up hot or cold.


  Boil a pint of cream with some mace and cinnamon, and when it is
  cold, take four yolks of eggs, a little rose water, sack, nutmeg, and
  sugar, to taste; mix them well and bake them.


  Put a blade of mace, and a quartered nutmeg into a quart of cream;
  boil and strain it, and add to it some boiled rice and a little
  brandy. Sweaten it to taste, stir it till it thickens, and serve it
  up in cups, or in a dish; it may be used either hot or cold.


  Blanch a quarter of a pound of almonds, beat them very fine, and then
  put them into a pint of cream, with two spoonsful of rose-water;
  sweeten it, and put in the yolks of four eggs; stir them well
  together till it becomes thick, and then pour it into cups.


  Take half a pound of double refined sugar, the juice of two lemons,
  the rind of one pared very thin, the inner rind of one boiled tender
  and rubbed through a sieve, and a pint of white wine; boil them for
  some time, then take out the peel and a little of the liquor; strain
  them into the dish, stir them well together and set them to cool.


  Blanch and beat fine some almonds, with a little white wine and
  some sugar, (a pound of sugar to a pound of almonds,) grated bread,
  nutmeg, cream, and the juice of spinach, to colour the almonds. Bake
  it in a gentle oven, and when done, thicken with candied orange peel
  or citron.


  Pull the almonds from the tree before they shell, scrape off the
  down, and put them into a pan with cold spring water; then put them
  into a skillet with more spring water; set it on a slow fire, and
  let it remain till it simmers. Change the water twice, and let them
  remain in the last till tender, then take them out and dry them well
  in a cloth. Make a syrup with double refined sugar, put them into it
  and let them simmer: do the same the next day, put them into a stone
  jar, and cover them very close, for if the least air comes to them
  they will turn black; the yellower they are before they are taken out
  of the water, the greener they will be after they are done. Put them
  into the crust, cover them with syrup, lay on the lid, and bake them
  in a moderate oven.


  Rub six oranges or lemons with salt, and put them into water,
  with a handful of salt, for two days. Put every day fresh water
  without salt, for a fortnight. Boil them tender, cut them into half
  quarters, cornerways, quite thin: boil six pippins, pared, cored, and
  quartered, in a pint of water till they break, then put the liquor to
  the oranges or lemons, with half the pulp of the pippins well broken,
  and a pound of sugar; boil them a quarter of an hour, then put them
  into a pot and squeeze in two spoonsful of the juice of either orange
  or lemon, according to the kind of tart; put puff paste, very thin,
  into shallow patty-pans. Take a brush, and rub them over with melted
  butter, sift double refined sugar over them, which will form a pretty
  iceing, and bake them.


  Grate a little of the outside of a Seville orange, squeeze the juice
  into a dish, put the peel into water, and change it often for four
  days, then put into a saucepan of boiling water on the fire; change
  the water twice to take out the bitterness, and when tender, wipe
  and beat them fine in a mortar; boil their weight in double refined
  sugar into a syrup, and skim it, then put in the pulp and boil all
  together till clear; when cold put it into the tarts, and squeeze in
  the juice, and bake them in a quick oven. Conserve of orange makes
  good tarts.


  Pare off the rinds from Seville oranges, then rub them with salt, let
  them lie twenty-four hours in water, boil them in four changes of
  water, make the first salt, drain and beat them to a pulp; bruise in
  the pieces of all that are pared, make it very sweet with loaf sugar,
  and boil it till thick; let it stand till cold, and then put it into
  the paste.


  One pound of sweet almonds, 1 pound and a quarter of sugar, 6 whites
  of eggs, and the raspings of two lemons. Pound the almonds very fine
  with 6 whites of eggs, feel the almonds, and if they are free from
  lumps, they will do; then add the powdered sugar, and mix it well
  with the lemon raspings. Dress them in wafer paper of the required
  shape; bake them in a moderate heat, then let them stand till cold,
  cut the wafer paper round them, but leave it on the bottoms.


  Take 1 pound of almonds, 1 pound of sugar, and some orange flower
  water. Pound the almonds very fine, and sprinkle them with orange
  flower water; when they are perfectly smooth to the touch, put them
  in a small pan, with flour sifted through a silk sieve; put the
  pan on a slow fire, and dry the paste till it does not stick to
  the fingers; move it well from the bottom to prevent its burning;
  then take it off, and roll it into small round fillets, to make
  knots, rings, &c., and cut it into various shapes; make an iceing of
  different colours, dip one side of them in it, and set them on wire
  gratings to drain. They may be varied by strewing over them coloured
  pistachios, or coloured almonds, according to fancy.


  Beat the yolks of 12 eggs for half an hour; then put in a pound and a
  half of beaten sifted sugar, and whisk it till it rises in bubbles;
  beat the whites to strong froth, and whisk them well with the sugar
  and yolks, work in 14 ounces of flour, with the rinds of 2 lemons
  grated. Bake them in tin moulds buttered, in a quick oven, for an
  hour; before they are baked, sift a little fine sugar over them.


  Put a pint of warm cream into a saucepan over the fire, and when it
  is warm, add to it 5 quarts of new milk. Then put in some rennet,
  stir it, and when it is turned, put the curd into a linen cloth or
  bag. Let the whey drain from it, but do not squeeze it too much. Put
  it into a mortar, and pound it as fine as butter. Add ½ a pound of
  sweet almonds blanched, ½ a pound of macaroons, or Naples biscuit.
  Then add nine well beaten yolks of eggs, a grated nutmeg, a little
  rose or orange water, and ½ a pound of fine sugar. Mix all well


  Put 4 ounces of blanched sweet almonds into cold water, and beat them
  in a marble mortar or a wooden bowl, with some rose water. Put to
  it 4 ounces of sugar, and the yolks of four eggs beat fine. Work it
  till it becomes white and frothy, and then make a rich puff paste as
  follows: Take ½ a pound of flour, and a ¼ of a pound of butter;
  rub a little of the butter into the flour, mix it stiff with a little
  cold water, and then roll out the paste. Strew on a little flour and
  lay over it in thin bits 1-3d of the butter, throw a little more
  flour over the bottom, and do the like three different times. Put the
  paste into the tins, grate sugar over them, and bake them gently.


  Slice a penny loaf as thin as possible, pour on it a pint of boiling
  cream, and let it stand two hours. Beat together 8 eggs, ½ a pound
  of butter, and a grated nutmeg: mix them into the cream and bread
  with ½ a pound of currants well washed and dried, and a spoonful of
  white wine or brandy. Bake them in patty pans, on a raised crust.


  Boil 4 ounces of rice till it is tender, and then put it into a sieve
  to drain; mix with it 4 eggs well beaten up, ½ a pound of butter,
  ½ a pint of cream, 6 ounces of sugar, a nutmeg grated, a glass of
  brandy, or ratafia water. Beat them all well together, then put them
  into raised crusts, and bake them in a moderate oven.


  Take half a quartern of dough, roll it out thin; spread equally over
  it 5 ounces each of coffee and sugar, a little nutmeg or allspice,
  and 2 ounces of butter; then fold and roll it again two or three
  times, to mix well the ingredients. Afterwards roll it out thin,
  and spread over it 4 rather large apples, pared, cored, and chopped
  small; fold it up, and roll until mixed. Let it stand to rise after.
  Half a pound of butter may be added.


  Put into 1 quart of water an ounce of isinglass, and let it boil
  till it is reduced to a pint; then put in the whites of 4 eggs with
  2 spoonsful of rice water, and sweeten it to taste. Run it through
  a jelly bag, and then put to it 2 ounces of sweet, and 1 ounce of
  bitter almonds. Scald them in the jelly, and then run them through a
  hair sieve. Put it into a china bowl, and the next day turn it out.
  Garnish with flowers or green leaves, and stick all over the top
  blanched almonds cut lengthways.


  Skim off the fat, and strain a quart of strong calf’s foot jelly,
  add to the same the whites of 4 eggs well beaten, set it over the
  fire and stir it till it boils. Then pour it into a jelly bag, and
  run it through several times till it is clear. Beat an ounce each of
  sweet and bitter almonds to a paste with a spoonful of rose water
  strained through a cloth. Then mix it with the jelly, and add to it
  3 spoonsful of very good cream. Set it again over the fire and stir
  it till it almost boils. Pour it into a bowl; then stir it often till
  almost cold; and then fill the moulds.




  The first process is _clarifying_, which is done thus. Break the
  white of an egg into a preserving pan; put to it 4 quarts of water,
  and beat it with a whisk to a froth. Then put in 12 pounds of sugar,
  mix all together, and set it over the fire. When it boils put in a
  little cold water, and proceed as often as necessary, till the scum
  rises thick on the top. Then remove it from the fire, and when it is
  settled, take off the scum, and pass it through a straining bag. If
  the sugar should not appear very fine, boil it again before straining


  After having completed the above first process, put what quantity is
  wanted over the fire, and boil it till it is smooth enough. This is
  known by dipping the skimmer into the sugar, and touching it between
  the forefinger and thumb; and immediately on opening them a small
  thread will be observed drawn between, which will crystallize and
  break, and remain in a drop on the thumb, which will be a sign of
  its gaining some degree of smoothness. Boil it again, and it will
  draw into a larger string; it is now called _bloom sugar_, and must
  be boiled longer than in the former process. To try its forwardness,
  dip again the skimmer shaking off the sugar into the pan; then blow
  with the mouth strongly through the holes, and if certain bladders
  go through, it has acquired the second degree: to prove if the
  liquid has arrived at the state called _feathered sugar_, re-dip
  the skimmer, and shake it over the pan, then give it a sudden flirt
  behind, and the sugar will fly off like feathers.

  It now arrives to the state called _crackled sugar_, to obtain which
  the mass must be boiled longer than in the preceding degree; then dip
  a stick in it, and put it directly into a pan of cold water, draw off
  the sugar which hangs to the stick in the water, and if it turns hard
  and snaps, it has acquired the proper degree of crystallization, if
  otherwise, boil it again until it acquires that brittleness.

  The last stage of refining this article is called _caramel sugar_, to
  obtain which it must be boiled longer than in any of the preceding
  methods; prove it by dipping a stick first in the sugar, and then
  into cold water, and the moment it touches the latter, it will, if
  matured, snap like glass. Be careful that the fire is not too fierce,
  as by flaming up the sides of the pan, it will burn, discolour, and
  spoil the sugar.

  49. _French Method._

  Put into a pan syrup enough of clarified sugar to fill the moulds;
  boil it until it comes to the state called _small feather_, skim it
  well, take the pan from the fire, and pour it into a small quantity
  of spirit of wine, sufficient to make it sparkle; let it rest till
  the skin, which is the candy, rises on the surface; take it off with
  a skimmer, and pour it directly into a mould; which keep in the stove
  at 90 degrees heat for eight days; then strain the candy by a hole,
  slanting the mould on a bason or pan, to receive the drainings;
  let it drain till it is perfectly dry, then loosen the paper by
  moistening it with warm water: warm it all round near the fire, and
  turn the candy by striking it hard on the table. Put it on a sieve in
  the stove, to finish drying it; but do not touch it while there, and
  keep up an equal heat, otherwise there will be only a mash instead
  of a candy. Spirit of wine will take off grease, and not affect the
  candy, as it soon evaporates.


  When finished in the syrup, put a layer into a new sieve, and dip it
  suddenly into hot water to take off the syrup that hangs about it:
  put it into a napkin before the fire to drain, and then do more in
  the sieve. Have ready sifted double refined sugar, which shake over
  the fruit till covered quite white. Set it on the shallow end of the
  sieve in a warm oven, and turn it two or three times. It must not be
  cold till dry. Watch it carefully.


  Take a quantity of clarified sugar in that state that on dipping the
  finger into the pan the sugar which adheres to it will break with a
  slight noise; this is called _crack_. When the sugar is near this,
  put in two or three drops of lemon juice, or a little vinegar to
  prevent its graining. When it has come to the _crack_, take it off
  instantly, and dip the pan into cold water, to prevent its burning;
  let it stand a little, and then pour it on a marble which must be
  previously rubbed with oil. Cut the sugar into small pieces, when it
  will be ready for use. One drop of citron will flavour a considerable

  52. BON-BONS.

  Provide leaden moulds, which must be of various shapes, and be oiled
  with oil of sweet almonds. Take a quantity of brown sugar syrup in
  the proportion to their size, in that state called a _blow_, which
  may be known by dipping the skimmer into the sugar, shaking it, and
  blowing through the holes, when parts of light may be seen: add a
  drop of any esteemed essence. If the _bon-bons_ are preferred white,
  when the sugar has cooled a little, stir it round the pan till it
  grains, and shines on the surface; then pour it into a funnel and
  fill the little moulds, when it will take a proper form and harden:
  as soon as it is cold take it from the moulds; dry it two or three
  days, and put it upon paper. If the _bon-bons_ are required to be
  coloured, add the colour just as the sugar is ready to be taken off
  the fire.


  Put 1 ounce of race ginger grated fine, a pound of loaf sugar beat
  fine, into a preserving pan, with as much water as will dissolve the
  sugar. Stir them well together over a slow fire till the sugar begins
  to boil. Then stir in another pound of sugar, beat fine, and keep
  stirring it till it grows thick. Then take it off the fire, and drop
  it in cakes upon earthen dishes. Set them in a warm place to dry,
  when they will become hard and brittle, and look white.


  Boil it in water until the juice is extracted: then boil a sufficient
  quantity of sugar to a great height, and add the juice to it. Stir it
  with a spoon against the sides of the sugar pan, till it begins to
  grow thick, then pour it out into a paper case that is dusted with
  fine sugar, and cut it into squares; dry the horehound, and put it
  into the sugar finely powdered and sifted.


  Sugar crystallized by the saturated syrup being left in a very warm
  place, from 90 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and the shooting promoted
  by placing sticks, or a net of threads at some distances from each
  other in the liquor: it is also deposited from compound syrup, and
  does not retain any of the foreign substances with which it is loaded.


  Break the same into a copper pan, which will hold 1-3d more, put half
  a pint of water to each pound of sugar, mix one white of egg to every
  6 pounds; when it rises in boiling, throw in a little cold water,
  which must be kept ready in case it should boil over; skim it the
  fourth time of rising; continue to throw in a little cold water each
  time till the scum ceases to rise, and strain it through a sieve,
  cloth, or flannel bag. Save the scum, which, when a certain quantity
  is taken off, may be clarified. The latter skimming will do to add to
  fermented wines.


  Put 50 pounds of coarse brown sugar into a pan, which will contain
  1-3d more, pour in 20 pints of water, well mixed with 5 whites of
  eggs; pound 5 pounds of small charcoal, mix it in the pan while on
  the fire, and boil it till it looks as black as ink. If it rises too
  fast, add cold water, strain it through a bag, and though at first it
  will be black, continue to strain it until it becomes quite clear;
  which may be seen by putting the syrup in a glass. Put it back until
  it comes out as fine as clarified loaf sugar.


  To 5 pounds of coarse brown sugar, add 1 pound of flour, and there
  will be obtained 6 pounds of sugar worth 10 per cent. more in colour
  and quality.


  Soak the peels in cold water, which change frequently till they lose
  their bitterness; then put them into syrup till they become soft and
  transparent. Then they are to be taken out and drained.


  This is made by boiling lemon peel with sugar, and then exposing to
  the air until the sugar crystallizes.


  _Red._—Boil an ounce of cochineal in half a pint of water for 5
  minutes, add an ounce of cream of tartar, half an ounce of pounded
  alum, and boil them on a slow fire 10 minutes; if it shows the colour
  clear on white paper, it is sufficient. Add two ounces of sugar, and
  bottle it for use.

  _Blue._—Put a little warm water in a plate, and rub an indigo-stone
  in it till the colour has come to the tint required.

  _Yellow._—Rub with some water a little gamboge on a plate, or infuse
  the heart of a yellow lily flower, with milk-warm water.

  _Green._—Boil the leaves of spinach about a minute in a little water,
  and, when strained, bottle the liquor for use. In colouring refined
  sugars, taste and fancy must guide.


  Steep gum-tragacanth in rose-water, and with double refined sugar
  make it into a paste, and colour and mould it to fancy.


  Rub a lump of loaf sugar on the outside of a lemon, and put it into a
  pint of thick cream, and sweeten it to taste. Squeeze in the juice of
  a lemon, and add a glass of Madeira wine, or French brandy. Mill it
  to a froth with a chocolate mill, take off the froth as it rises, and
  lay it in a hair sieve. Fill one half of the glass with red wine,
  then lay the froth as high as possible, but take care that it is well
  drained in the sieve, otherwise it will mix with the wine, and the
  syllabub be spoiled.


  To a quart of rich cream put a quart of white wine, the juice of two
  lemons, with the rind of one grated, and sweeten it to taste. Whip it
  up well and take off the froth as it rises. Put it upon a hair sieve,
  and let it stand in a cool place till the next day. Then half fill
  the glasses with the scum, and heap up the froth as high as possible.
  The bottom will look clear, and it will keep several days.


  Pare and take out the cores of five large baking apples, and fill the
  holes with orange or quince marmalade. Then take some good hot paste,
  roll the apples in it, and make the crust of an equal thickness; put
  them in a tin dripping pan, bake them in a moderate oven, and when
  taken out, make iceing for them; let the same be a quarter of an inch
  thick, and set them a good distance from the fire until they become
  hardened, but be cautious that they are not browned.


  Mix six eggs well beat up, with fourteen pounds of loaf sugar,
  and three pounds of coarse sugar. Put them into three quarts of
  water, boil it twice, skim it well, and add a quarter of a pint of
  orange-flower water: strain it through a jelly-bag, and put it into
  bottles for use. A spoonful or two of this syrup put into a draught
  of either cold or warm water, makes it drink exceedingly pleasant.


  Take double refined sugar, pound and sift it through a hair sieve,
  not too fine; then sift it through a silk sieve, to take out all
  the fine dust, which would destroy the beauty of the _drop_. Put
  the sugar into a clean pan, and moisten it with any aromatic; if
  rose-water, pour it in slowly, stirring it with a paddle, which
  the sugar will fall from, as soon as it is moist enough, without
  sticking. Colour it with a small quantity of liquid carmine, or any
  other colour, ground fine. Take a small pan with a lip, fill it three
  parts with paste, place it on a small stove, the half hole being
  of the size of the pan, and stir the sugar with a little ivory or
  bone handle, until it becomes liquid. When it almost boils, take it
  from the fire and continue to stir it: if it be too moist, take a
  little of the powdered sugar, and add a spoonful to the paste, and
  stir it till it is of such a consistence as to run without too much
  extension. Have a tin plate, very clean and smooth; take the little
  pan in the left hand, and hold in the right a bit of iron, copper,
  or silver wire, four inches long, to take off the drop from the lip
  of the pan, and let it fall regularly on the tin plate; two hours
  afterwards, take off the drops with the blade of a knife.


  Scrape the chocolate to powder, and put an ounce to each pound of
  sugar; moisten the paste with clear water, work it as above, only
  take care to use all the paste prepared, as, if it be put on the
  fire a second time, it greases, and the drop is not of the proper


  These are made as the sugar drops, only using orange-flower water,
  or, instead of it, use the essence of naroli, which is the essential
  oil of that flower.


  An ounce of coffee to a pound of sugar will form a strong decoction:
  when cleared, use it to moisten the sugar, and then make the drops as


  The only requisites to make these are, extreme cleanliness, the
  finest sugar, and a few drops of the essence of peppermint.


  These are made as the cinnamon drops, the cloves being pounded, or
  the essence used. Good cloves should be black, heavy, of a pungent
  smell, hot to the taste, and full of oil.


  Pound and sift through a silk sieve the required quantity of ginger,
  according to the strength wanted, and add it to the sugar with clear
  water. China ginger is the best, being aromatic as well as hot and
  sharp tasted.


  Take of extract of liquorice,
        double refined sugar, each 10 oz.
        tragacanth, powdered, 3 oz.

  Powder them thoroughly, and make them into lozenges with rose-water.

  These are agreeable pectorals, and may be used at pleasure in
  tickling coughs. The above receipt is the easiest and best mode of
  making these lozenges. Refined extract of liquorice should be used:
  and it is easily powdered in the cold, after it has been laid for
  some days in a dry and rather warm place.


  The liquorice root is to be boiled in eight times its weight of
  water, to one half; the liquor is then to be expressed, and, after
  the fæces have subsided, to be filtered; it is then to be evaporated,
  with a heat between 200° and 212°, until it becomes thickish; and,
  lastly, it is to be evaporated with a heat less than 200°, and
  frequently stirred, until it acquire a consistence proper for forming
  pills. This is made into little pastilles, or flat cakes, often
  bearing the impression of the places where they are made; and a bit
  now and then put into the mouth, takes off the tickling of a cough.
  It should be sucked to make it pleasant, as much of the juice taken
  at a time is unpleasant.


  Take up the roots in July; clean them perfectly as soon as out of the
  earth, then hang them up in the air, till nearly dry; after this cut
  them into thin slices, and boil them in water till the decoction is
  extremely strong; then press it hard out to obtain all the juice from
  the roots. This decoction is left to settle a little, and when it has
  deposited its coarser parts, pour it off into vessels, evaporate it
  over a fire, strong first, but mild afterwards, till it becomes of
  a thick consistence; then let the fire go out, and when the extract
  is cool, take out large parcels of it at a time, and work them well
  with the hands, forming them into cylindric masses, which cut into
  such lengths as required, roll them over half-dried bay-leaves,
  which adhere to the surfaces, and leave them exposed to the sun,
  till perfectly dried. Great nicety is to be observed at the end of
  the evaporation, to get the extract to a proper consistence without
  letting it burn.


  That description of article which is vended in thin, rounded, and
  glazed pieces, about the thickness of a crow’s quill, is entirely
  prepared in this country. The whole process consists in evaporating
  the liquorice-ball anew, and purifying it by rest, with the help of
  isinglass, &c.


  Cut the clearest Seville oranges into two, take out all the juice
  and pulp into a basin, and pick all the skins and seeds out of it.
  Boil the rinds in hard water till they become tender, and change the
  water two or three times while they are boiling. Then pound them in a
  marble mortar, and add to it the juice and pulp; put them next into
  a preserving pan with double their weight in loaf sugar, and set it
  over a slow fire. Boil it rather more than half an hour, put it into
  pots: cover it with brandy paper, and tie it close down.


  Cut very pale Seville oranges into quarters; take out the pulp, put
  it into a basin, and pick out the skins and seeds. Put the peels
  into a little salt and water, and let them stand all night, then
  boil them in a good quantity of spring water until they are tender:
  cut them in very thin slices, and put them into the pulp. To every
  pound of marmalade put one pound and a half of double refined beaten
  sugar; boil them together gently for 20 minutes; if they are not
  transparent, boil them a few minutes longer. Stir it gently all the
  time, and take care not to break the slices. When it is cold, put it
  into jelly and sweetmeat glasses tied down tight.


  Mash the barberries in a little water, on a warm stove; pass them
  through a hair sieve with a paddle; weigh the pulp and put it back on
  the fire; reduce it to one half, clarify a pound of sugar and boil it
  well; put in the pulp and boil it together for a few minutes.


  Take quinces that are quite ripe, pare and cut them in quarters,
  take out the cores, put them in a stew-pan with spring water, nearly
  enough to cover them, keep them closely covered, and let them stew
  gently till they are quite soft and red, then mash and rub them
  through a hair sieve. Put them in a pan over a gentle fire, with as
  much thick clarified sugar as the weight of the quinces; boil them
  an hour and stir the whole time with a wooden spoon to prevent its
  sticking; put it into pots, and when cold tie them down.


  Take of the juice of Seville oranges, 2 pints,
        yellow honey, 2 lbs.

  Boil to a proper consistence.


  Boil half a pound of hartshorn in three quarts of water, over a
  gentle fire, till it becomes a jelly; when a little hangs on a spoon
  it is done enough. Strain it hot, put it into a well-tinned saucepan,
  and add to it half a pint of Rhenish wine, and a quarter of a pound
  of loaf sugar. Beat the whites of four eggs or more to a froth, stir
  it sufficiently for the whites to mix well with the jelly, and pour
  it in as if cooling it. Boil it two or three minutes, then put in the
  juice of four lemons, and let it boil two minutes longer. When it is
  finely curdled and of a pure white, pour it into a swan-skin jelly
  bag over a China basin, and pour it back again until it becomes as
  clear as rock water; set a very clean China basin under, fill the
  glasses, put some thin lemon rind into the basin, and when the jelly
  is all run out of the bag, with a clean spoon fill the rest of the
  glasses, and they will look of a fine amber colour. Put in lemon and
  sugar agreeable to the palate.


  Mix the whites of eight eggs, a quart of thick cream, and half a pint
  of sack, sweeten them to taste with double refined sugar. It may be
  perfumed with a little musk or ambergris tied in a rag and steeped
  in a little cream. Whip it up with a whisk, and some lemon-peel tied
  in the middle of the whisk. Then lay the froth with a spoon on the
  glasses, or basins.


  Beat half a pound of pistachio nut kernels in a mortar with a
  spoonful of brandy. Put them into a pan with a pint of good cream
  and the yolks of two eggs beaten fine. Stir it gently over the fire
  till it grows thick, and then put it into a China soup plate. When it
  is cold stick it over with small pieces of the nuts, and send it to

  86. ICE CREAM.

  To a pound of any preserved fruit add a quart of good cream, squeeze
  the juice of two lemons into it and some sugar to taste. Let the
  whole be rubbed through a fine hair sieve, and if raspberry,
  strawberry, or any red fruit, add a little cochineal to heighten the
  colour: have the freezing pot nice and clean; put the cream into it
  and cover it; then put it into the tub with ice beat small, and some
  salt; turn the freezing pot quick, and as the cream sticks to the
  sides, scrape it down with an ice-spoon, and so on till it is frozen.
  The more the cream is worked to the side with the spoon, the smoother
  and better flavoured it will be. After it is well frozen, take it out
  and put it into ice shapes with salt and ice: then carefully wash the
  shapes for fear of any salt adhering to them; dip them in lukewarm
  water and send them to table.

  87. _Another Method._

  Bruise two pottles of strawberries in a basin with half a pint of
  good cream, a little currant jelly, and some cold clarified sugar;
  rub this well through the tammy, and put it in an ice pot well
  covered; then set it in a tub of broken ice with plenty of salt; when
  it grows thick about the sides, stir it with a spoon, and cover it
  close again till it is perfectly frozen through; cover it well with
  ice and salt both under and over, and when it is frozen change it
  into a mould and cover well with ice. Sweeten a little plain cream
  with sugar and orange flower water, and treat it the same; likewise
  any other fruit, without cream, may be mixed as above. This is called
  _water ice_.


  Take the juice of red currants, 1 lb.
        sugar, 6 oz.
  Boil down.

  89. _Another Method._

  Take the juice of red currants, and
        white sugar, equal quantities.
  Stir it gently and smoothly for three hours, put it into glasses,
  and in three days it will concrete into a firm jelly.


  Put to ten quarts of ripe dry black currants, one quart of water; put
  them in a large stew-pot, tie paper close over them, and set them for
  two hours in a cool oven. Squeeze them through a fine cloth, and add
  to every quart of juice a pound and a half of loaf sugar broken into
  small pieces. Stir it till the sugar is melted; when it boils skim it
  quite clean. Boil it pretty quick over a clear fire, till it jellies,
  which is known by dipping a skimmer into the jelly and holding it in
  the air; when it hangs to the spoon in a drop, it is done. If the
  jelly is boiled too long it will lose its flavour and shrink very
  much. Pour it into pots, cover them with brandy papers, and keep them
  in a dry place. Red and white jellies are made in the same way.


  Take of apple juice strained, 4 lbs.
        sugar, one pound.
  Boil to a jelly.


  Take of the juice of strawberries, 4 lbs.
        sugar, 2 lbs.
  Boil down.


  Dissolve sugar in about half its weight of water, and boil; it will
  be nearly solid when cold; to this syrup add an equal weight of
  gooseberry juice, and give it a boil, but not long, for otherwise it
  will not fix.


  Rub a quart of raspberries through a hair sieve, and take out the
  seeds and mix it well with cream; sweeten it with sugar to your
  taste, then put it into a stone jug, and raise a froth with a
  chocolate mill. As the froth rises, take it off with a spoon, and lay
  it upon a hair sieve. When there is as much froth as wanted, put what
  cream remains in a deep China dish, and pour the frothed cream upon
  it, as high as it will lie on.


  Mash a quantity of fine ripe dry raspberries, strew on them their own
  weight of loaf sugar, and half their weight of white currant juice.
  Boil them half an hour over a clear slow fire, skim them well, and
  put them into pots or glasses; tie them down with brandy papers, and
  keep them dry. Strew on the sugar as quick as possible after the
  berries are gathered, and in order to preserve their flavour, they
  must not stand long before boiling them.


  Bruise very fine some scarlet strawberries, gathered when quite ripe,
  and put to them a little juice of red currants. Beat and sift their
  weight in sugar, strew it over them, and put them into a preserving
  pan. Set them over a clear slow fire, skim them, then boil them 20
  minutes, and put them into glasses.


  Mash a quart of raspberries, strain one half and put the juice to the
  other half; boil them a quarter of an hour, put to them a pint of red
  currant juice, and let them boil all together, till the raspberries
  are done enough. Then put a pound and a half of double refined sugar
  into a clean pan, with as much water as will dissolve it; boil it to
  a sugar again; then put in the raspberries and juice, scald and pour
  them into glasses. Put them into a stove to dry, and turn them when


  Boil the fruit in a sufficient quantity of water to cover it; strain
  the pulp through a very coarse hair sieve; to each pound add four
  ounces of sugar. Boil till it begins to candy on the sides, then pour
  it into tin moulds. Other kinds of plums may be treated in the same
  way, as also cherries, and several kinds of fruit.


  Put two ounces of the powder of chestnuts into a skillet, then add
  two yolks of new laid eggs, and dilute the whole with a little cream,
  or even a little water; when this is done, and the ingredients well
  mixed, leaving no lumps, add a bit of the best fresh butter, about
  the size of an egg, and an equal quantity of powdered sugar; then
  put the skillet on the fire, and keep stirring the contents; when
  the cream is fixed and thick enough to adhere to the spoon, let it
  bubble up once or twice, and take it from the fire; then add a third
  white of an egg to those you have already set aside, and whip them
  to the consistency of snow: then amalgamate the whipped whites of
  eggs and the cream, stirring them with a light and equal hand, pour
  the contents into a deep dish, sift over with double refined sugar,
  and place the dish on a stove, with a fire over it as well as under,
  and in a quarter of an hour the cream will rise like an _omelette
  souffle_; as soon as it rises about four inches it is fit to serve up.


  Blanch and pound three quarters of a pound of sweet, and a quarter
  of a pound of bitter almonds; pound them in a mortar, and wet them
  sufficiently with orange flower water, that they may not oil. When
  they are pounded fine, add three quarters of a pound of fine powdered
  sugar to them, and mix the whole in a stiff paste, which put into
  pots for use. It will keep six months; when wanted to be used, take a
  piece about the size of an egg, and mix it with half a pint of water,
  and squeeze it through a napkin.


  Take of decoction of marshmallow roots, 4 oz.
        water, 1 gallon.
  Boil 4 pints and strain: then add gum arabic, half a pound, refined
  sugar, 2 lbs. Evaporate to an extract, then take it from the fire,
  stir it quickly with the whites of twelve eggs, previously beaten to
  a froth: then add, while stirring, half an oz. of orange-flower water.

  102. _Another._

  Take of very white gum arabic, and white sugar, each 2¼ lbs. with a
  sufficient quantity of boiling water. Dissolve, strain, and evaporate
  without boiling, to the consistence of honey: beat up the whites
  of six eggs with four drachms of orange-flower water, which mix
  gradually with the paste, and evaporate over a slow fire, stirring it
  continually till it will not stick to the fingers, it should be very
  light, spongy, and extremely white.


  Take of raisins stoned, 1 lb.
        currants picked,
        jujubes, opened, each 4 oz.
        water, a sufficient quantity.
  Boil; strain with expression, add sugar, 2½ lbs. gum arabic, 2½
  lbs. previously made into a mucilage with some water, and strain;
  evaporate gently, pour into moulds, finish by drying in a stove and
  then divide it.

                          TO PRESERVE FRUITS.


Some rules are necessary to be observed in this branch of confectionary.

In the first place, observe, in making syrups, that the Sugar is well
dissolved before it is placed on the fire, otherwise the scum will not
rise well, nor the fruit obtain its best colour.

When stone fruits are preserved, cover them with mutton suet rendered,
to exclude the air; as air is sure to ruin them.

All wet sweet-meats must be kept dry and cool to preserve them from
mouldiness and damp.

Dip a piece of writing paper in brandy, lay it close upon the
sweetmeats, cover them tight with paper, and they will keep well for
any length of time; but they will inevitably spoil without these


  Put damsons, before they are too ripe, into wide-mouthed bottles, and
  cork them down tight; then put them into a moderately heated oven,
  and about three hours will do them; observe that the oven is not
  too hot, otherwise it will make the fruit fly. All kinds of fruits
  that are bottled may be done in the same way, and they will keep two
  years; after they are done, they must be put away with the mouth
  downward, in a cool place, to keep them from fermenting.


  Set an equal quantity of barberries and sugar in a kettle of boiling
  water, till the sugar is melted and the barberries quite soft; let
  them remain all night. Put them next day into a preserving pan, and
  boil them fifteen minutes, then put them into jars, tie them close,
  and set them by for use.

  106. GRAPES.

  Take close bunches, whether white or red, not too ripe, and lay them
  in a jar. Put to them a quarter of a pound of sugar candy, and fill
  the jar with common brandy. Tie them up close with a bladder, and set
  them in a dry place.


  Having stoned the desired quantity of morello cherries, put a pound
  and a quarter of fine sugar to every pound; beat and sift it over the
  cherries, and let them stand all night. Take them out of their sugar,
  and to every pound of sugar, put two spoonsful of water. Boil and
  skim it well, and then put in the cherries; boil the sugar over them,
  and next morning strain them, and to every pound of syrup put half a
  pound more sugar; boil it till it is a little thicker, then put in
  the cherries and let them boil gently. The next day strain them, put
  them in a stove and turn them every day till they are dry.


  The best kind is clarified by merely melting it in a water bath,
  and taking off the scum; the middling kind by dissolving it in
  water, adding the white of an egg to each pint of the solution; and
  boiling it down to its original consistence, skimming it from time
  to time. The inferior kind requires solution in water, boiling the
  solution with one pound of charcoal, to 25 pounds of honey, adding,
  when an excess of acid is apprehended, a small quantity of chalk
  or oyster-shell powder; next by straining it several times through
  flannel, and reducing the solution to its original consistence by


  Free them from their cups, stamina, and pistils, put four ounces into
  one pound of sugar boiled to a candy height, and poured on a slab, so
  as to be formed into cakes.


  Gather plums, apricots, cherries, peaches, and other juicy fruits,
  before they are perfectly ripe, and soak them for some hours in
  hard, or alum water, to make them firm; as the moisture of the fruit
  weakens the spirit, it ought to be strong, therefore, add five ounces
  of sugar to each quart of spirit.


  Cut a hole at the stem end of the oranges, the size of sixpence,
  take out all the pulp, put the oranges into cold water for two days,
  changing it twice a day; boil them rather more than an hour, but do
  not cover them, as it will spoil the colour; have ready a good syrup,
  into which put the oranges, and boil them till they look clear; then
  take out the seeds, skins, &c. from the pulp first taken out of the
  oranges, and add to it one of the whole oranges, previously boiled,
  with an equal weight of sugar to it and the pulp; boil this together
  till it looks clear, over a slow fire, and when cold fill the oranges
  with this marmalade, and put on the tops; cover them with syrup, and
  put brandy paper on the top of the jar. It is better to take out the
  inside at first, to preserve the fine flavour of the juice and pulp,
  which would be injured by boiling in the water.


  Take large cucumbers, green, and free from seed, put them in a jar
  of strong salt and water, with vine leaves on the top, set them by
  the fire side till they are yellow; then wash and set them over a
  slow fire in alum and water, covered with vine leaves; let them
  boil till they become green; take them off, and let them stand in
  the liquor till cold: then quarter them, and take out the seed and
  pulp; put them in cold spring water, changing it twice a day for
  three days. Have ready a syrup made thus: to one pound of loaf sugar,
  half an ounce of ginger bruised, with as much water as will wet it;
  when it is quite free from scum, put in, when boiling, the rind of
  a lemon and juice; when quite cold, pour the syrup on the melons.
  If the syrup is too thin, after standing two or three days, boil it
  again, and add a little more sugar. A spoonful of rum, gives it the
  West-Indian flavour. Girkins may be done the same way. One ounce of
  alum, when pounded, is sufficient for a dozen melons of a middling


  Take an equal weight of fruit and double refined sugar, lay the
  former in a large dish, and sprinkle half the sugar in fine powder;
  give a gentle shake to the dish, that the sugar may touch the under
  side of the fruit. Next day make a thin syrup with the remainder of
  the sugar; and allow one pint of red currant juice, to every three
  pounds of strawberries; in this simmer them until sufficiently
  jellied. Choose the largest scarlets, not dead ripe.

  114. APRICOTS.

  Infuse young apricots before their stones become hard, into a pan of
  cold spring water, with plenty of vine leaves; set them over a slow
  fire until they are quite yellow, then take them out and rub them
  with a flannel and salt to take off the lint; put them into the pan
  to the same water and leaves, cover them close at a distance from the
  fire, until they are a fine light green, then pick out all the bad
  ones. Boil the best gently two or three times in a thin syrup, and
  let them be quite cold each time before you boil them. When they look
  plump and clear, make a syrup of double refined sugar, but not too
  thick; give your apricots a gentle boil in it, and then put them into
  the pots or glasses, dip a paper in brandy, lay it over them, tie
  them close, and keep them in a dry place.


  The stalks are to be boiled for a quarter of an hour in water, to
  take away their bitterness, and some of the strong scent; they are
  then to be put into syrup, boiled to a full candied height, and kept
  on the fire, until they appear quite dry, and then taken out and


  Is prepared nearly in the same manner as candied angelica, but the
  roots are only slit, and washed three or four times in cold water,
  before they are put into the syrup.


  Put an ounce of roche alum beat very fine, into a large pan of
  boiling hard water; place a few gooseberries at the bottom of a hair
  sieve, and hold them in the water till they turn white. Then take out
  the sieve, and spread the gooseberries between two cloths; put more
  into the sieve, and repeat it till they are all done: Put the water
  into a glazed pot until the next day, then put the gooseberries into
  wide-mouthed bottles; pick out all the cracked and broken ones, pour
  the water clear out of the pot, and fill the bottles with it, cork
  them loosely, and let them stand a fortnight. If they rise to the
  corks, draw them out and let them stand two or three days uncorked,
  then cork them close again.



This branch of domestic economy comprises a great variety of articles
which are essentially necessary to the convenience of families.

It is too prevalent a practice to make use of brass utensils to give
pickles a fine colour. This pernicious custom is easily avoided by
heating the liquor and keeping it in a proper degree of warmth before
it is poured upon the pickle. Stone or glass jars are the best adapted
for sound keeping.

Pickles should never be handled with the fingers, but taken out by a
spoon, with holes in it, kept for the purpose.

The strongest vinegar must be used for pickling. It must not be boiled,
as thereby the strength of the vinegar and spices will be evaporated.
By parboiling the pickles in brine, they will be ready in half the time
they would otherwise be. When taken out of the hot brine, let them get
cold and quite dry before you put them into the pickle.

The articles to be pickled should be perforated with a larding pin, in
several places, by which means they will the more readily imbibe the
flavour of the pickle.

The spices, &c. generally used, are those mentioned in the following
receipt for walnuts.


  Make a brine of salt and water, with a quarter of a pound of salt to
  a quart of water. Soak the walnuts in this for a week, and if you
  wish to have them ready the sooner, run a larding pin through them,
  in half a dozen places, which will make them much softer and better
  flavoured. Put them into a stew-pan with the brine, and give them a
  gentle simmer. Lay them on a sieve to drain, then put them on a fish
  plate in the open air, a couple of days, or till they turn black.
  Put them into unglazed or stone jars, about three parts full, and
  fill up the jars with the following pickle;[13] and when they have
  been done about a week, open them and fill them up again, and so on
  continually, or else they will be spoiled.

  119. ONIONS.

  Put a sufficient quantity into salt and water for nine days,
  observing to change the water every day; next put them into jars and
  pour fresh boiling salt and water over them, cover them close up till
  they are cold, then make a second decoction of salt and water, and
  pour it on boiling. When it is cold drain the onions on a hair sieve,
  and put them into wide-mouthed bottles; fill them up with distilled
  vinegar; put into every bottle a slice or two of ginger, a blade of
  mace, and a tea-spoonful of sweet oil, which will keep the onions
  white. Cork them well up, and keep them in a dry place.

  120. SAUR KRAUT.

  Take a large strong wooden vessel, or cask, resembling a salt-beef
  cask, and capable of containing as much as is sufficient for the
  winter’s consumption of a family. Gradually break down or chop the
  cabbages (deprived of outside green leaves,) into very small pieces;
  begin with one or two cabbages at the bottom of the cask, and add
  others at intervals, pressing them by means of a wooden spade,
  against the side of the cask, until it is full. Then place a heavy
  weight upon the top of it, and allow it to stand near to a warm
  place, for four or five days. By this time it will have undergone
  fermentation, and be ready for use. Whilst the cabbages are passing
  through the process of fermentation, a very disagreeable fetid, acid
  smell is exhaled from them; now remove the cask to a cool situation,
  and keep it always covered up. Strew aniseeds among the layers of the
  cabbage during its preparation, which communicates a peculiar flavour
  to the Saur Kraut at an after period.

  In boiling it for the table, two hours is the period for it to be on
  the fire. It forms an excellent nutritious and antiscorbutic food for
  winter use.


  This consists of all kinds of pickles mixed and put into one large
  jar—girkins, sliced cucumbers, button onions, cauliflowers, broken
  in pieces. Salt them, or put them in a large hair sieve in the sun
  to dry for three days, then scald them in vinegar for a few minutes;
  when cold put them together. Cut a large white cabbage in quarters,
  with the outside leaves taken off and cut fine, salt it, and put it
  in the sun to dry for three or four days; then scald it in vinegar,
  the same as cauliflower, carrots, three parts boiled in vinegar and
  a little bay salt; French beans, rock-samphire, reddish pods, and
  nastertiums, all go through the same process as girkins, capsicums,
  &c. To one gallon of vinegar put four ounces of ginger bruised, two
  ounces of whole white pepper, two ounces of allspice, half an ounce
  of chillies bruised, four ounces of turmeric, one pound of the best
  mustard, half a pound of shalots, one ounce of garlic and half a
  pound of bay salt. The vinegar, spice, and other ingredients, except
  the mustard, must boil half an hour; then strain it into a pan, put
  the mustard into a large basin, with a little vinegar; mix it quite
  fine and free from lumps, then add more; when well mixed put it to
  the vinegar just strained off, and when quite cold put the pickles
  into a large pan, and the liquor over them; stir them repeatedly so
  as to mix them all; finally, put them into a jar, and tie them over
  first with a bladder, and afterwards with leather. The capsicums want
  no preparation.

  122. SAMPHIRE.

  Put what quantity is wanted into a clean pan, throw over it two
  or three handsful of salt, and cover it with spring water for
  twenty-four hours; next put it into a clean saucepan, throw in a
  handful of salt, and cover it with good vinegar. Close the pan tight,
  set it over a slow fire, and let it stand till the samphire is green
  and crisp; then take it off instantly, for should it remain till it
  is soft, it will be totally spoiled. Put it into the pickling pot
  and cover it close; when it is quite cold tie it down with a bladder
  and leather, and set it by for use. Samphire may be preserved all
  the year by keeping it in a very strong brine of salt and water, and
  just before using it, put it for a few minutes into some of the best


  Put the smallest that can be got into spring water, and rub them with
  a piece of new flannel dipped in salt. Throw them into cold water as
  they are cleaned, which will make them keep their colour; next put
  them into a saucepan with a handful of salt upon them. Cover them
  close and set them over the fire four or five minutes, or till the
  heat draws the liquor from them; next lay them betwixt two dry cloths
  till they are cold; put them into glass bottles and fill them up with
  distilled vinegar, with a blade of mace, and a teaspoonful of sweet
  oil in every bottle; cork them up close and set them in a dry cool
  place; as a substitute for distilled vinegar, use white wine vinegar,
  or ale. Allegon will do, but it must be boiled with a little mace,
  salt, and a few slices of ginger, and it must be quite cold before it
  is poured upon the mushrooms.

  124. _Another Method._

  Bruise a quantity of well-grown flaps of mushrooms with the hands,
  and then strew a fair proportion of salt over them; let them stand
  all night, and the next day put them into stew-pans; set them in a
  quick oven for twelve hours, and strain them through a hair sieve.
  To every gallon of liquor put of cloves, Jamaica black pepper, and
  ginger, one ounce each, and half a pound of common salt; set it on a
  slow fire, and let it boil till half the liquor is wasted; then put
  it into a clean pot, and when cold bottle it for use.


  Let them be as free from spots as possible; take the smallest that
  can be got, put them into strong salt and water for nine days, till
  they become yellow; stir them at least twice a day; should they
  become perfectly yellow, pour the water off and cover them with
  plenty of vine leaves. Set the water over the fire, and when it
  boils, pour it over them, and set them upon the earth to keep warm.
  When the water is almost cold make it boil again, and pour it upon
  them; proceed thus till they are of a fine green, which they will be
  in four or five times; keep them well covered with vine leaves, with
  a cloth and dish over the top to keep in the steam, which will help
  to green them.

  When they are greened put them in a hair sieve to drain, and then to
  every two quarts of white wine vinegar put half an ounce of mace, ten
  or twelve cloves, an ounce of ginger cut into slices, an ounce of
  black pepper, and a handful of salt. Boil them all together for five
  minutes; pour it hot on the pickles, and tie them down for use. They
  may also be pickled with ale, ale vinegar, or distilled vinegar, and
  adding three or four cloves of garlic and shalots.


  To a peck of sprats put two pounds of salt, three ounces of bay-salt,
  one pound of salt-petre, two ounces of prunella, and a few grains of
  cochineal; pound all in a mortar, put into a stone pan first a layer
  of sprats, and then one of the compound, and so on alternately to
  the top. Press them down hard; cover them close for six months, and
  they will be fit for use, and will really produce a most excellent
  flavoured sauce.

  127. SALMON.

  Boil the fish gently till done, and then take it up, strain the
  liquor, add bay leaves, pepper corns, and salt; give these a boil,
  and when cold add the best vinegar to them; then put the whole
  sufficiently over the fish to cover it, and let it remain a month at


  Fish may be preserved in a dry state, and perfectly fresh, by means
  of sugar alone, and even with a very small quantity of it.

  Fresh fish may be kept in that state for some days, so as to be as
  good when boiled as if just caught. If dried, and kept free from
  mouldiness, there seems no limit to their preservation; and they
  are much better in this way than when salted. The sugar gives no
  disagreeable taste.

  This process is particularly valuable in making what is called
  kippered salmon; and the fish preserved in this manner are far
  superior in quality and flavour to those which are salted or smoked.
  If desired, as much salt may be used as to give the taste that may be
  required; but this substance does not conduce to their preservation.

  In the preparation, it is barely necessary to open the fish, and to
  apply the sugar to the muscular parts, placing it in a horizontal
  position for two or three days, that this substance may penetrate.
  After this it may be dried; and it is only further necessary to wipe
  and ventilate it occasionally, to prevent mouldiness.

  A table spoonful of brown sugar is sufficient in this manner for a
  salmon of five or six pounds weight; and if salt is desired, a tea
  spoonful or more may be added. Saltpetre may be used instead, in the
  same proportion, if it is desired to make the kipper hard.

  129. TO SALT HAMS.

  For three hams pound and mix together half a peck of salt, half an
  ounce of salt prunella, three ounces of salt-petre, and four pounds
  of coarse salt; rub the hams well with this, and lay what is to spare
  over them, let them lie three days, then hang them up. Take the
  pickle in which the hams were, put water enough to cover the hams,
  with more common salt, till it will bear an egg, then boil and skim
  it well, put it in the salting tub, and the next morning put it in
  the hams; keep them down the same as pickled pork; in a fortnight
  take them out of the liquor, rub them well with brine, and hang them
  up to dry.


  Lay the meat on a table or in a tub with a double bottom, that the
  brine may drain off as fast as it forms, rub the salt well in, and
  be careful to apply it to every niche; afterwards put it into either
  of the above utensils; when it must be frequently turned, after the
  brine has ceased running, it must be quite buried in salt, and kept
  closely packed. Meat which has had the bones taken out is the best
  for salting. In some places the salted meat is pressed by heavy
  weights, or a screw, to extract the moisture sooner.


  A good brine is made of bay salt and water, thoroughly saturated,
  so that some of the salt remains undissolved; into this brine the
  substances to be preserved are plunged, and kept covered with it.
  Among vegetables, French beans, artichokes, olives, and the different
  sorts of samphire, may be thus preserved, and among animals, herrings.

  132. _To Salt by another Method._

  Mix brown sugar, bay salt, common salt, each two pounds, saltpetre
  eight ounces, water two gallons; this pickle gives meats a fine
  red colour, while the sugar renders them mild and of excellent
  flavour.—Large quantities are to be managed by the above proportions.

                             BRITISH WINES.


The different processes in wine making, range themselves under the
following heads:

Gathering the fruit,—picking the fruit,—bruising the fruit,—and vatting
the fruit.

Vinous fermentation, flavouring the wine,—drawing the must,—pressing
the husks,—casking the must.

Spirituous fermentation, racking the wine,—fuming the wine,—bottling
and corking the wine.

                      APPARATUS FOR WINE MAKING.

To make wine well, and with facility, persons should have all the
requisite apparatus, namely, the _vats, vat-staff, fruit-bruiser,
strainer, hair-bags, canvas-bags, wine-press, thermometer, and


  Fruit of every description, says Mr. Carnell, in his excellent
  treatise on wine making, should be gathered in fine weather; those of
  the berry kind often appear ripe to the eye before they really are
  so, therefore it is requisite to taste them several times in order
  to ascertain that they are arrived at the crisis of maturity. If the
  fruit be not ripe, the wine will be harsh and hard, and unpleasant to
  the palate, and more so to the stomach; it will also take more spirit
  and saccharine, and take a longer time to be fit for the table. If
  the fruit be too ripe, the wine from it will be faint, low, and
  vapid; it will not be strong and generous; it will also require more
  trouble, additional spirit, and expense.

  134. PICKING.

  Detach the unripe and bad berries: the result when the wine is drank,
  will be greatly superior in richness. Pick the stalks from grapes,
  currants, and gooseberries, previously to their being placed in the

  135. BRUISING.

  The quantity of fruit for making a vintage of domestic wine, is not
  so large but it may be bruised in a tub, and from thence removed
  into the vat, or if the quantity be very small, it may be bruised
  in the vat. While the fruit is picking by one person, another may
  bruise it, and as it is bruised remove it into the vat. When Malaga
  or Smyrna raisins are used, they are to be put into the vat with the
  water, to soak, and the following day taken out and bruised, then
  returned into the vat again.

  136. VATTING.

  The first thing to be done is to place the guard against the
  tap-hole, to prevent the husks escaping at the time the must or
  extract is drawn off. When all the fruit is in the vat the water
  should be added, and the contents stirred with the vat-staff,
  and left to macerate until the next day, when sugar, tartar, &c.
  diluted with some of the liquor, is to be put into the vat, and the
  whole again stirred up. The place where the vat is situated should
  have a free circulation of air, and a temperature of not less than
  58 degrees. If the vinous fermentation do not take place, in a
  reasonable time, the contents must be often stirred, and the place
  made warmer.


  The time of a vinous fermentation commencing is always uncertain;
  it depends much on the quality and quantity of the contents of the
  vat, on its local situation, on the season or weather, and most
  particularly on the greenness or ripeness of the fruit. To produce a
  medium vinous fermentation, the vats and contents ought to be placed
  in a temperature from 60 to 70 degrees. And if this is found not to
  produce fermentation in a short time, the temperature of the place
  must be made warmer, and the vat often stirred with the vat-staff.

  The commencement of the vinous fermentation may be known by plunging
  the thermometer into the middle of the vat, for a minute, and
  when taken out, if a fermentation has commenced, the temperature
  of the contents will be higher than at the place where the vats
  are situated. When the vinous fermentation begins, it is very
  conspicuous, and may be known by its taste, smell, appearance, and
  effects. The contents will first gently rise, and swell with a slight
  movement and a little hissing. A considerable motion will take place,
  and the contents will increase in heat and bulk, while a quantity of
  air escapes.

  It is impossible to lay down an exact time for a vinous fermentation;
  but for eighteen gallons, two or three days are generally sufficient
  for white wines; and red wines require a day or two more.


  When the vinous fermentation is about half over, the flavouring
  ingredients are to be put into the vat and well stirred into the
  contents. If almonds form a component part, they are first to be
  beaten to a paste and mixed with a pint or two of the must. Nutmegs,
  cinnamon, ginger, seeds, &c. should, before they are put into the
  vat, be reduced to powder, and mixed with some of the _must_.


  When the must in the vat gives, by tasting, a strong vinous pungency,
  that is the period to stop the remaining slight fermentation, by
  drawing off the must, in order to have strong and generous wine.

  A cock, or spicket and faucet, is to be put into the tap-hole of
  the vat, and the must drawn off and put into open vessels, there to
  remain till the pressing is finished.


  As soon as all the must is drawn off from the vat, the husks are
  to be put into hair-bags, and the mouth of each bag is to be well
  fastened, then put into the press, and the whole pressed without
  delay. The must that is pressed out is to be mixed with the must that
  was drawn off from the vat. Many ways may be contrived for pressing
  a small vintage, for those persons who cannot afford to purchase a
  proper wine-press; but several wines do not require pressing; and may
  be strained through a sweet, clean, canvas bag, made with a pointed
  end downwards.


  Each cask is to be filled, within about an inch of the bung-hole,
  which should be covered over lightly with a flat piece of wood. The
  must now is perfectly cool and calm, and will remain in this state
  until the spirituous fermentation commences.


  The spirituous fermentation is essentially necessary to the
  clarification, goodness, and perfection of the wine. If the vinous
  fermentation has been well conducted, and the wine cellar be not too
  cold, a spirituous fermentation will commence in a few days, and
  abate in six or twelve days, the time depending on circumstances,
  and on the quality and quantity of the wine. The brandy or spirit
  assigned should at this time be put to the wine by pouring it in
  gently without disturbing the wine. The cask now, if not full, must
  be filled up and bunged with a wooden bung covered with a piece of
  new canvass larger than the bung. In about a month after the spirit
  has been added, the cask will again want filling up; this should be
  done with the overplus of the vintage, if not with some other good
  wine, and the cask re-bunged very tight. The cask should be pegged
  once a month or oftener to see if the wine be clear and not thick,
  and as soon as it is fine and bright, it must be racked off its lees.

  143. RACKING.

  This is an operation highly requisite to the keeping wine good;
  to its purification, strength, colour, brilliancy, richness, and
  flavour, and is performed by drawing off the _wine_ and leaving the
  _lees_ in the cask. A siphon should be used but if not, the cask
  should be tapped two or three days previously. It may be racked off
  into another cask, or into a vat or tub, and returned into the same
  cask again, _after it has been well cleaned_; and, if requisite,
  the cask may be slightly fumigated, immediately before the wine is
  returned into it. If the wine, on being tasted, is found weak, a
  little spirit is to be given to it, the cask filled up and bunged

  The racking off ought to be performed in temperate weather, and as
  soon as the wines appear clear, a _second racking_ will make them
  _perfectly brilliant_, and if so they will want no fining.

  144. FINING.

  Many wines require fining _before_ they are racked, and the operation
  of fining is not always necessary. Most wines, well made, do not want
  fining; this may be ascertained by drawing a little into a glass,
  from a peg-hole.

  One of the best finings is as follows:—Take one pound of fresh
  marsh-mallow roots, washed clean, and cut into small pieces; macerate
  them in two quarts of soft water, for twenty-four hours, then gently
  boil the liquor down to three half pints, strain it, and when cold,
  mix with it half an ounce of pipe-clay or chalk, in powder, then pour
  the mucilage into the cask, and stir up the wine so as not to disturb
  the lees, and leave the vent-peg out for some days after.

  Or, take boiled rice, two table-spoonsful, the white of one new egg,
  and half an ounce of burnt alum, in powder. Mix with a pint or more
  of the wine, then pour the mucilage into the cask, and stir the wine
  with a stout stick, but not to agitate the lees.

  Or, dissolve, in a gentle heat, half an ounce of isinglass in a pint
  or more of the wine, then mix with it half an ounce of chalk, in
  powder; when the two are well incorporated, pour it into the cask,
  and stir the wine so as not to disturb the lees.

  As soon as wines are clear and bright, after being fined down, they
  ought to be racked into a sweet and clean cask, the cask filled up
  and bunged tight.


  Fine clear weather is best for bottling all sorts of wines, and much
  cleanliness is required. The first consideration, in bottling wines,
  is to examine and see if the wines are in a proper state. _The wines
  should be fine and brilliant_, or they will never brighten after.

  The bottles must be all sound, clean, and dry, with plenty of good
  sound corks.

  The cork is to be put in with the hand, and then driven well in with
  a flat wooden mallet, the weight of which ought to be a _pound and
  a quarter_, but however, not to exceed a pound and a half, for if
  the mallet be too light or too heavy it will not drive the cork in
  _properly_, and may _break the bottle_. The corks must so completely
  fill up the neck of each bottle as to render them _air tight_, but
  leave a space of an inch between the wine and the cork.

  When all the wine is bottled, it is to be stored in a cool cellar,
  and on _no account on the bottles’ bottoms_, but on their sides and
  in saw-dust.


  Take cold soft water, 10 gallons,
        red gooseberries, 11 gallons, and ferment.
  Now mix raw sugar, 16 lbs.
        beet-root, sliced, 2 lbs. and
        red tartar, in fine powder, 3 ounces.
  Afterwards put in sassafras chips, 1 lb. and
        brandy, 1 gallon, or less.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  147. _Another._

  When the weather is dry, gather gooseberries about the time they
  are half ripe; pick them clean, put the quantity of a peck into a
  convenient vessel, and bruise them with a piece of wood, taking as
  much care as possible to keep the seeds whole. Now, having put the
  pulp into a canvass-bag, press out all the juice; and to every gallon
  of the gooseberries add about three pounds of fine loaf-sugar: mix
  the whole together by stirring it with a stick, and as soon as the
  sugar is quite dissolved, pour it into a convenient cask, which will
  hold it exactly. If the quantity be about eight or nine gallons,
  let it stand a fortnight; if twenty gallons, forty days, and so on
  in proportion; taking care the place you set it in be cool. After
  standing the proper time, draw it off from the lees, and put it into
  another clean vessel of equal size, or into the same, after pouring
  the lees out, and making it clean; let a cask of ten or twelve
  gallons stand for about three months, and twenty gallons for five
  months, after which it will be fit for bottling off.


  Take cold soft water, 3 gallons,
        red gooseberries, 1½ gallons,
        white gooseberries, 2 gallons.
        Now mix raw sugar, 5 lbs.
                honey, 1½ lbs.
                tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz.
  Afterwards put in bitter almonds, two ounces,
        sweet-briar, one small handful, and
        brandy one gallon, or less.

  This will make six gallons.


  Take cold soft water, 4½ gallons,
        white gooseberries, 5 gallons.
        Now mix refined sugar, 6 pounds,
                honey, 4 pounds,
                white tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz.
  Put in orange and lemon peel, one ounce dry, or two ounces
  fresh; and add
        white brandy ½ a gallon.

  This will make nine gallons.


  To each Scotch pint of full ripe gooseberries, mashed, add one Scotch
  pint of water, milk-warm, in which has been dissolved 1 lb. of single
  refined sugar: stir the whole well, and cover up the tub with a
  blanket, to preserve the heat generated by the fermentation of the
  ingredients: let them remain in this vessel three days, stirring them
  twice or three times a day: strain off the liquor through a sieve,
  afterwards through a coarse linen cloth; put it into the casks it
  will ferment without yeast. Let the cask be kept full with some of
  the liquor reserved for the purpose. It will ferment for ten days,
  sometimes for three weeks: when ceased, and only a hissing noise
  remains, draw off two or three bottles, according to the strength
  you wish it to have, from every 20 pint cask, and fill up the cask
  with brandy or whiskey; but brandy is preferable. To make it very
  good, and that it may keep well, add as much sherry, together with
  a ¼ oz. of isinglass dissolved in water to make it quite liquid;
  stir the whole well. Bung the cask up, and surround the bung with
  clay; the closer it is bunged the better; a fortnight after, if it
  be clear at the top, taste it; if not sweet enough, add more sugar;
  22 lbs. is the just quantity in all for 20 pints of wine; leave the
  wine six months in the cask; but after being quite fine, the sooner
  it is bottled, the more it will sparkle and resemble champaigne. The
  process should be carried on in a place where the heat is between 48°
  and 56° Fahrenheit.—N. B. Currant wine may be made in the same manner.


  Take gooseberries before they are ripe, crush them with a mallet in
  a wooden bowl, and to every gallon of fruit put a gallon of water;
  let it stand two days, stirring it well; squeeze the mixture with
  the hands through a hop-sieve; then measure the liquor, and to every
  gallon put 3½ lbs. of loaf sugar; mix it well in the tub, and let
  it stand one day; put a bottle of the best brandy into the cask;
  which leave open five or six weeks, taking off the scum as it rises;
  then make it up, and let it stand one year in the barrel before it is

  The proportion of brandy to be used for this liquor, is one pint to 7


  Take cold soft water, 6 gallons,
        gooseberries, 4 do.
        currants, 4 do. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 12 lbs.
        honey, 3 lbs. and
        tartar, in fine powder, 1½ oz.
        bitter almonds, 1½ oz.
  Put in brandy 6 pints, or more.

  This will make 12 gallons.

  153. _Another._

  Take cold soft water, 5½ gallons,
        gooseberries and currants, 4 gallons.
  Ferment. Then add
        raw sugar, 12½ lbs.
        tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz.
        ginger, in powder, 3 ounces,
        sweet marjoram, ½ a handful,
        British spirits, 1 quart.

  This will make 9 gallons.


  Take cold soft water, 11 gallons,
        red currants, 8 gallons,
        raspberries, 1 quart. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 20 lbs.
        beet-root, sliced, 2 lbs. and
        red tartar, in fine powder, 3 ounces.
  Put in 1 nutmeg, in fine powder; add
        brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  155. _Another._

  Boil four gallons of spring water, and stir into it 1 lb. of honey;
  when thoroughly dissolved, take it off the fire; then stir it well
  in order to raise the scum, which take clean off, and cool the liquor.

  When thus prepared, press out the same quantity of the juice of red
  currants moderately ripe, which being well strained, mix well with
  the water and honey, then put them into a cask, or a large earthen
  vessel, and let them stand to ferment for 24 hours; then to every
  gallon add 2 lbs. of fine sugar, stir them well to raise the scum,
  and when well settled, take it off, and add ½ oz. of cream of
  tartar, with the whites of two or three eggs, to refine it. When the
  wine is well settled and clear, draw it off into a small vessel, or
  bottle it up, keeping it in a cool place.

  Of white currants, a wine after the same manner may be made, that
  will equal in strength and pleasantness many sorts of white wine; but
  as for the black, or Dutch currants, they are seldom used, except for
  the preparation of medicinal wines.

  156. _Another._

  Gather the currants in dry weather, put them into a pan and bruise
  them with a wooden pestle; let them stand about 20 hours, after which
  strain through a sieve; add 3 lbs. of fine powdered sugar to each
  four quarts of the liquor, and after shaking it well, fill the vessel
  and put a quart of good brandy to every 7 gallons. In 4 weeks, if it
  does not prove quite clear, draw it off into another vessel, and let
  it stand, previously to bottling it off, about ten days.


  Take cold soft water, 12 gallons,
        white currants, 4 do.
        red currants, 3 do. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 25 lbs.
        white tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.
  Put in sweet-briar leaves, 1 handful,
        lavender leaves, 1 do.
        then add spirits, 2 quarts or more.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 9 gallons,
        red currants, 10 do. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 1O lbs.
        beet-root, sliced, 2 lbs.
        red tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.
  Put in bitter almonds, 1 oz.
        ginger, in powder, 2 oz.
        then add brandy, 1 quart.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 11 gallons,
        red currants, 8 do. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 12 lbs.
        red tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.
  Put in coriander seed, bruised, 2 oz.
        then add British spirit, 2 quarts.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 11 gallons,
        fruit 8 do. Ferment.
  Mix, treacle, 14 or 16 lbs.
        tartar, in powder, 1 oz.
  Put in ginger, in powder, 4 oz.
        sweet herbs, 2 handsful:
        then add spirits, 1 or 2 quarts.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  An excellent family wine may be made of equal parts of red, white,
  and black currants, ripe cherries, and raspberries, well bruised,
  and mixed with soft water, in the proportion of 4 lbs. of fruit to 1
  gallon of water. When strained and pressed, 3 lbs. of moist sugar are
  to be added to each gallon of liquid. After standing open for three
  days, during which it is to be stirred frequently, it is to be put
  into a barrel, and left for a fortnight to work, when a ninth part of
  the brandy is to be added, and the whole bunged down. In a few months
  it will be a most excellent wine.


  Take of cold soft water, 2 gallons.
        fruit, 18 do. Ferment.
  Mix, honey, 6 lbs.
       tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.
  Put in peach-leaves, 6 handsful;
        then add brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 9 gallons,
        white currants, 9 gallons,
        white gooseberries, 1 do. Ferment.
  Mix, refined sugar, 25 lbs.
        white tartar, in powder, 1 oz.
        clary seed, bruised, 2 oz. or
        clary flowers, or sorrel flowers, 4 handsful;
        then add, white brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  164. _Another._

  Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons,
        white currants, 10 do. Ferment.
  Mix, refined sugar, 25 lbs.
        white tartar, in fine powder, 1 oz.
        then add, bitter almonds, 2 oz. and
        white brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons,
        black currants, 6 do.
        strawberries, 3 do. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 25 lbs.
        red tartar, in fine powder, 6 oz.
        orange thyme, 2 handsful;
        then add brandy, 2 or 3 quarts.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  166. _Another._

  Take of cold soft water, 12 gallons,
        black currants, 5 do.
        white or red currants, or both, 3 do. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 30 lbs. or less,
        red tartar, in fine powder, 5 oz.
        ginger, in powder, 5 oz.
        then add brandy, 1 gallon, or less.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 7 gallons,
        cider, 6 do.
        strawberries, 6 do. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 16 lbs.
        red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.
        the peel and juice of two lemons;
        then add brandy, 2 or 3 quarts.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  168. _Another._

  Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons,
        strawberries, 9 do. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 25 lbs.
        red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.
        2 lemons and 2 oranges, peel and juice;
        then add brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 6 gallons,
        cider, 4 do.
        raspberries, 6 do.
        any other fruit, 3 do. Ferment.
  Mix, raw sugar, 18 or 20 lbs.
        red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.
        orange and lemon peel, 2 oz. dry, or 4 oz. fresh;
        then add brandy, 3 quarts.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  170. _Another._

  Gather the raspberries when ripe, husk them and bruise them; then
  strain them through a bag into jars or other vessels. Boil the juice,
  and to every gallon put a pound and a half of lump-sugar. Now add
  whites of eggs, and let the whole boil for fifteen minutes, skimming
  it, as the froth rises. When cool and settled, decant the liquor
  into a cask, adding yeast to make it ferment. When this has taken
  place, add a pint of white wine, or half a pint of proof spirit to
  each gallon contained in the cask, and hang a bag in it containing an
  ounce of bruised mace. In three months, if kept in a cool place, it
  will be very excellent and delicious wine.


  On a dry day, gather mulberries, when they are just changed from
  redness to a shining black; spread them thinly on a fine cloth, or on
  a floor or table, for twenty-four hours; and then press them. Boil a
  gallon of water with each gallon of juice; putting to every gallon
  of water, an ounce of cinnamon bark, and six ounces of sugar candy
  finely powdered. Skim and strain the water when it is taken off and
  settled, and put to it the mulberry juice. Now add to every gallon of
  the mixture, a pint of white or Rhenish wine. Let the whole stand in
  a cask to ferment, for five or six days. When settled, draw it off
  into bottles, and keep it cool.


  Take of cold soft water, 16 gallons,
        Malaga raisins, 50 lbs.
        Elder-berries, 4 gallons,
        red tartar, in fine powder, 4 ounces.
  Mix ginger, in powder, 5 ounces,
        cinnamon, cloves, and mace, of each 2 ounces,
        3 oranges or lemons, peel and juice.
  Then add 1 gallon of brandy.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  173. _Another._

  In making elder juice, let the berries be fully ripe, and all the
  stalks be clean picked from them; then, have a press ready for
  drawing off all the juice, and four hair cloths, somewhat broader
  than the press; lay one layer above another, having a hair cloth
  betwixt every layer, which must be laid very thin and pressed a
  little at first, and then more till the press be drawn as close as
  possible. Now take out the berries, and press all the rest in the
  like manner: then take the pressed berries, break out all the lumps,
  put them into an open-headed vessel, and add as much liquor as will
  just cover them. Let them infuse so for seven or eight days; then put
  the best juice into a cask proper for it to be kept in, and add one
  gallon of malt spirits, not rectified, to every twenty gallons, of
  elder juice, which will effectually preserve it from becoming sour
  for two years at least.

  174. _Another._

  Pick the berries when quite ripe, put them into a stone jar, and set
  them in an oven, or in a kettle of boiling water, till the jar is hot
  through, then take them out, and strain them through a coarse sieve;
  squeeze the berries, and put the juice into a clean kettle. To every
  quart of juice put a pound of fine Lisbon sugar; let it boil, and
  skim it well. When clear and fine, pour it into a cask. To every ten
  gallons of wine add an ounce of isinglass dissolved in cider, and six
  whole eggs. Close it up, let it stand six months, and then bottle it.


  To ten gallons of water, put ten quarts of the juice of white
  elder-berries, pressed gently from the berries by the hand, and
  passed through a sieve, without bruising the seeds: add to every
  gallon of liquor three pounds of Lisbon sugar, and to the whole
  quantity two ounces of ginger sliced, and one ounce of cloves. Boil
  this nearly an hour, taking off the scum as it rises, and pour the
  whole to cool, in an open tub, and work it with ale yeast, spread
  upon a toast of bread, for three days. Then turn it into a vessel
  that will just hold it, adding about a pound and a half of bruised
  raisins, to lay in the liquor till drawn off, which should not be
  done till the wine is fine.

  This wine is so much like the fine rich wine brought from the island
  of Cyprus, in colour, taste, and flavour, that it has deceived the
  best judges.


  Boil eighteen pounds of white powdered sugar in six gallons of water,
  and two whites of eggs well beaten; skim it, and put in a quarter of
  a peck of elder-flowers; do not keep them on the fire. When cool,
  stir it, and put in six spoonsful of lemon juice, four or five of
  yeast, and beat well into the liquor: stir it well every day; put six
  pounds of the best raisins, stoned, into the cask, and tun the wine.
  Stop it close, and bottle it in six months. When well kept, this wine
  will pass very well for Frontiniac.

  177. _Another._

  To six gallons of spring water put six pounds of sun raisins cut
  small, and a dozen pounds of fine sugar; boil the whole together for
  about an hour and a half. When the liquor is cold, put half a peck of
  ripe elder flowers in, with about a gill of lemon-juice, and half the
  quantity of ale yeast. Cover it up, and, after standing three days,
  strain it off. Now pour it into a cask that is quite clean, and that
  will hold it with ease. When this is done, put a quart of Rhenish
  wine to every gallon; let the bung be slightly put in for twelve or
  fourteen days; then stop it down fast, and put it in a cool place for
  four or five months, till it be quite settled and fine; then bottle
  it off.


  Take 6 gallons of good cider,
        1½ gallons of port wine,
        1½ gallons of the juice of elder-berries,
        3 quarts of brandy,
        1½ ounces of cochineal.

  This will produce nine gallons and a half.

  Bruise the cochineal very fine, and put it with the brandy into
  a stone bottle; let it remain at least a fortnight, shaking it
  well once or twice a day; at the end of that time to procure the
  cider, and put five gallons into a nine gallon cask, add to it the
  elder juice and port wine, then the brandy and cochineal. Take the
  remaining gallon of cider to rinse out the bottle that contained
  the brandy; and lastly, pour it into the cask, and bung it down
  very close, and in six weeks it will be fit for bottling.

  It is, however, sometimes not quite so fine as could be wished;
  in that case add two ounces of isinglass, and let it remain a
  fortnight or three weeks longer, when it will be perfectly bright;
  it would not be amiss, perhaps, if the quantity of isinglass
  mentioned, was added to the wine before it was bunged down, it
  will tend, very considerably, to improve the body of the wine. If
  it should not appear sufficiently rough flavoured, add an ounce,
  or an ounce and a half of roche-alum, which will, in most cases,
  impart a sufficient astringency.

  After it is bottled it must be packed in as cool a place as
  possible. It will be fit for using in a few months; but if kept
  longer, it will be greatly improved.


  Take of cold soft water, 6 gallons,
        cider, 6 gallons,
        berries, 8 gallons;
  Mix raw sugar 20 pounds,
        tartar, in fine powder, 4 ounces.
  Add ginger, in powder, 4 ounces,
        lavender and rosemary leaves, 2 handsful,
        rum, or British spirits, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  180. BIRCH WINE.

  The season for obtaining the liquor from birch-trees, is in the
  latter end of February, or the beginning of March, before the leaves
  shoot out, and as the sap begins to rise. If the time is delayed, the
  juice will grow too thick to be drawn out. It should be as thin and
  clear as possible. The method of procuring the juice, is by boring
  holes in the trunk of the tree, and fixing faucets of elder; but care
  should be taken not to tap it in too many places at once, for fear of
  injuring the tree. If the tree is large, it may be bored in five or
  six places at once, and bottles are to be placed under the apertures
  for the sap to flow into. When four or five gallons have been
  extracted from different trees, cork the bottles very close and wax
  them till the wine is to be made, which should be as soon as possible
  after the sap has been obtained. Boil the sap, and put four pounds of
  loaf sugar to every gallon, also the peel of a lemon cut thin; then
  boil it again for nearly an hour, skimming it all the time. Now pour
  it into a tub, and as soon as it is cold, work it with a toast spread
  with yeast, and let it stand five or six days, stirring it twice or
  three times each day. Into a cask that will contain it, put a lighted
  brimstone match, stop it up till the match is burnt out, and then
  pour the wine into it, putting the bung lightly in, till it has done
  working. Bung it very close for about three months, and then bottle
  it. It will be good in a week after it is put into the bottles.

  181. _Another._

  Birch wine may be made with raisins in the following manner: To a
  hogshead of birch-water, take four hundred of Malaga raisins: pick
  them clean from the stalks, and cut them small. Then boil the birch
  liquor for one hour at least, skim it well, and let it stand till it
  be no warmer than milk. Then put in the raisins, and let it stand
  close covered, stirring it well four or five times every day. Boil
  all the stalks in a gallon or two of birch liquor, which, when added
  to the other, when almost cold, will give it an agreeable roughness.
  Let it stand ten days, then put it in a cool cellar, and when it has
  done hissing in the vessel, stop it up close. It must stand at least
  nine months before it is bottled.


  Having procured berries that are fully ripe, put them into a large
  vessel of wood or stone, with a cock in it, and pour upon them as
  much boiling water as will cover them. As soon as the heat will
  permit the hand to be put into the vessel, bruise them well till all
  the berries are broken. Then let them stand covered till the berries
  begin to rise towards the top, which they usually do in three or four
  days. Then draw off the clear into another vessel, and add to every
  ten quarts of this liquor, a pound of sugar. Stir it well and let it
  stand to work a week or ten days, in another vessel like the first.
  Then draw it off at the cock through a jelly-bag into a large vessel.
  Take four ounces of isinglass, and lay it to steep twelve hours in a
  pint of white wine. The next morning, boil it upon a slow fire till
  it is all dissolved. Then take a gallon of blackberry-juice, put in
  the dissolved isinglass, give them a boil together, and pour all into
  the vessel. Let it stand a few days to purge and settle, then draw it
  off, and keep it in a cool place.


  For this, which is only a superior sort of white spruce beer, proceed
  as follows: To every gallon of water take 1½ lbs. of honey, and ½
  a pound of fine starch. The starch, however, previously to its being
  blended with the honey, liquor, or syrup, must be reduced to a fine
  transparent jelly, by boiling it with part of the water purposely
  preserved. A quarter of a pound of essence of spruce may be used to
  6 gallons of water; and the same method may be pursued in working,
  fining, and bottling, as directed for white spruce beer.

  Spruce is a wholesome and pleasant drink to those who are used to it,
  and persons soon become habituated. It contains a vast quantity of
  fixed air, which is extremely bracing; and the use of this liquor is
  particularly to be recommended to such as are troubled with scorbutic
  humours, or have the gravel. It is chiefly used in summer.


  Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons,
        Malaga or Smyrna raisins, 35 lbs.
        juniper berries, 9 quarts,
        red tartar, 4 ounces,
        wormwood and sweet marjoram, each 2 handsful.
        British spirit, two quarts, or more.

  Ferment for ten or twelve days.—This will make eighteen gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 11 gallons,
        damsons, 8 gallons;
  Mix raw sugar, 30 lbs.
        red tartar, in fine powder, 6 oz.
  Add brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  “When the _must_,” says Mr. Carnell, “has fermented 2 days, (during
  which time it should be stirred up two or three times,) take out of
  the vat about two or three quarts of the stones, and break them and
  the kernels, and then return them into the vat again.”

  186. _Another Method._

  Take a considerable quantity of damsons and common plums inclining to
  ripeness: slit them in halves, so that the stones may be taken out,
  then mash them gently, and add a little water and honey. Add to every
  gallon of the pulp a gallon of spring water, with a few bay-leaves
  and cloves; boil the mixture, and add as much sugar as will well
  sweeten it; skim off the froth and let it cool. Now press the fruit,
  squeezing out the liquid part; strain all through a fine strainer,
  and put the water and juice together in a cask. Having allowed the
  whole to stand and ferment for three or four days, fine it with white
  sugar, flour, and whites of eggs; draw it off into bottles, then cork
  it well. In twelve days it will be ripe, and will taste like weak
  Port, having the flavour of Canary.

  187. _Another._

  Gather the damsons on a dry day, weigh them, and bruise them. Put
  them into a stein that has a cock in it, and to every 8 pounds of
  fruit add a gallon of water. Boil the water, skim it, and put it
  scalding hot to the fruit. Let it stand two days, then draw it off
  and put it into a vessel, and to every gallon of liquor put 2½ lbs.
  of fine sugar. Fill up the vessel, and stop it close, and the longer
  it stands the better. Keep it for twelve months in the vessel, and
  then bottle, putting a lump of sugar into every bottle. The small
  damson is the best for this purpose.


  Take of cold soft water, 10 gallons,
        cherries, 10 gallons. Ferment.
  Mix raw sugar, 30 lbs.
        red tartar in fine powder, 3 oz.
  Add brandy, 2 or 3 quarts.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  Two days after the cherries have been in the vat, Mr. Carnell says,
  we should take out about three quarts of the cherry stones, break
  them and the kernels, and return them into the vat again.

  189. _Another._

  Take cherries, nearly ripe, of any red sort, clear them of the
  stalks and stones, then put them into a glazed earthen vessel, and
  squeeze them to a pulp. Let them remain in this state for twelve
  hours to ferment; then put them into a linen cloth not too fine, and
  press out the juice with a pressing board, or any other convenient
  instrument. Now let the liquor stand till the scum rises, and with a
  ladle or skimmer take it clean off; then pour the clearer part, by
  inclination, into a cask, where, to each gallon put a pound of the
  best loaf sugar, and let it ferment for seven or eight days. Draw it
  off, when clear, into lesser casks, or bottles; keep it cool as other
  wines, and in ten or twelve days it will be ripe.


  Cleanse from the stalks, sixty pounds of Morella cherries, and bruise
  them so that the stones shall be broken. Now press out the juice
  and mix it with 6 gallons of sherry wine, and four gallons of warm
  water. Having grossly powdered separate ounces of nutmeg, cinnamon,
  and mace, hang them separately, in small bags, in the cask containing
  the mixture. Bung it down, and in a few weeks it will become a
  deliciously flavoured wine.

  191. PEACH WINE.

  Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons,
        refined sugar, 25 lbs.
        honey, 6 lbs.
        white tartar, in fine powder, 2 ounces,
        Peaches, sixty or eighty in number.
  Then add 2 gallons of brandy.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  The _first division_ is to be put into the vat, and the day after,
  _before_ the peaches are put in take the stones from them, break
  them and the kernels, then put them and the pulp into the vat, and
  proceed with the general process.


  Take peaches, nectarines, &c. pare them, and take the stones out;
  then slice them thin, and pour over them from a gallon to two gallons
  of water, and a quart of white wine. Place the whole on a fire to
  simmer gently for a considerable time, till the sliced fruit becomes
  soft; pour off the liquid part into another vessel containing more
  peaches that have been sliced but not heated; let them stand for
  twelve hours, then pour out the liquid part, and press what remains
  through a fine hair bag. Let the whole be now put into a cask to
  ferment; add of loaf-sugar, a pound and a half to each gallon. Boil
  well, an ounce of beaten cloves in a quart of white wine, and add to
  it the above.

  Apricot wine may be made by only bruising the fruit and pouring the
  hot liquor over it. This wine does not require so much sweetening.
  To give it a curious flavour, boil an ounce of mace, and half an
  ounce of nutmegs, in a quart of white wine; and when the wine is
  fermenting, pour the liquid in hot. In about twenty days, or a month,
  these wines will be fit for bottling.


  Boil together three pounds of sugar, and three quarts of water; and
  skim it well. Put in six pounds of apricots pared and stoned, and let
  them boil till they become tender. Then take them up, and when the
  liquor is cold, bottle it. After taking out the apricots, let the
  liquor be boiled with a sprig of flowered clary. The apricots will
  make marmalade, and be very good for present use.

  194. LEMON WINE.

  Pare off the rinds of six large lemons, cut them, and squeeze out the
  juice. Steep the rinds in the juice, and put to it a quart of brandy.
  Let it stand three days in an earthen pot close stopped; then squeeze
  six more, and mix with it two quarts of spring water, and as much
  sugar as will sweeten the whole. Boil the water, lemons, and sugar
  together, and let it stand till it be cool. Then add a quart of white
  wine, and the other lemons and brandy: mix them together, and run it
  through a flannel bag into some vessel. Let it stand three months and
  then bottle it off.

  Cork the bottle well; keep it cool, and it will be fit to drink in a
  month or six weeks.

  195. _Another._

  Pare five dozen of lemons very thin, put the peels into five quarts
  of French brandy, and let them stand fourteen days. Then make the
  juice into a syrup with 3 lbs. of single refined sugar, and when the
  peels are ready, boil 51 gallons of water, with 40 lbs. of single
  refined sugar for half an hour. Then put it into a tub, and when
  cool, add to it one spoonful of yeast, and let it work two days.
  Then tun it, and put in the brandy, peels, and syrup. Stir them
  altogether, and close up the cask. Let it stand three months, then
  bottle it, and it will be as pale and as fine as any citron water.


  Take of cold soft water, 2 gallons,
        apples, well bruised, 3 bushels,
        honey, 10 lbs.
        white tartar, 2 ounces,
        1 nutmeg, in powder,
        rum, 2 quarts.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  197. APPLE WINE.

  To every gallon of apple juice, immediately it comes from the press,
  add 2 lbs. of common loaf sugar; boil it as long as any scum rises,
  then strain it through a sieve, and let it cool; add some good yeast,
  and stir it well; let it work in the tub for two or three weeks, or
  till the head begins to flatten, then skim off the head, draw it
  clear off, and tun it. When made a year, rack it off, and fine it
  with isinglass; then add ½ a pint of the best rectified spirit of
  wine, or a pint of French brandy, to every 8 gallons.


  Take of cold, soft water, 2 gallons,
        apples, well bruised, 3 bushels.
  Mix, raw sugar, 15 lbs.
        beet-root sliced, 4 lbs.
        red tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.
        then add ginger, in powder, 3 oz.
        rosemary and lavender leaves, of each 2 handsful,
        British spirits, 2 quarts.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Gather the quinces when pretty ripe, in a dry day, rub off the down
  with a linen cloth, then lay them in hay or straw for ten days, to
  _perspire_. Now cut them in quarters, take out the cores, and bruise
  them well in a mashing tub with a wooden pestle. Squeeze out the
  liquid part, by pressing them in a hair bag, by degrees, in a cider
  press; strain this liquor through a fine sieve, then warm it gently
  over a fire, and skim it, but do not suffer it to boil. Now sprinkle
  into it some loaf-sugar reduced to powder; then, in a gallon of water
  and a quart of white wine, boil 12 or 14 large quinces thinly sliced:
  add 2 lbs. of fine sugar, and then strain off the liquid part, and
  mingle it with the natural juice of the quinces; put this into a cask
  (not to fill it) and mix them well together; then let it stand to
  settle; put in two or three whites of eggs, then draw it off. If it
  be not sweet enough, add more sugar, and a quart of the best Malmsey.
  To make it still better, boil a ¼ lb. of stoned raisins and ½ an
  oz. of cinnamon bark in a quart of the liquor, to the consumption of
  a third part, and straining it, put it into the cask when the wine is

  200. _Another Method._

  Take 20 large quinces, gathered when they are dry and full ripe, wipe
  them clean with a coarse cloth, and grate them with a large grater
  or rasp as near the cores as possible; but do not touch the cores.
  Boil a gallon of spring water, throw in the quinces, and let them
  boil softly about a quarter of an hour. Then strain them well into an
  earthen pan, on 2 lbs. of double refined sugar. Pare the peel off two
  large lemons, throw them in, and squeeze the juice through a sieve.
  Stir it about till it be very cool, and then toast a thin bit of
  bread very brown, rub a little yeast on it, and let the whole stand
  close covered twenty-four hours. Then take out the toast and lemon,
  put the wine in a cask, keep it three months, and then bottle it.
  If a twenty gallon cask is wanted, let it stand six months, before
  bottling it; and remember, when straining the quinces, to wring them
  hard in a coarse cloth.


  Put 12 lbs. of powdered sugar, with the whites of 8 or 10 eggs well
  beaten into 6 gallons of spring water; boil them ¾ of an hour; when
  cold, put into it two spoonsful of yeast and the juice of 12 lemons,
  which being pared must stand with 2 lbs. of white sugar in a tankard,
  and in the morning skim off the top, and then put it into the water;
  add the juice and rinds of fifty oranges, but not the white or pithy
  part of the rinds; let it work all together two days and two nights;
  then add two quarts of Rhenish or white wine, and put it into the

  202. _Another._

  To 6 gallons of water put 15 lbs. of soft sugar; before it boils,
  add the whites of six eggs well beaten, and take off the scum as
  it rises; boil it ½ an hour: when cool, add the juice of fifty
  oranges, and two-thirds of the peels cut very thin; and immerse a
  toast covered with yeast. In a month after it has been in the cask,
  add a pint of brandy and 2 quarts of Rhenish wine: it will be fit to
  bottle in three or four months, but it should remain in bottle for
  twelve months before it is drank.


  Orange wine of a superior quality may be made with 2 lbs. of clayed
  sugar, and 1 lb. of Malaga raisins to each gallon of water, to which
  add the juice and peel of an orange, and to every 100 gallons of
  fluid, 4 lbs. of Rhenish tartar.

  Two lbs. of honey, and 1 lb. of Malaga raisins, with the juice and
  peel of a large orange, to every gallon of water, and 4 lbs. of
  Rhenish tartar to every 100 gallons of fluid, will make an orange
  wine still superior to the former. Steep and press the fruit, and
  expend the tartar in setting, raising, and cutting the backs: the
  orange peel and juice are not to be added until the last stage of
  fermentation, that is on cutting: they will possess infinitely more
  vinosity than the ordinary orange wines, indeed, nearly as much as
  the juice of the vine.

  Lemon wine, equally delicious, may be made in a similar manner: both
  these wines, as they advance in age, lose much of the grosser part of
  the orange and lemon flavour; one approaches the bergamot, and the
  other a fine citron, and become fragrant as they advance in years:
  they will be more improved if treacle be used, divested of its colour
  and burnt flavour.


  To 12 lbs. of parsnips, cut in slices, add 4 gallons of water; boil
  them till they become quite soft. Squeeze the liquor well out of
  them, run it through a sieve, and add to every gallon 3 pounds of
  loaf sugar. Boil the whole three quarters of an hour, and when it is
  nearly cold, add a little yeast. Let it stand for ten days in a tub,
  stirring it every day from the bottom, then put it into a cask for
  twelve months: as it works over, fill it up every day.


  Take of cold soft water, 17 gallons,
        white currants, 6 quarts.
  Mix honey, 30 pounds,
        white tartar, in fine powder, 3 oz.
  Add balm and sweetbriar, each 2 handsful,
        white brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 17 gallons,
        red currants, 6 quarts,
        black currants, 2 quarts.
  Mix honey, 25 pounds,
        beet-root, sliced, 1 pound,
        red tartar, in fine powder, 4 oz.
  Add cinnamon in powder, 2 oz.
        brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  207. _Another._

  Fermented mead is made in the proportion of 1 pound of honey to 3
  pints of water; or by boiling over a moderate fire, to two-thirds of
  the quantity, three parts water and one part honey. The liquor is
  then skimmed and casked, care being taken to keep the cask full while
  fermenting. During the fermenting process, the cask is left unstopped
  and exposed to the sun, or in a warm room, until the working cease.
  The cask is then bunged, and a few months in the cellar renders
  it fit for use. Mead is rendered more vinous and pleasant by the
  addition of cut raisins, or other fruits, boiled after the rate of
  half a pound of raisins to six pounds of honey, with a toasted crust
  of bread, an ounce of salt of tartar in a glass of brandy, being
  added to the liquor when casked; to which some add five or six drops
  of the essence of cinnamon; others, pieces of lemon peel with various


  To every gallon of water, put three pounds and a half of honey, and
  boil them together three quarters of an hour. Then to every gallon of
  liquor put about two dozen of walnut leaves, pour the boiling liquor
  upon them, and let them stand all night. Then take out the leaves,
  put in a spoonful of yeast, and let it work for two or three days.

  Then make it up, and after it has stood for three months, bottle it.

  209. HONEY WINE.

  Put a quantity of the comb, from which honey has been drained in a
  tub, and add a barrel of cider, immediately from the press; this
  mixture stir, and leave for one night. It is then strained before
  fermentation; and honey added, until the specific gravity of the
  liquor is sufficient to bear an egg. It is then put into a barrel;
  and after the fermentation is commenced, the cask is filled every
  day, for three or four days, that the froth may work out of the
  bung-hole. When the fermentation moderates, put the bung in loosely,
  lest stopping it tight might cause the cask to burst. At the end of
  five or six weeks, the liquor is to be drawn off into a tub, and the
  whites of eight eggs, well beaten up, with a pint of clean sand,
  is to be put into it: then add a gallon of cider spirit; and after
  mixing the whole together, return it into the cask, which is to be
  well cleaned, bunged tight, and placed in a proper situation for
  racking off, when fine. In the month of April following, draw it off
  into kegs, for use; and it will be equal to almost any foreign wine.


  Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons,
        Smyrna raisins, 40 lbs.
  Mix beet-root, sliced, 3 lbs.
        red tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.
  Add cowslip-flowers, 14 lbs.
        cloves and mace, in powder, 1 oz.
        brandy, one gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 18 gallons,
        Malaga raisins, 35 lbs.
        white tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.
          Mix cowslip-flowers, 16 lbs.
          Add white brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Is made in this manner: to 15 gallons of water put 30 pounds of
  honey, and boil it till one gallon be wasted. Skim it, take it off
  the fire, and have ready 16 lemons cut in halves. Take a gallon of
  the liquor, and put it to the lemons. Put the rest of the liquor into
  a tub with seven pecks of cowslips, and let them stand all night.
  Then put in the liquor with the lemons, 8 spoonsful of new yeast, and
  a handful of sweetbriar. Stir them all well together, and let it work
  three or four days; then strain it, put it into the cask, and after
  it has stood six months, bottle it off.


  Take of cold soft water, 2 quarts,
        cider, 9 gallons,
        honey, 8 pounds,
        white tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.
        Mix cinnamon, cloves, and mace, 2 oz.
        Add rum, half a gallon.

  This will make 9 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 3 gallons,
        cider, 16 gallons,
        honey, 10 pounds.
  Add raw sugar, 4 pounds,
        beet-root, sliced, 4 pounds,
        red tartar, in fine powder, 6 oz.
  Mix sweet marjorum and sweetbriar, 3 handsful,
        rum, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  215. CIDER WINE.

  Take of cold soft water, 4 gallons,
        cider, 15 gallons,
        honey, 12 pounds,
        tartar, in fine powder, 2 oz.
  Mix ginger, in powder, 6 oz.
        sage and mint, 2 handsful.
  Add British spirits, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 5 gallons,
        black, or red grapes, 40 pounds.
  Mix cider, 9 gallons,
        raw sugar, 20 pounds,
        barberry leaves, 3 handsful,
        beet-root, sliced, 2 pounds,
        red tartar, in powder, 4 ounces.
  Add white elder-flowers, 6 handsful, or sassafras chips, 4 pounds.
        Brandy, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  217. _Another._

  Take of cold soft water, 6 gallons,
        grapes, of any colour, 30 pounds.
  Mix treacle, 10 pounds,
        beet-root, sliced, 1½ pounds,
        red tartar, in powder, 2 ounces.
        Add rosemary leaves, 2 handsful,
        brandy, ½ a gallon.

  This will make 9 gallons.

  218. _Another._

  Take of cold soft water, 8 gallons,
        grapes, of any sort, 100 pounds.
  Mix raw sugar, 20 pounds,
        beet-root, sliced, 4 pounds,
        barberry-leaves, 4 handsful,
        red tartar, in powder, 6 ounces.
  Add coriander seed, bruised, 2 ounces,
        brandy, 6 quarts.

  This will make 18 gallons.


  Take of cold soft water, 13 gallons,
        white grapes, 50 pounds.
  Mix refined sugar, 25 pounds,
        white tartar, in powder, 3 ounces.
  Add clary seed, bruised, 3 ounces, or
        clary flowers, 6 handsful,
        Rum, 1 gallon.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  220. _Another Grape Wine._

  To every gallon of ripe grapes put a gallon of soft water, bruise the
  grapes, let them stand a week without stirring, and draw the liquor
  off fine; to every gallon of wine put three pounds of lump sugar; put
  the whole into a vessel, but do not stop it till it has done hissing,
  then stop it close, and in six months it will be fit for bottling.

  A better wine, though smaller in quantity, will be made by leaving
  out the water, and diminishing the quantity of sugar. Water is
  necessary, only where the juice is so scanty, or so thick, as in
  cowslip, balm, or black currant wine, that it could not be used
  without it.


  Let the raisins be well washed and picked from the stalks; to every
  pound thus prepared and chopped, add one quart of water, which has
  been boiled and has stood till it is cold. Let the whole stand in the
  vessel for a month, being frequently stirred. Now let the raisins
  be taken from the cask and let the liquor be closely stopped in the

  In the course of a month let it be racked into another vessel,
  leaving all the sediment behind, which must be repeated till it
  becomes fine, when add to every ten gallons, six pounds of fine
  sugar, and one dozen of Seville oranges, the rinds being pared very
  thin, and infused in two quarts of brandy, which should be added to
  the liquor at its last racking. Let the whole stand three months in
  the cask, when it will be fit for bottling; it should remain in the
  bottle for a twelvemonth.

  To give it the flavour of Madeira, when it is in the cask, put in a
  couple of green citrons, and let them remain till the wine is bottled.

  222. _Another Raisin Wine._

  Put two hundred weight of raisins, with the stalks, into a hogshead,
  and fill it almost with spring water; let them steep for about twelve
  days, frequently stirring, and after pouring off the juice, dress
  the raisins and mash them. The whole should then be put together
  into a very clean vessel that will exactly contain it. It will hiss
  for some time, during which it should not be stirred; but when the
  noise ceases, it must be stopped close, and stand for about six or
  seven months: and then, if it proves fine and clear, rack it off into
  another vessel of the same size. Stop it up, and let it remain for
  twelve or fourteen weeks longer, then bottle it off. If it should
  not prove clear, fine it down with three ounces of isinglass, and a
  quarter of a pound of sugar-candy, dissolved in some of the wine.


  Take of cold soft water, 19 gallons,
        Malaga raisins, 50 lbs.
        white tartar, in powder, 4 oz.
  Mix ginger, in powder, or bruised, 20 oz.
        18 lemons, peel and juice.
  Add brandy, 2 quarts, or more.

  This will make 18 gallons.

  224. _Another._

  Take 20 quarts of water,
        5 lbs. of sugar,
        3 oz. of white ginger,
        1 oz. of stick liquorice.
  Boil them well together; when it is cold put a little new yeast
  upon it, but not too much; then put it into the barrel for ten
  days, and after that bottle it, putting a lump of white sugar into
  every bottle.

  225. _Another._

  To seven gallons of water put nineteen pounds of clayed sugar, and
  boil it for half an hour, taking off the scum as it rises; then take
  a small quantity of the liquor, and add to it nine ounces of the best
  ginger bruised. Now put it all together, and when nearly cold, chop
  nine pounds of raisins, very small, and put them into a nine gallon
  cask (beer measure,) with one ounce of isinglass. Slice four lemons
  into the cask, taking out all the seeds, and pour the liquor over
  them, with half a pint of fresh yeast. Leave it unstopped for three
  weeks, and in three months it will be fit for bottling.

  There will be one gallon of the sugar and water more than the cask
  will hold at first: this must be kept to fill up, as the liquor works
  off, as it is necessary that the cask should be kept full, till it
  has done working. The raisins should be two-thirds Malaga, and one
  third Muscadel. Spring and autumn are the best seasons for making
  this wine.


  Take of sliced rhubarb, 2½ oz.
        lesser cardamom seeds, bruised and husked, ½ oz.
        saffron, 2 drachms,
        Spanish white wine, 2 pints,
        proof spirit, ½ pint.
  Digest for ten days, and strain.

  This is a warm, cordial, laxative medicine. If is used chiefly in
  weakness of the stomach and bowels, and some kind of loosenesses, for
  evacuating the offending matter, and strengthening the tone of the
  viscera. It may be given in doses of from half a spoonful to three
  or four spoonsful or more, according to the circumstances of the
  disorder, and the strength of the patient.

  227. SAGE WINE.

  Boil twenty-six quarts of spring water a quarter of an hour, and when
  it is blood warm, put twenty-five pounds of Malaga raisins, picked,
  rubbed, and shred, into it, with almost half a bushel of red sage
  shred, and a porringer of ale yeast, stir it all well together, and
  let it stand in a tub, covered warm, six or seven days, stirring it
  once a day: then strain it off, and put it in a runlet. Let it work
  three or four days, and then stop it up; when it has stood six or
  seven days, put in a quart or two of Malaga sack; and when it is
  fine, bottle it.


  To three gallons of water put six pounds of the best powder sugar,
  boil the sugar and water together for the space of half an hour, keep
  skimming it as the scum rises; let it stand to cool, beat up three
  ounces of syrup of betony with a large spoonful of ale yeast, put it
  into the liquor, and brew it well together; then having a peck of
  gilliflowers, cut from the stalks, put them into the liquor, let them
  infuse and work together three days, covered with a cloth; strain
  it, and put it into a cask, and let it settle for three weeks; then
  bottle it.


  Pare and slice a number of turnips, put them into a cider press, and
  press out all the juice. To every gallon of the juice, add three
  pounds of lump sugar; have a vessel ready large enough to hold the
  juice, and put half a pint of brandy to every gallon. Pour in the
  juice and lay something over the bung for a week, to see if it works;
  if it does, do not bung it down till it has done working; then stop
  it close for three months, and draw it off into another vessel, when
  it is fine bottle it off.

  This is an excellent wine for gouty habits, and is much recommended
  in such cases in lieu of any other wine.

  230. ROSE WINE.

  Take a well-glazed earthen vessel, and put into it three gallons
  of rose-water drawn with a cold still. Put into that a sufficient
  quantity of rose leaves, cover it close, and set it for an hour in
  a kettle or copper of hot water, to take out the whole strength and
  tincture of the roses; and when it is cold, press the rose leaves
  hard into the liquor, and steep fresh ones in it, repeating it till
  the liquor has got the full strength of the roses. To every gallon
  of liquor put three pounds of loaf sugar, and stir it well, that
  it may melt and disperse in every part. Then put it into a cask,
  or other convenient vessel, to ferment, and put into it a piece of
  bread toasted hard, and covered with yeast. Let it stand about thirty
  days, when it will be ripe, and have a fine flavour, having the whole
  strength and scent of the roses in it; and it may be greatly improved
  by adding to it wine and spices. By this method of infusion, wine of
  carnations, clove, gilliflowers, violets, primroses, or any other
  flower having a curious scent, may be made.


  Boil half a pound of fresh barley in three waters, and save three
  pints of the last water. Mix it with a quart of white wine, half
  a pint of borage water, as much of clary water, a little red
  rose-water, the juice of five or six lemons, three quarters of a
  pound of fine sugar, and the thin yellow rind of a lemon. Mix all
  these well together, run it through a strainer, and bottle it. It is
  pleasant in hot weather, and very good in fevers.


  Take the large blue figs, when pretty ripe, and steep them in white
  wine, having made some slits in them, that they may swell and gather
  in the substance of the wine. Then slice some other figs, and let
  them simmer over a fire in water until they are reduced to a kind of
  pulp. Then strain out the water, pressing the pulp hard, and pour it
  as hot as possible on the figs that are imbrewed in the wine. Let the
  quantities be nearly equal, but the water somewhat more than the wine
  and figs. Let them stand twenty-four hours, mash them well together,
  and draw off what will run without squeezing. Then press the rest,
  and if not sweet enough, add a sufficient quantity of sugar, to make
  it so. Let it ferment, and add to it a little honey and sugar-candy;
  then fine it with whites of eggs, and a little isinglass, and draw it
  off for use.


  Boil two gallons of the sap half an hour, and then add to it four
  pounds of fine powdered sugar. Beat the whites of three eggs to
  froth, and mix them with the liquor; but take care that it is not too
  hot, as that will poach the eggs. Skim it well, and boil it half an
  hour. Then strain it through a hair sieve, and let it stand till next
  day. Then pour it clean from the sediment, put half a pint of yeast
  to every twelve gallons, and cover it close up with blankets. Then
  put it into the barrel, and leave the bung-hole open till it has done
  working. Then close it up well, and when it has stood two months,
  bottle it. The fifth part of the sugar must be loaf; and if raisins
  are liked, they will be a great addition to the wine.

  234. BALM WINE.

  Take forty pounds of sugar and nine gallons of water; boil it gently
  for two hours, skim it well, and put it into a tub to cool. Take two
  pounds and a half of the tops of balm, bruise them, and put them into
  a barrel, with a little new yeast; and when the liquor is cold, pour
  it on the balm. Stir it well together and let it stand twenty-four
  hours, stirring it often. Then close it up, and let it stand six
  weeks. Then rack it off and put a lump of sugar into every bottle.
  Cork it well, and it will be better the second year than the first.


  Scurvy-grass, or spoonwort, is a very sovereign medicinal herb,
  appropriated chiefly to the health of invalids.

  Take the best large scurvy-grass tops and leaves, in May, June,
  or July, bruise them well in a stone mortar, then put them in a
  well-glazed earthen vessel, and sprinkle them over with some powder
  of crystal of tartar, then smear them with virgin honey, and being
  covered close, let it stand twenty-four hours; then set water over a
  gentle fire, putting to every gallon three pints of honey, and when
  the scum rises, take it off, and let it cool; then put the stamped
  scurvy grass into a barrel, and pour the liquor to it, setting the
  vessel conveniently end-ways, with a tap at the bottom. When it
  has been infused twenty-four hours, draw off the liquor, strongly
  press the juice and moisture out of the herb into the barrel or
  vessel, and put the liquor up again; then put a little new yeast to
  it, and suffer it to ferment three days, covering the place of the
  bung or vent with a piece of bread spread over with mustard seed,
  downward, in a cool place, and let it continue till it is fine and
  drinks brisk; then draw off the finest part, leaving only the dregs
  behind: afterwards add more herbs, and ferment it with whites of
  eggs, flour, and fixed nitre, verjuice, or the juice of green grapes,
  if they are to be had; to which add six pounds of the syrup of
  mustard, all mixed and well beaten together, to refine it down, and
  it will drink brisk, but is not very pleasant; being here inserted
  among artificial wines rather for the sake of health than for the
  delightfulness of its taste.


  Take a quart of fine draft Devonshire cider, and an equal quantity of
  good port. Mix them, and shake them. Bottle them, and let them stand
  for a month. The best judge will not be able to distinguish them from
  good Bordeaux.

  237. DRY WINE.

  Those who like a dry wine, should put into the vat, at the
  commencement of the vinous fermentation, an ounce or two of calcined
  gypsum, in fine powder.

                      MANAGEMENT OF BRITISH WINES.

  238. _To guard against unripe Fruit_.

  If the season proves bad, so that some fruits are not sufficiently
  ripe, immediately after the vinous fermentation, and the _must_ of
  such fruit is put into the cask, it is to be rolled two or three
  times a day, for a week or two. A spirituous fermentation will soon
  commence, the bung of the cask must then be taken out, and the hole
  covered with a bit of light wood or canvas, and as any scum arises,
  it should be taken away. When the scum disappears, fill up the cask,
  and bung it up. But a vent-hole must be left open for a week.

  239. _To keep and manage Wines_.

  Wines will diminish, therefore the cask must be kept filled up with
  some of the same wine, or some other that is as good or better.

  They must at all times be kept in a cool cellar, if not, they will
  ferment. If wines are kept in a warm cellar, an acetous fermentation
  will soon commence, and the result consequently will be vinegar. The
  more a wine frets and ferments, the more it parts with its strength
  and goodness: when wines are found to work improperly in the cellar,
  the vent-peg must be taken out for a week or two.

  If any wine ferments, after being perfected, draw off a quart and
  boil it, and pour it hot into the cask, add a pint or a quart of
  brandy, and bung up a day or two after.

  Or, draw off the wine, and fumigate the cask, with one ounce of flour
  of brimstone, and half an ounce of cinnamon, in powder. Mix the two
  together, and tie them up in a rag. Turn the bung-hole of the cask
  downwards, place the rag under the bung-hole, and set fire to it, so
  that the gas ascends into the cask. As soon as it is burnt out, fill
  up the cask with wine, and bung it up tight.

  240. _To sweeten a foul Cask_.

  Set fire to a pound or more of broken charcoal, put it into the cask
  and immediately fill up the cask with boiling water. After this, roll
  the cask once or twice a day for a week; then pour out the charcoal
  and water, wash out the cask with clean cold water, and expose it to
  the external air for some days.

  241. _To improve Poor Wines_.

  Poor wines may be improved by being racked off, and returned into the
  cask again; and then putting into the wine about a pound of jar or
  box raisins, bruised, and a quart of brandy.

  Or, put to the wine two pounds of honey, and a pint or two of brandy.
  The honey and brandy to be first mixed together.

  Or, draw off three or four quarts of such wine, and fill the cask up
  with strong wine.

  242. _To improve Wine when lowering or decaying_.

  Take one ounce of roche-alum, make it into powder; then draw out four
  gallons of wine, mix the powder with it, and beat it well for half an
  hour; then fill up the cask, and when fine (which will be in a week’s
  time or little more) bottle it off. This will make it drink fine and

  243. _To restore Flat Wines_.

  Flat wines may be restored by one pound of jar raisins, one pound of
  honey, and half a pint of spirit of wine, beaten up in a mortar with
  some of the wine, and then put into the cask.

  244. _To remove a musty or disagreeable taste in Wines_.

  Put into the cask three or four sticks of charcoal, and bung up the
  cask tight. In a month after take them out.—Or, cut two ripe medlars,
  put them in a gauze bag, and suspend them from the bung-hole into
  the wine, and bung up the cask air-tight. A month after take them
  out, and bung up the cask again.—Or, mix half a pound of bruised
  mustard-seed, with a pint or more of brandy, and stir it up in the
  wine; and two days after bung up the cask.

  245. _Another Method_.

  At the finish of the process, when the brandy or spirit is put to the
  wine, it is particularly recommended that a quarter of an ounce of
  crystal camphor, in the lump, be dropped into the bung-hole of each
  eighteen gallons of wine.

  246. _Another Method_.

  Oil poured upon wine, or any other liquor, will prevent it from
  growing musty, or becoming corrupt.

  247. _To take away the ill scent of Wines._

  Bake a long roller of dough, stuck well with cloves, and hang it in
  the cask.

  248. _To pass White Wine off for Champaign_.

  Rack it often from the lees; and when very brilliant, bottle it
  off:—this must be done between vintage time and the month of May.

  It has (says Mr. Carnell) been a most absurd practice with many
  families to use green gooseberries, in order to imitate Champaign
  wine; but green fruit is by no means fit or proper for the making
  of any wine. Nor, indeed, is it at all necessary in the making an
  imitation of Champaign.

  249. _To make Wine sparkle like Champaign._

  Take great care to rack off the wine well, and in March bottle it as
  quick as possible. The bottles must be very clean and dry, and the
  corks of the best sort, made of velvet or white cork. In two months
  after the wine will be in fine condition to drink.

  250. _To clear foul or ropy Wines_.

  Take 1 ounce of chalk, in powder,
      ½ an ounce of burnt alum,
      the white of an egg, and
      one pint of spring water.
  Beat the whole up in a mortar, and pour it into the wine; after
  which, roll the cask ten minutes; and then place it on the stand,
  leaving the bung out for a few days. As soon as the wine is fine,
  rack it off.

  Or, take 1 oz. of ground rice,
      ½ oz. of burnt alum, and
      ½ oz. of bay-salt.
  Beat the whole up in a mortar, with a pint or more of the wine,
  pour it into the cask, and roll it ten minutes. The cask must not
  be bunged up for a few days. As soon as such wine becomes fine,
  rack it off.

  Or, bring the cask of wine out of the cellar, and place it in a
  shady situation to receive the circulation of the air; and take out
  the bung. In three weeks or a month, rack it off into a sweet cask,
  which fill up, and put into the wine an ounce of cinnamon, in the
  stick; and bung it up tight.

  251. _Another Method_.

  Tap the cask, and put a piece of coarse cloth upon that end of the
  cock which goes to the inside of the cask; then rack it into a dry
  cask to thirty gallons of wine, and put in five ounces of powdered
  alum. Roll and shake them well together, and it will fine down, and
  prove a very clear and pleasant wine.

  252. _To correct green or harsh Wines._

  Take 1 oz. of salt,
      ½ an oz. of calcined gypsum, in powder, and
      1 pint of skimmed milk.
  Mix those up with a little of the wine, and then pour the mixture
  into the cask; put in a few lavender leaves, stir the wine with a
  stick, so as not to disturb the lees, and bung it up.

  253. _To correct sharp, tart, acid Wines._

  Mix one ounce of calcined gypsum, in powder, and two pounds of honey,
  in one quart of brandy; pour the mixture into the wine, and stir it
  so as not to disturb the lees; fill up the cask, and the following
  day bung it up:—rack this wine as soon as fine.

  Or, mix half an ounce of the salt of tartar, half an ounce of
  calcined gypsum, in powder, with a pint of the wine; pour it into
  the cask, and put an ounce of cinnamon in the stick; stir the wine
  without disturbing the lees, fill up the cask, and the day following
  bung it up.

  Or, boil 3 ounces of rice; when cold put it into a gauze-bag, and
  immerge it into the wine; put into the wine also a few sticks of
  cinnamon, and bung up the cask. In about a month after, take the rice

  254. _To restore sour Wines._

  Take calcined gypsum, in powder, 1 oz.
      cream of tartar, in powder, 2 oz.
  Mix them in a pint or more of brandy; pour it into the cask; put
  in, also, a few sticks of cinnamon, and then stir the wine without
  disturbing the lees. Bung up the cask the next day.

  255. _Another Method._

  Boil a gallon of wine, with some beaten oyster-shells and crabs’
  claws burnt into powder, an ounce of each to every ten gallons of
  wine; then strain out the liquor through a sieve, and when cold, put
  it into wine of the same sort, and it will give it a pleasant lively
  taste. A lump of unslacked lime put into the cask will also keep wine
  from turning sour.

  256. _To fine or clarify Wines._

  Boil a pint of skimmed milk; when cold mix with it an ounce of chalk,
  in fine powder, pour it into the cask, and roll it ten minutes. The
  following day bung up the wine, and rack it off as soon as fine.

  257. _Another Method._

  Or, take 1½ oz. of gum-arabic, in fine powder, and
          1 oz. of chalk, in powder.
  Mix those up with a pint more of wine, pour the mixture into the
  cask, roll it ten minutes, and then fill it up. Bung it up the next
  day, and rack off the wine as soon as fine.

  Or, take the yolk and white of an egg,
          ½ oz. of chalk, in powder, and
          ½ oz. of burnt alum, in powder.
  Beat those up in a mortar with a pint of spring water, and pour the
  mixture into the wine, roll the cask; then fill it up, and bung it
  up the next day.—Rack off the wine as soon as fine.

  258. _To sweeten Wines._

  In 30 gallons of wine infuse a handful of the flowers of clary; then
  add a pound of mustard seed, dry ground, put it into a bag, and sink
  it to the bottom of the cask.

  259. _To stop the Fermentation of Wine._

  It is in the first place necessary to consider whether the existing
  state of fermentation be the original or secondary stage of that
  process which comes on after the former has ceased for several days,
  and is indeed the commencement of acetous fermentation. That of the
  former kind rarely proceeds beyond what is necessary for the perfect
  decomposition of the saccharine and other parts of the vegetable
  substances necessary for the production of spirit, unless the liquor
  be kept too warm, or is too weak, and left exposed to the air after
  the vinous fermentation is completed. The means to correct these
  circumstances are sufficiently obvious. The heat for spirituous
  fermentation should not be above 60 degrees Fahrenheit; when it is
  much above that point, the liquor passes rapidly through the stage
  of vinous fermentation, and the acetous immediately commences. When
  too long-continued fermentation arises from the liquor having been
  kept in a warm situation, it will be soon checked by bunging, after
  being removed into a cold place; the addition of a small proportion
  of spirits of wine or brandy, previously to closing it up, is also
  proper. A degree of cold, approaching to the freezing point, will
  check fermentation of whatever kind. Fermentation of this kind cannot
  be stopped by any chemical agent, except such as would destroy the
  qualities of the liquor intended to be produced.

  The secondary stage of fermentation, or the commencement of the
  acetous, may be stopped by removing the liquor to a cool situation;
  correcting the acid already formed; and if the liquor contain but
  little spirit, the addition of a proper proportion of brandy is

  The operation of racking is also necessary to preserve liquor in
  a vinous state, and to render it clear. This process should be
  performed in a cool place.

  260. _To restore pricked British Wines._

  Rack the wines down to the lees into another cask, where the lees
  of good wines are fresh, then put a pint of strong aqua vitæ, and
  scrape half a pound of yellow bees-wax into it, which by heating the
  spirit over a gentle fire, will melt: after which dip a piece of
  cloth into it, and when a little dry, set on fire with a brimstone
  match, put it into the bung-hole, and stop it up close.

  261. _Another Method._

  First prepare a fresh empty cask, that has had the same kind of wine
  in it which is about to be racked, then match it, and rack off the
  wine, putting to every ten gallons two ounces of oyster powder, and
  half an ounce of bay-salt, then get the staff and stir it well about,
  letting it stand till it is fine, which will be in a few days; after
  which rack it off into another cask, (previously matched) and if the
  lees of some wine of the same kind can be got, it will improve it
  much.—Put likewise a quart of brandy to every ten gallons, and if
  the cask has been emptied a long time, it will match better on that
  account; but if even a new cask, the matching must not be omitted. A
  fresh empty cask is to be preferred.

  N. B. This method will answer for all made wines.


  Boiling the fruit is a practice of decided advantage. From this
  treatment many tasteless fruits acquire a flavour, as is well known,
  and many bad flavours are converted into agreeable ones. In no case
  perhaps is this more remarkable than in the black currant, which,
  harsh and comparatively insipid in its natural state, acquires
  by boiling a powerful, and, to most persons, a highly agreeable
  flavour. In making wine from this variety of currant, the effects
  of this process are very remarkable; the produce of the raw fruit
  being scarcely distinguished by any particular property from the
  herd of made wines, while that of the boiled fruit may with careful
  management be brought to resemble some of the best of the sweet Cape
  wines. In the white and red currant the same precaution has been
  attended with results equally successful, though not marked by a
  contrast so decided. If sweet wine is intended, the quantity of fruit
  for 10 gallons should not exceed 40 pounds; if dry wine is desired,
  it may extend to 60. The proportion of sugar will be 30 pounds as
  before. If a much stronger wine of either quality is desired, it must
  extend to 40 pounds. Unsound or bruised fruit should be rejected; and
  the remains of the blossom and fruit stalk carefully removed.

                        PERFUMERY AND COSMETICS.



  The common strawberry is a natural dentifrice, and its juice, without
  any preparation, dissolves the tartareous incrustations on the teeth,
  and makes the breath sweet and agreeable.


  Take of spirit of balm, 8 pints,
          lemon peel, 4 do.
          nutmegs, and
          coriander seeds, each, 2 do.
          rosemary, marjoram,
          thyme, hissop,
          cinnamon, sage,
          aniseed, cloves,
          angelica roots, each 1 pint.
  Mix. Distil and keep it for a year in an ice-house.

  This is the original receipt of the barefooted _Carmelites_, now in
  possession of the company of apothecaries of Paris, who sell a vast
  quantity of this celebrated water.


  Take of essence de bergamotte, 3 oz.
         Neroli,               1½ drachms.
         cedrat,               2 do.
         lemon,                3 do.
         oil of rosemary,      1 do.
         spirit of wine,      12 lbs.
         ————————— rosemary,   3¼ do.
         eau de melissee de Carmes, 2¼ do.
  Mix. Distil in _balneum mariæ_, and keep it in a cold cellar or
  ice-house for some time. It is used as a cosmetic, and made, with
  sugar, into a ratafia.


  Take of sweet-scented honey water, 1 oz.
          eau sans pareille, 1½ do.
          essence de jasmin, 5 drachms,
          syrup of cloves, and
          spirit of violets, each, 4 drachms,
          calamus aromaticus,
          long-rooted cyperus,
          lavender, each, 2 do.
          essence of neroli, 1 scruple.
  Mix. Some add a few grains of musk and ambergris: it is sweet
  scented, and may be made into a ratafia with sugar.


  The flowers are stratified with wool or cotton, impregnated with oil
  of behn, or nut oil, in an earthen vessel, closely covered, and kept
  for some time in a warm bath; this is repeated with fresh flowers,
  until the oil is well scented: the wool, &c. is then put into a
  sufficient quantity of spirit of wine, and distilled in _balneum


  Take of coriander seeds, a pound, cassia, four oz. cloves and gum
  benzoin, each, 2 oz. oil of rhodium, essence of lemon, essence of
  bergamot, and oil of lavender, each, 1 drachm, rectified spirit of
  wine, 20 pints, rose water, 2 quarts, nutmeg water, 1 quart, musk and
  ambergris, each, twelve grains. Distil in a water bath to dryness.

  269. _Another Method._

  Put 2 drachms each, of tincture of ambergris, and tincture of musk,
  in a quart of rectified spirit of wine, and half a pint of water;
  filter and put it up in small bottles.


  The Royal Society of Edinburgh received from Dr. Monro the following
  account of the manner in which this costly perfume is prepared in
  the east. Steep a large quantity of the petals of the rose, freed
  from every extraneous matter, in pure water, in an earthen or wooden
  vessel, which is exposed daily to the sun, and housed at night, till
  a scum rises to the surface. This is the _ottar_, which carefully
  absorb by a very small piece of cotton tied to the end of a stick.
  The oil collected, squeeze out of the cotton into a very diminutive
  vial, stop it for use. The collection of it should be continued,
  whilst any scum is produced.


  Take 2 lbs. of Jordan almonds,
       5 quarts of rose water,
       1 do. of rectified spirit of wine,
       ½ an oz. of oil of lavender,
       2 oz. of Spanish oil-soap, and
       4 oz. of cream of roses.
  Blanch the almonds in boiling water, dry them well in a cloth, then
  pound them in a mortar until they become a paste. Pound in the soap
  and mix it well with the almond paste. Then add the cream of roses.
  When these are mixed, add the rose-water and spirits, which stir
  in with a spatula or knife. Strain the whole through a clean white
  cloth, then add the oil of lavender to the expressed liquid, drop by
  drop, and stir the whole well. When the mixture has stood for a day,
  cover it over with a cloth from the dust, then bottle it for use.


  Mix together 4 oz. of oil of almonds,
      ½ an oz. of English oil of lavender,
      2 quarts of spirit of wine, and
      10 do. of rose-water.
  Next, blanch 3 lbs. of Jordan almonds, and pound them in a mortar,
  with a quarter of a lb. of Spanish oil-soap, half an oz. of
  spermaceti, and half an oz. of white wax. Put these ingredients
  into a large jar, with two ounces of pearl-ash, dissolved in an
  ounce of warm water. Shake the whole well, and then pour it into
  small bottles for sale.


  Take 1 lb. of oil of sweet almonds,
       1 oz. of spermaceti,
       1 oz. of white wax,
       1 pint of rose-water, and
       2 drachms of Malta rose, or nerolet essence.
  Put the oil, spermaceti, and wax, into a well-glazed pipkin, over a
  clear fire, and, when melted, pour in the rose-water by degrees, and
  keep beating, till the compound becomes like pomatum. Now add the
  essence, and then put the cream into small pots or jars, which must
  be well covered up with pieces of bladder, and soft skin leather.


  Take an ounce of oil of sweet almonds, and half a drachm each, of
  white wax and spermaceti, with a little balm. Melt these ingredients
  in a glazed pipkin over hot ashes, and pour the solution into a
  marble mortar; stir it with the pestle until it becomes smooth and
  cold, then add gradually an ounce of rose or orange-flower water;
  stir all the mixture till incorporated to resemble cream. This
  pomatum renders the skin at once supple and smooth. To prevent marks
  from the small pox, add a little powder of saffron. The gallipot in
  which it is kept, should have a piece of bladder tied over it.

  275. _Another Method._

  Take 4 ounces of clear trotter oil, one ounce of oil of jesamine, 2
  ounces of spermaceti, and one ounce of white wax, scraped fine. Melt
  them together very gently, then pour it into a pan, which must be
  kept by the fire. Now beat it without intermission, till it becomes
  one consistent very white body: then put to it 3 ounces of rose or
  orange-flower water, with about a drachm of spirit of ambergris, or
  other sweet essence.

  Beat the mixture well again, until the water and spirit be properly
  absorbed. This beating will add greatly to the whiteness as well
  as the flavour, of the cream, which will now be as white as snow;
  particularly if care is taken that the utensils and ingredients are
  quite clean.

  In winter, all the utensils, &c. must be kept warm, and the process
  performed in a warm room. Even the rose water must be warmed,
  previous to mixture, otherwise the cream will congeal into knobs, so
  as to cause the whole to be melted again.

  In summer every thing must be kept cool after the melting and mixing.
  More wax must likewise be used in summer than in winter.

  When put into pots, the cold cream is to be kept very cool: each
  having honey water poured on the top, in order to improve the flavour.


  Put a pound and a half of clear beef marrow into an earthen pan of
  fresh water, and change the same for ten days, then steep it in rose
  water for 24 hours, and drain it in a cloth till dry. Take an ounce
  of storax, gum benjamin, odoriferous Cypress powder, or of Florence,
  half an ounce of cinnamon, two drachms of cloves, and two drachms
  of nutmeg, all finely powdered; mix them with the marrow, then put
  the ingredients into a three-pint pewter pot, make a paste of the
  white of egg and flour, and lay it upon a piece of rag, over that,
  put another piece of linen to cover the top close. Put the pot into
  a large copper pot with water, and keep it steady that it may not
  reach to the covering of the pot that holds the marrow. As the water
  shrinks, add more, for it must boil four hours without ceasing;
  strain the ointment through a linen cloth into small pots, and when
  cold cover them up close with bladder and paper. Don’t touch it with
  anything but silver.


  Put half a pound of best Spanish oil soap, scraped very fine, into a
  gallon of boiling water. Stir it well for some time, and let it stand
  till cold. Add a quart of rectified spirit of wine, and half an ounce
  of oil of rosemary; stir them again.

  This compound liquid, when put up in proper phials, in Italy, is
  called _tincture of pearls_. It is an excellent cosmetic for removing
  freckles from the face, and for improving the complexion.


  Take of Brazil dust, 1 oz.
          water, 3 pints,
          isinglass, 6 drachms,
          cochineal, 2 do.
          alum, 1 oz.
          borax, 3 drachms.


  Take of blanched sweet almonds, 1 lb.
          ———————— bitter do. ½ lb.
          sugar, 1 lb.
  Beat up with orange flower water.


  To make this paste, take six pounds of fresh almonds, which blanch
  and beat in a stone mortar, with a sufficient quantity of rose-water.
  Now add a pound of finely drained honey, and mix the whole well
  together. This paste, which is exceedingly good for the hands, is to
  be put into small pots for sale.

  If this paste gets dry, rub it up on a marble slab, with rose-water.
  To prevent this dryness, put about half a tea-spoonful of this water
  on the top of each pot, before tying up.


  Take 5 pounds of hog’s-lard,
       1 pound of mutton suet,
       3 ounces of Portugal water,
       ½ an ounce of essence of bergamot,
       4 ounces of yellow wax, and
       ½ a pound of palm oil.


  Take 25 pounds of hog’s-lard,
        8 pounds of mutton suet,
        6 ounces of oil of bergamot,
        4 ounces of essence of lemons,
        ½ an ounce of oil of lavender, and
        ¼ of an ounce of oil of rosemary.
  These ingredients are to be combined in the same manner as those for
  the hard pomatum. This pomatum is to be put up in pots, in the usual


  Take 4 pounds of fresh and white mutton suet skinned and shredded
  very fine; which melt in about two quarts of spring water; and whilst
  hot, put the whole into a well-glazed earthen pan, small at bottom,
  and wide at the top. Let it stand until the fat is quite cold, and
  all the impurities fall to the bottom, which carefully scrape off.

  Now break the fat into small pieces, which put into a pan, with 2
  gallons of spring water, for a whole day; stir and wash often. Next
  day change the water, and when poured off a second time, at the end
  of twenty-four hours, dry the fat by rubbing in a clean linen cloth.

  Now put the suet with 1½ pound of fresh hog’s-lard, into a large
  pan, and melt the whole over a gentle fire. When properly combined,
  put the whole into an earthen pan, and beat it with a wooden spatula,
  until cold.

  Whilst beating, add 6 drachms of essence of lemon, and 30 drops of
  oil of cloves, previously mixed together. Now continue beating, until
  the mixture be perfectly white, and afterwards put it up into small

  Leave the pots open until the pomatum is quite cold; when cover them
  by pieces of bladder, &c. In summer, use more suet, and mix in a cool
  place:—in winter use more hog’s-lard, and make the pomatum in a warm


  Take 30 pounds of suet,
        1½ pounds of white wax,
        6 ounces of essence of bergamot,
        4 ounces of lemon,
        1 oz. of lavender,
        4 drachms of oil of rosemary, and
        2 drachms of essence of ambergris.
  Shred and pick the suet clean, and melt in an earthen pan or
  pipkin. Then stir it well and strain; and when nearly cold,
  add the perfumes, stirring well as before; when properly mixed,
  pour it into tin moulds.

  285. _Another Method._

  Take 6 ounces of common pomatum, and add to it 3 ounces of white
  virgin wax, scraped fine. Melt them in an earthen pan, immersed in a
  larger one, containing boiling water; both being placed over a clear
  and steady fire. When properly incorporated, keep stirring, until it
  is nearly cold; then put it into small pots, or make it up into small
  rolls. Perfume it according to taste.


  Strip a large double handful of rosemary; boil it in a tin or copper
  vessel, with half a pound of common soft pomatum, till it comes to
  about 3 or 4 ounces; strain it off, and keep it in the usual way.


  There are several sorts: the finest is made from _real pearls_,
  and is the least hurtful to the skin. It gives the most beautiful
  appearance, but is too dear for common use; still the perfumer ought
  never to be without it, for the use of the curious and the rich.


  The next best pearl powder is made as follows:—

  Take 4 ounces of the best magistery of bismuth,
       2 ounces of fine starch powder.
  Mix them well together, and put them into a subsiding glass, wide
  at top and narrow at bottom; pour over them a pint and a half of
  proof spirit, and shake them well; let them remain a day or two.
  When the powder falls to the bottom, pour off the spirit, leaving
  it dry; then place the glass in the sun, to evaporate the moisture.

  Next turn out the white mass, the dirty parts of which form the
  top, whilst the pure ingredients remain at the bottom. If there
  be any dirty particles, scrape them off, and again pulverize the
  remaining part of the cake, and pour more proof spirit over it.
  Proceed as before; and, if there be any moisture remaining, place
  the cone on a large piece of smooth chalk, to absorb its moisture.

  Cover the whole with a bell-glass, to preserve it from dust, and
  set it in the sun to dry and whiten it. Next grind the mass with a
  muller on a marble stone, and keep the powder in a glass bottle,
  secured, by a ground stopper, from air.


  Blanch 5 or 6 pounds of bitter almonds, by boiling in water, and
  then beat them very fine in a marble mortar, with 2 pounds of orange
  flowers. If the paste be too oily, add to it some bean flour, finely
  sifted, but let no water enter the composition.

  This paste is made abroad, but comes here very damaged, the sea-air
  destroying its properties.


  Take 4 ounces of coral, reduced to an impalpable powder,
       8 ounces of very light Armenian bole,
       1 ounce of Portugal snuff,
       1 ounce of Havannah snuff,
       1 ounce of good burnt tobacco ashes, and
       1 ounce of gum myrrh, well pulverized.
  Mix them together, and sift them twice.


  To make a good tooth-powder, leave out the coral, and in its place
  put in pieces of brown stone-ware, reduced to a very fine powder.
  This is the common way of making it.


  Take of fresh conserve of roses, 2 ounces, the juice of half a
  sour lemon, a little very rough claret, and 6 ounces of coral
  tooth-powder. Make them into a paste, which put into small pots; and,
  if it dry by standing, moisten with lemon juice and wine, as before.


  Take of good soft water, 1 quart,
        juice of lemon, 2 ounces,
        burnt alum, 6 grains,
        common salt, 6 grains.
  Boil them a minute in a cup, then strain and bottle for use: rub
  the teeth with a small bit of sponge tied to a stick, once a week.


  A mixture of honey with the purest charcoal will prove an admirable


  Well boil and skim 1 pound of honey; add to it a quarter of a pound
  of bole ammoniac, 1 oz. of dragon’s blood, 1 of oil of sweet almonds,
  ½ an ounce of oil of cloves, 8 drops of essence of bergamot, a gill
  of honey water, all mixed well together, and put into pots for use.


  Take marine marsh-mallow roots, cut them into lengths of 5 or 6
  inches, and of the thickness of a middling rattan cane. Dry them in
  the shade, but not so as to make them shrivel.

  Next finely pulverize two ounces of good dragon’s blood, put it into
  a flat-bottomed glazed pan, with four ounces of highly rectified
  spirit, and half an ounce of fresh conserve of roses. Set it over
  a gentle charcoal fire, and stir it until the dragon’s blood is
  dissolved; then put in about thirty of the marsh-mallow sticks; stir
  them about, and carefully turn them, that all parts may absorb the
  dye alike. Continue this until the bottom of the pan be quite dry,
  and shake and stir it over the fire, until the sticks are perfectly
  dry and hard.

  Both ends of each root or stick should, previous to immersion in the
  pan, be bruised gently by a hammer, for half an inch downwards, so as
  to open its fibres, and thereby form a brush.

  They are generally used by dipping one of the ends in the powder
  or opiate, and then, by rubbing them against the teeth, which they
  cleanse and whiten admirably.

  297. _Other Vegetable Tooth Brushes._

  There are several cheap sorts of these tooth-brushes which are made
  in the same manner, except that, as a basis, rattan cane, or even
  common deal, cut round, is used instead of the marsh-mallow roots.


  Put 8 ounces of the best olive oil into a wide-mouthed bottle, add
  two ounces of the small parts of alkanet-root.

  Stop up the bottle, and set it in the sun; shake it often, until it
  be of a beautiful crimson. Now strain the oil off very clear from
  the roots, and add to it, in a glazed pipkin, three ounces of very
  fine white wax, and the same quantity of fresh clean mutton suet.
  Deer-suet is too brittle, and also apt to turn yellow.

  Melt this by a slow fire, and perfume it when taken off, with forty
  drops of oil of rhodium, or of lavender. When cold, put it into small
  gallipots, or rather whilst in a liquid state.

  The common way is to make this salve up into small cakes; in that
  form the colour is very apt to be impaired.

  This salve never fails to cure chopped or sore lips, if applied
  pretty freely at bed-time, in the course of a day or two at farthest.

  299. _Another Method._

  Beat the alkanet-root in a mortar, until its fibres are properly
  bruised; then tie it up in a piece of clean linen rag, and put this
  in a clear pipkin with the oil. When the oil has begun to boil, it
  will be found of a deep red. The bag is now to be taken out, pressed
  and thrown away, and then the other ingredients are to be added as


  This may be made as above, except in the use of alkanet root, which
  is to be left out. Though called lip-salve, this composition is
  seldom applied to the lips; its principal use consisting in curing
  sore nipples, for which it is an excellent remedy.


  Take two ounces of Terra Japonica, half an ounce of sugar candy, both
  in powder. Grind one drachm of the best ambergris with ten grains of
  pure musk; and dissolve a quarter of an ounce of clean gum tragacanth
  in two ounces of orange-flower water. Mix all together, so as to form
  a paste, which roll into pieces of the thickness of a straw. Cut
  these into pieces, and lay them in clean paper. This is an excellent
  perfume for those whose breath is disagreeable.


  Take of oven-dried best cloves, cedar and rhubarb wood, each one
  ounce, beat them to a powder, and sprinkle them in a box or chest,
  where they will create a most beautiful scent, and preserve the
  apparel against moths.


  Cut, slice, and mix well together, in the state of very gross
  powder, the following ingredients:
        2 oz. of yellow saunders,
        2 oz. of coriander seeds,
        2 oz. of orris root,
        2 oz. of calamus aromaticus,
        2 oz. of cloves,
        2 oz. of cinnamon bark,
        2 oz. of dried rose leaves,
        2 oz. of lavender flowers, and
        1 lb. of oak shavings.
  When properly mixed, stuff the above into small linen bags, which
  place in drawers, wardrobes, &c., which are musty, or liable to
  become so.


  Take of ambergris one drachm, civet the like quantity; add
  flour-butter a quarter of an ounce; and with these well mixed, rub
  the gloves over gently with fine cotton wool, and press the perfume
  into them.

  305. _Another._

  Take of damask or rose scent, half an ounce, the spirit of cloves and
  mace, each a drachm; frankincense, a quarter of an ounce. Mix them
  together, and lay them in papers, and when hard, press the gloves;
  they will take the scent in 24 hours, and hardly ever lose it.


  This excellent spirit requires 6 drachms of China musk, 20 grains of
  civet, and 2 drachms of red rose buds. Reduce these ingredients to
  powder with loaf-sugar, and pour over them three pints of spirit of


  Take of benjamin, storax, and galbanum, each half an ounce, temper
  them, being bruised into powder, with the oil of myrrh, and burn them
  in a chafing-dish, or else take rosemary, balm, and bay leaves; heat
  them in wine and sugar, and let the moisture be consumed; likewise
  burn them by the heat of the pan, and they will produce a very fine


  Powder separately the following ingredients, and then mix, on
  a marble slab,
        1 lb. of gum benzoin,
        8 oz. of gum storax,
        1 lb. of frankincense, and
        2 lbs. of fine charcoal.
  Add to this composition the following liquids:
        6 oz. of tincture of benzoin,
        2 oz. of essence of ambergris,
        1 oz. of essence of musk,
        2 oz. of almond oil, and
        4 oz. of clear syrup.
  Mix the whole into a stiff paste, and form into pastils, of a
  conical shape, which dry in the heat of the sun. If more liquid
  should be required for the paste, add warm water.


  Beat and sift fine a pound of the four gums left after the making of
  honey-water, one pound also of the ingredients left from the spirit
  of Benjamin, one pound of the best sealing-wax, and one pound of
  genuine gum benzoin.

  Dissolve some clear common gum arabic in a quantity of rose-water, of
  a pretty thick consistency, and add to it sixty drops of spirit of

  Mix the whole together, so as to make a pretty stiff paste, which
  make up into small cones or balls. Dry them thoroughly before they
  are put away, otherwise they will become mouldy.

  These pastils are particularly useful for burning in rooms, where
  the sick or the dead have lain. They are used in very considerable
  quantities in the two Houses of Lords and Commons; also in various
  halls, assembly-rooms, &c.


  Take half a pound of pulvil powder, made from apple-tree moss, half
  an ounce of grey ambergris, thirty grains of musk, and twenty grains
  of civet.

  Grind the musk and civet with loaf sugar, to a very fine powder; melt
  the ambergris, with 6 drops of the oil of behn nuts, over a gentle
  fire, in a clean vessel, not brass or copper; add, as it melts, a few
  drops of the juice of green lemon, and about 4 drops each of oil of
  rhodium and lavender.

  When the ambergris is melted, put the above powder into it, stir and
  mix it well. Add, by degrees, the powder of apple-moss; and when the
  whole is combined, pulverize and sift it through a very fine hair
  sieve; what will not pass through, return into the mortar, again
  pound it with loaf-sugar, until the whole is reduced to fine powder.


  Melt 2 penny-weights of fine ambergris, in a brass mortar, very
  gently, stir in quickly, 8 drops of green lemon juice, and the same
  of behn-nut oil.

  Add, ready powdered with fine loaf-sugar, 12 grains of musk, 12
  grains of civet, and 24 grains of residuum from the making of spirit
  of ambergris.

  Add 1 ounce of spirit of ambergris—mix and incorporate them well, and
  add 16 pounds of fine dry hair-powder. Pass the whole, twice, through
  a fine hair sieve; then lay it open for three days, in a dry room,
  stir it often, that the spirit may entirely evaporate, otherwise it
  may turn sour, which, however, will go off by keeping. Bottle and
  stop it close.


  Take 2 penny-weights of pure musk, 12 grains of civet, and 1
  penny-weight of the residuum of spirit of ambergris. Make this into a
  paste, with 2 ounces of spirit of musk, made by infusion. Powder it
  with loaf-sugar and mix in 16 pounds of fine hair powder.


  Take best dried and scraped orris roots, free from mould. Bruise or
  grind them: the latter is best, as, being very tough, they require
  great labour to pound. Sift the powder through a fine hair sieve, and
  put the remainder in a baker’s oven, to dry the mixture. A violent
  heat will turn the roots yellow.

  When dry, grind again, and sift; and repeat the same until the whole
  has passed through the sieve; mix nothing with it, as it would mould
  and spoil it.


  Drop twelve drops of genuine oil of rhodium on a lump of loaf-sugar;
  grind this well in a glass mortar, and mix it thoroughly with three
  pounds of orris powder. This will, in its perfume, have a resemblance
  to a well-flavoured violet. If you add more rhodium oil, a rose
  perfume, instead of a violet one, will be produced; the orris powder
  is a most agreeable perfume, and only requiring to be raised by the
  addition of the above quantity of the oil.

  Keep this perfume in the same manner as the others. What is sold at
  the druggist’s shops is generally adulterated.


  Take two pecks of fresh, dry damask rose-leaves; strip them from
  their leaves and stalks; have ready 16 pounds of fine hair-powder.
  Strew a layer of rose-leaves, on sheets of paper, at the bottom
  of a box, cover them over with a layer of hair-powder; then strew
  alternately a layer of roses and powder, until the whole of each has
  been used.

  When they have lain 24 hours, sift the powder out, and expose it to
  the air 24 hours more. Stir it often. Add fresh rose-leaves, twice,
  as before, and proceed in the same way; after this dry the powder
  well by a gentle heat, and pass it through a fine sieve. Lastly,
  pour ten drops of oil of rhodium, or three drops of otto of roses,
  on loaf-sugar, which triturate in a glass mortar, and stir well into
  the powder, which put into a box, or glass, for use. This hair-powder
  perfume will be excellent, and will keep well.


  Take sixteen pounds of hair powder, and forty drops of Roman oil of
  bergamot, and proceed in all respects as before, but do not leave
  the compound exposed to the air; for in this case the bergamot is so
  volatile that it will quickly fly off.


  Take twelve pounds of fine starch-powder, add three pounds of the
  ambergris perfume: mix them well together, and run it twice through a
  fine hair sieve. Put it into a well closed box, or glass, for use.

  This is the first and best sort of ambergris powder: but for a
  second, or inferior sort, put only a pound and a half of the perfume,
  to the above quantity of starch-powder.


  Mix twelve pounds of starch-powder, and three pounds of musk perfume,
  as before. A second sort of this hair-powder may be made by using
  half the quantity of perfume.


  Mix twelve pounds of hair-powder with three pounds of the violet
  perfume, and lay it by for use.


  Mix well twelve pounds of starch powder, with three pounds of the
  rose perfume. Sift; put it up in a cedar box, or glass bottle.

  321. _Another._

  A second sort of this powder may be made by using half the quantity
  of the perfume, to twelve pounds of powder, and adding two drops of
  otto of roses, previously dropped on sugar, and well triturated in a
  glass mortar.


  Take of fresh lime-stone, 1 oz.
          pure potass, 1 drachm,
          sulphuret of potass, 1 drachm.
  Reduce them to a fine powder in a Wedgewood mortar. If the hair be
  first washed, or soaked in warm water, (130 Fahr.) for ten minutes,
  this article, formed into a thin paste with warm water, and applied
  whilst warm, will so effectually destroy the hair in five or six
  minutes, that it may be removed by washing the skin with flannel.
  It is a powerful caustic, and should therefore be removed as soon
  as it begins to inflame the skin, by washing it off with vinegar.
  It softens the skin, and greatly improves its appearance.


  Take good new scarlet wool cuttings, and spirit of wine, or
  lemon-juice, boil them in a well-glazed earthen pot, well stopped,
  till the liquid has charged itself with all the colour of the
  scarlet, strain the dye through a cloth, and all the colour
  therefrom; boil it afterwards in a little arabic water, till the
  colour becomes very deep. The proportion of materials is, to half a
  pound of scarlet cuttings, a quarter of a pint of spirit of wine,
  and a sufficient quantity of water to assist the soaking. Then, in
  the colour extracted, put a piece of gum arabic, of the size of a
  filbert: next steep some cotton in the colour, and wet some sheets of
  paper with the dye, which repeat several times, as often as they are
  dry, and you will find them sufficiently charged with rouge for use.


  Pour into the alkaline liquor which holds in solution the colouring
  part of bastard saffron, such a quantity of lemon juice as may be
  necessary to saturate the whole alkaline salts. At the time of the
  precipitation, the latter appears under the form of a fecula full of
  threads, which soon falls to the bottom of the vessel. Mix this part
  with white talc, reduced to fine powder, and moistened with a little
  lemon-juice and water. Then form the whole into a paste, and having
  put it in small pots, expose it to dry. This colour is reserved
  for the use of the toilette; but it has not the durability of that
  prepared from cochineal.


  Fine carmine, properly pulverized and prepared for the purpose, is
  the best that can be employed with safety and effect: it gives the
  most natural tone to the complexion, and imparts a brilliancy to
  the eyes, without detracting from the softness of the skin. To use
  it economically, take some of the finest pomatum, without scent, in
  which there is a proportion of white wax, about the size of a pea,
  just flatten it upon a piece of white paper, then take on a pointed
  penknife, carmine equal to a pin’s head, mix it gently with the
  pomatum, with your finger, and when you have produced the desired
  tint, rub it in a little compressed cotton, pass it over the cheeks
  till colour is clearly diffused, void of grease. Ladies will find,
  upon trial, that this economical rouge will neither injure the health
  nor the skin; and it imitates perfectly the natural colour of the

  326. _Another._

  Take of French chalk, powdered, 4 oz.
          oil of almonds, 2 drachms,
          carmine, 1 do.


  Infuse an ounce and a half of gum benzoin, 2 ounces of red saunders,
  in powder, and 2 drachms of dragon’s blood, in 12 ounces of
  rectified spirit of wine, and 4 ounces of river or rain water. When
  the ingredients have been mixed, stop the bottle close, and shake
  frequently during seven days; then filter through blotting paper.


  To each pound of ox-gall, add,
          roche alum, 1 drachm,
          rock salt, ½ oz.
          sugar candy, 1 oz.
          borax, 2 drachms,
          camphor, 1 drachm.
  Mix and shake well for 15 minutes, then often, daily, for 15 days,
  or till the gall is transparent; filter through cap paper; use when
  exposed to the sun;—always washing off before sleep.


  The varied flavour of snuffs of different kinds arises less from
  the state of the original leaf, than the factitious additions of
  manufacturers. The snuff of Martinico, celebrated under the term
  “Macouba,” is made from the best leaves, which being moistened with
  juice from their excellent sugar-canes, undergoes fermentation, and
  having thrown off the offensive _fetor_ in scum and residuum, is
  evaporated and ground in the usual manner.


  Its basis is powdered _asarum_, (vulgo Asarabacca), reduced by
  admixture with a small portion of powdered _dock-leaf_, or any other
  innoxious vegetable. The finely levigated snuff, known as “Scotch,”
  may be added agreeable to the taste of the consumer; and finally
  a solution of spirit of wine and camphor, in the proportion of one
  drachm of the latter, in fifteen of spirit, is to be dropped upon
  the camphor, from five to ten drops to an ounce. Bottle your snuff

  331. _Another._

  May be made of a very pleasant flavour, with the powder produced from
  sage, rosemary, lilies of the valley, and tops of sweet marjorum—of
  each one ounce, with a drachm of Asarabacca root, lavender flowers,
  and nutmeg; it should be very fine, and it will relieve the head


  Take good unsifted Havannah snuff, and grind it down to a fine
  powder. If the tobacco be too strong, mix it with the fine powder of
  Spanish nut-shells, which is by far the best mixture which can be
  used. Over this sprinkle some weak treacle water, and when, after
  mixing with the hands, it has lain in a heap for some days, to sweat
  and incorporate, pack it up; but take care that it be not too moist.

  This snuff, in the course of twelve months, will be of one uniform
  and agreeable flavour; and will keep good and mending, for many
  years. When old, this sort will hardly be inferior to any of the
  plain snuffs made in Spain.


  The fine powder, which is the best part of the snuff as it comes from
  abroad, is sifted from the bale snuff; and the course and stalky part
  left, is ground down, previously mixed with strong cheap tobacco
  powder, or dust, along with savine, brick-dust, yellow sand, the
  sweepings of tobacco, old rotten wood, and with many other filthy
  vegetable substances, both dry and green, to pass as the real flavour
  of tobacco. All or most of these ingredients being mixed into one
  body. This is nothing more than colouring the filthy compound with
  red ochre, or umber, or other noxious red or brown colour, mixed with
  water and molasses!

  The whole, when properly incorporated, is now passed through a hair
  sieve, to mix it more intimately; and is then left for some time to
  sweat, or become equally moist. This moistness is intended to imitate
  the oiliness which is peculiar to the real genuine rancia from

  This snuff is packed in barrels, tin canisters, and stone jars, so
  that it may come out in lumps, like the Spanish snuffs. This is done
  to deceive the purchaser, on whom this bad compound is imposed for
  real Spanish snuff. Such is the composition of a very great part of
  what is made and sold in this town for common Spanish snuff.


  Suet is the basis of all the soaps of the toilette, known by the
  name of Windsor soap, because olive-oil forms a paste too difficult
  to melt again, and contains an odour too strong to be mixed with
  essences. The suet soap dissolved hot in alcohol retakes its solid
  state by cooling. To this fact is due the discovery of transparent
  soap, which, if well prepared, has the appearance of candied sugar;
  it may also be coloured, and the vegetable hues for this purpose, are
  preferable to mineral; any person may make this soap, by putting in a
  thin glass phial, the half of a cake of Windsor soap-shavings; fill
  it with one half of alcohol, and put it near the fire until the soap
  is dissolved; this mixture, placed into a mould to cool, produces the
  transparent soap.


  Melt hard curd soap, and scent it with oil of karni, and essence of
  bergamot, bought at the druggists; or the essence of bergamot may be


  Upon 1 lb. of quick-lime, pour 3 quarts of boiling distilled water;
  add 1 lb. of salt of tartar, dissolved in 1 quart of water; cover
  the vessel, and when cold, filter through a cotton cloth: a pint
  should weigh exactly 16 ounces troy; if more, add distilled water,
  and if less evaporate. Then add one third of oil of almonds, simmer
  them together for some hours, or until the oil forms a jelly; when
  cool, which may be tried on a small quantity, add common salt, and
  then continue boiling till the soap is solid; when cold, skim off the
  water, and then pour into moulds.

  337. _Another Method._

  Take 2 lbs. of soap ley, made of barilla or kelp, so strong that a
  bottle, holding half a pint of water, will hold 11 ounces of the ley,
  and 4 lbs of oil of almonds; rub them together in a mortar, and put
  the mixture into tin moulds, where let it be for some weeks, till the
  combination is perfect.


  Take ten pounds of white oil soap, and ten pounds of Joppa soap. Cut
  them into small square pieces, which set to dry for three days: the
  oil-soap, particularly, must be thus dried.

  Scrape, very finely, five pounds of oil-soap, which dry for one day,
  in the open air, mix it well in the shaving-box with five pounds of
  powder, add an ounce and a half of the best vermilion.

  In mixing, place pieces of soap, and coloured powder, in layers in
  the box, making, in all, four alternate layers of each. When a layer
  of each has been placed in the box, sprinkle a pint of rose-water
  over the _cut soap_; for if it be much combined with the powder, it
  will become lumpy and hard, and consequently spoil the wash-balls.
  The same quantity of rose-water is to be used for moistening each
  of the other soap layers. Next mix a pint of thin starch, which has
  been well boiled in half a pint of rain water, with half a pint of
  rose-water, and distribute it equally well mixed among the mass, by
  turning it over repeatedly, and then press it down close with the
  hands. If a piece be now cut out from the mass, the operator will
  perceive whether the marbling is sufficiently good; and if so, he may
  proceed immediately to form his wash-balls.


  Take of fresh ley, strong enough to bear an egg, eight pounds, and
  put to it of deer’s, goat’s, or lamb’s suet, (which has previously
  been well cleansed from all skins, &c. by rose-water,) two pounds,
  and one pound of olive-oil, or rather behn-nut oil. Let all these
  simmer over the fire in a well-glazed pot, until it be pretty nearly
  of the consistence of crown or Naples soap; then turn it out into a
  large flat pan, which set on the leads or roof of the house, exposed
  to the heat of the sun for fifty days. The pan must be covered over
  with a bell glass, such as the gardeners use, and the mixture must be
  stirred once a day, during the whole of this time.

  In about six weeks or two months, the operator will have a most
  excellent ground-work for Naples soap, which only requires perfuming
  in the following manner, to render it even preferable to the foreign

  Take of oil of rhodium, one ounce, of spirit of ambergris, two ounces
  and a half, spirit of musk, half an ounce; mix these well together,
  and then put the compound into the pan of soap. Stir the whole well,
  and incorporate the perfumes with the soap, on a marble stone by
  means of a muller. Put up into small jars, or preserve in a mass in
  a large jar, according to sale or convenience. If kept for twelve
  months, this soap will be found, by comparison, to be far preferable
  to the best soap that ever came from Naples.

                        SIMPLE DISTILLED WATERS.



  Rub three pounds of rose-leaves for three minutes with a pound of
  common salt. The flowers being bruised by the friction of the grains
  of salt, form a paste, which is to be put into an earthen jar, or
  into a water-tight barrel. The same process is to be repeated until
  the vessel is filled, so that all the roses may be equally salted.
  The vessel is then to be shut up and kept in a cool place until

  For distillation, this aromatic paste is, at any season, to be put
  into the body of the still with twice its weight of water; and when
  heat is applied, the oil, or essential water, is to be obtained in
  the common way. Both the oil and water are in this way produced in
  greater quantity than by using the leaves without the salt: besides,
  the preserved paste will keep its flavour and strength unimpaired for
  several years.

  Other flowers, capable of affording essential oils may also be
  treated in the above-mentioned way, with economy and advantage; as
  there is thereby no occasion to carry on a hurried process in the
  heat of summer, when these are in perfection.


  1. Plants and their parts ought to be fresh gathered. When they are
  directed fresh, such only must be employed; but some are allowed to
  be used dry, as being easily procurable in this state at all times of
  the year, though rather more elegant waters might be obtained from
  them whilst green.

  2. Having bruised the subjects a little, pour thereon thrice their
  quantity of spring water.

  This quantity is to be diminished or increased, according as the
  plants are more or less juicy than ordinary.

  When fresh and juicy herbs are to be distilled, thrice their weight
  of water will be fully sufficient, but dry ones require a much larger

  In general, there should be so much water, that after all intended to
  be distilled has come over, there may be liquor enough to prevent the
  matter from burning to the still.

  3. Formerly, some vegetables were slightly fermented with the
  addition of yeast, previous to their distillation.

  4. If any drops of oil swim on the surface of the water, they are to
  be carefully taken off.

  5. That the waters may be kept the better, about one-twentieth part
  of their weight of proof spirit may be added to each after they are


  The instruments chiefly used in the distillation of simple waters are
  of two kinds, commonly called the hot still, or alembic, and the
  cold still. The waters drawn by the cold still from plants are much
  more fragrant, and more fully impregnated with their virtues, than
  those drawn by the hot still or alembic.

  The method is this:—A pewter body is suspended in the body of the
  alembic, and the head of the still fitted to the pewter body; into
  this body the ingredients to be distilled are put, the alembic filled
  with water, the still-head luted to the pewter body, and the nose
  luted to the worm of the refrigeratory or worm. The same intention
  will be answered by putting the ingredients into a glass alembic, and
  placing it in a bath-heat, or balneum mariæ.

  The cold still is much the best adapted to draw off the virtues of
  simples, which are valued for their fine flavour when green, which is
  subject to be lost in drying; for when we want to extract a spirit
  from plants so light and volatile, as not to subsist in open air any
  longer than while the plant continues in its growth, it is certainly
  the best method to remove the plant from its native soil, into
  some proper instrument, where, as it dies, these votile parts may
  be collected and preserved. And such an instrument is what we call
  the cold still, where the drying of the plant, or flower, is only
  forwarded by a moderate warmth, and all that rises is collected and


  Tie a piece of muslin or gauze over a glazed earthern pot, whose
  mouth is just large enough to receive the bottom of a warming-pan;
  on this cloth lay the herb, clipped; then place upon them the
  warming-pan, with live coals in it, to cause heat just enough to
  prevent burning, by which means as the steam issuing out of the herb
  cannot mount upwards, by reason of the bottom of the pan just fitting
  the brim of the vessel below it, it must necessarily descend, and
  collect into water at the bottom of the receiver, and that strongly
  impregnated with the essential oil, and the salt of the vegetable
  thus distilled; which, if wanted to make spirituous or compound
  water, is easily done, by simply adding some good spirits, or French
  brandy to it, which will keep good for a long time, and be much
  better than if the spirits had passed through a still, which must,
  of necessity, waste some of their strength. Care should be taken not
  to let the fire be too strong, lest it scorch the plants; and to
  be made of charcoal, for continuance and better regulation, which
  must be managed by lifting up and laying down the lid, as wanted to
  increase or decrease the degrees of heat. The deeper the earthen pan,
  the cooler the season, and the less fire at first (afterwards to be
  gradually raised), in the greater perfection will the distilled water
  be obtained.

  As the more moveable, or volatile parts of vegetables, are the
  aqueous, the oily, the gummy, the resinous, and the saline, these are
  to be expected in the waters of this process; the heat here employed
  being so great as to burst the vessels of the plants, some of which
  contain so large a quantity of oil, that it may be seen swimming on
  the surface of the water.

  Although a small quantity only of distilled waters can be obtained
  at a time by this confined operation, yet it compensates in strength
  what is deficient in quantity. Such liquors, if well corked up from
  the air, will keep good a long time, especially if about a twentieth
  part of any spirits be added, in order to preserve the same more


  As the method of performing the operation by the cold still is the
  very same, whatever plant or flower is used, the following instance
  of procuring a water from rosemary, will be abundantly sufficient
  to instruct the young practitioner in the manner of conducting the
  process in all cases whatever.

  Take rosemary, fresh gathered in its perfection, with the morning dew
  upon it, and lay it lightly and unbruised upon the plate or bottom
  of the still; cover the plate with its conical head, and apply a
  glass receiver to the nose of it. Make a small fire of charcoal under
  the plate, continuing it as long as any liquor comes over into the

  When nothing more comes over, take off the still head, and remove the
  plant, putting fresh in its stead, and proceed as before; continue
  to repeat the operation successively, till a sufficient quantity of
  water is procured. Let this distilled water be kept at rest in clean
  bottles, close stopped, for some days in a cool place; by this means
  it will become limpid, and powerfully impregnated with the taste and
  smell of the plant.


  Take of spearmint leaves, fresh, 1½ lbs. sea wormwood tops, fresh,
  angelica leaves, fresh, each 1 pound; water, as much as is sufficient
  to prevent burning. Draw off by distillation 3 gallons.

  Or, take of elder flowers, moderately dried, 2 pounds; angelica
  leaves, fresh gathered, 1 pound; water, a sufficient quantity. Distil
  off three gallons.


  Take of pennyroyal leaves, dry, a pound and a half; water, as much as
  will prevent burning. Draw off by distillation 1 gallon.


  Take of spearmint leaves, fresh, any quantity; water, three times
  as much. Distil as long as the liquor which comes over has a
  considerable taste or smell of the mint.

  Or, take spearmint leaves, dried, 1½ lbs., water as much as is
  sufficient to prevent burning. Draw off by distillation 1 gallon.


  Take of bruised cinnamon, 1 lb.
          water, 2 gallons.
  Simmer in a still for half an hour, put what comes over into the
  still again; when cold, strain through flannel.


  Take two gallons of fine old honey-water, put it into a still capable
  of holding four gallons, and add the thinly pared rinds of six or
  eight fresh citrons, neither _green_ nor _mellow_ ripe. Then add
  sixty or seventy drops of fine Roman bergamot; and, having luted
  the apparatus well, let the whole digest in a moderate heat for
  twenty-four hours. Draw off, by a water-bath heat, about one gallon.


  Take six pounds of the white sweet almond cakes, from which jessamine
  oil has been made abroad; beat and sift them to a fine powder, and
  put to it as much fresh oil of jessamine as will be required to make
  it into a stiff paste. Let this paste be dissolved in about six
  quarts of spring water, which has been previously well boiled, and
  left until it has become about half cold. Stir and mix the whole well
  together; and when the oil and water has been well combined, let the
  whole stand until the powder has fallen to the bottom of the vessel.
  Now pour the liquid off gently, and filter it through cotton, in a
  large tin funnel, into the glass bottle in which it is to be kept for

  The powder or sediment which has been left at the bottom of the
  vessel, when dried by the heat of the sun, answers very well for
  making almond paste for the hands.


  Jamaica pepper is the fruit of a tall tree growing in the mountainous
  parts of Jamaica, where it is much cultivated, because of the great
  profit arising from the cured fruit, sent in large quantities
  annually into Europe.

  Take of Jamaica pepper, half a pound; water, two gallons and a half;
  draw off 1 gallon with a pretty brisk fire. The oil of this fruit is
  very ponderous, and therefore, this water is made in an alembic.


  Infuse eight or ten pounds of the cuttings of green myrtle, in nearly
  twenty gallons of rain or river water, and add thereto a pint of
  fresh yeast, after it has stood for twenty-four hours. At the end of
  another day and night, put the whole into a still, with a pound of
  bay salt. Draw off the whole of the water; and, next day, infuse more
  myrtle leaves, as before, and distil again. Repeat the same a third


  Take two pounds of orange flowers, and twenty-four quarts of water,
  and draw over three pints.

  Or, take twelve pounds of orange flowers, and sixteen quarts of
  water, and draw over fifteen quarts.


  Take of the outward yellow rind of Seville oranges, four ounces;
  water, three gallons and a half; draw off one gallon by the alembic,
  with a brisk fire.


  Take of the herb of peppermint, dried, 1½ lbs.
       water, as much as is sufficient to prevent burning.
  Distil off a gallon. This has been known to allay sickness when
  nothing else would succeed, and is used in flatulent colics. A
  wine-glassful may be taken, and often repeated.

  356. _Another._

  Take of oil of peppermint, 1 pound,
          water, a sufficient quantity.
  Draw off 30 gallons. This is stimulant and carminative; and
  covers disagreeable flavours.


  Take a pint of orange-flower water, a pint of rose-water, and half a
  pint of myrtle-water; to these put a quarter of an ounce of distilled
  spirit of musk, and an ounce of spirit of ambergris. Shake the whole
  well together, and the process will be finished.

  358. ROSE WATER.

  Take of the leaves of fresh damask roses, with
          the heels cut off, 6 lbs.
          water, as much as to prevent burning.
  Distil off a gallon.

  The distilled waters should be drawn from dried herbs, because the
  fresh cannot be got at all times in the year. Whenever the fresh
  are used the weights must be increased; but whether the fresh or
  dry are made use of, it is left to the judgment of the operator
  to vary the weight, according as the plants are in greater or
  less perfection, owing to the season in which they grew or were


  Take of the bruised fruit, 20 lbs.
          water a sufficient quantity.
  Draw off two gallons and a half: this water is very fragrant.


  Take of water, 10 gallons.
  Distil. Throw away the first ⅓ gallon, and draw off four gallons,
  which keep in glass or stone ware.

  Distilled water is used as a diet drink in cancerous diseases, and
  should be used in making medicines when the salts contained in
  common water would decompose them.

                       COMPOUND DISTILLED WATERS.



  1. The plants and their parts ought to be moderately and newly dried,
  except such as are ordered to be fresh gathered.

  2. After the ingredients have been steeped in the spirit for the time
  prescribed, add as much water as is sufficient to prevent a burnt
  flavour, or rather more.

  3. The liquor which comes over first in distillation is by some kept
  by itself, under the title of spirit; and the other runnings, which
  prove milky, are fined down by art. But it is preferable to mix all
  the runnings together, without fining them, that the waters may
  possess the virtues of the plant entire.

  4. In the distillation of these waters, the genuine brandy obtained
  from wine is directed.

  Where this is not to be procured, take, instead of that proof spirit,
  half its quantity of a well rectified spirit, prepared from any other
  fermented liquors. In this steep the ingredients, and then add spring
  water enough, both to make up the quantity ordered to be drawn off,
  and to prevent burning.


  Take of fine old French brandy, 2 gallons, or 1 gallon of highly
  rectified spirit of wine, and 1 gallon of spring water. Put to the
  brandy, or diluted spirits, ½ an ounce, or more, of true Roman
  oil of bergamot, whose parts have been previously well divided by
  trituration with lump sugar, in a glass mortar.

  Now distil by a water heat, and draw off six quarts only. By this
  operation, a most excellent bergamot water will be produced, which
  will remain good for twenty years.


  The original receipt for preparing this invaluable lotion, is written
  in letters of gold in the hand-writing of Elizabeth, queen of Hungary.

  Take of aque vitæ, four times distilled, 3 parts,
          the tops and flowers of rosemary, 2 parts.
  To be put together in a close-stopped vessel, and allowed to stand
  in a warm place, during fifty hours, then to be distilled in an
  alembic, and of this, once every week, 1 drachm to be taken in the
  morning, either in the food or drink, and every morning the face
  and the deceased limb to be washed with it.

  364. _Best Hungary Water._

  Take thirty gallons of spirit of wine; put to it, in a large still,
  six large bunches of fine green rosemary, when the flowers are white,
  and in full bloom; one pound of lavender-flowers, and four ounces of
  true English oil of rosemary. The rosemary-leaves and flowers must be
  stripped from all their wood and green twigs.

  When the whole has been in a state of digestion for twenty-four
  hours, distil as before, drawing off about twenty-five or twenty-six
  gallons, but no more. When distilled, stop it closely in a copper
  vessel, and keep it undisturbed for about a month.


  Take 14 pounds of lavender flowers, 10½ gallons of rectified spirit
  of wine, and one gallon of water; draw off 10 gallons by a gentle
  fire; or, which is much better, by a sand bath heat.


  Take 30 gallons of the best wine spirit; pour it into a copper
  still, placed in a hot-water bath, over a clear but steady fire; put
  to it 6 pounds of the largest and freshest lavender flowers, after
  having separated them from all stalks and green leaves, which give
  the lavender-water a woody and faint smell. Put no water into the
  still, close all the junctures well, and let the spirits and flowers
  stand in a state of digestion for 24 hours; and then, with a gentle
  fire, draw off 25, or, at most, 26 gallons only, which, as soon as
  distilled, are to be poured into a copper vessel, for keeping. Wooden
  vessels and cans are to be avoided, as the best parts of the oil,
  and of the spirits, will be absorbed by them and consequently lost.

  When the distillation is over, draw out, or quench the fire, and let
  the remaining spirits and flowers continue in the still until the
  next day.

  When the above quantity of 25 or 26 gallons has stood for 4 or 5
  days, put it to ten ounces of true English oil of lavender. Mix the
  whole well in the jar, by drawing out one or two gallons, and then
  returning them. Repeat this ten or twelve times, then stop the vessel
  up close, and do not disturb it for a month, at least.

  367. _Lavender Water, of the second order._

  To the four or five gallons of the spirits, and the lavender flowers
  left in the still, after the distillation mentioned in the last
  article, add 15 gallons of common proof spirit, 9 or 10 gallons of
  spring water, 3 pounds of lavender flowers, and 4 ounces of oil of
  lavender, intimately mixed with loaf-sugar, by powdering it in a
  glass mortar.

  Digest the whole, and draw off 25 gallons, proceeding in every
  respect as before, except that in this case, no oil is to be added;
  for, as there is so much water present, the addition of oil would
  be apt to turn the whole quantity muddy, or of a bluish or opaque
  colour, which it cannot be easily freed from, without a second

  368. _Lavender Water, for immediate use._

  Mix with one gallon of proof spirit, 1¼ ounce of true English
  oil of lavender, which is all that will properly combine with the
  spirit, without injuring the colour, by rendering it muddy. When the
  spirit and the oil are properly mixed, they are to be put into glass
  bottles, which are to be well stopped, and ought to be shaken before

  369. _Perfumed Lavender Water._

  Distil by a gentle heat in a sand or water-bath; or, mix and shake
  frequently during fourteen days, the following ingredients:
          1 ounce of foreign oil of lavender,
          ½ ditto of English ditto,
          ½ ditto of essence of ambergris, and
          1 gallon of rectified spirit of wine.


  The peel of the lemon, the part used in making this water, is a very
  grateful bitter aromatic, and, on that account, very serviceable in
  repairing and strengthening the stomach.

  Take of dried lemon-peel, 4 lbs.
          proof spirit, 10½ gallons, and
          1 gallon of water.
  Draw off ten gallons by a gentle fire.


  Take of the herb of peppermint, dried, 1½ lbs.
          proof spirit, 1 gallon,
          water, sufficient to prevent burning.
  Distil off a gallon.


  Take of gentian-root, sliced, 3 lbs.; leaves and flowers of the
  lesser centaury, each 8 ounces; infuse the whole in 6 quarts of proof
  spirit, and 1 quart of water; and draw off the water till the feints
  begin to rise.


  Take of scurvy-grass, fresh gathered and bruised, 15 pounds;
  horse-radish root, 6 pounds; rectified spirit of wine, 1 gallon; and
  water three pints. Digest the whole in a close vessel two days, and
  draw off a gallon with a gentle fire.


  Take of the leaves of water-cresses, garden and sea scurvy-grass, and
  brook-lime, each 20 handsful; of pine-tops, germander, horehound,
  and the lesser centaury, each 16 handsful; of the roots of bryony
  and sharp pointed dock, each 6 pounds; of mustard-seed, 1½ pounds.
  Digest the whole in 10 gallons of proof spirit, and 2 gallons of
  water, and draw off by a gentle fire.

                             ACID LIQUORS.


  375. VINEGAR.

  Vinegar is used chiefly as a sauce, and to preserve vegetable
  substances; but it is employed externally when an over dose of
  strong wine, spirit, opium, or other narcotic poison has been taken.
  A false strength is given to it by adding oil of vitriol, or some
  acrid vegetable, as pellitory of Spain, capsicum, &c. It is rendered
  colourless by adding fresh burned bone black, 6 ounces to a gallon,
  and letting it stand for two or three days to clear.


  Mix cider and honey, in the proportion of 1 lb. of honey to a gallon
  of cider, and let it stand in a vessel for some months, and vinegar
  will be produced so powerful, that water must be mixed with it for
  common use.

  377. _Another Method._

  Scheele, a celebrated chymist, has recommended the following recipe:
  Take 6 spoonsful of good alcohol; to this, add 3 pints of milk, and
  put the mixture into vessels to be corked close. Vent must be given
  from time to time to the gas of fermentation. In the course of a
  month, this will produce very good vinegar.

  378. _Another._

  Put into a barrel, of sufficient dimensions, a mixture composed of
  41 wine pints of water, about 8 pints of whiskey, (_l’eau de vin de
  grain_) about 2 wine pints of yeast, and 2 pounds of charcoal, and
  place it in a proper situation for fermentation. At the end of four
  months a very good vinegar will be formed, as clear and as white as


  This is made from weak malt liquor, brewed for the purpose; its
  various strength is, in England, denoted by numbers, from 18 to 24.

  380. _Another._

  To every gallon of water put 1 lb. of coarse Lisbon sugar; let the
  mixture be boiled, and skimmed as long as any scum arises. Then let
  it be poured into proper vessels; and when it is as cool as beer,
  when worked, let a toast, rubbed over with yeast, be put to it. Let
  it work about 24 hours, and then put it into an iron-hooped cask,
  fixed either near a constant fire, or where the summer sun shines the
  greater part of the day; in this situation it should not be closely
  stopped up; but a tile, or something similar, should be laid on the
  bung-hole, to keep out the dust and insects. At the end of about
  three months (sometimes less) it will be clear and fit for use, and
  may be bottled off. The longer it is kept, after it is bottled, the
  better it will be. If the vessel containing the liquor is to be
  exposed to the sun’s heat, the best time to begin making it is in the
  month of April.


  Take any sort of wine that has gone through fermentation, and put it
  into a cask that has had vinegar in it; then take some of the fruit
  or stalks of which the wine has been made, and put them wet into an
  open-headed cask in the sun, with a coarse cloth over the top of it,
  for six days—after which put them in the vinegar, and stir it well
  about—then put it in a warm place, if in winter, or if in summer, put
  it in a yard in the sun, with a slate over the bung. When the vinegar
  is sour enough and fine, rack it off into a clean sour cask, and bung
  it up; then put it in the cellar for use. Those wines that contain
  the most mucilage are fittest for the purpose.

  The lees of pricked wine are also a very proper ingredient in vinegar.


  To each gallon of water add 2 lbs. of brown sugar, and a little
  yeast; leave it exposed to the sun for six months, in a vessel
  slightly stopped.


  Bruise the gooseberries, when ripe, and to every quart put three
  quarts of water; stir them well together, and let the whole stand for
  24 hours, then strain it through a canvas bag.

  To every gallon of liquor add 1 lb. of brown sugar, and stir them
  well together before they are put into the cask. Proceed in all other
  respects as before. This vinegar possesses a pleasant taste and
  smell; but raspberry vinegar, which may be made on the same plan, is
  far superior in these respects. The raspberries are not required to
  be of the best sort, still, they should be ripe and well flavoured.


  This is made in the same way as that from gooseberries, only pick off
  the currants from the stalks.


  To 15 quarts of water put 6 lbs. of brown sugar; let it boil ten
  minutes, and take off the scum: pour on it half a peck of primroses;
  before it is quite cold, put in a little fresh yeast, and let it work
  in a warm place all night; put it in a barrel in the kitchen, and
  when done working, close the barrel, still keeping it in a warm place.


  After making raisin wine, lay the pressed raisins in a heap to heat,
  then to each cwt. put 15 gallons of water, and a little yeast.


  The poorest sort of cider will serve for vinegar, in managing which
  proceed thus:—

  First draw off the cider into a cask that has had vinegar in it
  before; then put some of the apples that have been pressed into it,
  set the whole in the sun, and in a week or nine days it may be drawn
  off into another cask.—This is a good table vinegar.


  Take the skins of raisins after they have been used in making wine,
  and pour three times their own quantity of boiling water on them;
  stir them well about, and then set the cask in a warm place, close
  covered, and the liquor, in a week, when drawn off from its sediment,
  put into another cask, and well bunged down, will be a good vinegar
  for the table.


  When honey is extracted from the combs, by means of pressure, take
  the whole mass, break and separate it, and into each tub or vessel,
  put one part of combs and two of water; place them in the sun, or
  in a warm place, and cover them with cloths. Fermentation takes
  place in a few days, and continues from 8 to 12 days, according
  to the higher or lower temperature of the situation in which the
  operation is carried on. During the fermentation, stir the matter
  from time to time, and press it down with the hands, that it may be
  perfectly soaked. When the fermentation is over, put the matter to
  drain upon sieves or strainers. At the bottom of the vessels will be
  found a yellow liquor, which must be thrown away, because it would
  soon contract a disagreeable smell, which it would communicate to
  the vinegar. Then wash the tubs, put into them the water separated
  from the other matter; it immediately begins to turn sour; when the
  tubs must be again covered with cloths, and kept moderately warm.
  A pellicle, or skin, is formed on their surface, beneath which the
  vinegar acquires strength; in a month’s time it begins to be sharp;
  it must be left standing a little longer, and then put into a cask,
  of which the bung-hole is left open. It may then be used like any
  other vinegar.


  Suffer it to be repeatedly frozen, and separate the upper cake of
  ice, or water, from it.

  All vinegars owe their principal strength to the acetic acid they
  contain; but the vinegar of wine contains also tartar, a small
  portion of the malic acid, alcohol, and colouring matter; that of
  eider contains merely the malic acid, little or no alcohol, and a
  yellowish colouring matter.


  Dry an ounce of either of the above flowers, (except the orange
  flowers, which will not bear drying,) for two days in the sun; then
  put them into a bottle, pour on them a pint of vinegar, closely stop
  the bottle, and infuse 15 days in moderate heat of the sun. Vinegars
  of any other flowers, as tarragon, &c. may be made in a similar


  This is obtained from vinegar by distillation, rejecting the 4th or
  8th part that comes over first, and avoiding its acquiring a burnt

  Distilled vinegar is weaker than the common, but is used sometimes in
  pickles, where its want of colour is an advantage.


  Obtained from wood distilled in large iron cylinders for the
  manufacture of charcoal for gunpowder; when rectified it is used for
  all the purposes of distilled vinegar.


  Take of vitriol, calcined to whiteness, 1 lb.
          sugar of lead, 10 drachms,
  Rub together and distil.

  395. _Another_.

  Take of sugar of lead, 7 lbs.
          oil of vitriol 4½ lbs.
  Distil 2½ lbs. This is used to make aromatic vinegar.


  Take of honey, 4 lbs.
          very dry sand, 2 lbs.
  Mix and put into a vessel that will hold five times as much;
  distil with a gentle heat a yellowish acid water: this acid
  greatly encourages the growth of hair.


  Take of common salt, 3 lbs.
          manganese, 1 lb.
          oil of vitriol, 2 lbs.
          water, 1 lb.
  Distil, placing a sufficient quantity of water in the receiver.

  This spirit is of a pale greenish yellow, and scarcely heavier than
  water. It bleaches linen, straw, and takes out fruit spots, iron
  moulds, or ink marks.

                        MISCELLANEOUS BEVERAGES.



  Take of good Jamaica ginger, 2½ oz.
          Moist sugar, 3 lbs.
          cream of tartar, 1 oz.
          the juice and peel of 2 middling sized lemons,
          brandy ½ pint,
          good solid ale yeast, ¼ pint,
          water, 3½ gallons.

  This will produce 4½ dozen of excellent ginger beer, which will
  keep twelve months. Bruise the ginger and sugar, and boil them
  for 20 or 25 minutes in the water, slice the lemon and put it and
  the cream of tartar into a large pan; pour the boiling liquor
  upon them, stir it well round, and when milk-warm, add the yeast;
  cover it over, let it remain two or three days to work, skimming
  it frequently; then strain it through a jelly-bag into a cask, add
  the brandy, bung down very close, and at the end of a fortnight or
  three weeks, draw it off and bottle, and cork very tight; tie the
  cork down with twine or wire. If it does not work well at first,
  add a little more yeast, but be careful of adding too much, least
  it taste of it.


  Take, if white is intended, 6 lbs. of sugar; if brown, as much
  treacle, and a pot of spruce, and ten gallons of water.

  This is also managed in the same way as ginger beer, except that it
  should be bottled as soon as it has done working.


  Pour 8 gallons of cold water into a barrel, and then boiling 8
  gallons more, put that in also, add 12 lbs. of molasses, with about
  ½ lb. of the essence of spruce; and on its getting a little cooler,
  ½ a pint of good ale yeast. The whole being well stirred or rolled
  in the barrel, must be left with the bung out for two or three days;
  after which the liquor may be immediately bottled, well corked up,
  and packed in saw-dust or sand, when it will be ripe, and fit to
  drink in a fortnight.

  Remember, that it should be drawn off into quart stone bottles, and


  For a cask of six gallons, mix well together ¼ lb. of the purest
  essence of spruce, 7 lbs. of loaf-sugar made into a clarified syrup,
  and about 1½ gallons of hot water; and when sufficiently stirred
  and incorporated; put it into the cask, and fill up with cold water.
  Then add about a ¼ of a pint of good ale yeast, shake the cask
  well, and let it work for three or four days: after which, bung it
  up. In a few days it may be bottled off after the usual manner, and
  in a week or ten days it will be fit for use. If, on bunging it
  close, about ¼ of an oz. of isinglass, first dissolved in a little
  of the warmed liquor, or in cider, be stirred in, by way of fining,
  it will acquire a superior degree of clearness. In proportion to the
  coldness of the weather, the quantity of yeast should be increased.
  Some, instead of yeast, use ale or beer-grounds the first time of
  making, and afterwards the grounds of their former spruce beer. In
  warm weather, very little ferment is requisite.


  Take of water any quantity. Impregnate it with about ten times its
  volume of carbonic acid gas, by means of a forcing pump.


  Take of water 1 gallon,
          carbonate of magnesia, 3 drachms, and
          impregnate it as above.


  Take one ounce of subcarbonate of potass, and impregnate as above.

  405. SODA WATER.

  Take 2 ounces of subcarbonate of soda, and impregnate as above.


  Take of tartaric acid, ½ oz.
          loaf sugar, 3 oz.
          essence of lemon, ½ drachm.
  Powder the tartaric acid and the sugar very fine, in a marble or
  wedgewood mortar, (observe never to use a metal one) mix them
  together, and pour the essence of lemon upon them, by a few drops
  at a time, stirring the mixture after each addition, till the whole
  is added, then mix them thoroughly, and divide it into twelve equal
  parts, wrapping each up separately in a piece of white paper. When
  wanted for use, it is only necessary to dissolve it in a tumbler
  of cold water, and fine lemonade will be obtained, containing the
  flavour of the juice and peel of the lemon, and ready sweetened.


  To make good chocolate, put the milk and water on to boil;
  then scrape the chocolate fine, from one to two squares to a
  pint, to suit the stomach: when the milk and water boils,
  take it off the fire; throw in the chocolate; mill it well,
  and serve it up with the froth; which process will not take
  5 minutes. The sugar may either be put in with the scraped
  chocolate or added afterwards.

  It should never be made before it is wanted; because
  heating again injures the flavour, destroys the froth, and
  separates the body of the chocolate; the oil of the nut being
  observed, after a few minutes’ boiling, or even standing
  long by the fire, to rise to the top, which is the only cause
  this chocolate can offend the most delicate stomach.


  To have coffee _in perfection_, it should be made from the
  best production, carefully roasted, and after cooling for
  a few minutes, reduced to powder, and immediately infused;
  the tincture will then be of a superior description. But for
  common use, the coffee of our own plantations is, in general,
  of very good quality.

  In England, too little powder of the berry is commonly
  given. It requires about one small cup of coffee-powder to
  make four cups of tincture for the table. This is at the rate
  of an ounce of good powder to four common coffee-cups.
  When the powder is put in the bag, as many cups of boiling
  water is poured over it as may be wanted.

  Pour a pint of boiling water on an ounce of coffee; let
  it boil five or six minutes, then pour out a cupful two or
  three times, and return it again; put two or three isinglass
  slips into it; or a lump or two of fine sugar; boil it five
  minutes longer, set the pot by the fire to keep hot for ten
  minutes, and the coffee will be beautifully clear. A hot
  cream should always be served with coffee. For foreigners,
  or those who like it extremely strong, make only eight
  dishes from three ounces. If not fresh roasted, lay it before
  a fire till hot and dry; or put the smallest bit of fresh
  butter into a preserving-pan, when hot throw the coffee into
  it, and toss it about till it be freshened.

                               THE COOK.

On her first going into a family the Cook will do well to inform
herself of the rules and regulations of the house,—the customs of
the kitchen,—the peculiarities of her master and mistress,—and above
all, she must study, most sedulously, to acquire a perfect knowledge
of their TASTE; which, when attained, will most probably lead to her
permanent establishment in the sovereignty of the kitchen.

She will enter into all the economical plans of her employers, and
endeavour to make the most of every thing, as well for the sake of her
own character as for their interest. Not forgetting, that “wilful waste
makes woful want.”

She will consider the encomiums of her master and mistress as her
highest praise, and will accept even their admonitions as pleasing
proofs of their desire to make her useful to themselves, and to enhance
her own confidence and consequence.

The presidency of the kitchen being a situation of great trust and
responsibility, she will best evince her sense of the confidence
reposed in her by her anxiety to please, and a sedulous regard to the
health and comforts of the family, which are, necessarily, in her
keeping; governing her whole conduct by that most excellent moral maxim
“Do unto others as you would they should do unto you.”

To be well qualified for every situation, the Cook must not only
understand the business of the kitchen, but must be a good judge of
provisions, as in many families, where there is no housekeeper, she
will be required to go to market. She must also be able to keep an
account of the current expenses of the family; and to examine, check,
and pay the tradesmen’s bills, which she will have to settle with her
mistress weekly, or when required.

The Cook should give directions to her assistants to _rise early_,
particularly when a great dinner is to be dressed, that so every thing
may be got quite ready in the kitchen to begin business as early in
the morning as possible; else, nine times out of ten, the dinner will
be too late: and it must always be recollected that “things done in
a hurry are never well done,” and that, “an hour lost in the morning
may be run after the whole day, but never overtaken.” Besides, to have
every thing properly dressed, and to be punctual, as to time, with the
dinner, will afford great satisfaction to her employers, and do credit
both to them and to herself. Having learnt the precise time of dinner,
she must not fail to be _punctual_.

Cleanliness, in every branch of domestic concerns cannot be too
forcibly inculcated, and in the business of a Cook, particularly, it
becomes a CARDINAL VIRTUE. Cleanliness and neatness of person and dress
are not less important in her than the arrangement of the kitchen and
larder, and all her operations.


The boilers, saucepans, and other vessels, to be used for culinary
purposes, must be kept perfectly clean and well tinned. BLOCK TIN
saucepans, &c. are safest, and perhaps best for these purposes.—When
washed they should be dried by the fire, before they are put away;
and they should always be wiped out again, with a clean dry cloth,
immediately before they are used. This is to be done chiefly to prevent
rust, and its baleful effects.

Poultry, and every kind of meat, both fresh and salted, should be
washed and wiped dry, and then dredged well with flour, before it be
put into the boiler, or pot; this will prevent its being soiled in the
water, and will, also, prevent its looking greasy, when taken up.

Meat must always be put into _cold_ water, with _just enough water to
cover it_; say, about a quart of water to a pound of meat,—and it must
be kept _so covered_, during the whole process of dressing, by adding
boiling water occasionally.—By this method the inside will always be
heated thoroughly, and be properly swollen, before the outside becomes
hard; and the whole will be regularly done. This will, also, occasion
the meat to look plump; and veal and poultry, in particular, will be
the whiter and the better for it.

Beef loses about one-fourth, and mutton about one-fifth, in boiling.

A moderate fire must be kept up under the pot, increasing the heat
_gradually_, till it boils, when it must be drawn back, kept close
covered, and _constantly simmering, quite gently_, but by no means
boiling fast. A tea-spoonful of salt thrown into the water, before
it boils, will cause the scum to rise the better, which must be very
carefully skimmed clean off, immediately; and if, afterwards, a
little cold water be thrown in, more scum will be cast up, which must
frequently be taken off, _as it rises_, as on this alone depends the
good appearance of all boiled articles.

Remember—that water cannot possibly be made _hotter_ than it is when it
first boils; it is, therefore, a waste of firing, and very detrimental
to the meat to make it boil _fast_, as it is thereby rendered hard, and
its juices and finest flavour are evaporated in steam.

Generally, beef, mutton, and lamb, unless the joints are very thin, or
small, require boiling from a quarter of an hour to eighteen minutes
to a pound; lamb, veal, and pork, and _thick_ joints also, of whatever
kind, require somewhat longer, especially in _cold_ weather, or when
_fresh_ killed. A large leg of pork, for instance, will take a little
more time;—always reckoning from the time of its first coming to boil,
and taking into the account that the pot must _always be kept gently
simmering;—the slower the better, so that it be kept boiling_. If you
suffer boiled meats to remain in the pot after they are done, they
become soddened and lose their flavour.

                        _Examples in Boiling._

  _A Round of Beef._—After it has been carefully salted, and has lain
  in the pickle eight or ten days, wash it and wipe it dry; then cut
  out the bone, and skewer and tie it up tight and quite round. As soon
  as the pot boils skim it clean, and keep it boiling very gently, till
  done. The time will be according to its weight. Garnish with slices
  of carrot and turnip.


  If large, after it has been in salt eight or ten days, let it lie
  in cold water half an hour to make it white—weigh it, let it boil
  gently, allowing twenty minutes for every pound—skim it as soon
  as it boils, and often afterwards.—A small Leg of Pork is most
  delicate.—The liquor will make excellent peas-soup. Serve it up with
  peas-pudding and turnips.


  Put it in warm water for ten minutes, and wash it clean, then put
  it into the pot and cover it with water—let it _simmer very gently_
  and skim it carefully. A leg of ten pounds will take two and a half
  or three hours. Mutton, to be tender, should hang as long as it will


  Take a hen bird, pick nicely, singe, wash, draw the sinews of the
  thighs, and truss it. Make a stuffing of bread, herbs, salt, pepper,
  nutmeg, lemon-peel, a few oysters, or an anchovy, a bit of butter,
  some suet, and an egg, put this into the crop, fasten up the skin,
  and skim the pot most carefully to make it white. Serve with oyster
  sauce made rich with butter, a little cream, and a spoonful of soy
  or parsley and butter. Tongue, ham, or pickled pork, are the usual


  The legs, for boiling, should not be black.—Pick nicely, wash, singe,
  truss, and flour it—put it into boiling water, and _simmer gently_. A
  middling fowl will take forty minutes. Serve with parsley and butter,
  oyster, lemon, liver, or celery sauce.

  Neither parsley and butter, liver and parsley, celery, onion, caper,
  curry, nor other sauce should be poured over boiled meats, but sent
  up separately in a boat.


  All vegetables are best when fresh from the garden,—when dead they
  are useless. They are also in the greatest perfection when in the
  greatest plenty;—unripe vegetables are unwholesome.

_Greens_ must be carefully picked, neatly trimmed, washed _quite clean_
from vermin, and laid on a cullender to drain. Then, having ready a
well-tinned saucepan, with plenty of clean, soft, boiling water, into
which some salt has been thrown, and the scum taken off, plunge them
into it, boil them _quickly_, watch them, and keep continually pressing
them under the water with a fork as they rise; and when they begin to
sink of themselves, they are done, and must be taken up instantly, and
drained dry; for if over done, they will lose not only their crispness
and beautiful appearance, but their flavour also. Cabbages, savoys,
and turnip-tops, require that the water should be changed when _half
done_, the second water should be boiling, and if managed as above
directed, they will eat much the milder and sweeter for it. _This is
the whole art of dressing vegetables to look green and eat well._ We
therefore deprecate the use of those factitious and filthy expedients
recommended by some, and practised by many, to give, as they pretend,
a _good colour_, to boiled vegetables. _This is the best way_;—and all
artificial means ought to be avoided, as unnecessary and pernicious.

Esculent _roots_ of all kinds may be set on to boil in cold water.


Fish, particularly if large, must be put into cold water, with plenty
of salt; when ready, it will part from the bone; or it may be tried
with a fork, and must be taken out of the water the moment it is done.

If not immediately wanted, let it stay on the fish-plate, over the hot
water, and throw over it a clean cloth, dipped in boiling water, to
preserve its colour.

A sliced cod should be stewed fifteen minutes.

In all cases, dinner should be served up as soon as possible after it
is ready, because keeping the boiled articles, particularly fish, in
hot water, renders them vapid and heavy; and hot closets, covers, and
other means used to keep them hot, dry the juices and make them eat
strong and rancid.

Neither fish, nor vegetables of any kind, (except ripe potatoes,)
should be boiled by steam.

                        _Elements of Roasting._

CLEANLINESS must ever be the _maxim_ for the kitchen.

Before the spit is drawn from the meat, let it be wiped clean, and when
done with, let it be rubbed with a little sand and water.

A good brisk fire, due time, proper distance, and frequent basting, are
the chief points to be attended to in roasting.

Much depends on the fire;—it should always be _brisk_ and glowing,
clear at the bottom, and suited to the article to be roasted.

Beef and mutton lose about one-third in roasting.

The ashes should be taken up, and the hearth made quite clean, before
you begin to roast. If the fire require to be stirred during the
operation, the dripping-pan must be drawn back, so that then, and at
all times, it may be kept clean from cinders and dust.—Hot cinders, or
live coals, dropping into the pan, make the dripping rank, and spoil it
for basting.

Beef requires a strong, steady fire, which should be made up a little
time previous to its being wanted. If the meat has been hung up some
time, the dry outside parts must be pared off, and it must be basted,
first, with a little salt and water, then well dredged with flour, and
afterwards basted, continually, with the dripping; but, if the meat be
frozen, it must be brought into the kitchen several hours before it is
dressed.—Large joints should be kept at a good distance from the fire
at first, and gradually brought nearer and nearer;—the average distance
for a large joint, at a good fire, may be about ten or twelve inches,
an inch or two more or less, according to circumstances: when kitchen
paper, dipped in the dripping, must be tied, not skewered, over the fat
parts, to prevent their being scorched. When nearly ready, the smoke
will draw from the meat towards the fire; at which time the paper must
be taken off, and the meat must be put nearer to the fire to _brown_
it; it must also be sprinkled with a little salt, and well dredged
again, with flour, to froth it.

It is as necessary to _roast slowly_ as to _boil slowly_;—and the
_General Rule_ is to _allow full a quarter of an hour to a pound for
roasting_ with a proper fire, under ordinary circumstances, and with
frequent basting. But neither beef nor mutton require to be so well
done as pork, lamb, and veal.—Pork, in particular, requires to be
thoroughly done. It must be basted with salt and water; and the skin
or rind of the leg, loin, and spare-rib, must be scored, with a sharp
knife, after it has been some time at the fire, to make it eat the
better. Geese, pigs, and young pork, require a brisk fire, and should
be turned quickly.

Great care should be taken in spitting the meat, that the prime part
of the joint be not injured:—to balance it on the spit, cook-holds and
loaded skewers are very handy.

A BOTTLE JACK is an excellent substitute for a spit, _in small
families_, and for want of that, ten or a dozen yards of worsted,
folded to a proper length, will answer the purpose very well. Meat if
_hung_ to be roasted, should have its ends changed when about half
done. A good meat skreen, lined with tin, should always be set before
the fire when roasting; it keeps off the cold air, renders the heat
more equable, and saves coals.

After all, the above _General Rule_ is liable to many exceptions. If
the meat be _fresh killed_, or the weather be _cold_, a good joint
will require half an hour longer than if the meat be _tender_ and the
weather _temperate_ or _warm_.

We give the following particulars as a more certain guide to the Cook,
in most cases on this important point.

  BEEF.—_A Sirloin_ of about sixteen pounds, will take three hours and
  a half or four hours.

  _Ribs of Beef_, of nearly the same weight, being thinner, will
  require half an hour less.

  MUTTON.—_A Leg_ of eight or nine pounds, will take about two hours.

  _A Loin or Neck_, from an hour and a half to an hour and three

  _A Breast_, an hour and a quarter.

  VEAL requires to be managed as beef.

  _A Fillet_, of fourteen or sixteen pounds, will take five hours.

  (It must be placed at a distance from a strong fire _at first_, in
  order to be thoroughly soaked)

  _A good Loin_, will take full three hours.

  _A Breast_, from an hour and a half to two hours.

  _A Hind-quarter_, of eight pounds, about two hours.

  _A Fore-quarter_, of ten pounds, about two hours.

  _A Leg or Loin_, about an hour and a quarter.

  _A Breast_, three quarters of an hour.

  PORK, as it must be well soaked and well done, requires longer time,
  in proportion, than any other meat.

  _A Hare_ will require an hour, at the least, and care must be taken
  that both ends be done enough. It should be well basted; first, with
  a pint of milk, or salt and water, then floured and basted with
  butter; when half done, it should be cut between the shoulders and
  the neck, to let out the blood.

  _A large Turkey_, will require two hours roasting.

  _A smaller one_,—one hour and a half.

  _A small one_,—one hour and a quarter.

  _A Goose_,—one hour.

  _A large Fowl_,—about three quarters of an hour.

  _A middle sized Fowl_,—thirty or forty minutes.

  _A Capon_,—thirty or thirty-five minutes.

  _A Duck_,—twenty or thirty minutes.

  _A small Fowl or Chicken_,—twenty minutes.

  _A Partridge_,—twenty or twenty-five minutes.

  _A Turkey Poult_,—twenty minutes.

  _A Pheasant_,—fifteen minutes.

  _Wild Ducks, or Grouse_,—fifteen minutes.

  _Pigeons_,—fifteen minutes.

  _Quails_, and _small Birds_,—ten minutes.

  _Tame_ Fowls require more roasting than _wild_ ones.

  _Poultry_ should not be dressed in less than four days.

  All fowls must be well washed, and singed when put down to the fire,
  and they must be kept well basted with butter.

                        _Examples in Roasting._


  Wipe it clean and dry, and tie paper over the fat parts to preserve
  them. Baste it immediately with dripping, and frequently afterwards.
  Within the last half hour, sprinkle it with a little salt, baste it
  with butter, and dredge it with flour, and as soon as the froth has
  risen, dish it up. Garnish with horse-radish, scraped fine. If it
  weigh 15 lbs. or 16 lbs. it will require nearly four hours.


  Must be roasted in the same way. If fifteen or twenty lbs. they will
  take three hours and a half, more or less according to circumstances.


  Let it be well basted and frothed in the same manner as directed for
  the _Sirloin of Beef_. The time and dressing will be according to its


  Will take about three hours roasting. Paper the kidney, fat, and
  back, to preserve them.—Some will have it sent up with a toast to be
  eaten with the delicate fat of the kidney; brown it, and pour good
  melted butter over it. Garnish with slices of lemon and force-meat


  _The Hind-quarter._—The leg and loin are best dressed together;
  baste and froth it as directed for beef. Serve it up with green
  mint-sauce and a salad.

  The _Leg_, _Shoulder_, _Ribs_, _Loin_, _Neck_, and _Breast_ are all
  to be dressed, and served up, in the same way.


  _Turkeys_ and _Fowls_ are to be roasted by a clear brisk fire, in the
  same way as each other, only allowing time according to their size.
  In drawing Poultry care must be taken not to break the gall-bag. The
  sinews of the thighs of Turkeys and large Fowls should be pulled out,
  and they should be trussed with the legs outward.—Wash well, dry,
  singe, extract the plugs, and dredge before roasting.


  Stuff the _Goose_ with onion, sage, pepper, and salt, fasten it tight
  at the neck and rump, and then set it down to the fire, at first, at
  some distance, bringing it nearer by degrees.—Paste a slip of paper
  over the breast-bone, and when the breast is rising, take it off.
  Send a good gravy up in the dish; but first take a table-spoonful
  of made mustard, half a tea-spoonful of cayenne pepper, and three
  spoonsful of port wine; mix and pour it hot into the body of the
  goose, by a slit in the apron: this will wonderfully improve the
  stuffing, and is, as Dr. Hunter says, a secret worth knowing.

  _All poultry must be nicely drawn, picked, the plugs removed, and the
  hair carefully singed off with white paper, and then well washed and


We do not much approve of baking butcher’s-meat, as a substitute for
roasting it, though it cannot be denied that some articles may be baked
to answer nearly as well as if roasted; and when a great dinner is to
be prepared it may be convenient to send a dish or two to the oven,
but over these the cook can have no controul, and must, therefore,
depend entirely on the baker. The following are articles that may with
most advantage be baked, provided the meat be good and fat, and the
baker be very attentive:—A sucking-pig, goose, some joints of beef,
leg and shoulder of mutton, leg and loin of pork, fillet of veal, ham,
hare, sprats, and other small kinds of fish in pans, or jugs. To poor
families, however, the oven affords great convenience as well as a
considerable saving of expense and trouble.

Beef loses about one third of its weight by baking.


  Let it be prepared as for roasting; fasten buttered paper on its
  tail and ears to prevent their being scorched; and send with it a
  little butter, tied up in a bit of cloth, to baste its back with,
  occasionally, which the baker must be requested to do.


For this operation let the fire be _brisk_ and _clear_. The bars of the
gridiron must be bright at top and clean betwixt; wipe the gridiron
quite clean with a cloth, make its bars hot, and rub them with nice
mutton suet, before you lay on the meat. Set the gridiron slanting
over the fire, to prevent the fat dropping into it so as to occasion
a smoke, which must be prevented. We shall give as an example in this
branch of cookery,


  The steak should be cut from the middle of the rump, must be about
  half an inch thick, and have been kept till tender. Broil it _quick_,
  and turn it often, with steak-tongs, to keep in the gravy and make it
  a nice brown; it will be done in fifteen or twenty minutes. Having
  ready, before the fire, a warm dish, with a table-spoonful of catsup,
  and a little minced shallot or onion, lay the steak on it, rub it
  over with a little butter, and garnish the dish with pickles and
  horse-radish scraped fine.


Frying is, in fact, _boiling in fat_. Before you begin to fry, rub the
inside of the Frying-pan with a little fat, warm it and wipe it out
with a cloth, quite clean.—To fry fish, half fill the pan with fat,
olive oil, nice fresh lard, clarified drippings, or beef or mutton
suet;—but whatever fat be used let it be perfectly sweet, free from
salt, and nice and clean. Keep a _brisk_ fire, and make the fat _very
hot_, which may be known by its having done hissing. When ready,
carefully drain it quite dry before the fire.

We give the following as an example of _the best method of Frying_
SOLES, _and most other kinds of fish_:

Let them be quite fresh, and some time before you dress them, wash them
thoroughly, and wipe them with a clean cloth, quite dry.—If to be fried
with bread-crumbs, beat up an egg, the white and yolk together, quite
well, dip the fish in the egg, and cover them completely with grated
crumbs, and if you wish the fish to look still better, do them twice
over with egg. The fish, if large, may be cut into pieces, the proper
size for the table, otherwise they may be fried whole; when cut they
must be dished up as if whole. Let the fat in the pan be sufficient to
cover the fish, and when it _quite boils_, and begins to smoke, put
in the fish; it will be nicely browned in about five minutes, when it
should be turned, and fried just as long on the other side. When done
lay them on a soft cloth, before the fire, and turn them every two or
three minutes, till they are perfectly dry on both sides.

The fat in which any thing is fried will serve to fry the same kind of
thing several times.

                      _Broths, Soups, Stock, &c._

Cleanliness in this, as in every department of kitchen business, must
ever be held as the _leading principle_, and will contribute most to
the satisfaction of all parties.

An economical Cook, when she boils animal food, will make a rule to
convert the liquor, or broth, into some sort of _soup_ or _stock_,
which may be done at her leisure, and by which means she will always
have _a rich kitchen_, as it is technically called, and will be able
to make an _extra dish_, or an additional tureen of soup, at a short
notice, and at a trifling expense. The fragments of meat left after
dinner, with the trimmings of undressed meat and game, the heads,
necks, gizzards, and feet of fowls, &c. when picked and washed clean,
will help to enrich _soups_, or make _stock_, and save much expense in
gravy meat. The _broths_, if saved in separate pans, will assist in
making white or brown soups, and the gravies left in the dishes after
dinner, will be good in _hashes_, or, with some trifling ingredients
added, will make sauce for fish, goose, &c.

The liquor of a knuckle of veal may be converted into GLAZE, if boiled
with a knuckle of ham, till reduced to a fourth or a third part, with
the necessary herbs and spices added.

_To prepare Soups, &c._—the first care of the Cook will be to see
that the stew-pan to be used is well tinned, scalded, and wiped out
perfectly clean and dry. She will put some butter or marrow into the
bottom of the pan, then lay in a leg or shin of beef with the bones
well broken, and the meat cut to pieces; or the skirts of beef, the
kidney or melt, or the shank bones of mutton, well cleaned, with
the fragments and trimmings of meat and other articles, as above
mentioned;—these she will cover close and keep over a _slow fire_ an
hour, stirring it up, occasionally, from the bottom, and taking great
care that it does not burn.—When all the virtues of the meats are
extracted, and the juices are again absorbed by them, she will add
water enough to cover them, which will be in the proportion of about
a quart of water to a pound of meat, for soup, and to two pounds, for
gravies; the scum must then be carefully taken off, _quite clean_,
as it rises, after it has boiled; for the more soups and broths are
skimmed, the better, and more transparent they will be: and this
transparency, combined with their uniformity of taste, constitutes
their chief excellence. It is important that the soup be kept _gently
simmering_ five or six or more hours, and that then be added a scraped
carrot, a head of celery, a couple of onions, two turnips, and a few
sweet herbs;—when ready, let it be strained carefully through a clean
tamis, previously dipped in cold water, into stone or unglazed earthen
pans, and let the fat remain upon it, to preserve it, till wanted.

Soups and broths when done, ought not to be covered, nor put away with
vegetables in them.

Use _soft_ water to boil white peas, and let the peas be whole; but
_pump_ water will make green peas-soup of a better colour.

A good tureen of peas-soup may be made from the liquor of pork, mutton,
or beef.

The lean of hams or gammon of bacon should be used when _Stock_ is
made; but if the former, first give it a boil in water, before you put
it in, else it will turn the soup red.

The _sediment_ of gravies, &c. that have stood to be cold, should never
be used.

A clear jelly of cow-heels makes a great improvement to gravies and

A lump of clarified butter, thoroughly mixed with flour and boiled
with the soup will give it a richness and a greater consistency, if
required.—A little tarragon added, just before it is served up, will
give it an agreeable flavour.

All soups should be sent to table quite hot.

CULLIS, or _brown gravy_, is made with lean veal and ham or gammon, and
sweet herbs, &c.

BECHAMEL, or _white sauce_, is made in the same way, but is not
browned; it must be improved by the addition of equal quantities of
good broth and thick cream simmered with it half an hour, before it is
strained off.

The articles used in thickening, seasoning, and flavouring broths
and soups, are chiefly bread, flour, oatmeal, peas, rice, Scotch and
pearl-barley, isinglass, maccaroni, turnips, beet, carrots, mushrooms,
garlick, onions, shallots, cress, parsley, thyme, sage, mint, and other
sweet and savoury herbs; also allspice, cinnamon, cloves, mace, nutmeg,
ginger, pepper, lemon-juice, essence of anchovies, &c. these combined
with wine and mushroom catsup, form an endless variety for flavouring
and seasoning broths and soups.

Basil, savoury, and knotted-marjorum, are very pungent, and should be
used cautiously.

No Cook can support the credit of her kitchen without having plenty of
_gravy_, _cullis_, and _stock_ always at hand, as _these are the bases
of all soups and high-seasoned dishes_.

                         _Sauces and Gravies._

These are simple, and easily made.


  Almost every joint will afford trimmings enough to make plain gravy
  for itself, which may be heightened with a little browning.

  Or, half an hour before the meat is done, mix a little salt and
  boiling water, and drop it on the brown parts of the meat, which
  catch in something under, and set it by to cool; when the meat is
  ready, remove the fat, warm the gravy, and pour it into the dish.

  Or, the brown bits of roasted or broiled meat, infused a night in
  boiling water, and the next day just boiled up, and drained off, will
  make a good gravy.


  Make it of the trimmings and paring of the meat.

  Or pour as much of the liquor as may be necessary into the dish, and
  pierce the meat, on the under part, with a skewer.


  Cut two ounces of butter into small pieces, and put it into a pint
  saucepan, with a large tea-spoonful of flour, and two table-spoonsful
  of milk; when thoroughly mixed, add six table-spoonsful of water,
  shake it continually, over the fire, always the same way, till it
  simmers, then set it on, and let it just boil up, when it will be
  about the thickness of cream: if too thick to eat with vegetables,
  add a little more milk.

  _This is the foundation of almost all the sauces._

  Two table-spoonsful of mushroom catsup added to this instead of the
  milk, will make an excellent sauce for _fish_, _flesh_, or _fowl_,
  and particularly for _chops_ and _steaks_.

  If butter be oiled in melting, put in a spoonful of cold water and
  stir it with a spoon; or pour it forward and backward from the
  saucepan to the boat, till it is come again.


  Pare a lemon, cut it into thick slices, and divide these into small
  squares or dice, which mix with a quarter of a pint of melted butter.


  Wash and pick the parsley, very carefully, boil it ten minutes with a
  tea-spoonful of salt, in a little water, drain it, and bruise it to a
  pulp, then mix it by degrees with about half a pint of melted butter.

  N. B. Sauces of fennel, chervil, basil, tarragon, burnet, cress, &c.
  may be made in the same way.


  Pound three anchovies in a mortar with a bit of butter, rub it
  through a hair-sieve, with the back of a wooden spoon, and stir it
  into half a pint of melted butter.


  To a quarter of a pint of melted butter put a table-spoonful of
  capers, and nearly as much vinegar.


  Pound two cloves of garlic and proceed as with the anchovy sauce.


  Is made with three or four shalots pounded, and done in the same way.


  Is nothing more than pounded white sugar, melted over a slow fire,
  with a little butter and water, till it begins to smoke and turn
  brown, then diluted with more water, till about the consistence of
  soy, and afterwards boiled, skimmed, strained, and preserved in well
  corked bottles.

ALL PLAIN SAUCES, should taste only of the articles from which they
take their names.

In COMPOUND SAUCES the several ingredients should be so nicely
proportioned that no particular flavour should predominate.

Soy, walnut-peels, burnt treacle, or sugar, cayenne pepper, or
capsicums, chilies, vinegar, pickled herrings, anchovies, sardinias, or
sprats, are the bases of almost all the sauces to be found in the shops.

Never season too highly your sauces, gravies, or soups.

Cloves and allspice,—mace and nutmeg,—marjorum, thyme, and
savory,—leeks, onions, shalots, and garlic,—need not be mixed together
in the same preparation, when either of them will supply the place of
the others.

In short, Cooks now know, by experience, that a much less number of
ingredients are sufficient to give a finer flavour to sauces, &c. than
was formerly used; because, in this age of refined taste, we have
learnt to combine the _simply elegant_ with the _purely nutritious_.


These may be eaten at all seasons of the year; but they are most
wholesome in the spring, when green herbs, of all kinds, are in the
greatest perfection. They are, then, most efficacious, in cleansing,
sweetening, and purifying the blood. But, though Salads in the winter
act not so powerful as in the spring, yet, such as are to be had,
retain all the properties or qualities of their nature, and the warmer
kinds, in particular, being gentle, salutary, and most excellent
stimulants, are well calculated to warm the stomach, and exhilarate the

The following are the principal herbs, or vegetables, used in English
salads; viz.

  Beet Root,    Mint,                Small Salading
  Celery,       Onions,                which are
  Chervil,      Parsley,             Turnip,
  Chives,	Radish, Common,      Rape,
  Corn Salad,   ————–—, Turnip,      Salad Radish,
  Cucumber,     Shalots,             Mustard,
  Garlic,       Sorrel,              Garden Cress.
  Lettuce,      Water Cresses, and

Balm, Dandelion, Nettle Tops, Sage, Spinage Tops, and Tarragon, are
sometimes used.

Besides these, the French use many other articles as Salads, most of
which being warm, exhilarating, and antiscorbutic, contribute greatly
to their health and cheerfulness; viz.

  Balm,         Pennyroyal Tops,     Dandelion,
  Sage,         Tarragon,            Spinage Tops,
  Nettle Tops.

Salad herbs should be used fresh from the gardens; but if grown stale,
they must be refreshed in cold water. They must be carefully picked,
and washed clean, and then shaken in a clean cloth to dry.

The ingredients generally used in mixing Salads are eggs boiled hard,
and rubbed fine, oil, vinegar, mustard, pepper, and salt.

The adulteration of articles of provision is now so common, that
the Cook will do well to be guarded against such impositions, by
dealing with respectable tradesmen only.—The articles most frequently
adulterated are bread, tea, brown sugars, coffee, mustard, pepper, and
all other things that are to pass through the mill.

The Cook should take care to be amply provided with proper instruments,
and kitchen utensils of all kinds, without which she can do nothing
as it ought to be done. It will be necessary to have graduated glass
measures, such as the apothecaries use, divided into tea-spoonsful and
table-spoonsful,[14] and also graduated on their sides, according to
the following figures, in order to measure quantities of fluids with


  No. 1. represents a glass, calculated to measure any quantity from
  two drachms to eight ounces.

  No. 2. From one drachm to two ounces.

  No. 3. From half a drachm to one ounce.

  Note.—Sixty drops or minims make one drachm.]

Scales and weights should also be kept at hand, not only for weighing
heavy articles, such as butcher’s-meat, grocery, &c. but also such as
will weigh small quantities with accuracy. (_See the Appendix._)

_Before breakfast_, or as soon as possible _after_, the Cook having
seen that her assistants in the kitchen are getting forward all
things preparatory to the principal dinner, and having also given the
kitchen-maid directions for the servants’ dinner, her attention will
next be directed to

                             _The Larder._

The situation of the Larder should be dry, airy, and shady; it should
be well ventilated, and kept perfectly clean, cool, and free from
smells of all kinds.

The freezing point, or about 32° of Farenheit’s Thermometer, is the
most perfect temperature of the atmosphere for preserving animal food.

Moist and close weather is very bad for keeping meat, poultry, &c. A
southerly wind is also unfavourable;—and lightning will quickly destroy


A large SAFE, pierced with holes on every side, to be hung up in an
airy situation, would be a very valuable appendage to every Larder.

              _Management of_ BUTCHER’S MEAT, &c. _before
                            it is dressed._


_Management._—When the meat first comes in, trim it neatly and
carefully, by cutting out all the bloody parts and the fly-blowings,
if any; cut out also the kernels in the thick end of the sirloin, in
the fat of the rump, in the pope’s-eye, the thick fat of the buttock,
and wherever else they are to be found. Cut off the skirt under the
ribs, and as much of the suet from the sirloin and rump as will leave
them handsome for dressing. Cut off also the spare suet in the loins of
veal and mutton; and the spare fat of necks, or loins of mutton, makes
much lighter puddings than suet. Be careful also to take out the pipe
which runs along the chine-bone, and the pith which is in the back-bone
in the sirloin, rump, &c.; the whole should then be wiped dry,
all the holes filled up with salt, and the roasting pieces should be
sprinkled with salt and hung up till wanted. In winter, the boiling
meat, that is frozen, should be soaked in cold water, two or three
hours before it is dressed; but the best way to thaw a roasting joint
is to let it be in the warm kitchen several hours before it is put to
the fire.


The boiling pieces, if the weather permit, will be the better for
hanging a day or two before they are salted. In warm weather, it is
best to let them lie an hour, rubbing well every part that is likely to
be fly-blown, and then wiping them dry with a cloth, and having salt
ready, rub it into every part, taking care to fill the holes where the
kernels and skewers have been. Turn them and rub them well with the
pickle every day, and in three or four days they will be fit to dress,
if wanted. Wash all the boiling pieces before dressing; and its colour
will be the better for soaking; but never wash roasting joints before
they are dressed, as it robs them of their best juices and finest
flavour; it is, therefore, much better to wipe them well with a dry
cloth, and pare off the dry parts on the outside.


  _Management._—Examine and trim the several joints when they come in;
  take out the skewers and wipe all the parts dry, particularly round
  the kidney and udder; cut out the pipe that runs along the chine-bone
  in the loin and neck; take out the spine in the back-bone, and the
  kernels in the leg and the chump end of the loin, and cut off the
  skirt within the breast.


  _Management._—In warm weather, trim the meat as soon as it comes in,
  as directed for beef: cut out the kernels in the leg, the chine, and
  near the tail in the loin; cut out also the pipe that runs along the
  chine-bone, and take out the pith in the chine; cut off the skirt
  of the breast; wipe all dry with a clean cloth, and hang it up till


  _Management._—Lamb, whether in quarters or joints, should be managed
  like mutton and beef, as directed.


  _Management._—Examine and trim it, when brought in, as you do all
  other kinds of meat. Sprinkle the joints intended for roasting with
  a little salt, to improve their relish. Cut the joints intended for
  boiling into suitable pieces, and rub them well with salt as you put
  them into the salting-pan.


  _Management._—To prevent venison from tainting, take the kernel out
  of the haunch, wash the whole with vinegar and water, then wipe it
  quite dry, and dust it with ground ginger or pepper, to keep off the
  flies.—Thus managed, it may be kept a fortnight.

                   _General Business of the_ LARDER.

Joints of meat, game, &c. should be hung where there is a current
of dry air, till they are tender. If they be not kept long enough,
they will be hard and tough;—if too long, they lose their flavour.
Much loss is sustained by the spoiling of meat in warm weather; to
prevent which, as far as possible, it must be turned daily, end for
end, and wiped every morning and night, with a clean, dry cloth, to
free it and keep it from damp and moisture. If it be feared that any
of the ripe meat will not keep till wanted, it should be parboiled, or
part-roasted, by which means it may be kept a day or two the longer.
Pieces of charcoal should also be put over meat, and a plug of charcoal
put into the vents of fowls, &c. a string being tied round their necks.
Before dressing meat it must be well washed and wiped dry; except
roasting-beef, the dry outsides of which must be pared off. When meat
indicates the least degree of putridity it should be dressed with out
delay, else it becomes unwholesome. In the latter case, however, even
fish, as well as meat, may be reclaimed, by putting pieces of charcoal
into the water with it, when boiled or parboiled.—Tainted meat may
also be restored by washing it in cold water, and afterwards in strong
chamomile tea, and rubbing it dry with a clean cloth; after which it
may be sprinkled with salt, and suffered to remain till the next day,
if necessary.

In frosty weather all meat should be brought into the kitchen over
night, or at least several hours before it is to be dressed.

Early in the morning remove the cold meat into clean dishes; change
also, all the broths, soups, gravies, stock, cullis, &c. that require
it, into clean scalded stone-pans; and never leave any eatables in
copper or brass vessels, for if touched with salt or vinegar, or any
acid, and left wet, they will corrode and gather poison.

Turn and rub the meat that is in salt; after which let the Larder be
well scoured and cleaned out.

Dried meats, hams, tongues, bacon, &c. must be hung up in a cool, dry
place, otherwise they will become rusty.

Bread should be kept in an earthen pan, with a cover, to exclude the
air;—it should not be cut till it is a day old.

The vigilant Cook, having attended to the minutiæ of the LARDER, and
directed that the shelves and floor be well scoured and washed, and
every part made perfectly free from smells, will next, if it be in her
department, prepare to go to market, and consult her mistress or the
housekeeper accordingly.[15]

Having seen that all the marketing is properly disposed of,—the parlour
lunch, nursery and servants’ dinners getting forward, or got out of the
way, then commences the _principal_ preparations for the day.

In families where great dinners are seldom given, it will be better,
when it can be conveniently done, to make an arrangement, as to the
principal dishes, a day or two, or more, before hand. The Cook should
never quit her post, on such an occasion, as it requires not only great
skill but the utmost attention and exertion to send up the whole of a
great dinner, with all its accompaniments, in perfect order.

When there is an opportunity of getting forward the soups, sauces, and
made dishes, on the preceding day, it should, by all means, be done;
but if not, the soups, &c. should be forwarded early in the morning,
and while these are preparing, the joints of meat, cutlets, and other
articles should be trimmed, the poultry and game, &c. trussed and made
ready for dressing; the vegetables picked quite clean, trimmed, and
_well_ washed, and laid separate, in dishes or cullenders. The shalots,
onions, sweet-herbs, spices, &c. should also be prepared, and laid
quite at hand.

The _Bill of Fare_ being made out, and the hour of active operation
approaching, the clock must be consulted, and the different articles
prepared and laid to the fire, in succession, according to the times
they will take, that all may be ready in due time.—A scene of activity
now commences, in which you must necessarily be cool, collected, and
attentive.—Have an eye to the roast meat, and an ear to the boils,—and
let your thoughts continually recur to the rudiments of your art, which
at this moment must be called into practical requisition. You will
endeavour that every kind of vegetable, and of sauce, be made to keep
pace with the dishes to which they respectively belong—so that all may
go up stairs _smoking hot_ together, and in due order.

Let a clean cloth be laid on the kitchen-table, and with the _bill of
fare_ for your guide, if neither housekeeper nor the butler be present,
let the dishes, intended to be used, be placed on this table, exactly
as they are meant to stand on the table in the dining-room, and let
every article be taken off the table in the kitchen, by the footman,
and proper assistants, in regular order, by which means the butler
cannot fail to set them in their proper places above stairs.

In some families, the soups are sent up first; and next, after a few
minutes, the fish, then the removes, vegetables, sauces, and the whole
of the first course:—mean time the _entremets_, or second course, will
be dished and sent up, precisely in the same way. This would be done in
all families, at all times, were it not deemed necessary frequently to
sacrifice convenience, comfort, and every other consideration, at the
shrine of fashion and elegance of appearance.

When the dinner things are brought down, the meat must be removed into
clean common dishes; and as many things, such as fricandeaus, stews,
&c. may remain untouched, or can be made to do again, when tossed up
afresh, in different ways; they must be taken out of the gravies,
the garnish, &c. picked clean off them, and the meat put by in clean
dishes, and covered with thin slices of bacon. These gravies, and those
from the roast meats of different kinds, must all be saved in separate
stone pans, as all things of this kind serve to make a _rich kitchen_,
and may be converted or applied to various useful purposes. The soups
that are left should be strained through sieves to take out the bread
and other vegetable matters, which, if left in, would turn them sour.

What sweets are left, such as Blancmange, Jellies, &c. may be melted
and run into smaller moulds or shapes, and made to do again. Such
management as this is highly commendable in all families, as thereby
you are at all times provided for _extra visiters_.

Potted Meats, Collared articles, Anchovies, Oysters and other
shell-fish, mock Brawn, cold Hams, Tongue, Stewed Peas, Black Caps,
Sweets of various kinds, and some sorts of Tarts, should also be kept
ready for suppers and _extra occasions_.[16]

The kitchen fire being _reduced_, and made up for ordinary
occasions,—The dishes and every other article that has been used
in the course of the day, and particularly the _pots_, _kettles_,
_sauce-pans_, and other _culinary utensils_, being all scoured, and
made perfectly clean, dried, wiped out, and put in their proper
places;—the dressers and tables scoured down, and the whole kitchen
made quite clean and put into perfect order, the principal business of
the day may be considered at an end, as little more, of consequence,
will seldom be required on the part of the Cook, except what further
attention the LARDER, in hot weather, may demand, before she retires.

                            _Useful Hints._

With the utmost attention of the Cook, she can gain no credit, if she
send up more than one dish, with all its accompaniments, at a time, and
that as quickly as possible.

_Old_ meats do not require so much dressing as _young_, because they
may be eaten with the gravy in them.

_Pickled pork_ requires longer dressing, in proportion, than any other

Hashes and minces should be only _simmered_, if boiled, they become

Meat _hastily_ boiled or roasted is, thereby, made the more
indigestible, and its juices are wastefully extracted.

The warmer the weather, and the staler the meat, the less time it will
take in dressing.

When meat is _overdone_ it is spoiled, and the fault can never
be corrected;—when neither _overdone_ nor _underdone_ it is most
digestible and most nutritious;—and when thoroughly done, it eats short
and tender.

In dressing Meats, be as correct as possible as to quantities,
qualities, and time.

Meat that is not to be cut up till cold must be well done, particularly
in the summer time.

The greatest skill of the best cook will avail nothing, unless the
provisions are good.

The present taste is _simply to boil both carp and tench_; and serve up
with plain or savoury sauce, or rather, with Dutch sour sauce, which
does not destroy the flavour of the fish.

All fish should be sent up _as hot as possible_, and particularly the
sauces. In fact, _all sauces_ ought to be set on the table _quite hot_.

Essence of anchovies is a very good fish-sauce, alone—or otherwise.

To prepare meat in a _hot-bath_ is a most excellent mode of cookery; as
it makes it tender without the loss of its juices.

A conjuror or Papin’s digester is a very economical Utensil. It will
dress a steak deliciously, with the addition of a little catsup, or
with oysters, &c.—It boils water in a few minutes.

To keep meat hot, when done, take it up, set the dish over a pan of
boiling water, put a deep cover over it, and throw a clean cloth over

Broiled beef steaks, mutton-chops, &c. should always be sent to the
table _hot and hot_.

Whole peas are better than split peas for soup, in winter. It is a good
practice to steep them an hour or more in cold water, before they are

_Wines_ and _spices_ should not be put into _soups_, _stews_, &c. too
early, as the heat evaporates both the spirit and the flavour.

_Vermicelli_, when used in _soups_, &c. should not be suffered to
remain in it more than fifteen minutes, as it will become a paste.

Dripping will do as well as butter to baste any thing.

A small quantity of cream is better than flour and water, in melting

Much butter is not to be recommended on all occasions.

When the palate is become dull by frequent tasting, wash the mouth with
milk;—or eat an apple.

A bit of bread stuck upon the point of the knife with which you peel or
cut onions, will prevent their disagreeable effect on the eyes.

A kettle of water kept boiling, over a charcoal fire, will effectually
prevent its deleterious effects in the room.

COALS. Judicious Cooks will perform their culinary operations with
much less coal than those who erroneously conceive that the greater
the fire, the greater the dispatch. _Time_, rather than a fierce fire,
answers _best_ both for roasting and boiling meats.—Round coals are
best for use, and small coal should never be thrown on a weak fire,
as it will stop the progress of the air through the fire; and perhaps
extinguish it. But small coal, or culm, a little wetted, and thrown
at the back of a good fire, will become cinders or coke, and greatly
improve it.

All the ashes of the kitchen and other grates should be sifted, and the
cinders saved, to be used under the boilers in brewing and washing, or
in the ironing stove.

A simple and excellent contrivance for sifting cinders may be purchased
at the Ironmongers.

Omelets should be made to eat full and thick at the mouth. They should
be sent up quite hot, after dinner, and are wholesome, and great
favourites in most countries.

A little sugar much improves the taste of green peas.

Potted meats make excellent sandwiches.

Sandwiches should be neatly cut in mouthfuls, so as to be taken up with
a fork.


Do every thing in the proper time.

Keep every thing in its proper place.

Use every thing for its proper use.

Never use any boiling or stewing utensil, pot or pan, spit, cookhold,
spoon, ladle, or skewer, sieve, tammy or pudding cloth, jelly bag, net,
tape, or other kitchen article, that have not been well scalded or
washed with boiling water, and thoroughly dried.

                        _The Cook’s Catechism._

_Browning_    A preparation of white sugar, browned over the fire, and
                then diluted to the consistency of soy, for the purpose
                of colouring soups, gravies, &c.

_Bechamel_    A simple white gravy or sauce

_To Braize_   To stew over a slow fire

_Consommé_    A rich soup or gravy consumed over the fire to the
                consistency of a jelly, to be diluted and converted,
                when wanted, into soup

_Cullis_      A rich _brown_ gravy, made in various ways, according
                to the purpose for which it is intended

_Entrés_      Dishes for a first course

_Entremets_   Dishes for a second course

_Esculents_ } Animal or Vegetable food—any article that
_or Edibles_}   may be eaten

_Fricandeau_  A sort of Scotch collops

_Fricassee_   Fowls, rabbits, or other things cut to pieces and dressed
                with a strong white sauce

_Garnishes_   Articles laid round a dish by way of ornament, and
                generally, but not always, intended to be eaten

_Glaze_       A very rich sauce or gravy boiled to a thick substance,
                and preserved in pots, to be laid on with a long-haired
                brush, over high-seasoned dishes

_To Glaze_    To cover the outsides of hams, tongues, and all
                stewed dishes, with glaze or braize, to give them a
                rich appearance

_Harrico_     Veal, mutton, &c. stewed with vegetables

_Hot-Bath_    A pan or other vessel filled with water, and placed in
                a pot, which is kept boiling over the fire, for the
                purpose of scalding fruits, or preparing meats

_Maigre_      Soup, or any other dish, made without meat or gravy

_To Pass_     To dress a thing partially, by setting on, or shaking
                it over the fire for a short time

_Ragoût_      Or stewing or boiling meat or other articles, to preserve
                their juices

_To Sheet_    To line the inside of a dish with paste

_Stock_       A preparation from gravy meats, &c. always to be kept at
                hand, for the purpose of making soup or gravy

We have now initiated our honest candidate for culinary fame,
by regular and easy gradations, into the whole _arcana_ of the
profession,—taught her to judge of the natures and qualities of
provisions, and their comparative values;—the best seasons and methods
of purchasing, and of managing undressed animal and vegetable food;
and the general economy of the LARDER;—Have given her the plainest
elementary principles and precepts, and a few of the most simple
examples, for practice, in all the various branches of boiling,
roasting, baking, broiling, frying, &c.—the best methods of making
soups, gravies, sauces, and salads: and, lastly, the modern mode of
preparing _a good dinner, with all its most approved accompaniments_.
In fine, we have been anxious, not only to instruct the common cook in
the rudiments, and all the ordinary operations of her art, but how to
combine, both in principle and practice, the most elegant with the most
useful results; so as to enable her to please both the man of taste and
the man of temperance;—the economist and the epicure;—the whimsical
and the wise;—those who eat to live, and those who live to eat.—Under
the head Housekeeper, we have also given ample instructions for making
within the province of the cook. The whole comprises, as it were in
a nut-shell, a complete compendium of culinary knowledge, chiefly
valuable for its comprehensive brevity, and which, we trust, will be
found, by the ingenious practitioner, full as useful as many, more
elaborate volumes, professedly written on this subject _only_, and
published at not less, if not more than the whole price of this little

            _Dean Swift’s ironical directions to the Cook._

  Although I am not ignorant, that it hath been a long time since the
  custom began among people of quality to keep men cooks, and generally
  of the _French_ nation; yet because my treatise is chiefly calculated
  for the general run of knights, ’squires, and gentlemen both in town
  and country, I shall therefore apply to you, Mrs. Cook, as a woman;
  however, a great part of what I intend may serve for either sex: and
  your part naturally follows the former; because the butler and you
  are joined in interest; your vails are generally equal, and paid when
  others are disappointed; you can junket together at nights upon your
  own prog, when the rest of the house are a-bed; and have it in your
  power to make every fellow-servant your friend; you can give a good
  bit or a good sup to the little masters and misses, and gain their
  affections: a quarrel between you is very dangerous to you both, and
  will probably end in one of you being turned off, in which fatal
  case, perhaps, it will not be so easy in some time to cotton with
  another. And now, Mrs. Cook, I proceed to give you my instructions,
  which I desire you will get some fellow-servant in the family to read
  to you constantly one night in every week when you are going to bed;
  whether you serve in town or country, for my lessons shall be fitted
  for both.

  If your lady forgets at supper, that there is any cold meat in the
  house, do not you be so officious as to put her in mind of it; it is
  plain she did not want it; and if she recollects it the next day,
  say she gave you no orders, and it is spent; therefore, for fear of
  telling a lie, dispose of it with the butler, or any other crony,
  before you go to bed.

  Never send up a leg of a fowl at supper, while there is a cat or a
  dog in the house, that can be accused for running away with it: but
  if there happen to be neither, you must lay it upon the rats, or a
  strange hound.

  It is ill house-wifery to foul your kitchen rubbers with wiping the
  bottoms of the dishes you send up, since the table-cloth will do as
  well, and is changed every meal.

  Never clean your spits after they have been used; for the grease left
  upon them by meat is the best thing to preserve them from rust; and
  when you make use of them again, the same grease will keep the inside
  of the meat moist.

  If you live in a rich family, roasting and boiling are below the
  dignity of your office, and which it becomes you to be ignorant of;
  therefore leave that work wholly to the kitchen-maid, for fear of
  disgracing the family you live in.

  If you are employed in marketing, buy your meat as cheap as you can,
  but when you bring in your accounts, be tender of your master’s
  honour, and set down the highest rate; which, besides, is but
  justice, for nobody can afford to sell at the same rate that he buys,
  and I am confident that you may charge safely; swear that you gave no
  more than what the butcher and poulterer asked. If your lady orders
  you to set up a piece of meat for supper, you are not to understand
  that you must set it up all; therefore, you may give half to yourself
  and the butler.

  Good cooks cannot abide what they justly call fiddling work, where
  abundance of time is spent and little done: such, for instance,
  is the dressing of small birds, requiring a world of cookery and
  clutter, and a second or third spit, which by the way is absolutely
  needless; for it will be a very ridiculous thing indeed, if a spit
  which is strong enough to turn a sirloin of beef, should not be able
  to turn a lark; however, if your lady be nice, and is afraid that a
  large spit will tear them, place them handsomely in the dripping-pan,
  where the fat of roasted mutton or beef falling on the birds, will
  serve to baste them, and so save both time and butter: for what cook
  of any spirit would lose her time in picking larks, wheat-ears, and
  other small birds? Therefore, if you cannot get the maids, or the
  young misses to assist you, e’en make short work, and either singe or
  flay them; there is no great loss in the skins, and the flesh is just
  the same.

  If you are employed in marketing, do not accept a treat of a
  beef-steak and a pot of ale from the butcher, which I think in
  conscience is no better than wronging your master; but do you always
  take that perquisite in money if you do not go in trust, or in
  poundage when you pay the bills.

  The kitchen bellows being usually out of order with stirring the fire
  with the muzzle to save the tongs and poker, borrow the bellows out
  of your lady’s bed-chamber, which being least used, are commonly the
  best in the house; and if you happen to damage or grease them, you
  have a chance to have them left entirely for your own use.

  Let a blackguard boy be always about the house to send on your
  errands, and go to market for you on rainy days, which will save your
  clothes, and make you appear more creditable to your mistress.

  If your mistress allows you the kitchen-stuff, in return for her
  generosity take care to boil and roast your meat sufficiently. If she
  keeps it for her own profit, do her justice, and, rather than let a
  good fire be wanting, enliven it now and then with the dripping, and
  the butter that happens to turn to oil.

  Send up your meat well stuck with skewers, to make it look round and
  plump; and an iron skewer rightly employed now and then will make it
  look handsomer.

  When you roast a long joint of meat, be careful only about the
  middle, and leave the two extreme parts raw, which may serve another
  time, and will also save firing.

  When you scour your plates and dishes, bend the brim inwards, so as
  to make them hold the more.

  Always keep a large fire in the kitchen, when there is a small
  dinner, or the family dines abroad, that the neighbours, seeing the
  smoke, may commend your master’s house-keeping: but when much company
  is invited, then be as sparing as possible of your coals, because a
  great deal of the meat, being half raw, will be saved, and serve next

  Boil your meat constantly in _pump_ water, because you must sometimes
  want river or pipe water; and then your mistress, observing your meat
  of a different colour, will chide you when you are not in fault.

  When you have plenty of fowls in the larder, leave the door open, in
  pity to the poor cat, if she be a good mouser.

  If you find it necessary to go to market in a wet day, take out your
  mistress’s cloak, to save your clothes.

  Get three or four chair-women to attend you constantly in the
  kitchen, whom you pay at small charges, only with the broken meat, a
  few coals, and all the cinders.

  To keep troublesome servants out of the kitchen, always leave the
  winder sticking on the jack, to fall on their heads.

  If a lump of soot falls into the soup, and you cannot conveniently
  get it out, stir it well, and it will give the soup a high French

  If you melt your butter to oil, be under no concern, but send it up;
  for oil is a genteeler sauce than butter.

  Scrape the bottoms of your pots and kettles with a silver spoon, for
  fear of giving them a taste of the copper.

  When you send up butter for sauce, be so thrifty as to let it be half
  water; which is also much wholesomer.

  If your butter, when it is melted, tastes of brass, it is your
  master’s fault, who will not allow you a silver saucepan; besides,
  the less of it will go the farther, and new tinning is very
  chargeable: if you have a silver saucepan, and the butter smells of
  smoke, lay the fault upon the coals.

  Never make use of a spoon in any thing that you can do with your
  hands, for fear of wearing out your master’s plate.

  When you find that you cannot get dinner ready at the time appointed,
  put the clock back, and _then it may be ready to a minute_.

  Let a red-hot coal now and then fall into the dripping-pan; that the
  smoke of the dripping may ascend, and give the roast meat a high

  You are to look upon the kitchen as your dressing room; but you are
  not to wash your hands, till you have gone to the Privy, and spitted
  your meat, trussed your fowl, picked your salad, nor indeed till
  after you have sent up your second course: for your hands will be ten
  times fouler with the many things you are forced to handle; but when
  your work is over, one washing will serve for all.

  There is but one part of your dressing that I would admit while the
  victuals are boiling, roasting, or stewing; I mean, the combing your
  head, which loseth no time, because you stand over your cookery, and
  watch it with one hand, while you are using the comb with the other.

  If any of the combings happen to be sent up with the victuals, you
  may safely lay the fault upon any of the footmen that hath vexed you:
  as those gentlemen are sometimes apt to be malicious, if you refuse
  them a sop in the pan, or a slice from the spit, much more when you
  discharge a ladle-full of hot porridge on their legs, or send them up
  to their masters with a dish-clout pinned at their tail.

  In roasting and boiling, order the kitchen-maid to bring none but the
  large coals, and save the small ones for the fires above stairs: the
  first are properest for dressing meat; and when they are out, if you
  happen to miscarry in any dish, you may fairly lay the fault upon
  the want of coals; besides, the cinder-pickers will be sure to speak
  ill of your master’s house-keeping, where they do not find plenty of
  large cinders mixt with fresh large coals: thus you may dress your
  meat with credit, do an act of charity, raise the honour of your
  master, and sometimes get share of a pot of ale for your bounty to
  the cinder-woman.

  As soon as you have sent up the second course, you have nothing to do
  (in a great family) until supper: _therefore_ scour your bands and
  face, put on your hood and scarf, and take your pleasure among your
  cronies, till nine or ten at night—but dine first.

  Let there be always a strict friendship between you and the butler,
  for it is both your interests to be united: the butler often wants a
  comfortable tit-bit, and you much oftener a cool cup of good liquor.
  However, be cautious of him, for he is sometimes an inconstant lover;
  because he hath great advantage to allure the maids with a glass of
  sack, or white-wine and sugar.

  When you roast a breast of veal, remember your sweet-heart the butler
  loves a sweet-bread; therefore set it aside till evening; you can
  say, the cat or the dog has run away with it, or you found it tainted
  or fly-blown; and besides, it looks as well at the table without it.

  When you make the company wait long for dinner, and the meat be
  over-done, which is generally the case, you may lawfully lay the
  fault upon your lady, who hurried you to send up dinner, that you was
  forced to send it up too much boiled or roasted.

  If your dinner miscarries in almost every dish, how could you help
  it? You were teazed by the footmen coming into the kitchen; and to
  prove it true, take occasion to be angry, and throw a ladle-full
  of broth on one or two of their liveries; besides _Friday_ and
  _Childermas-day_ are two cross days in the week, and it is impossible
  to have good luck on either of them; therefore on those two days you
  have a lawful excuse.

  When you are in haste to take down your dishes, tip them in such a
  manner, that a dozen will fall together upon the dresser, just ready
  for your hand.

  To save time and trouble, cut your apples and onions with the _same
  knife_; well-bred gentry love the taste of an onion in every thing
  they eat.

  Lump three or four pounds of butter together with your hand; then
  dash it against the wall just over the dresser, so as to have it
  ready to pull by pieces as you have occasion for it.

  If you have a silver sauce-pan for the kitchen use, let me advise
  you to batter it well, and keep it always black; this will be for
  your master’s honour; for it shews there has been constant good
  house-keeping: and make room for the sauce-pan by wriggling it on the
  coals, &c.

  In the same manner, if you are allowed a large silver spoon for the
  kitchen, let half the bowl of it be worn out with continual scraping
  and stirring; and often say merrily, this spoon owes my master no

  When you send up a mess of broth, water-gruel, or the like, to your
  master in a morning, do not forget, with your thumb and two fingers,
  to put salt on the side of the plate; for if you make use of a spoon,
  or the end of a knife, there may be danger that the salt would fall,
  and that would be a sign of ill luck. Only remember to lick your
  thumb and fingers clean, before you offer to touch the salt.

In this satire, much useful instruction is conveyed, and many faults
exposed which could not be so well noticed in any other form. A
valuable servant will, of course, not lay herself open to the Dean’s

Above all things, a cook should avoid all cruelty, and no custom or
usage should be an excuse for any practices, by which living and
sensitive creatures are to be put to wanton and unnecessary torture.


  N.B. In the previous article it has not been attempted to give a
  detailed system of cookery, which alone would have filled a volume;
  but the object has been so to condense as to give the substance
  of the art in a few general rules, applicable to all cases, and
  therefore more useful than detailed instructions, for, applied with
  good sense, they cannot fail to make a COMPLETE COOK.

                    THE KITCHEN-MAID, OR UNDER COOK.

Cleanliness must be considered as the _first and leading principle_ of
the kitchen-maid, as well as of the head cook and all other persons in
any way employed in the business of the kitchen.

This servant has, in many families, the hardest place in the house. It
is her business, under the superintendance of the cook, to take nearly
the whole management of roasting, boiling, and otherwise dressing all
plain joints and dishes, and all the fish and vegetables.—She is also,
if there be no _scullion_, to keep the _kitchen_, _larder_, _scullery_,
all the _kitchen utensils_, and every thing belonging to it perfectly
clean,—in the best possible condition, and always fit for use. On the
due performance of this important part of her business mainly depends
the credit and character, not of herself only, but of the cook also; it
therefore behoves the cook to see it properly done.

The kitchen-maid must always rise betimes, light the kitchen fire,
and set on water to be heated for all the purposes of the family, the
first thing she does.—She next scours the dressers and shelves, and the
kitchen tables, with soap and sand, and hot water; and cleans up the
kitchen: she then clears out and cleans the housekeeper’s room, the
hall and passages, the front door, and area steps, the larder, and the
butler’s pantry; in doing which, the scullion (if there be one kept)
takes the dirtiest and most laborious part. She then prepares the
breakfasts in the housekeeper’s room, and the servants’-hall. These
things, if she be active, she will have accomplished before the cook
begins to require her attention and attendance in the larder, in the
furtherance of the culinary preparations; to which, however, she must
have an eye, even from her earliest rising, particularly to the soups
and other things, that require a long time to prepare.

After breakfast, if not before, the cook will require her assistance
in the larder, and afterwards for the remainder of the day she will
be occupied in the kitchen, under the direction of the cook; first,
in preparing for the servants’ dinner, the dinner in the nursery, or
elsewhere, and the lunch in the parlour; next in helping to get ready
the family dinner; then in washing up and clearing away every thing,
and cleaning up the kitchen; and lastly, in setting out and preparing
the supper, either hot or cold, for the servants.

As the kitchen-maid generally fills her situation with the view of
becoming a cook, at a future day, it behoves her to read with attention
the foregoing _Directions to the Cook_, which contain the rudiments of
the art, and which, if she attentively study, and practically apply,
will enable her to attain such a proficiency in her business, as will
render her a valuable acquisition to her future employers. [Wages from
12 to 14 guineas per year.]

Having given a full and adequate sketch of the theory and leading
principles of the culinary art, and exemplified them in the practical
duties of the cook and kitchen-maid, we shall conclude the subject
with a brief outline of the duties of their humble and laborious

                    THE SCULLION, OR SCULLERY-MAID.

It is the business of this servant to light the fires in the kitchen
range, and under the copper or boilers, and stew-holes—to wash up all
the plates and dishes—scour and clean all the sauce-pans, stew-pans,
kettles, pots, and all other kitchen utensils; and to take care that
all the latter are _always kept clean_, _dry_, and _fit for use_. She
is to assist the kitchen-maid in picking, trimming, washing and boiling
the vegetables, cleaning the kitchen and offices, the servants’-hall,
housekeeper’s room, and steward’s room; and to clean the steps of
the front door and the area. She makes the beds for the stable
men—and generally fetches, carries, and clears away for the cook and
kitchen-maid, and otherwise assists in all the laborious parts of the
kitchen business, [Wages from 8 to 12 guineas a year.]


  Mix a little of the finest whiting, free from sand, with the smallest
  drop of sweet oil; rub the outside well and wipe it clean, with
  clean, dry soft linen rags.—Do the same to the inside, but wet with
  water, not oil:—always wiping these articles dry immediately after
  using them, and drying them by the fire, prevents their rusting, and
  saves much trouble in cleaning them.

                            THE LADY’S MAID.

The business of the lady’s-maid is extremely simple, and but little
varied. She is generally to be near the person of her lady; and to be
properly qualified for her situation, her education should be superior
to that of the ordinary class of females, particularly in needle-work,
and the useful and ornamental branches of female acquirements. To be
peculiarly neat and clean in her person and dress, is better than
to be tawdry or attractive, as intrinsic merit is a much greater
recommendation than extrinsic appearance. In her temper she should
be cheerful and submissive, studying her lady’s disposition, and
conforming to it with alacrity. A soft and courteous demeanour will
best entitle her to esteem and respect. In fine, her character should
be remarkable for industry and moderation,—her manners and deportment,
for modesty and humility—and her dress, for neatness, simplicity, and

It will be her business to _dress_, _re-dress_, and _undress_ her
lady; and, in this, she should learn to be perfectly _au fait_ and
expeditious, ever studying, so far as it depends on herself, to
manifest good taste, by suiting the ornaments and decoration of her
dress to the complexion, habits, age, and general appearance of her
person. Thus will she evince her own good sense, best serve her
lady, and gratify all those who are most interested in her welfare
and happiness. She should always be punctual in her attendance,
and assiduous in her attention. Her’s will be the care of her
lady’s _wardrobe_, and she should make that her _particular_ care;
appropriating to each article of dress its proper place, where it
always may be found when wanted. It will be her business carefully
to examine every part of her dress, when taken off, and if they have
sustained an injury, or acquired any spots or stains, immediately to
clean and repair them;[17] then fold them up neatly, and put them away.

Her first business, in the morning, will be to see that the house-maid
has made the fire, and properly prepared her lady’s dressing-room:—she
then calls her mistress, informs her of the hour, and having laid out
all her clothes, and carried her _hot water_, to wash, she retires to
her breakfast with the house-keeper and other principal servants. When
her lady’s bell rings, she attends her in her dressing-room,—combs her
hair for the morning, and waits on her till dressed; after which, she
folds and puts away her night-clothes, cleans her combs and brushes,
and adjusts her toilet-table:—she then retires to her work-room, to be
ready if wanted, and employs herself in making and altering dresses,
millinery, &c. About one o’clock the family generally take their lunch,
and the servants their dinner.—After this, she is again summoned to
attend her lady’s toilet whilst dressing to go abroad. When gone, she
again adjusts her clothes, and every thing in the room, and lays out
and prepares the several articles that may be required for her dinner,
or evening dress, and afterwards employs herself at needle-work in her
own room, or in her other avocations, till her mistress returns to
dress for dinner, perhaps about five, when she attends her for that
purpose; and having done this, it may happen that no further attendance
on her mistress’ person will be required till she retires to bed:
meanwhile she employs herself at needle-work, as in the morning[18]—or
else in the various occupations of getting up the fine linen, gauzes,
muslins, cambrics, laces, &c. washing silk stockings, taking the spots
or stains out of silks, &c. &c. for doing which the best receipts are

It is her business to see that the house-maid, or chamber-maid, empties
the slops, keeps up the fires, both in this and the bed-room, (if
wanted) and keeps the rooms in perfect order.—Previous to her mistress’
retiring for the night, she will have looked out her night-clothes,
and aired them well; and she will, not only now, but at all times when
she goes to dress, carry up _hot water_, for washing, &c. and when she
is gone to bed, she will carefully examine all her clothes, and do all
that is necessary to be done to them, before she folds them away. If
her lady be elderly, infirm, or unwell, she will sometimes be required
to bring her work, and sit with her, to administer her medicines, and
sometimes to read to her. To qualify herself for this latter purpose,
and to acquit herself with propriety, she will, at her leisure,
practise reading aloud, from the best authors; as it is important to
acquire a proper style and manner of reading, in all the varieties of
poetry or prose, ode or epistle, comedy, or sermon; avoiding, alike,
the dull monotony of the school girl, and the formal affectation of the
pedant; but following nature as her guide, in all that appertains to
emphasis, modulation, and delivery.

If acquainted with the superior branches of needle-work, she might
afford her lady much gratification, in presenting her, occasionally,
with such trifles as will be acceptable, and suitable ornaments for her
person.—This will evince her disposition to be grateful and to oblige;
and this, combined with a feminine sweetness of temper, and suavity
of manners, cannot fail to be her sure recommendation to the esteem
of her superiors and others, through all the various circumstances of
life.—Wages, from 18 to 25 guineas per annum, with tea and washing.

As the duties of the lady’s-maid include the personal ornament, dress,
and decoration of her mistress, we have availed ourselves of a work
recently published, under the title of “_The Art of Beauty_,” and
in the subsequent pages have introduced some important receipts and
observations from that work; together with various approved receipts on
other points of the lady’s-maid’s duty.


  Take one ounce of bitter almonds,
        one ounce of barley flour,
        a sufficient quantity of honey.
  Beat the whole into a smooth paste, spread it thinly on the
  skin at night, and wash it off in the morning.

  The skin being thus prepared for the chemical remedies, you may
  select any of the following, or try them in succession.


  Take one drachm of muriatic acid,
       half a pint of rain water,
       half a tea spoonful of spirit of lavender.
  Mix, and apply it two or three times a day to the freckles,
  with a bit of linen, or a camel-hair pencil.


  Take one tea-spoonful of liquor of potass,
       two ounces and a half of pure water,
       a few drops of eau de Cologne.
  Mix, and apply as before.


  Take a tea-cupful of soured milk, cold,
       scrape into it a quantity of horse-radish.
  Let this stand from six to twelve hours, and strain, when it
  may be used to wash the parts affected, twice or thrice a day.


  Take two drachms of borax,
       one drachm of Roman alum,
       one drachm of camphor,
       half an ounce of sugar candy,
       a pound of ox-gall.
  Mix, and stir well for ten minutes, or so, and repeat this stirring
  three or four times a day for a fortnight, till it appears clear
  and transparent. Strain through blotting paper, and bottle up for
  use. Wash the face with it every time you go into the sunshine.


  Dip a bunch of green grapes in
      a basin of water, and then sprinkle it with
      alum and salt, powdered and mixed.
  Wrap it in paper, and bake it under hot ashes. Then express
  the juice, and wash the face with it, and it will remove
  sunburn, tan, and freckles.


  Put two spoonsful of sweet cream into
      half a pint of new milk, squeeze into it
      the juice of a lemon, add
      half a glass of good brandy, and
      a little alum, and loaf sugar.
  Boil the whole, skim it well, and when cool, put it aside for use.


  This sort is very common and very annoying to females, from the
  age of fourteen and upwards, as they give the skin a dirty greasy
  appearance, which no washing will remove. The vulgar opinion that
  such pimples are caused by worms or grubs, is quite erroneous. The
  best means of removing the worm pimple, is by squeezing out all the
  thickened matter of each; for, unless you do this, it is impossible
  to get rid of them, as no wash nor other application will remove
  them, nor will they ever disappear of their own accord. Several
  things may be useful in preventing their return. Of these, the Roman
  balsam, is a safe and excellent application, and daily rubbing the
  parts very gently with a soft glove, or with the warm hand.


  In this species, the pimples appear singly, and are not very
  numerous, and the intermediate skin is unaffected. They are most
  liable to appear upon the cheeks, nose, and forehead, though they
  sometimes spread over the shoulders and upper part of the breast.
  Gowland’s Lotion, Kalydor, Cold Cream, and all such nostrums, ought
  to be used with great caution, but prefer the three following.


  Break one ounce of sulphur, and pour over it
        one quart of boiling water.
  Allow it to infuse for twelve or fourteen hours, and apply it to
  the face twice or thrice a day, for a few weeks. It is excellent
  for removing the roughness of the skin which usually succeeds


  Take half a drachm of liquor of potass,
       three ounces of spirit of wine.
  Apply to the pimples with a camel’s-hair pencil. If this be too
  strong, add one half pure water to it.


  Take six drachms of mercury,
       six grains of flour of sulphur,
       two ounces of hog’s lard.
  Mix them carefully in a mortar.


  The pimples, even when they do not suppurate, but especially while
  they continue highly red, are always sore and tender to the touch; so
  that washing, the friction of the clothes, &c. are somewhat painful.
  In its most severe form, this eruption nearly covers the face,
  breast, shoulders, and top of the back, but does not extend lower
  than an ordinary tippet in dress.

  Mr. Plumbe recommends the pimples to be pricked with a needle or a
  lancet, in order to irritate them, and spur them on to suppuration.
  When this has been accomplished, the matter is to be squeezed out,
  and if any blueness or hardness remain, sponge the part slightly,
  three or four times a day, with the following lotion.

  Dissolve two grains and a half of oxymuriate of mercury in
           four ounces of spirit of wine.
  Keep it in a close-stopped phial for use.


  A careful examination of the parts, in the earlier stages of the
  disease, will, in most cases, lead to the detection of small and
  deep-seated collections of matter, which, upon being let out with
  a needle, or the point of a lancet, will cause the swelling and
  redness of the skin to disappear; and, if the fomentations of warm
  water, and frictions with mild soap and a soft brush be persevered
  in, along with plain diet, and abstinence from high-seasoned dishes,
  pickles, cayenne, mustard, and strong liquors, a cure may, in time,
  be effected.


  Take two ounces of the juice of onions, the same quantity of the
  white lily, the same of Narbonne honey, and an ounce of white wax;
  put the whole into a new earthen pipkin till the wax is melted;
  take the pipkin off the fire, and, in order to mix the whole well
  together, keep stirring it with a wooden spatula till it grows quite
  cold. You will then have an excellent ointment for removing wrinkles.
  It must be applied at night, on going to bed, and not wiped off till
  the morning.


  Take the second water of barley, and strain it through a piece of
  fine linen; add a few drops of balm of Mecca; shake the bottle for a
  considerable time, till the balm is entirely incorporated with the
  water, when it will assume a somewhat turbid and whitish appearance.

  This is an excellent wash for beautifying the face, and preserving
  the freshness of youth. If used only once a day, it takes away
  wrinkles, and gives surprising brilliancy to the skin. Before it is
  applied, the face ought to be washed with rain-water.


  The temporary removal of disagreeable perspiration in the hands or
  the feet, may sometimes be useful. The hands may be dipped in cold
  water, and if rose-water is at hand, it will be still better. Washing
  the hands with the infusion, or the tincture of galls, or oak bark,
  into which a little eau de Cologne, or any other perfume, may be
  put, is an excellent application of the same kind in bad cases. With
  respect to the feet, dusting them with very fine powder of galls, or
  of alum, or, what is, perhaps, still better, soaking the stockings
  with any perfumed soap till they are quite saturated, and then
  allowing them to dry thoroughly before putting them on, may be safely
  and effectually tried.


  Females of fair complexion ought to wear the purest white; they
  should choose light and brilliant colours, such as rose, azure, light
  yellow, &c. These colours heighten the lustre of their complexion,
  which if accompanied with darker colours, would frequently have the
  appearance of alabaster, without life and without expression.

  On the contrary, women of a dark complexion, who dress in such
  colours as we too frequently see them do, cause their skin to appear
  black, dull, and tanned. They ought, therefore, to avoid wearing
  linen or laces of too brilliant a white; they ought to avoid white
  robes, and rose-colour, or light-blue ribbons, which form too
  disagreeable a contrast with their complexions.

  Fair women cannot be too careful to correct, by light colours, the
  paleness of their complexions; and dark women, by stronger colours,
  the somewhat yellow tint of their complexion.

  Crimson is extremely handsome at night, when it may be substituted
  for rose-colour, which loses its charms by candle-light; but this
  crimson, seen by day, spoils the most beautiful complexion; no colour
  whatever strips it so completely of all its attractions. Pale yellow,
  on the contrary, is often very handsome by day, and is perfectly
  suited to people who have a fine complexion; but at night it appears
  dirty, and tarnishes the lustre of the complexion, to which it is
  designed to add brilliancy.

  Green is the only colour which should be worn as a summer veil.


  The vegetable substances which furnish rouge, are red sandal-wood,
  root of orchanet, cochineal, Brazil wood, and especially the bastard
  saffron, which yields a very beautiful colour, when it is mixed with
  a sufficient quantity of talc. Some perfumers compose vegetable
  rouge, for which they take vinegar as the excipient. These reds are
  liable to injure the beauty of the skin; it is more advisable to
  mix them with oily or unctuous matter, and to form salves. For this
  purpose, you may employ balm of Mecca, butter of cacao, spermaceti,
  oil of bhen, &c.

  The red powders, above described, are best put on by a fine
  camel-hair pencil. The colours in the dishes, wools, and green
  papers, are commonly laid on by the tip of the little finger,
  previously wetted.

  The Spanish wool, the papers, and the English-made Portuguese dishes,
  are all made from a moss-like drug, from Turkey, called safflower,
  well known to scarlet dyers, &c.


  White paints are extracted from minerals, more or less pernicious,
  but always corrosive. They affect the eyes, which swell and inflame,
  and are rendered painful and watery. They change the texture of the
  skin, on which they produce pimples, and cause rheums; attack the
  teeth, make them ache, destroy the enamel, and loosen them.


  Take a piece of the talc white, known by the name of Briançon chalk;
  choose it of a pearl grey colour, and rasp it gently with a piece of
  dog’s skin; after this, sift it through a sieve of very fine silk,
  and put this powder into a pint of good distilled vinegar, in which
  leave it for a fortnight, taking care to shake the bottle or pot
  several times each day, except the last, on which it must not be
  disturbed; pour off the vinegar, so as to leave the chalk behind in
  the bottle, into which pour very clean water that has been filtered;
  throw the whole into a clean pan, and stir the water well with a
  wooden spatula; let the powder settle again to the bottom; pour the
  water gently off, and wash the powder six or seven times, taking care
  always to make use of filtered water. When the powder is as soft
  and as white as you would wish, dry it in a place where it is not
  exposed to the dust; sift it through a silken sieve, which will make
  it still finer. It may be either left in powder, or wetted and formed
  into cakes, like those sold by the perfumers. One pint of vinegar is
  sufficient to dissolve a pound of talc.

  This white may be used in the same manner as carmine, dipping your
  finger, or a piece of paper, or what is preferable to either, a
  hare’s foot, prepared for the purpose in ointment, and putting upon
  it about a grain of this white, which will not be removed, even by
  perspiration. If the ointment with which it is applied is properly
  made, this white does no injury to the face. The same ingredients may
  be used for making rouge.


  Make a hole in a lemon, fill it up with sugar candy, and close it
  nicely with gold leaf, applied over the rind that was cut out; then
  roast the lemon in hot ashes. When desirous of using the juice,
  squeeze out a little through the hole already made, and wash the face
  with a napkin wetted therewith. This juice is said to cleanse the
  skin, and brighten the complexion marvellously.


  Take two tea-spoonsful of clarified honey,
       and a few drops of lavender-water, or any other
           agreeable perfume.
  Mix, and anoint the parts frequently. If the hands are affected,
  anoint them all over on going to bed, wearing your gloves all
  night, and wash with tepid milk and water in the morning. A night
  or two will effect a cure.

  Another excellent preparation is,


  Take two ounces of fine honey,
       one ounce of purified wax,
       half an ounce of silver litharge,
       the same quantity of myrrh.
  Mix over a slow fire, and add milk of roses, Eau de Cologne, or any
  other perfume you may prefer, and keep for use.


  Procure two or three dozen of the fresh roots of marsh-mallows, and
  dry them carefully in the shade, so that they may not shrivel. They
  must be chosen about as thick as a cane, and cut to five or six
  inches long, then with a mallet bruise the ends of them very gently,
  for about half an inch down, in order to form a brush. Then take two
  ounces of dragon’s blood, four ounces of highly rectified spirit, and
  half an ounce of fresh conserve of roses, and put them in a glazed
  pipkin or pan, to dissolve over a gentle fire. When dissolved, put
  in your prepared mallow-roots, stirring them to make them take the
  dye equally. Continue this till no moisture remains in the vessel,
  when the roots will be hard, dry, and fit for use. If you take care
  of them, they will last you a considerable time. When you use this
  toothbrush, it may be dipped in the following:


  Take the juice of half a lemon,
       a spoonful of very rough claret or port wine,
       ten grains of sulphate of quinine,
       a few drops of Eau de Cologne, or oil of bergamot.
  Mix, and keep in a well-stopped phial for use.


  Put two drams of camphor into an ounce of the oil of turpentine,
  and let it dissolve; when it will be fit for use.

  Cajeput oil is another valuable remedy for allaying the pain, when
  put into the hollow of the tooth. The most effectual, however, of
  all the remedies for destroying the sensibility of the nerve, is the
  putting of a red hot wire into the hollow, which will destroy the
  nerve, and prevent the return of the pain.


  Take one dram of the powdered leaves of pyrethrum,
       and a sufficient quantity of gum arabic mucilage.
  Make a mass, divide it into twelve portions, and take one into the
  mouth, and let it lie till dissolved, as occasion requires.

  If an external application is preferred, the following may be rubbed
  on the outside of the jaw.


  Take an ounce of spirit of camphor,
       three drams of liquid ammonia,
       ten drops of essential oil of bergamot.
  Mix them in a phial for use.

  A blister placed behind the ear, or burning the lap of the
  ear with a cloth dipped in boiling water, will often remove
  the pain entirely.


  Rub well the teeth and gums with a hard tooth-brush, using the
  flowers of sulphur as a tooth powder, every night on going to bed;
  and if it is done after dinner it will be best: this is an excellent
  preservative to the teeth, and void of any unpleasant smell.


  Use as a tooth powder the Spanish snuff called Sabella, and it will
  clean the teeth as well as any other powder, and totally prevent the
  tooth-ache; and make a regular practice of washing behind the ears
  with cold water every morning; the remedy is infallible.


  Take from five to ten drops of muriatic acid, in
            an ale glassful of barley-water, and add
               a little lemon juice and lemon peel to flavour.
  Mix for a draught, to be taken three times a day, for a month
  or six weeks at least, and, if effectual, it may be continued

  Another medicine of this kind, which has often proved beneficial
  when the stomach has been wrong, and the bowels costive, is, the


  Take one dram of sulphate of magnesia,
       two drams of tincture of calumba,
       an ounce and a half of infusion of roses.
  Make a draught, to be taken every morning or every other
  morning, an hour before breakfast, for at least a month.


  Take an ounce of Palma Christi oil,
       a sufficient quantity of oil of bergamot or lavender
         to scent it.
  Apply it morning and evening for three months, or as long
  as it may be necessary, to the parts where you want the
  hair to grow thick and luxuriant.


  Take three quarts of common oil,
       half a pint of spirit of wine,
       three ounces of cinnamon powder,
       two ounces of bergamot.
  Put it in a large pipkin, and give it a good heat. When it
  is off the fire, add three or four pieces of alkanet root,
  and keep it closely covered for several hours. Filter it
  through a funnel lined with blotting paper. The commonest
  oil is used; and, when rancid, it is remedied by putting in
  two or three slices of an onion.


  Boil half a pound of green southern wood, in
       a pint and a half of sweet oil, and
       half a pint of port wine.
  When sufficiently boiled, remove it from the fire, and
  strain the liquor through a linen bag. Repeat this
  operation three times, with fresh southern wood; and the
  last time add to the strained materials, two ounces of
  bear’s grease. It is excellent for promoting the growth of
  the hair, and preventing baldness.


  Take two handsful of the root of hemp,
       same quantity of the roots of a maiden vine,
       same quantity of the cores of soft cabbages.
  Dry and burn them, and make a lye of the ashes. Before
  you wash the hair with this lye, it should be well rubbed
  with honey, and this method persisted in for three days at


  Take two ounces of gum ammoniac,
       two ounces of yellow wax,
       six drams of verdigris.
  Melt them together, and spread the composition on a bit
  of soft leather, or a piece of linen. Cut away as much of
  the corn as you can with a knife, before you apply the
  plaster, which must be renewed in a fortnight, if the corn
  is not by that time gone.

  _without damage to their texture or colour_.

  Grate raw potatoes to a fine pulp in clean water, and pass the liquid
  matter through a coarse sieve, into another vessel of water; let
  the mixture stand till the fine white particles of the potatoes are
  precipitated, then pour the mucilaginous liquor from the fecula, and
  preserve the liquor for use. The article to be cleaned should then
  be laid on a linen cloth, on a table, and having provided a clean
  sponge, dip it into the potatoe liquor, and apply it to the article
  to be cleaned, till the dirt is perfectly separated; then wash it in
  clean water several times. Two middle-sized potatoes will be enough
  for a pint of water. The coarse pulp, which does not pass through
  the sieve, is of great use in cleaning worsted curtains, tapestry,
  carpets, and other coarse goods. The mucilaginous liquor will clean
  all sorts of silk, cotton, or woollen goods, without hurting or
  spoiling the colour; it may be also used in cleaning oil paintings,
  or furniture that is soiled. Dirtied painted wainscots may be cleaned
  by wetting a sponge in the liquor, then dipping it in a little clean
  sand, and afterwards rubbing the wainscot with it.


  When laying by muffs and tippets for the summer, if a tallow candle
  be placed on or near them, all danger of moths, &c. will be obviated.


  Put cedar shavings, or clippings of Russia leather, among the drawers
  and shelves where the clothes are kept. Pieces of camphor, or tallow
  candle, wrapt up in paper, will preserve furs and woollens from
  moths; and lavender, roses, and flowers and perfumes of every kind,
  are useful as well as agreeable in keeping away moths and worms.


  Take half an ounce of the best black sealing-wax, bruise it, and put
  it to two ounces of spirit of turpentine; melt them very gently, by
  placing the bottle that holds them in boiling water, or near a fire.
  When all the wax is melted, lay it on warm with a fine hair brush
  near the fire or in the sun. It will not only give a beautiful gloss
  and stiffness to the hats, but make them resist wet.


  Dip a clean piece of flannel into spirits of turpentine, and rub the
  spots until they disappear, which will soon be the case. Do not be
  sparing of the turpentine, as it will all evaporate, and leave no
  mark or stain behind.


  Pound French chalk fine, mix with lavender-water to the thickness of
  mustard. Put it on the stain; rub it soft with the finger or palm of
  the hand. Put a sheet of blotting and brown paper on the top, and
  smooth it with an iron milk-warm.


  Scrape French chalk, put it on the grease spot, and hold it near the
  fire, or over a warm iron, or water-plate, filled with boiling water.
  The grease will melt, and the French chalk absorb it; brush or rub it
  off. Repeat if necessary.


  Mix together in a phial, 2 oz. of essence of lemon, 1 oz. of oil of

  Grease and other spots in silks, are to be rubbed gently with a linen
  rag dipped in the above composition.


  Dip a pen in spirit of turpentine, and transfer it to the paint spot,
  in sufficient quantity to discharge the oil and gluten. Let it stand
  some hours, then rub it.

  For large or numerous spots, apply the spirit of turpentine with a
  sponge, if possible, before it is become dry.


  Take two pounds of rice, boil it in two gallons of water till soft;
  then pour the whole into a tub; let it stand till about the warmth
  in general used for coloured linens; then put the chintz in, and use
  the rice instead of soap, wash it in this, till the dirt appears to
  be out, then boil the same quantity as above, but strain the rice
  from the water, and wash it in warm clear water. Wash in this till
  quite clean; afterwards rinse it in the water which the rice has been
  boiled in, and this will answer the end of starch, and no dew will
  affect it. If a gown, it must be taken to pieces, and when dried, be
  careful to hang it as smooth as possible;—after it is dry, rub it
  with a smooth stone, but use no iron.


  Take a gallon of furze blossoms and burn them to ashes, then boil
  them in six quarts of soft water; this, when fine, use in washing
  with the suds, as occasion requires, and the linen, &c. will not only
  be exceedingly white, but it is done with half the soap, and little


  Lay these smooth and even upon a board, spread a little soap over
  the dirty places; then make a lather with Castille soap, and with a
  common brush, dip it in, pass it over the long way, and repeat it in
  this manner, till one side is sufficiently scoured; use the other in
  the same manner; then put it into hot water, and there let it lie,
  till you have prepared some cold water, wherein a small quantity of
  gum arabic has been dissolved. Now rinse them well, take them out and
  fold them, pressing out the water with the hands on the board, and
  keeping them under the hands till they are dry; at which time, have
  brimstone ready to dry them over, till they are ready for smoothing,
  which must be done on the right side, with a moderate hot iron.


  Let the hems of the tiffanies be at first only a little soaped, then
  having a lather of soap, put them into it hot, and wash them very
  gently for fear they should be crumpled; and when they are clean,
  rinse them in warm water, in which a little gum arabic has been
  dissolved, keeping them from the air as much as possible; then add
  a lump of starch, wet the tiffanies with a soft linen rag, and fold
  them up in a clean cloth, pressing them till they are near dry; after
  which put them near the fire, and finish the drying over brimstone;
  then shape them properly by gently ironing them.


  Lawns may be done in the same manner as the former, only observe to
  iron them on the wrong side, and use gum arabic water instead of
  starch, and, according to what has been directed for sarcenets, any
  coloured silks may be starched, abating or augmenting the gum water,
  as may be thought fit, according to the stiffness intended.


  Fix the lace in a prepared tent, draw it straight, make a warm lather
  of Castille soap, and, with a fine brush dipped in, rub over the
  point gently; and when it is clean on one side, do the same to the
  other; then throw some clean water on it, in which a little alum has
  been dissolved, to take off the suds, and having some thin starch, go
  over with the same on the wrong side, and iron it on the same side
  when dry, then open it with a bodkin, and set it in order.

  To clean point lace, if not very dirty, without washing; fix it in
  a tent as the former, and go over with fine bread, the crust being
  pared off, and when it is done, dust out the crumbs, &c.


  Put the veil in a solution of white soap, and let it simmer a quarter
  of an hour. Squeeze it in some warm water and soap, till quite clean.
  Rinse it from soap, and then in clean cold water, in which is a
  drop of liquid blue. Then pour boiling water upon a tea-spoonful of
  starch, run the veil through this, and clear it well, by clapping it.
  Afterwards pin it out, keeping the edges straight and even.


  Pass them through a warm liquor of bullock’s gall and water; rinse in
  cold water; then take a small piece of glue, pour boiling water on
  it, and pass the veil through it; clap it, and frame it to dry.


  Mix sifted stale bread crumbs with powder-blue, and rub it thoroughly
  all over, then shake it well, and dust it with clean soft cloths.
  Afterwards, where there are any gold or silver flowers, take a piece
  of crimson in grain velvet, rub the flowers with it, which will
  restore them to their original lustre.

  _Another Method._

  Pass them through a solution of fine hard soap, at a hand heat,
  drawing them through the hand. Rinse in lukewarm water, dry and
  finish by pinning out. Brush the flossy or bright side with a clean
  clothes brush, the way of the nap. Finish them by dipping a sponge
  into a size, made by boiling isinglass in water, and rub the wrong
  side. Rinse out a second time, and brush and dry near a fire, or in a
  warm room.

  Silks may be treated in the same way, but not brushed. If the silks
  are for dyeing, instead of passing them through a solution of soap
  and water, they must be boiled off; but if the silks are very stout,
  the water must only be of heat sufficient to extract the dirt, and
  when rinsed in warm water they are in a state for the dye.

  _Another Method._

  Strew French chalk over them, and brush it off with a hard brush once
  or twice.


  Put some soft soap into boiling water, and beat it till dissolved in
  a strong lather. At a hand heat put in the article. If strong, it may
  be rubbed as in washing; rinse it quickly in warm water, and add oil
  of vitriol, sufficient to give another water a sourish taste, if for
  bright yellows, crimsons, maroons, and scarlets; but for oranges,
  fawns, browns, or their shades, use no acid. For bright scarlet use
  a solution of tin. Gently squeeze, and then roll it in a coarse
  sheet, and wring it. Hang it in a warm room to dry, and finish it by
  calendering or mangling.

  For pinks, rose colours, and thin shades, &c., instead of oil of
  vitriol, or solution of tin, prefer lemon juice, or white tartar, or

  For blues, purples, and their shades, add a small quantity of
  American pearl-ash; it will restore the colours. Wash the articles
  like a linen garment, but instead of wringing, gently squeeze and
  sheet them, and when dry, finish them with fine gum water, or
  dissolved isinglass, to which add some pearl-ash, rubbed on the wrong
  side, then pin them out.

  Blues of all shades are dyed with archil, and afterwards dipped
  in a vat; twice cleaning with pearl-ash, restores the colour. For
  olive greens, a small quantity of verdigris dissolved in water, or
  a solution of copper, mixed with the water, will revive the colour


  To bullock’s gall, add boiling water sufficient to make it warm, and
  with a clean sponge, rub the silk well on both sides, squeeze it well
  out, and proceed again in like manner. Rinse it in spring water, and
  change the water till perfectly clean, dry it in the air, and pin it
  out on a table; but first dip the sponge in glue water, and rub it on
  the wrong side; then dry it before a fire.


  If it requires to be red dyed, boil logwood; and in half an hour,
  put in the silk, and let it simmer half an hour. Take it out, and
  dissolve a little blue vitriol and green copperas, cool the copper,
  let it simmer half an hour, then dry it over a stick in the air. If
  not red dyed, pin it out, and rinse it in spring water, in which half
  a tea-spoonful of oil of vitriol has been put. Work it about five
  minutes, rinse it in cold for ten minutes, rinsing in cold water. For
  a blue cast, put water, and finish it by pinning and rubbing it with
  gum water.


  Wash with soap and water; and simmer them in the same; put one drop
  of liquid blue, into a pan of cold spring water, run the stockings
  through this a minute or two, and dry them. For a pink cast, put one
  or two drops of saturated pink dye into cold water, and rinse them
  through this. For a flesh-colour, add a little rose-pink in a thin
  soap liquor, rub them with clean flannel, and calender or mangle them.


  Mix well with a gallon of clean water, a pound of quick lime; and,
  when the lime is precipitated in fine powder, pour off the clear
  lime-water for use, at the time it is wanted. Put the feathers to be
  cleaned in a tub, and add to them a sufficient quantity of the clear
  lime-water, so as to cover them about three inches. The feathers,
  when thoroughly moistened, will sink down, and should remain in the
  lime-water for three or four days; after which, the foul liquor
  should be separated from them by laying them on a sieve. Afterwards,
  well wash them in clean water, and dry them on nets, about the same
  fineness as cabbage-nets. Shake them from time to time, on the nets;
  as they dry, they will fall through the mashes, when collect them for
  use. The admission of air will be serviceable in the drying, and the
  whole process may be completed in about three weeks. The feathers,
  thus prepared, want nothing further than beating, to be used either
  for beds, bolsters, pillows, &c.


  Put a chafing-dish with some lighted charcoal into a close room,
  or large box; then strew an ounce or two of powdered brimstone on
  the hot coals. Hang the articles in the room or box, make the door
  fast, and let them hang some hours. Fine coloured woollens are thus
  sulphured before dyed, and straw bonnets are thus bleached.

                        THE YOUNG LADIES’ MAID.

In large families, where there are young ladies who require
attendance, a maid is appointed to wait on all, or perhaps each lady
has a maid. The duties of these are in all respects the same as the
ladies’-maid; we therefore refer them to the directions given to
her, for the necessary instructions. As this situation is considered
merely initiatory to a better, and is occupied, generally, by an
upper house-maid, or a young woman on her outset in life, the salary
is somewhat less than that of a well qualified servant; and the
perquisites, including that of her mistress’ left-off clothes, are also
reckoned at the same rate.

                            THE HEAD NURSE.

As the hopes of families, and the comfort and happiness of parents
are confided to the charge of females who superintend nurseries of
children, no duties are more important, and none require more incessant
and unremitting care and anxiety. Every symptom of approaching disease
should be watched and reported to the parents or medical attendant
of the family, and in this respect, nothing should be concealed or
deferred till remedies are too late. In the daily washings, the state
of the skin should be examined and noticed, as well as the tongue
and the appetite, and spirits; and above all things, all chances of
accident or juvenile mischief should be guarded against and removed.
Windows should be fenced with bars, or the lower sashes nailed down;
knives and sharp instruments should be kept out of reach; scalding
water and dangerous ingredients secured from access; ponds and rivers
fenced in; ladders removed; and fire-places guarded by well-fastened
wire fenders.

This important Servant ought to be of a lively and cheerful
disposition, perfectly good tempered, and clean and neat in her habits
and person. She ought also to have been accustomed to the care and
management of young children, as all the junior branches of the family
are intrusted to her care and superintendence, confiding in her skill,
experience, and attention. She usually takes the sole charge of the
infant from its birth, when the parent suckles it: to assist her in the
management of this and the other children in the nursery, she has under
nurses assigned her, who are entirely under her controul.

The youngest nurse, or nursery-maid, usually rises about 6 o’clock
to light the fire, and do the household work of the nursery before
the children are up, perhaps about seven o’clock, at which time the
head nurse is dressed, and ready to bathe and wash them all over
with a sponge and warm water; after which they are rubbed quite dry
and dressed. This process, when there are several children, usually
occupies the nurses an hour, or an hour and a half, when their
breakfast is got ready, and the children are placed at their meal in
the most peaceable and orderly manner. After breakfast, if the weather
be favourable, the children are taken out by the assistant nurse, or
nursery maid, for air and exercise, an hour or perhaps two, but not so
long as to fatigue either of them. On their return, their hands and
feet are washed, if damp or dirty, after which they attend to their
lessons till dinner time. After dinner, if it be fine weather, the
children are again taken abroad for air and exercise, and on their
return again, after having their hands and feet washed, if necessary,
they are in due time, about eight o’clock, dressed and put to bed. The
Head Nurse finds ample employment during the whole day, in paying due
attention to her infant charge, in giving directions, and in seeing
that the whole business of the nursery is properly executed.

The sleeping room of the Nursery should be spacious, lofty, dry, airy,
and not suffered to be inhabited in the day time. No servants should
sleep in the same room, nor ought any thing to be done there that may
contaminate the air, in which so great a portion of infantine life is
to be spent. The consequences of vitiated air in bed-rooms are often
fatal. Feather-beds and bed-curtains ought to be proscribed, as tending
to debility; neither ought the beds to be placed too low, as the most
pernicious stratum of air is that nearest the floor.

The air of the sleeping room ought to be changed immediately on the
children’s leaving the room, by opening the windows and doors; the beds
ought, also, to be shaken up and left to cool; the slops cleared away;
and every thing made and kept perfectly clean. In damp or bad weather,
a fire must be made in the room to purify the air.

The management of infant children, has a more important influence
on the health and happiness of man, than is generally imagined;
as, at this period of existence, the foundation is laid either for
irremediable debility, or for _mental_ and _bodily_ vigour. An Infant,
consequently requires considerable care, and indefatigable personal

Its management for the first two months, cannot be too gentle, kind, or
tender. Nothing should be done at first that can give it uneasiness;
therefore, next to its health and well-being, regard should be had to
its disposition, and the regulation of its temper; with this view also,
the most rational way is to let the infant enjoy all the liberty it
possibly can, without being restrained by its clothing, or starved by
system. To set a child upright before the end of the first month is
hurtful: afterwards the nurse may begin to set it up and dance it by
degrees. It must be kept as dry as possible.

The clothing should be very light, and not too long, so that the legs
may be got at with ease, in order to have them often rubbed in the
day, with a warm hand, or flannel, and particularly the inside of
them. Rubbing the child all over takes off scurf, and promotes the
circulation of the blood.

A nurse ought to keep a child as little in her arms as possible, lest
the legs should be cramped, and the toes turned inwards. Let her always
keep the child’s legs loose. The oftener the posture is changed, the

For the first fortnight or three weeks it should be always laid on
a bed, except when taken up to supply its wants, which will give it
habits of cleanliness at a very early age.

It may be very comfortably laid on a cushion, where it can be in no
danger of falling, nor of any thing falling on it. Some one should sit
by it, and divert and cheer it, if necessary, and take it up instantly,
when it expresses the least dissatisfaction. A nurse should make it a
strict rule, that the child should be in her own view, in whatever she
may be employed.

By slow degrees, the infant may be accustomed to exercise, both
within doors and in the open air: but it never should be moved about
immediately after sucking or feeding, as that will be apt to sicken it.
Exercise should be given it by carrying it about, and gently dandling
it in the arms; tossing an infant about, and exercising it in the open
air, in fine weather, is of the greatest service to it, in preventing
distortion. In cities, children ought not to be kept in hot rooms, but
to have as much air as possible; want of exercise being the cause of
rickets, large heads, weak joints, a contracted breast, and diseased
lungs, besides a numerous train of evils.

Endeavour to harden the body, but without resorting to violent means. A
child is constitutionally weak and irritable to a high degree; hence we
should endeavour to diminish this irritability, in order to procure it
the greatest happiness of life, a firm body, whence may result a sound

Such management is highly advantageous, as it will enable children to
support every species of fatigue and hardship, when they become adults.

The plan of hardening children may, however, be carried to excess. An
extravagant attempt to strengthen youth, deprives them of all their
natural susceptibility of excitement, renders them insensible, and
produces many bad effects, while they only acquire temporary energy,
which decreases as they advance in years, and is attended with an early
loss of their primitive vigour.

All attempts to render children hardy must, therefore, be made by
gradual advances: for nature admits of no sudden transition. When
children have once been accustomed to a hardy system of education, such
a plan must be strictly adhered to.

The child’s skin is to be kept perfectly clean by washing its limbs
morning and evening, and likewise its neck and ears; beginning with
warm water, till, by degrees, it will not only bear, but like to be
washed with cold.

After it is a month old, if it has no cough, fever, nor eruption, the
bath should be colder and colder (if the season be mild) and by degrees
it may be used as it comes from the spring. After carefully drying the
whole body, head, and limbs, a second dry soft cloth, somewhat warmed,
should be gently used, to take all the damp from the wrinkles or soft
parts of the body. Then rub the limbs; but when the body is rubbed,
take special care not to press upon the stomach or belly. On these
parts, the hand should move in a circle, because the bowels lie in that
direction. If the skin be chafed, hair-powder is to be used. The utmost
tenderness is necessary in drying the head; and a small, soft, brush,
lightly applied, is safer than a comb.

Clean cloths, every morning and evening, will tend greatly to a child’s
health and comfort.

The dress of the child by day should be light and loose, and for the
night, it may be a shirt, a blanket to tie on, and a thin gown to tie
over the blanket.

The unnecessary haste in which some nurses are accustomed to dress
children, cannot be too strongly reprehended. In addition to this
hurried dressing, its clothes are often injuriously tight. Pins should
never be used in an infant’s clothes; and every string should be so
loosely tied, that two fingers may be introduced under it. Bandages
round the head should be strictly forbidden, for to this error many
instances of idiotism, fits, and deformity, may be traced.

Never allow the infant to be held opposite to open doors and windows.
The air is beneficial, when it is in motion, and the weather is
moderate, but it should always have some covering besides that which it
wears in the house, when taken out; and it must not be laid on the cold
ground, nor allowed to step on it, when it begins to use its feet. The
intense heat of a summer day should likewise be avoided; excessive heat
or cold being equally injurious.

The wisest maxim in treating infants with respect to food and drink,
is to follow the simple dictates of nature; yet some nurses give them
wine, spirits, spices, sugar, &c. which the stomach of a grown person
would reject. At all times the utmost care will be necessary to avoid
hurting its gums when feeding it. Its food should be gradually cooled
in a saucer, and it should be given to it in a small spoon, only half
filled, which will save its clothes from being soiled, and keep its
bosom dry. Let it swallow one small portion, before another is offered,
and raise its head, that it may pass the gullet easily. Never entice or
press it to take more, if it once refuses, for it knows best when it
has had enough.

As long as it has its mother’s milk, no other sustenance will be
wanting, if she be a good nurse. If there should be the least doubt
of her having milk enough, the child may have cow’s milk, mixed with
two-thirds soft boiled water, presented to its lips very frequently;
but it never should be urged to accept it.

Rising early in the morning is good for all children, provided they
awake of themselves, which they generally do; but they ought never to
be waked out of their sleep. As soon as possible, however, they should
be brought to regular sleep in the day.

Children, till they are two or three years’ old, must never be suffered
to walk so long at a time as to be weary.

In laying a child to sleep, it should be placed on the right side
oftener than on the left. Laying it on its back when it is awake, is
enough of that posture, in which alone it can move its legs and arms
with freedom.

Infants cannot sleep too long; and it is a favourable symptom when they
enjoy calm and continued rest, of which they should by no means be
deprived, as this is the greatest support granted to them by nature.
Sleep promotes a more calm and uniform circulation of the blood, and
it facilitates assimilation of the nutriment received. The horizontal
posture, likewise, is the most favourable to the growth and bodily
developement of the infant.

Sleep ought to be in proportion to the age of the infant, and this
salutary refreshment should fill up the greater part of a child’s
existence. After the age of six months, the periods of sleep, as well
as all other animal functions, may, in some degree, be regulated;
yet, even then, a child should be suffered to sleep the whole night,
and several hours both in the morning and afternoon. Nurses should
endeavour to accustom infants, from the time of their birth, to sleep
in the night in preference to the day, and for this purpose they will
remove all external impressions which may disturb their rest, but
especially they ought to avoid obeying every call for taking them up,
and giving food at improper times.

To awaken children from their sleep with a noise, or in an impetuous
manner, is certainly injudicious and hurtful; nor is it proper to
carry them from a dark room immediately into a glaring light, against
a dazzling wall; for the sudden impression of light debilitates the
organs of vision, and causes weak eyes from early infancy.

Infants are sometimes very restless at night, which is generally owing
either to their eating a heavy supper, to their tight night-clothes, or
their being over-heated by too many blankets.

Wages 18_l._ to 25_l._ Perquisites at christenings.

                      _Diseases of Children, &c._


  The yellow gum is known by a yellow tinge of the skin, with
  languor and a tendency to sleep. It is to be relieved by giving a
  tea-spoonful or more of castor oil, to clear the intestines. When
  the disease does not give way to this treatment, three drops of
  antimonial wine are to be given in a tea-spoonful of water, so as to
  prove emetic. In about eight or ten hours, this is to be followed by
  ½ a grain of calomel, or four grains of rhubarb.


  When the food is vomited in an unaltered state, it is generally a
  sign of over feeding: but when the vomiting is bilious, or when
  the food is partly digested, the diet ought to be changed, and the
  bowels opened by one grain of calomel, given in sugar. This is to be
  followed by a tea-spoonful of castor oil on the following morning. If
  the vomiting should still continue, give a gentle emetic, and the
  calomel powder (containing one or two grains, according to the age)
  soon afterwards. If there be much irritation, apply a blister to
  the stomach; and, if possible, give a tea-spoonful of the saline
  medicine, in a state of effervescence, and containing two drops of


  These generally arise from acidity in the stomach, and may be
  remedied by the administration of eight grains of prepared chalk,
  with two grains of powdered rhubarb, given in a little syrup,
  or gruel. If very severe, the stomach is to be rubbed with soap
  liniment, or opodeldoc, to which a little laudanum has been added.


  These are known by continual crying, restlessness, and drawing up
  of the legs. When attended by diarrhœa and green stools, they are
  to be relieved, in general, by the administration of a few grains
  of rhubarb and magnesia. If sour belchings, &c. still continue,
  a tea-spoonful of very weak solution of tartar emetic should be
  given every quarter of an hour, until the child vomits. After this,
  particularly if there be any purging, it may be proper to give a
  little rhubarb and magnesia again, and now and then a little chalk

  _Absorbent Mixture._

  If the pains are very great, so as to make the child scream
  violently, two tea-spoonfuls of the following mixture, with
  five or six drops of laudanum, may be given directly:—

  Mix together, prepared chalk, 1 scruple,
                tincture of caraway seeds, 3 drams,
                compound spirit of lavender, 1 do.
                and of peppermint water, 2 oz.

  As soon as there is diminution of pain, a purgative should
  be given, particularly if the bowels happen to be in a
  costive state. The best will be castor oil. The above mixture
  may afterwards be occasionally continued, but without the

  _Anodyne Plaster._

  The late Dr. Clarke, of Burlington Street, frequently ordered
  the following plaster to be applied over the bowels of
  infants, in case of griping and inflammatory excitement of
  the intestines:—

  Take of compound plaster of laudanum, 1½ oz.
          diachylon plaster, 2 drams,
          purified opium, 1 do.
          oil of peppermint, 1 do.
          camphor, 1 do.
  Mix for a plaster, and spread on soft leather.


  This may, in general, if the stools are green, be relieved by a brisk
  purgative, of from one to two grains of calomel, with four or five of
  rhubarb, according to the age of the child.


  Children are apt to be chafed between the thighs, behind the ears,
  and in the wrinkles of the neck, for want of proper attention to
  cleanliness. In such cases it will be necessary to bathe the parts
  twice a day, (or every time that the child’s clothes are changed,)
  with a little water gruel, and to apply a puff with a little hair
  powder immediately afterwards, so as to keep the parts dry.—When
  _discharges_ take place behind the ears, they must not be dried up
  too suddenly, as such a circumstance might produce a divertion to the
  brain. In this case it will always be best to give frequent doses of
  castor oil, or calomel, every night, in the proportion of one grain
  to three grains of rhubarb.


  No real danger attends these eruptions, which are generally known by
  the names of red-gum, nettle-rash, &c. All that is required to be
  done, is to keep the bowels open by such means as are prescribed in
  the foregoing articles; and to guard against cold, which might drive
  the eruption inwardly, and thus produce internal inflammations of a
  critical nature. If the milk or food be considered the cause, the
  nurse, or diet, ought to be changed: and if sickness and vomiting
  should prevail, it will be proper to give the _absorbent mixture_
  mentioned under the head GRIPING AND FLATULENCY.


  This disease makes its appearance by little ulcerations in the mouth,
  tongue, &c. of a white colour, and sometimes of a yellow appearance.
  They are generally owing to acidities in the stomach, &c.

  In this disorder nothing avails more than an emetic at first, and
  then a little magnesia and rhubarb, (if there is diarrhœa,) with
  thin chicken-water as drink. Testaceous powders, or the _absorbent
  mixture_ (_see_ GRIPING AND FLATULENCY,) will also be proper. If
  there is no looseness, it will be proper to give a grain or two of
  calomel, with three or four grains of rhubarb. The mouth and throat
  should at the same time be cleansed by gargles.

  _Syrup of Black Currants._

  Take of the juice of black currants, strained, 1 pint, double refined
  sugar, 24 oz. Dissolve the sugar, and boil to make a syrup.

  A tea-spoonful of this to be given to children in the thrush.


  This happens frequently to children who cry much, or who have had a
  diarrhœa, or from straining on going to stool. If it proceed from
  costiveness, give lenitive clysters. In case the gut be swelled
  or inflamed, foment with warm milk, or decoction of oak bark, or
  wash frequently with cold water. The protruded parts are now to be
  replaced by the finger, and supported by a truss or bandage. The
  internal use of tonics will be proper.


  When children are about cutting their teeth, they slaver much, are
  feverish, hot, and uneasy; their gums swell, and are very painful;
  they are sometimes loose in the bowels, and at other times costive;
  and occasionally convulsions come on.

  Leeches are often serviceable when applied behind the ears; as are
  also blisters.

  _Scarifying the Gums._

  Instead of giving narcotics to children cutting their teeth, it
  is strenuously recommended to have their tumid gums divided by a
  lancet down to the tooth; an operation at once safe and unattended
  with pain. If done in time, by removing the cause of the complaint,
  all the symptoms will disappear of themselves. Instead of giving
  preparations of opium, it will be found, in the majority of cases,
  far better to administer calomel, in minute doses, as this medicine
  is well known to possess peculiar efficacy in promoting absorption in
  these parts. The body, if costive, should be kept regularly open, and
  if there should be looseness of the bowels, it should by no means be
  discouraged. Instead of coral, or any other hard body, let the child
  nibble at a piece of wax candle.


  Children are particularly liable to convulsions at the period of
  teething, small pox, measles, and other eruptive diseases; sometimes,
  also, from external causes, such as strait clothes, bandages, &c.
  When they proceed from any of these, bathing the feet, or the
  whole body, in warm water, of 92 or 94 degrees, and administering a
  mild clyster, will almost immediately relieve them. To shorten the
  duration of the fit, cold water should be poured over the face and
  neck, whilst the rest of the body is in the bath.

  The return of convulsions is to be prevented only by the removal of
  the cause of the existing irritation; but, in general, when the body
  is kept carefully open, there will be little reason to fear a return.


  In these fits the infant appears as if asleep, the eyelids however
  are not quite closed, but frequently twinkle and shew the whites
  turned upwards. The muscles of the face are sometimes slightly
  distorted, the mouth having the appearance of a laugh or smile. The
  breath is sometimes very quick, and at others stops for a time;
  whilst the eyelids and lips are alternately pale and dark. The infant
  startles on the least noise, and sighs deeply, or breaks wind. This
  relieves him for a little, but he soon relapses into a doze. Whenever
  the above-mentioned symptoms are observed, it will be right to awaken
  the infant, by stirring or otherwise, and to rub its back and belly
  well before the fire, until wind escapes. At the same time it will
  be proper to give half a tea-spoonful of drink or pap, containing
  two drops of oil of anise or caraways. As soon after as possible, a
  purgative of castor oil, or a grain or two of calomel (according to
  the age,) with two or three grains of rhubarb, is to be given, to
  empty the bowels of whatever crude matter may occasion the disorder.


  This disorder affects the bones of children, and causes a
  considerable protuberance, incurvation, or distortion of them. It may
  arise from various causes, but more particularly when proper care has
  not been taken with children: when they have been too tightly swathed
  in some parts, and too loose in others; keeping them too long in one
  and the same position; and not keeping them clean and dry. Sometimes
  it may proceed from a lax habit, and at others from costiveness.

  It usually appears about the eighth or ninth month, and continues
  till the sixth or seventh year of the child’s age. The head becomes
  large, and the fontanelle keeps long open; the countenance is full
  and florid; the joints knotty and distorted, especially about the
  wrists; less near the ancles. The ribs protuberate, and grow crooked;
  the belly swells; a cough and disorder of the lungs succeed; and the
  child moves but weakly, and waddles in walking.

  _Regimen, &c._

  The regimen should be light and properly seasoned; the air dry and
  clear. Exercise and motion should be encouraged, and bandages,
  as well as instruments, contrived to keep the limbs in a proper
  situation; but care should be taken that they be so formed as not to
  put the child to pain, or restrain it too much.

  Cold sea-bathing is of infinite use; after which friction should be
  used, and the child placed between two blankets, so as to encourage
  perspiration. The back should be well rubbed with opodeldoc, or good
  old rum, every night.

  A few grains of ipecacuanha or calomel may occasionally be proper,
  and chalybeates are also very serviceable.

  A decoction of Peruvian bark is also good with red wine: and should
  be used with moderation in the forenoon and after dinner.


  Examine the child’s back-bone frequently and closely, and on the
  slightest trace of any distortion wash the same with brandy every
  morning and night, and pay the strictest attention to the child’s
  keeping a straight posture; both sleeping and waking; and if it can
  be bathed from time to time, it will be advisable.


  It is well known that these disorders, which are in many respects
  similar, are contagious; therefore, no comb or hair-brush used by a
  child affected by them is to be used by another child, either in a
  school or in the same family. Nor should the hat or cap of such a
  child be worn by any other.


  Let the hair be removed carefully with a razor, dipped
  frequently in olive oil; and afterwards apply the following
  lotion by means of fine linen, and cover the whole or
  part of the head with it.

  Take of liquor of acetated lead, 2 drams,
          distilled vinegar, 6 drams,
          sulphuric æther, 2 drams,
          rain water, 1 pint.

  This lotion should be kept occasionally applied in the night
  as well as in the day, and an oil-silk cap should be fitted
  close to the head, and worn continually.

  _Ointment for the same._

  Take of spermaceti ointment, 1 oz.
          tar ointment, 1 oz.
          powdered angustura bark, 3 drams.
  Rub the whole well in a marble mortar, and apply to the
  parts affected.

  _Alterative Medicines._

  In six cases out of ten, this disease is aggravated by a
  scrofulous taint of the system; and, when this is the case,
  the following alterative medicine accelerates the cure.

  Take of oxide of zinc,
          precipitated sulphur of antimony, each 9 grains,
          resin of guaiacum,
          extract of bark,
          extract of hemlock, each 2 scruples.
  Mix, and form into 20 pills.

  To Children from six to ten years of age, give one pill
  night and morning; under six years, half a pill night and
  morning, mixed in raspberry jam.

  Instead of the above, one grain of calomel may be given
  going to rest, and repeated every night; also the use of salt
  water externally and internally, as an alterative, has been
  found very useful.

  In all cases the bowels ought to be kept open, and the
  diet should consist of wholesome and nutritive food; avoiding
  fish and salt meats. Cleanliness, and an occasional use
  of the warm bath, will likewise be of service.


  In this complaint, next to occasional vomiting, the daily use of
  the warm bath is most useful. Bleeding may sometimes be useful, to
  prevent inflammation of the internal membranes, or cupping between
  the neck and shoulders. Gentle antimonial emetics should be given
  repeatedly, because the symptoms are always relieved when the child

  _Parisian Remedy._

  Take of sulphuret of potass,
          tincture of fox-glove, each, 1 dram,
          extract of liquorice root, 2 drams,
          almond emulsion, 6 oz.
          gum arabic powder, 3 drams.

  A dessert-spoonful to be given to a child from three
  to six years of age; a table-spoonful from six to ten;
  two dessert-spoonsful from ten to fifteen; and two
  table-spoonsful from fifteen to twenty; three times a day.

  _Embrocation for Hooping Cough._

  Take of emetic tartar, 2 drams,
          boiling water, 2 oz.
          tincture of cantharides, 1 dram,
          oil of wild thyme, 3 drams.
  A dessert-spoonful to be rubbed upon the chest every
  night and morning.

  _Regimen, &c._

  A frequent change of air is exceedingly useful in hooping cough,
  particularly short voyages at sea; at the same time flannel is to
  be worn next the skin. Young children should lie with their heads
  and shoulders raised; and when the cough occurs, they ought to be
  placed on their feet and bent a little forward, to guard against
  suffocation. The diet should be light, and the drink warm and


  The CROUP is a disease peculiar to children, and generally fatal, if
  care is not taken in the commencement. It commonly approaches with
  the usual signs of a catarrh, but sometimes the peculiar symptoms
  occur at the first onset; namely, a hoarseness, with a shrill ringing
  sound both in speaking and coughing, as if the noise came from a
  brazen tube. At the same time there is a sense of pain about the
  larynx, and some difficulty of respiration, with a whizzing sound
  in inspiration, as if the passage of air was diminished; which is
  actually the case. The cough is generally dry, but if any thing is
  spit up, it is a purulent matter, sometimes resembling small portions
  of a membrane. There are also a frequent pulse, restlessness, and an
  uneasy sense of heat. The inside of the mouth is sometimes without
  inflammation, but frequently a redness, and even a swelling exist.
  Sometimes there is an appearance of matter on them like that rejected
  by coughing.


  As soon as possible a brisk emetic should be administered for the
  purpose of freeing the patient from the coagulable lymph which is
  already secreted. Topical bleeding, by means of leeches, should
  immediately succeed, and the discharge be encouraged. As soon as it
  diminishes, a blister, sufficiently large to cover the whole throat,
  should be applied, and suffered to lie on for thirty hours or longer.
  The steam of warm water should be inhaled, and the bowels should be
  evacuated by calomel.

  As soon as the emetic has operated sufficiently, opium may be
  administered, by which means the breathing will in general be soon
  relieved; but should it become more difficult in the course of a few
  hours, the emetic is to be again repeated, and after its operation
  the opium again employed. This practice is to be alternately used
  till the patient is out of danger, which will, in general, be in the
  course of three or four days. The child should be kept nearly upright
  in bed.

  Children, until the age of six years, are liable to be attacked by
  BILIOUS FEVER, which is gradually developed, by irregularity in the
  bowels, which are either too costive, or too much relaxed.

  On its first appearance, the child becomes peevish and fretful, his
  lips are dry, his hands hot, accompanied by shortness of breath,
  pains in the head, and quickness of pulse, which beats from 110 to
  112 in a minute; he shows an unwillingness to stir or speak, starts
  in his sleep, and has a loathing for food. The stools have often
  a mucous and slimy appearance; some children are affected with
  delirium, others dull and stupid, and many are for a time speechless.
  Several slight accessions of fever take place in the course of the
  day, during which the child is usually drowsy; in the intervals
  of these paroxysms he appears tolerably well, though, at times,
  unusually peevish.

  These symptoms are more or less prevalent for eight or ten days,
  when suddenly a more violent paroxysm of fever will ensue, preceded
  by a shivering fit, and sometimes an incessant vomiting of bile. The
  pulse rises to 140; the cheeks are flushed, the child’s drowsiness
  increases, and when awake, he resorts to picking at the skin of the
  nose, lips, and eyes, to a most painful degree.

  This species of fever is mild at the commencement, slow in its
  progress, and very uncertain in its event. The desire for food is
  destroyed, and the child will take neither aliment nor medicine. The
  stools are changed from their natural appearances, being sometimes
  black, and smelling like putrid mud; and at other times they are
  curdled, with shreds of coagulable lymph floating in a dark green


  The first thing, is to cleanse the stomach by a few grains of
  ipecacuanha, and soon afterwards to administer some active purgative.
  For restoring the healthy secretions of the bowels, nothing is
  so efficacious as small and often repeated doses of calomel and
  scammony, (¾ of a grain of the former to 1¼ of the latter,)
  followed up after some hours by a solution of Epsom salts in an
  infusion of senna, or by a dose of castor oil. When the stomach is
  very irritable, small quantities of chalk mixture, with a few drops
  of laudanum, are to be given alternately with the above-mentioned

  If the head is much affected, leeches should be applied to the
  temples, and if the stomach will not retain the medicine, from three
  to six leeches should be applied to the upper part of the belly, or
  right side; and after this a blister, if necessary. The warm bath
  will prove useful after the stomach and bowels are properly cleansed.

  _Tonic Powder._

  To obviate debility, when the fever has abated, the following
  tonic powder is recommended.

  Mix together 2 drams of powder of cascarilla,
              24 grains of rhubarb, and
               1 scruple sub-carbonate of iron.
  Divide this into 24 papers, one to be taken morning and

  _Regimen and Diet._

  The child should likewise be sent into the country as soon as
  possible, and be allowed every reasonable amusement, to dissipate the
  peevishness which is an invariable consequence of a severe attack of
  this disease. The diet, for a time, should be light and nourishing;
  as jellies, isinglass and milk, veal broth, and beef tea. The drink
  may be whey, and toast and water.

                            THE UNDER NURSE.

Is chiefly engaged in attending to the senior children, and is entirely
under the controul of the head nurse. She assists in getting them up
in the morning, washing and dressing them; attends them at their meals
and takes them out for air and exercise, and performs or assists in the
performance of all the duties of the nursery, while the head nurse is
chiefly engaged with the infant child.—Wages 10 to 12 guineas.

                           THE NURSERY MAID.

The Nursery Maid is generally a girl who does the household work of the
nursery, and attends the children when they go out for the air, &c.
carrying such of them as may be required.—Wages 6 to 10 guineas.

                     THE GOVERNESS, or GOUVERNANTE.

As many mothers have an aversion to public education for their
daughters, the system of PRIVATE INSTRUCTION, by a respectable and
well-educated female, is very generally adopted, in many families of
moderate fortune, and in all of rank and opulence. Hence there is a
constant demand for females of genteel manners, and finished education,
at salaries which vary according to qualifications, and number and age
of pupils, between 25_l._ and 120_l._ per annum, and often improved, on
certain great length of service, by some provision for life.

Teachers in seminaries, half-boarders, educated for the purpose, and
the unsettled daughters of respectable families of moderate fortune,
who have received a finished education, are usually selected for
this important duty; and the engagement is made either through an
advertisement in the newspapers, or by agents who arrange between the
parties for a moderate fee. But, in general, families apply to the
governesses of public seminaries, who have young women in training for
these employments.

The qualifications, of course, are various, and may vary with the age
of the pupils. Good temper, and good manners, with a genteel exterior,
are indispensable: for more is learnt by example than precept. Besides,
the governess who desires to be on a footing with the family, ought
to be able to conduct herself in such manner, as never to render an
apology necessary for her presence at family parties.

In addition to a thorough knowledge of the ENGLISH LANGUAGE, and to
the power of being able to write a letter in a graceful and accurate
style, the governess ought to be moderately acquainted with the FRENCH
LANGUAGE; and it would be an advantage if she knew something of
ITALIAN, as the language of music. She ought also to be able to play on
the PIANO FORTE, so as to give the first lessons, and to superintend
the practice directed in the lessons of a master; and in cases where
great perfection is not desired, to render a master unnecessary. If
she can perform on the harp or guitar, these instruments will qualify
her to accommodate her instructions to various tastes. It will be also
expected that she shall be able to teach the elements of DANCING, at
least, the steps and ordinary figures of fashionable practice. Nor
ought she to be ignorant of the useful art of ARITHMETIC, the constant
exercise of which, will so much improve the reasoning powers of her
pupils. NEEDLE-WORK of various descriptions, from the plain to the
ornamental, will, as matter of course, be expected; and there can be no
reason why she should omit to introduce to her pupils the geographical
copy books, and other elementary books of GEOGRAPHY, by Goldsmith;
and the familiar keys to the POPULAR SCIENCES, published by Blair and
Barrow, such as the Universal Preceptor, the Class Book, the Grammar
of Natural Philosophy, the Key to General Knowledge, by Barrow, and
other superior works of the same kind, the selection of which, will
distinguish her good sense: while the answering the questions, and
filling up the copy books on the admirable Interrogative System, will
be the means of incalculable advantage to her pupils, and a source
of infinite gratification to their parents. The branches of ELEGANT
LITERATURE are also within her reach, in such books as Aikin’s Poetry
for Children, and Pratt’s Selection of Classical Poetry; and if she
chooses to expand their intelligence, she can provide them with Blair’s
Belles Lettres, Shaw’s Nature Displayed, (a book which ought to be
found in every family,) and with a pair of globes, a microscope, and
a telescope. DRAWING is also so essential an accomplishment, that its
constant exercise should be kept up by means of Hamilton’s Elementary
Examples, or those of Chalons and Calvert.

No young persons who are born to the enjoyment of fortune, and destined
to fill any stations in society with credit and advantage, ought to
have these accomplishments and sources of knowledge withheld from them;
and the governess who contents herself with mere personal attainments,
without at the same time addressing instruction to the MIND of her
pupils, and who lays before them old-fashioned books, and obsolete
systems of knowledge, compromises her own character, and sacrifices
through their lives, the interests, welfare, and reputation, of her

In the sub-division of time, prolonged application is wearisome, and
too frequent renewals are irksome. The best time for learning is in
the morning before breakfast, and one hour and a half, or two hours,
between seven and nine, will always be worth the three hours, which
should be industriously passed, between eleven and two. The rest of
the day should be devoted, in fine weather, to EXERCISE and AMUSEMENTS
in the open air; and in bad weather to such amusements as induce
exercise, of which, dancing, the skipping-rope, and dumb-bells, should
form a part, and certain games which are practised in genteel society,
as chess and cards, may be advantageously introduced in winter evenings.

Religion, morals, and temper, should be specially studied, and the
essays of Mrs. Chapone, and Mrs. Hannah More, Barrow’s Questions, his
School Bible, and School Sermons, with Blair’s or Enfield’s Sermons,
are suitable auxiliaries. Bad habits should be watched and corrected,
and graceful ones, cleanliness and neatness of person, be stimulated.
Blair’s Governess’s Register of Study and Conduct, will prove an
excellent auxiliary. Superstitions, and vulgar faith in dreams, signs,
omens, fortune-telling, and other weaknesses of mind, should be
constantly exposed.

A governess, influenced by these practices and principles, will entitle
herself to live on a footing with a family, when there are no special
parties; and she must possess good sense enough not to intrude on that
domestic privacy, and personal independence, which, without offence,
is often desirable. Her own apartment, or that of her pupils, ought to
be at once the scene of her pleasure and amusement, and if she mingles
with the parties of the families, she must, of course, not make herself
too familiar with the domestic servants.

Thus conducting herself with propriety, and identifying herself with
the growing minds and affections of her pupils, she may secure their
personal friendship to the end of their mutual lives, and if their
moral feelings are not blunted, she may calculate on their gratitude in
her old age, or if she survive them, in their last will.

                         THE UPPER HOUSE MAID.

In large families, where there is much work, two or more house maids
are kept, but as the Upper House Maid has generally the superintendence
and responsibility of all, we shall include their principal labours
under one general head.

The UPPER HOUSE MAID should be fully competent to undertake the
management of all the household business of a gentleman’s family; and
to be perfectly qualified for her situation, she ought to have been
previously initiated in the capacity of _Under House Maid_.

In most families she has the care of all the household linen, bed and
table linen, napkins, towels, &c. which she also makes and keeps in
repair, and besides cleaning the house and furniture, and making the
beds, she washes her own clothes, and has sometimes to assist the
laundry-maid in getting up the fine linen, washing silk stockings, &c.
instead of the lady’s maid; but these latter are considered as rather
_extra_ labours, and are not, in all families, deemed a necessary part
of the house maid’s business. She also cleans all the coal skuttles in
use above stairs, and all the kettles used for warming water in the
dressing-rooms, &c. When there are dinner parties the house-maid washes
up the plate and china.

The house-maid, in a regular family, will find it necessary to rise
about five o’clock, and her first business will be to open the
shutters of the usual family sitting-rooms; as the breakfast-room
and library, whence she clears away all the superfluous articles
that may have been left there, and prepares for cleaning the stoves,
fire-places, and hearths, by rolling up the hearth rugs, carefully
carrying them out to be shaken, and then laying down a piece of canvas,
or coarse cloth, to keep the place clean, while she rakes out the
ashes, takes them up, and brushes up the fire-place. She then rubs the
bright bars of the stoves, and the fire-irons, first with oil, and
afterwards with emery-paper, No. 3, or with brick-dust, till clean and
bright—and, finally, with scouring-paper; and this should be done in
the summer time, particularly when the stoves may have acquired spots
for want of constant use.

The backs and sides of the fire-places are next to be brushed over with
black-lead, and then rubbed dry and bright with a hard brush kept for
the purpose.

The fires are next lighted, and the marble hearths washed with flannel,
dipped in a strong hot lather of soap and water, which must be cleaned
off and wiped dry with a linen cloth;—the marble chimney pieces need
not be thus cleaned above once or twice a week.

Common free-stone hearths may be scoured with soap and sand and cold
water, and afterwards rubbed dry with a clean house cloth.

By this time the footman will have done all his work in the pantry,
and have rubbed all the tables, chairs, cellerets, and other mahogany
furniture, and cleaned the brass and other ornaments, the mirrors,
looking-glasses, &c. in these rooms, when the carpets are to be swept,
on ordinary occasions, with a carpet mop to take off the flue, lint,
and dust; or more thoroughly, once a week with a long hair-brush or
carpet-broom, first having strewed them over with damp tea-leaves,
(see receipt for scouring and cleaning carpets.) The sides of the
carpet are then turned up all round the room, and the dust on the floor
swept away, or, occasionally, the floor scoured with soap and water.
The carpet is then turned back again; the chairs and other furniture
dusted singly, and removed from the middle of the room, where they were
cleaned to their proper places.

The window curtains and hangings may not require to be shaken and
dusted every day, but the dust on the windows should be removed with a
long hair-broom, and the cobwebs or any dirt on the ceiling, and in the
corners of the room, must be sought for and removed.

Every thing being adjusted in the rooms for the reception of the
family, the house-maid next opens the shutters of the dining-room, and
drawing-room, where she and the footman regularly proceed with their
respective business in the manner above mentioned. The house-maid with
the fires and fire-place, floors, carpets, &c. scouring, washing,
brushing, and dusting them; and the footman, rubbing and cleaning
the mahogany furniture, looking-glasses, and other articles in his
department, till all is made quite clean, and the rooms are fit for the
reception of the family.

At an appointed time she repairs to the dressing-rooms of the master
and mistress, and others in use, empties the slops, replenishes the
ewers and water-carofts with fresh spring and soft water, and fills
the kettles for warm water—cleans up the fire-places, lights the
fires, brushes the carpets, sweeps the rooms, dusts the furniture, and
puts the rooms in order before the lady’s-maid and valet come to make
their arrangements previous to the rising of their superiors.—Having
done these, she sweeps down the principal stair-case and goes to her

As soon as the best bed-rooms and dressing-rooms are at liberty, she
repairs thither, puts out the fires, or not, according as the weather
is,—throws open the windows, (or the doors only, in unfavourable
weather) to air the rooms, and the beds; opens all the beds, throws
the bed-clothes off, on the backs of chairs, placed at the foot of the
bed, shakes up each bed, and then proceeds to her other business in
the rooms, in order to give as much time as can be spared for airing
the beds. Meanwhile, she cleans up the fire-places, again, lays the
fires to be ready when wanted, and having washed her hands and put on
a clean apron, she makes the beds. (In this business she is usually
assisted by the under house-maid, as it requires two persons to make
a bed well.) This done, she mops or brushes the carpets, to clean off
the flue or feathers and dust,—sweeps out the rooms, rubs and dusts the
furniture, supplies the ewers and carofts with clean water, and then
retires; leaving the rooms properly arranged against the coming of the
lady’s-maid and valet to prepare for their master’s and mistress’s
dressing, previous to their going out.

She next proceeds to the other bed-rooms—opens the windows and makes
the beds—empties the slops—cleans out the rooms, rubs and dusts the
furniture, and puts them in proper order.

Having finished all the bed-rooms, the stair-cases, landings, and
passages, will next claim her attention, which are also to be swept,
the carpets brushed or swept, and the floor-cloths rubbed over with
a clean wet flannel, and wiped dry with a clean house-cloth. On the
appointed general cleaning days, the floor-cloths must be scoured with
warm soap suds, and afterwards wiped dry, with a clean linen cloth.

On the general cleaning days also, which are usually Tuesdays and
Saturdays, every branch of the household work must be thoroughly done,
in the best manner;—the rooms are then to be scoured instead of being
merely wiped or swept;—the carpets are to be well brushed or taken
up to be beaten or shaken;—the stoves and fire-places brightened and
cleaned with particular care;—the marble hearths and chimney-pieces
scoured;—the mahogany furniture and the brass or other ornaments in the
best rooms, and the mirrors and looking-glasses cleaned, with more than
ordinary attention;—the bed-furniture, window-curtains and hangings
well shaken, whisked and brushed: in short, the best practical methods
for thoroughly cleaning the whole house, must be resorted to on that

If the house maid rise in good time, and employ herself busily, she
will get every thing done above stairs in time to clean and make
herself comfortable for dinner, about one o’clock; after which she will
attend to her needle work, under the direction of the housekeeper.
About four, in the winter, the fires in the dressing-rooms are to be
lighted—the slops emptied—clean water supplied, (hot and cold) and
the dressing-rooms again dusted and cleaned, preparatory to the lady
and gentleman dressing for dinner. While the family is at dinner, the
dressing-rooms must be again prepared; and in the evening the shutters
of the bed-rooms and dressing-rooms must be fastened—the curtains let
down—the beds turned down—the fires lighted, and the rooms put into
proper condition for the night. Wages from 12 to 16 guineas a year.


  First well beat and brush the carpet,—then to a gallon of water add
  eight potatoes grated, and with this liquid wash it slightly over
  with a sponge, which will not only clean it but restore it to its
  original beauty when dry. Or, after it has been well beaten and
  brushed, put an ox gall into a pint of water, wash the carpet over on
  the right side, and it will have the same effect.


  Rub a piece of soap on every spot of grease or dirt; then take a
  hard brush dipped in boiling water, and rub the spots well. If very
  dirty, a solution of soap must be put into a tub, with hot water,
  and the carpet well beat in it, rinsing it in several clean waters,
  and putting in the last water a table-spoonful of oil of vitriol, to
  brighten the colours.


  Carpets should not be swept with a whisk-brush more than once a week;
  at other times sprinkle tea-leaves on them, and sweep carefully with
  a hair-broom, after which they should be gently brushed on the knees
  with a clothes’-brush.


  Mix half a pint of refined neat’s-foot oil, and half a gill of
  spirits of turpentine; wet a woollen rag therewith, dip it into a
  little scraped rotten-stone, and rub the metal well. Wipe it off with
  a soft cloth, polish with dry leather, and use more of the powder. If
  steel is very rusty, use a little powder of pumice with liquid, on a
  separate woollen rag, first.


  Beat the dust out of them as clean as possible, then rub them over
  with a dry brush, and make a good lather with Castille soap, and rub
  them well over with a hard brush, then take clean water and with it
  wash off the froth; make a water with alum, and wash them over with
  it, and when dry, most of the colours will be restored in a short
  time; and those that are yet too faint, must be touched up with a
  pencil dipped in suitable colours; it may be run all over in the same
  manner with water colours mixed well with gum water, and it will look
  at a distance like new.


  Cut into eight half quarters a stale quartern loaf: with one of these
  pieces, after having blown off all the dust from the paper, to be
  cleaned by means of a good pair of bellows, begin at the top of the
  room, holding the crust in the hand, and wiping lightly downwards
  with the crumb, about half a yard at each stroke, till the upper
  part of the hangings is completely cleaned all round; then go again
  round with the like sweeping stroke downwards, always commencing each
  successive course a little higher than the upper stroke had extended,
  till the bottom be finished. This operation, if carefully performed,
  will frequently make very old paper look almost equal to new. Great
  caution must be used not by any means to rub the paper hard, nor to
  attempt cleaning it the cross or horizontal way. The dirty part of
  the bread too must be each time cut away, and the pieces renewed as
  soon as necessary.


  Put some lumps of quick-lime into a bucket of cold water, and stir
  it about till dissolved and mixed, after which a brush with a large
  head, and a long handle to reach the ceiling of the room, is used to
  spread it thinly on the walls, &c. When dry it is beautifully white,
  but its _known cheapness_ has induced the plasterers to substitute
  a mixture of glue size and whiting for the houses of their opulent
  customers; and this, when once used, precludes the employment of
  _lime-washing_ ever after; for the latter, when laid on whiting
  becomes yellow.

  White-washing is an admirable manner of rendering the dwellings of
  the poor clean and wholesome.


  Polished iron-work may be preserved from rust by a mixture not very
  expensive, consisting of copal varnish intimately mixed with as much
  olive oil as will give it a degree of greasiness, adding thereto
  nearly as much spirit of turpentine as of varnish. The cast iron-work
  is best preserved by rubbing it with black-lead.

  But where rust has begun to make its appearance on grates or
  fire-irons, apply a mixture of tripoli with half its quantity of
  sulphur, intimately mingled on a marble slab, and laid on with a
  piece of soft leather: or emery and oil may be applied with excellent
  effect, laid on with a spongy piece of the fig-tree fully saturated
  with the mixture. This will not only clean but polish, and render the
  use of whiting unnecessary.


  Take verdigris and pumice-stone, well powdered, with lime newly
  slacked. Mix with soap lees, to the consistence of putty. Put it in a
  woollen rag, and rub the stains well one way. Wash off with soap and
  water. Repeat, if not removed.


  Sweep them and wipe them with a damp flannel, after which wet them
  all over with milk, and rub them till bright with a dry cloth.

  N. B. Floor-cloths should be chosen that are painted on fine cloth,
  well covered with colour and perfectly dry. The durability of the
  cloth depends greatly on these points, and particularly on its having
  had time for the paint to get quite dry. Old carpets answer extremely
  well, if painted and hung up to season some time, before they are
  laid down for use.


  Remove fly stains or any other soil from the glass with a damp cloth,
  then polish with a woollen cloth and powder-blue.


  Drop a few drops of oil of turpentine on the spots and rub it hard
  with your finger; this will dissolve the grease, and make it mix with
  the soap (or suds) and water when the room is washed.

  _Another Way._

  Mix together fuller’s-earth and soap lees, and rub them on the
  boards. Let the mixture dry, and then scour it off with strong soft
  soap and sand, or use lees to scour it with. It should be put on hot,
  by heating the lees.


  Mix well together a pint of strong soap lees, some fuller’s earth,
  well dried, and a little pipe-clay, powdered fine; lay it on the part
  which is oiled, then put a hot iron upon it till dry. If all the oil
  come not out the first time, repeat it, and rub it well in. By doing
  it two or three times it will come out.

                         THE UNDER HOUSE MAIDS.

Are entirely under the direction of the Upper House Maid, and are
chiefly employed in cleaning and scouring the stoves and grates,
scouring the coal skuttles, kettles, and fire-irons, beating and
cleaning the carpets—scouring the floors, stairs, and passages;—washing
the dishes when there is company, &c. &c.; besides assisting to
make the beds, and carrying up the coals and water. In the afternoon,
evening, or at leisure time, they are engaged with the _Upper House
Maid_ at their needle-work, in making and mending the household, bed
and table linen,—mending stockings—washing and mending their own
linen, and occasionally, assisting in the laundry. When there is no
still-room-maid, the Under House Maid has to wait at table in the
house-keeper’s room. Wages 10l. to 12l. per year.

                        THE SERVANT OF ALL WORK.

In small families where only one female servant is kept, the servant
of all work will be required to do all the work of the house, which in
large establishments is very properly divided into several departments.

This description of servant is usually taken from the industrious and
labouring classes of the community, who are bred up with a view to the
situation, having no other prospect or dependence; and are taught,
from their earliest age, to assist in the management of the house, the
care of the younger children, preparing the meals, making the beds,
scouring, washing, and in every other branch of domestic business:—In
short, no girl ought to undertake, or can be qualified, for such a
situation, who has not been thus bred up. And if, in addition to these
preparatory qualifications, she comes from a sober, well-disposed
family, and is of a tractable disposition, there can be but little
doubt of her acquiring the good-will of her master and mistress, of
qualifying herself for a superior service, and of finally succeeding in
her sphere of life.

She will receive her first instructions from her mistress, or probably
from the former servant, as to the peculiarities of the house, and will
very soon, with attention, become versed in all.

Industry and cleanliness, with a determination to be useful, and to
please, will speedily overcome all difficulties.

To rise early is indispensably necessary. “Those who would thrive, must
rise by five.” And, recollect, that “the servant who begins her work
late, will have to run after it all the day, but will never overtake

Every morning, the first business will be to light the kitchen fire,
brush up and clean around the grate and fire-place, take up the ashes,
sweep the floor and hearth, and having made all quite clean, rinse
out the tea-kettle, and set it on the fire, with clean spring water,
preparatory to the family breakfast; and also another kettle to heat
water for household purposes. She next takes the tray, carpet-broom,
hair-broom, hearth-rug, a clean dry duster, and the basket or box,
containing the brushes, rags, leathers, brick-dust, scouring-paper, and
other things for cleaning the grate and fire-place, and proceeds to the
parlour, or sitting-room, to get that in order, before the family comes
down to breakfast. She begins there by clearing away the candlesticks,
dirty glasses, and such other things as may have been left there the
preceding night. She then rolls up the hearth-rug, so that no dirt or
dust may drop from it, as it is carried out to be shaken; she next
turns back the carpet, with the drugget, baize, or other covering, if
any, and lays down a piece of canvas, or coarse cloth, to keep the
place clean; after which she rakes out the ashes from the grate, takes
them up, and brushes up the dust and dirt; then rubs the bright bars of
the grate, and the fire-irons, with emery paper, No. 3, or brick-dust;
or if there be very fine steel stoves, fenders, &c. they should be
first rubbed with oil, then with emery, till clear and bright, and
afterwards with scouring paper, which is an excellent article to use
every second or third day in summer-time, when stoves are not in
constant use, as it will take off all the spots they may have acquired.

After the stove and fire-irons are cleaned, and the back and sides of
the hearth are washed over with black-lead mixed with water, and rubbed
dry and bright with a hard brush, light the fire, and proceed to wash
the marble hearth.

For this purpose, take a piece of flannel dipped in a strong, hot,
lather of soap and water, and having washed off the dirt, wipe it dry
with a clean linen cloth. The jambs and chimney-piece need only be
cleaned thus, once or twice a week, or as the custom of the family
may be. Soap and sand, with cold water, will answer for washing
free-stone hearths, &c. which must be afterwards wiped dry with a
clean house-cloth. The next business will be to clean the brass locks,
finger-plates, and other brass furniture; for which see the receipt.—If
the locks are stiff, or hang, put a very little sweet oil on the bolts
with a feather; the same ought to be done occasionally to the hinges,
latches, bolts, and locks of every door in the house. A few minutes
thus employed, when necessary, will prevent most of the disagreeable
noises of creaking hinges, rusty bolts, and useless locks.

For the finger-plates, and other brass ornaments about the room, you
must have pieces of pasteboard, with holes cut in them of the size of
the respective articles, to prevent soiling or rubbing the door or
furniture to which they are fixed.

The carpet next requires attention; this must generally be swept with
the carpet-mop, to clean off the lint and dust, but, occasionally with
the carpet-broom, or long hair-broom, first strewing it over with a
few damp tea-leaves, (which should always be saved for the purpose,
when the tea-things are washed up.) Then remove the chairs, and other
furniture, to the middle of the room, turn up the sides of the carpet,
and sweep up all the dust and flue round the sides of the room before
replacing the carpet.

Always rub and dust the chairs, tables, and other mahogany furniture,
in the middle of the room, and return them to their places, one by one,
as you finish them; this will prevent your scratching or soiling the
walls or wainscot. The window-curtains and hangings may not require
to be shaken and brushed every day, but the windows should be brushed
with the long hair-broom, and cobwebs and other filth, on the ceiling,
and upper corners of the room, should be occasionally sought for,
and removed. When she has swept the room, and rubbed and dusted the
furniture, she must dust the window-frames, ledges of the wainscot, and
doors, chimney-pieces, glass, china, and other ornaments, and having
seen that every article is in its proper place, stir the fire, and
taking all her brushes, &c. leave the room perfectly clean, and fit for
the reception of the family at breakfast. She next proceeds (if the
parlour be up stairs) to sweep and dust the stairs, which she does one
by one, sweeping the dust from each into the dust-pan, and afterwards
dusting the windows and balustrade as carefully as she had done the

She should also sweep the passage in the same way. The floor-cloth in
the passage, for the daily cleaning, need only to be swept and rubbed
with a damp flannel first, and afterwards with a dry one. The steps, at
the front door, should be cleaned every morning, after the passage is
swept out, and the street-door and the knocker, &c. must be cleaned or
polished. The kitchen stairs also, and the steps at the back-door, if
any, are to be cleaned. Above all, the kitchen must now be put in order.

She then washes her hands and face, and puts on a clean apron, &c.
so as to be cleanly before the parlour bell rings for breakfast.
Directions for setting out the breakfast table will be found in the
Instructions to the Footman, as well as for dinner, lunch, tea, &c.

As soon as the family is seated at breakfast, she throws open the
bed-room doors and windows, and uncovers the beds to be aired, and
placing the bed-clothes across a chair at the foot of the bed, leaves
them in that state till breakfast is finished, when she proceeds to
make the bed.

On going down, she takes the slop-pails, night-candlesticks, and the
water-ewer and carofts to be filled with fresh water, and brought up
again immediately, lest they should be wanted. When she goes up after
breakfast, if there have been fires, the fire-places must be swept
up, the fires laid, and before she makes the beds, she should wash
her hands and put on a clean apron. Every bed should be well shaken
daily, and the mattresses turned, at least, once a week. The head of
the bed, the curtains, vallance, &c. will often require attention;
when they should be brushed with a whisk-brush, and well shaken, the
bed-side carpets having been first taken up. After she has made the
beds, and before the carpets are laid down again, the chairs, glasses,
and other articles of furniture in each room are to be properly rubbed
and dusted, and the floors swept clean. The sleeping rooms being thus
prepared, and the stairs swept down, she will scarcely have occasion to
go up again till evening, when she turns down the beds, lets down, or
draws the curtains, and puts the rooms in order for the night.

At intervals, she will, perhaps, be called to bring coals for the
parlour fire, in the winter time; (see directions to the footman;) but,
in addition to this, little will occur to take her from the regular
routine of the morning’s work, till the preparation for dinner requires
her attention. She will find ample instructions for the care of the
kitchen and larder, and for dressing dinners, under the directions to
the cook.

If she is required to wait at table, she will find instructions for the
purpose in the directions to the footman. After the dishes, &c. and the
cloth and table-cover are removed, when there is no company present,
her mistress will, perhaps, require her to bring a piece of cloth, with
bees’-wax on it, and a hard furniture brush, to rub the dining-table,
and take out the stains of the hot dishes.

When all things are set right in the parlour, as her mistress may
direct, she will get her own dinner, (which she will contrive to keep
as warm as circumstances will allow;) meanwhile the water must be
heating to wash the dishes, and all the kitchen utensils, which being
washed, and the several articles (particularly the tinned ones) wiped
out clean and dry, they are to be put away, always in their proper
places, in the cleanest and nicest order, and fit for immediate use.

This done, she is to make up the fire, (having due regard to the
very expensive article of coals) and put on the kettle for tea. The
kitchen is next to be set to rights, and every article in and about
it is to be made quite clean, and disposed in perfect order. In fact,
the cleanly and orderly state of the kitchen ought, at all times, to
claim her utmost attention, as it is there that all the food of the
family is prepared, and nothing does, nor, indeed, can, more deservedly
contribute to the good character of a servant, than the well-regulated
state and cleanly appearance of her kitchen.

The situation of a servant of this denomination is, as we have seen,
one continued round of activity, but industry becomes habitual, and she
will reap the benefit of it throughout life. To be content is the main
thing, and others, seeing her good tempered, and disposed to be happy,
will study to make her so; while experience and habit will greatly
contribute towards it, by daily rendering the routine of the service
more familiar, and consequently, more easy.

There are times, however, when the regular course of business will
be interrupted. Once a week is the appointed day for a thorough
scouring and cleaning, viz. Saturday. But even this day is rendered
less formidable by an attentive servant, and by a little charitable
consideration in the mistress, (which is generally the case) who
will contrive that there shall be less of the ordinary business of
the family to be done on that day than on any other. The maid will,
perhaps, manage to get the bed-rooms thoroughly scoured on Friday. This
should be done as early in the day as possible, and in the winter,
fires should be made in the rooms, in order that they may be quite dry
and safe by bed-time. For cleaning calico and other bed-furniture, and
for scouring rooms, see Head House-Maid. The Sitting-room, and the
spare rooms, if any, instead of the usual every-day cleaning, should
now be thoroughly cleaned, the floors scoured, the grates, hearths,
chimney-pieces, carpets, curtains, and furniture rubbed, scrubbed,
dusted, and otherwise cleaned in the best manner; the kitchen, it is
presumed, is already clean—_always clean_; the pots, pans, kettles,
and every other culinary utensil being _always cleaned as soon as done
with;—scoured, wiped out dry, and put away in their proper places,
fit for use at a moment’s notice_. However laborious the work of the
Saturday may appear, it is but getting up an hour or two earlier, and
setting about it with a good heart, and all the extra business of the
house, in every part, is completely finished, and you sit down, in the
evening, to tea, rejoicing that all is comfortable, and in order.

Another, and more laborious deviation from the regular routine of
family business is—the appointed “_Washing-day_,” which is, indeed, a
day of bustle and activity; perhaps the only one that can be called
a hard day’s work, from one washing-day to another. But, here also,
if the intervals between the washings be long, a washer-woman will be
hired, and the mistress will probably lend her aid, in sorting the
clothes, getting up the small linen, ironing, &c.

In proportion to the arduous and active duties of a situation, is the
satisfaction to be enjoyed from a regular and attentive discharge of
those services: hence no servant has it in her power to render herself
and her employers more comfortable, than the maid of all work. By a
methodical division of her time, she is enabled to keep in order every
apartment in the house, from the kitchen to the attic, all of which
may be accomplished without any extraordinary effort on her part: and
while she thus promotes the comforts of her master and mistress by her
industry and regularity, they will not be backward in rewarding those
meritorious qualities. Wages from 8 to 12 guineas.


  There is more art, perhaps, and more economy than is considered
  necessary in making well, and managing a fire.

  First rake out all the ashes, quite clean, leaving in the bottom of
  the grate a few light cinders, through which the air, from beneath,
  may pass freely; upon these lay shavings, or waste paper, and then
  the wood, the smaller pieces under, of course, and the whole crossing
  each other promiscuously, and in all directions; throw cinders
  behind, and some at the sides, to fill out the grate, and in the
  front, betwixt the bars, put small knobs of fresh coals, with some
  larger knobs at top, and a little small coal behind, but not so much
  at first as to prevent a draft of air through the grate at the top.
  The fire, thus prepared, may be lighted with a match, and will kindle
  well of itself, whilst the ashes are taken up, and the fire-place
  cleaned. When it is found necessary to blow a fire, do not thrust the
  nose of the bellows between the bars, but keep it at an easy distance
  from the fire, and rather below the centre of the fire, that so,
  the air may be dispersed around to a considerable distance in front
  of the fire. When you stir a fire, always put the poker between the
  second and third bars.—After you have stirred the fire, rake out the
  ashes at the bottom of the grate, and sweep up the hearth.

                           THE LAUNDRY MAID.

This Servant washes all the household and other linen belonging to her
employers, and is assisted, generally, by the housemaids; or the house
maids, kitchen maids, and scullery maids wash for themselves. All the
men servants find their own washing, except the footmen’s aprons and

The foul linen is given out to her on Monday morning, and returned
clean, on Friday night or Saturday morning.—Wages from 8l. to 15l. a

Two ounces of pearl-ash, to a pound and a half of soap, will make a
considerable saving. Soda, by softening the water, saves a great deal
of soap. It should be dissolved in a large jug of water, some of which
should be poured into the tubs and boiler, and when the lather becomes
weak, add more.

The use of soft soap, saves nearly half in washing.

Good new hard soap contains full half of oil, one-third water, and the
rest soda.


  In large towns, where linen cannot be exposed to the air and sun upon
  the grass, let it be steeped, for some time before it is washed, in a
  solution of oxymuriate of lime. Let it then be boiled in an alkaline
  ley. Linen or cotton thus treated will not become yellow by age.


  Hold the iron mould on the cover of a tankard of boiling water, and
  rub on the spot a little juice of sorrel and salt, and when the cloth
  has thoroughly imbibed the juice, wash it in ley.


  Cut a pound of mottled soap into thin slices; and put it into a
  pan with a quarter of an ounce of pot-ash. Pour a pail of boiling
  water on it, and let it stand till dissolved. Then pour hot and
  cold water into a scouring tub, with a bowl of the solution. Put
  in the counterpane, beat it well, turn it often, give it a second
  liquor as before, and then rinse it in cold water. Then put three
  tea-spoonsful of liquid blue into a thin liquor; stir it, and put in
  the counterpane: beat it about five minutes, and dry it in the air.


  Cut ½ a pound of the best yellow soap into thin slices, and pour
  such a quantity of boiling river water on it as will dissolve the
  soap, and make it of the consistence of oil. Cover the articles about
  two inches with water, such as the hand can bear, and add a lump of
  American pearl-ash, and about a third of the soap solution. Beat
  them till no head or lather rises on the water; throw away the dirty
  water, and proceed as before with hotter water without pearl-ash.


  Rub it well with soap: then scrape some fine chalk, and rub that also
  in the linen; lay it on the grass; as it dries, wet it a little, and
  it will come out after twice doing.


  As soon as the accident happens, wet the place with juice of sorrel
  or lemon, or with vinegar, and the best hard white soap.

                             THE DAIRY MAID

Manages the dairy, milks the cows, makes the butter, cheese, wheys,
syllabubs, &c. attends the poultry, picks and prepares them for
trussing, makes bread and fresh butter for the parlour every morning,
and bakes all the bread of the family.

The greatest possible attention must be paid to the Dairy. Cleanliness
being the primary object, all the utensils, shelves, and the floor,
should be kept perfectly neat, and cold water should be frequently
thrown over it.—There should be shutters to the Dairy to keep out the
sun and hot air.

The cows should be milked at a regular and early hour, and their
udders should be _perfectly emptied_, else the quantity given will be
diminished. When you go to the cow, take with you, _cold water_ and a
sponge, and wash each cow’s udder; bathe it well with cold water, both
in winter and summer, as that braces them and repels heat. But, if any
cow has sore teats, let them be soaked in warm water twice a day, and
either dressed with soft ointment, or bathed with spirits and water. In
either case, the milk should be given to the pigs.

When the milk is brought into the Dairy, it should be strained and
emptied into clean pans, immediately, in winter, but not till cool, in
summer. Suffer no one to milk the cows but yourself, as much depends on
their being _dripped quite clean_, particularly after a calf is taken

The quantity of milk given by cows, will be different according to
their breed, health, pasturage, the length of time from calving, and
other circumstances. Change of pasturage will tend to increase the

In good pastures, the average of each cow will be about three gallons a
day from Lady-day to Michaelmas; and thence to Christmas, one gallon a

Cows will be profitable yielders of milk, to fourteen or fifteen years
of age, if of a good breed. They should be fed well two or three
weeks before calving, which will increase the quantity of milk. In
gentlemen’s Dairies, more attention is paid to the beauty and size of
cows, than to their produce.

It is absolutely necessary that the cows should be kept feeding whilst
you are milking them.

It should be contrived that cows kept for a gentleman’s family, should
calve at different seasons, and, particularly, that one or two should
calve in August or September, to insure a supply of milk in winter.

When there is not a great demand for cream in the family, the
Dairy-maid will take that opportunity to provide for the winter store.
She should keep a regular weekly account of the quantity of milk given
by each cow, and the quantity of butter she pots. The average of a good
fair Dairy cow, during several months after calving, will be seven
pounds of butter a week, and from three to five gallons of milk per
day; afterwards, a weekly average of three or four pounds of butter,
from barely half that quantity of milk. On an average, three gallons of
good milk, will yield one pound of butter. The annual consumption of a
good cow, turned to grass, is from an acre to an acre and a half in the
summer, and from a ton to a ton and a half of hay, in the winter. Each
cow should be allowed two pecks of carrots per day. The grass, if cut
and carried to the cows green, will economize full one-third.

Alderney cows yield rich milk, upon less food, than larger cows, but
are seldom large milkers, and are particularly scanty of produce in the

Wages from 8l. to 12l. a year.—Perquisites, 1d. per pound for butter;
1½d. for each chicken, or fowl killed; 2d. each, for ducks, geese,
and turkeys; and 3d. a score for eggs.


  Provide bottles which must be perfectly clean, sweet, and dry; draw
  the milk from the cow into the bottles, and as they are filled,
  immediately cork them well up, and fasten the corks with pack-thread
  or wire. Then spread a little straw on the bottom of a boiler, on
  which place the bottles with straw between them, until the boiler
  contains a sufficient quantity. Fill it up with cold water; heat the
  water, and as soon as it begins to boil, draw the fire, and let the
  whole gradually cool. When quite cold take out the bottles, and pack
  them with straw or saw-dust in hampers, and stow them in the coolest
  part of the house. Milk preserved in this manner, although eighteen
  months in the bottles, will be as sweet as when first milked from the


  The chickens first hatched, are to be taken from the hen, lest she be
  tempted to leave her task unfinished. They may be secured in a basket
  of wool or soft hay, and kept in a moderate heat, if the weather be
  cold, near the fire. They will require no food for 24 hours, should
  it be necessary to keep them so long from the hen. The whole brood
  being hatched, place the hen under a coop abroad, upon a dry spot,
  and, if possible, not within reach of another hen, since the chickens
  will mix, and the hens are apt to destroy those which do not belong
  to them. Nor should they be placed near young fowls, which are likely
  to crush them, being always eager for their small meat.

  The first food should be split grits, afterwards tail wheat, all
  watery food, soaked bread, or potatoes, being improper. Eggs boiled
  hard, or curd chopped small, is very suitable as first food. Their
  water should be pure and often renewed, and there are pans made in
  such forms, that the chickens may drink without getting into the
  water, which, by wetting their feet and feathers, numbs and injures
  them; a bason in the middle of a pan of water, will answer the end;
  the water running round it. There is no necessity for cooping the
  brood beyond two or three days, but they may be confined as occasion
  requires, or suffered to range, as they are much benefited by the
  foraging of the hen. They should not be let out too early in the
  morning, whilst the dew lies upon the ground, nor be suffered to
  range over wet grass, which is a common and fatal cause of disease
  in fowls. Another caution requisite is to guard them against
  unfavourable changes of the weather, particularly if rainy. Nearly
  all the diseases of fowls arise from cold moisture.

  For the period of the chickens quitting the hen, there is no general
  rule; when she begins to roost, if sufficiently forward, they will
  follow her; if otherwise, they should be secured in a proper place,
  till the time arrives when they are to associate with the other young
  poultry, since the larger are sure to overrun and drive from their
  food the younger broods.


  An experiment has lately been tried of feeding geese with turnips,
  cut in small pieces like dice, but less in size, and put into a
  trough of water; with this food alone, the effect was, that six
  geese, each when lean weighed only 9 lbs., actually gained 20 lbs.
  each in about three weeks fattening.

  Malt is excellent food for geese and turkeys; grains are preferred
  for the sake of economy, unless for immediate and rapid fattening;
  the grains should be boiled afresh.

  Other cheap articles for fattening, are oatmeal and treacle;
  barley-meal and milk; boiled oats, and ground malt.

  Corn before being given to fowls should always be crushed and soaked
  in water. The food will thus go further, and it will help digestion.
  Hens fed thus have been known to lay during the whole of the winter


  The ANNUAL PRODUCT of a good fair dairy cow, during several months
  after calving, either in summer or winter, if duly fed and kept in
  the latter season, will be an average of seven pounds of butter per
  week, and from five to three gallons of milk per day. Afterwards, a
  weekly average of three or four pounds of butter from barely half
  the quantity of milk. It depends on the constitution of the cow, how
  nearly she may be milked to the time of her calving, some giving good
  milk until within a week or two of that period, others requiring to
  be dried 8 or 9 weeks previously. I have heard (says Mr. Lawrence)
  of 20 lbs. of butter, and even 22 lbs. made from the milk of one
  long-horned cow in seven days; but I have never been fortunate enough
  to obtain one that would produce more than 12 lbs. per week, although
  I have had a Yorkshire cow which milked 7 gallons per day, yet never
  made 5 lbs. of butter in one week. On the average 3 gallons of good
  milk will make 1 lb. of butter.


  To every pound of salt butter put a quart of new milk, and a little
  arnotto. Churn it an hour, then take it out and treat it as fresh
  butter, by washing it with water, and add the usual quantity of salt.
  The butter gains about three ounces in the pound.


  Beat up the whole of a fresh egg, in a basin, then pour boiling tea
  over it gradually, to prevent its curdling. It is difficult, from
  the taste, to distinguish the composition from rich cream.


  Apply with a brush a solution of gum-arabic to the shells, or immerse
  the eggs therein; let them dry, and afterwards pack them in dry
  charcoal dust. This prevents their being affected by any alterations
  of temperature.

  _Another Way._

  Immerse them for a short time in strong lime-water, and they may be
  kept two years, if required.


  Grasp a handful briskly, and squeeze it half a minute: if genuine, it
  will preserve the form of the cavity of the hand, even though rudely
  placed on a table; if adulterated, it will almost immediately fall


  Boil 5 lbs. of the coarsest bran in four gallons and half of water,
  keep stirring it, that it may not stick to the bottom, till reduced
  to four gallons, then pour it off into a trough, or tub full of
  holes, over which lay a coarse cloth or sieve. On the top of the
  whole put a wooden cover, with a weight sufficiently heavy to press
  out the liquor from the bran, which will sink to the bottom of the
  tub in a thick pulp. This liquor will contain the essential oil of
  the corn, and when kneaded in with half a hundred weight of flour,
  and the usual quantity of salt and yeast, it will yield one-third
  more bread than the same quantity of flour would, made with water in
  the usual way. Divide into middle sized loaves and bake two hours and
  a half.

  When ten days old put it into the oven for twenty minutes and it will
  appear quite new.


  Paste is made principally of wheaten flour boiled in water till it be
  of a glutinous or viscid consistence. It may be thus prepared simply
  for common purposes; but when it is required for paper hangings to
  rooms, it is usual to mix a fourth, fifth, or sixth of the weight
  of the flour of powdered resin; and where it is wanted still more
  tenacious, gum arabic, or any kind of size may be added.

                           THE CHAMBER NURSE.

Every experienced person, and every liberal physician and medical
man, is sensible of the value of a careful, skilful, and kind-hearted
nurse, and that the alleviation of sickness and the actual cure of
diseases, depend as much on the anxious attention of the nurse, as on
the efficacy of medicine itself. Good temper, patience, watchfulness,
and sobriety, are the cardinal virtues of every good nurse, and when
possessed by one who unites skill with those personal qualities, she is
a treasure above all price.

Although the chamber nurse forms no part of the establishment of
healthy families, yet as in every family she is a necessary auxiliary
for longer or shorter periods, a brief notice of her qualifications and
duties, will confer completeness on such a volume as the present.

The chamber or sick nurse should be qualified for her duty by some
experience; and if her experience has been considerable, and she is a
woman of good understanding, she will prove herself quite as important
in the nursery of the sick, as medical practitioners, or all the drugs
in an apothecary’s shop. She ought to be past the middle age, and if a
married woman or widow, so much the better. She ought to be clean in
her person, and neat in her dress, and free from habits of drinking
or snuff-taking. She ought also to be a woman of cheerful and equable
temper, and, above all things, free from superstition, or belief in
charms, omens, signs, dreams, and other follies of gross ignorance.

The sick room should be clean, well aired, and free from noisome
smells; and, on the contrary, the air should be purified by sprinkling
vinegar or eau de cologne, and occasionally burning a little vinegar in
a heated shovel.

Quietness, in every respect, is of the first consequence. Fire irons
should be avoided: creaking doors and locks should be oiled; and list
shoes constantly worn. Talking loud and whispering, so as to excite the
suspicion of the patient, should be equally avoided; and a long feather
should be pushed through the key-hole, as a signal on the outside, when
the patient is asleep. The nurse should only sleep when the patient
sleeps, as one means of preventing the patient being awoke by her
frivolous activity.

In cases of contagion, whatever is sent out of the room, should be
immersed in water, and the nurse should be careful not to receive the
breath of the patient, nor to sit on the bed. She should also carry
about her person a bag of camphor, and during such diseases, frequently
fumigate the room with vinegar, and indulge occasionally in half a
glass of brandy.

The sick chamber should be provided with a lamp and appurtenances,
for heating whatever may be wanted; with a tea kettle, two or three
saucepans, empty bottles for hot water, (to put to the feet,) some
sal volatile and spirits, a bottle of salts, and of eau de cologne;
some lambs-wool gloves to rub the patient, a bed-pan, a foot-bath, or
a large tin bath; some lemonade, barley-water, and toast and water:
oranges, lemons, and empty medicine bottles, which occasion smells that
infect the air, should be kept in an adjoining room. There should also
be a supply of flannel, old linen, and napkins, for every purpose.
Different medicines should be carefully kept apart; lest pernicious
ones be given, or proper ones, at improper times. A thermometer in the
room is the only means of keeping an equal temperature, or increasing
or diminishing it, as the medical attendants may direct.

The reports of the nurse to the physician, and the observations of
the physician, should always be made in an adjoining room, and the
mind of the patient not be distracted by details of symptoms, and of
the nurse’s business. Changes which take place after the visit of the
medical attendant, should be immediately reported, and in all that
regards the administration of the medicines, and the general system
of treatment, the nurse should scrupulously obey the instructions of
the medical advisers, not only as the most likely means of promoting
the speedy recovery of the patient, but to remove from herself all
responsibility and blame. At the same time, she should not withhold her
opinion, in regard to the effect of the medicines administered, and
in her conferences with the medical advisers, should suggest whatever
appears likely to be useful.

Nurses, according to the length of a disease, are paid by the day,
week, or month; and as boarders in the family, they ought not to take
advantage of the sympathy which induces the relatives of the sick to
afford them every indulgence, so as to involve unnecessary or wanton
expenses; but consider the interest of the family, whose affliction
requires their attendance, as their own. The usual payment of a nurse
in London, is from 10s. 6d. to 15s. per week, according to the
circumstances of the parties, and of the case.

Nurses who have to compound and administer Family Medicines must be
prepared with proper scales and weights; and with graduated glass
measures, such as are used by Apothecaries; according to the following


  _Measure of Fluids._

  1 gal. measure (cong.) contains  8 pints,
  1 pint (O.)                     16 ounces,
  1 ounce (f. ℥.)                  8 drams,
  1 dram (f. ʒ.)                  60 minims, (_m._)

  _Weights of Dry Substances._

  1 pound (lb.) contains 12 ounces,
  1 ounce (℥.)            8 drams,
  1 dram (ʒ.)            60 grains, (gr.)
  1 scruple (℈.)         20 grains, or 1-3d of a dram.

It is customary to distinguish quantities of fluid from dry substances,
by prefixing the letter f. (fluid) when an ounce or dram is mentioned
in medical works, as may be seen in the first of these tables.

The following table of the gradations of doses of medicines for
_different ages_, will in general be found pretty correct, and ought
never to be deviated from, except by professional advice.

If at the age of _maturity_ the dose be _one dram_, the proportion will
be at

  From 14 to 21 years, 2 scruples,
        7    14        half a dram,
        4     7        1 scruple,
        4              15 grains,
        3              half a scruple,
        2              8 grains,
        1              5 grains,
        6 months       3 grains,
        3              2 grains,
        1              1 grain.


  Cut a slice of fine and stale loaf bread, very thin, and let it be
  carefully toasted on both sides, until browned all over, but not
  blackened or burned. Put the toast into a deep stone or china jug,
  and pour over it, from the tea-kettle, as much boiling water as
  required to make into drink. Cover the jug with a saucer or plate,
  and let the drink become quite cold; it will then be fit for use.
  Toast and water is peculiarly grateful to the stomach, and excellent
  for carrying off the effects of any excess in drinking. It is also a
  most excellent drink at meals.


  Put a large spoonful of oatmeal into a pint of water, stir it well
  together, and let it boil three or four times, stirring it often.
  Then strain it through a sieve, put in some salt according to taste,
  and if necessary add a piece of fresh butter. Stir with a spoon until
  the butter is melted, when it will be fine and smooth.


  Take of pearl-barley, 2 oz.
          water, 4 pints.
  First wash off the mealy matter which adheres to the barley
  with some cold water; then extract the colouring matter,
  by boiling it a little with about half a pint of water.
  Throw this decoction away; and put the barley thus purified
  into four pints of boiling water; then boil down to one
  half and strain the decoction.


  Take of the decoction of barley, 2 pints,
          raisins, stoned, 2 oz.
          figs, sliced, 2 do.
          liquorice-root, sliced and bruised, ½ oz.
          distilled water, 1 pint.
  During the boiling, add the raisins first, and then the figs,
  and, lastly, the liquorice, a short time before it is finished,
  when the strained decoction ought to measure two pints.

  These liquors are to be used freely, as diluting drinks in
  _fevers_ and other acute disorders.


  Put a blade of mace, a large piece of the crumb of bread, and a quart
  of water, in a clean saucepan. Let it boil two minutes, then take out
  the bread, and bruise it very fine in a bason. Mix with it as much of
  the warm water as it will require, pour away the rest and sweeten it
  to the taste of the patient. If necessary, put in a piece of butter
  the size of a walnut, but add no wine. Grate in a little nutmeg, if


  Take off the fat and skin from a pound of lean beef, and cut it into
  pieces. Then put it into a gallon of water, with the under crust of
  a penny loaf, and a small portion of salt. Let the whole boil till
  reduced to two quarts, and strain, when it will be fit for use.


  Take the fat off a pound of loin of mutton, and put the lean into a
  quart of water. Skim it well as it boils, and put in a piece of the
  upper crust of bread, with a large blade of mace. Having covered it
  up close, let it boil closely for half an hour, and then pour the
  broth clear off, without stirring. Season it with a little salt.
  Turnips should not be boiled with the meat.


  This country affords herbs much more wholesome than either tea or
  coffee, and if they were all imported from a distant region, and sold
  at a high price, they would, no doubt, be held in great estimation.
  The following composition is very superior to tea or coffee, inasmuch
  as the infusion is very agreeable, will strengthen the stomach, and
  invigorate, instead of debilitate, the nervous system.

  Take of rosemary leaves, dried,    2 oz.
          sage       do.    do.      4 oz.
          rose       do.    do.      4 oz.
          peach      do.    do.      3 oz.
          hyssop     do.    do.      4 oz.
          balm       do.    do.      5 oz.
          male speedwell, (veronica) 4 oz.

  A wine-glassful of these mixed herbs is sufficient to make 3 pints
  of infusion, which is made in the same manner as tea, sugar and milk
  being added. In London, where herbs are sold at a dearer rate than in
  the country, it may be obtained at the rate of 2s. per pound.—Either
  of the above ingredients may be diminished or augmented at pleasure.
  If too bitter, lessen the quantity of hyssop, and add dried mint


  Put an ounce of isinglass, and a few cloves, into a quart of water.
  Boil it down to a pint, strain it upon a pound of loaf sugar, and
  when cold, add a little wine, when it will be fit for use.—A very
  nourishing beverage may be made by merely boiling the isinglass with
  milk, and sweetening with lump sugar.


  Put a dessert spoonful of the powder of salop, into a pint of boiling
  water. Keep stirring it till it becomes of the consistence of jelly,
  and then add white wine and sugar, according to taste.


  Put an ounce of hartshorn shavings into a quart of boiling
  barley-water; boil down to a pint, add two ounces of candid eringo
  root, and a pint of new milk; boil for a quarter of an hour, when
  strain for use.


  Boil four spoonsful of oatmeal, a blade or two of mace, and a piece
  of lemon peel, in two quarts of water, for about a quarter of an
  hour; taking care that it does not boil over. Then strain, and add a
  quart of good ale that is not bitter. Sweeten it to the palate, and
  add half a pint of white wine. When no white wine is used the caudle
  should consist of one half of ale.


  Make the gruel as above, and strain through a sieve, but put no ale
  to it. When to be used, sweeten according to taste, grate in some
  nutmeg, and add a little white wine. Juice of lemon is sometimes


  Cut the meat from a leg of veal into small pieces, and break the
  bone into several bits. Put the meat into a very large jug, and the
  bones at top, with a bunch of common sweet herbs, a quarter of an
  ounce of mace, and half a pound of Jordan almonds, finely blanched
  and beaten. Pour on it four quarts of boiling water, and let it stand
  all night, covered close by the fire-side. The next day put it into
  a well-tinned saucepan, and let it boil slowly, till it is reduced
  to two quarts. Be careful, at the time it is boiling, to skim it,
  and take off the fat as it rises. Strain into a punch-bowl, and when
  settled for two hours, pour it into a clean saucepan, clear from the
  sediment, if any.


  Pulverize 1 ounce of citric acid, and divide it into 24 parts; that
  is, 24 scruples, which are to be put into separate small _blue_
  papers. Pulverize, also, 1 ounce of the sub-carbonate of soda, and
  divide it into 24 like packages, in _white_ paper. When the draught
  is to be prepared, put the carbonate into a tumbler, half filled with
  water: in another, dissolve the acid in an equal quantity; throw one
  into the other, and drink it while effervescing.

  A similar preparation may be made by using tartaric acid instead of
  the citric.


  Mix in a plate, a few ounces of pulverized black oxyde of manganese
  and common salt, which being placed in the house supposed to be
  infected, sprinkle oil of vitriol upon the mixture, and gas will
  arise which will render the place perfectly salubrious. The oil of
  vitriol should be carefully added by a few drops at a time, the face
  being turned from the mixture.


  Dissolve 20 grains of carbonate of potass in a table-spoonful of
  lemon juice, and three table-spoonsful of water, to which add a small
  quantity of lump sugar. This draught is very serviceable in sore
  throats, &c.


  Take of Rochelle salt, 1 dram,
          carbonate of soda, 25 grains,
          tartaric acid, 20 do.
  Dissolve the first two in a tumbler of water, then add the
  latter, _and drink_ without loss of time.


  The general characters of good rhubarb are, it having a whitish or
  clear yellow colour, being dry, solid, and compact; moderately heavy,
  and brittle; when recently broken appearing marked with yellow or
  reddish veins, mixed with white; being easily pulverizable; forming
  a powder of a fine bright yellow, having the peculiar, nauseous,
  aromatic smell of rhubarb, and a sub-acrid, bitterish, somewhat
  astringent taste, and when chewed feeling gritty under the teeth,
  speedily colouring the saliva, and not appearing very mucilaginous.


  This fruit very much resembles the nature of prunes, but is more
  acid, and enters as a useful ingredient into the lenitive electuary.
  It is found of the highest use in a sore throat, as a powerful
  cleanser; and, put into boiling water until moderately cold, is a
  delightful drink to persons parched under the heat of fever, and in
  the lowest state of putrid fever.


  Water-cresses act as a gentle stimulant and diuretic; for these
  purposes the expressed juice, which contains the peculiar taste and
  pungency of the herb, may be taken in doses of an ounce or two, and
  continued for a considerable time. It should be at the same time
  eaten at breakfast, also at dinner, and for supper, to experience
  benefit from the virtues of this herb.


  Mix 1 dram of powdered spermaceti with the yolks of 2 eggs; then add
  1 dram of tincture of opium, and 5 oz., of water.

  To be taken in the quantity of a wine-glassful when the cough is


  Mix together a dessert spoonful of syrup of poppies, and 15 drops of
  antimonial wine. To be taken at a draught, with or without a little
  warm water, either at bed-time, or in the middle of the night. Half
  this quantity may be given to a child under the same circumstances.


  Mix together in a wine-glass,
        30 drops of laudanum,
         4 tea-spoonsful of vinegar, and
         6 tea-spoonsful of water, sweetened with a
         little lump sugar.


  Take of sweet almonds, blanched, 1½ oz.
          double-refined sugar, ¾ oz.
          distilled water, 2½ pints.
  Beat the almonds with the sugar; then rubbing them
  together, add by degrees the water, and strain the liquor.

  Almost any quantity may be taken as a frequent drink to
  soften coughs, and to assuage urinary disorders.


  Take of gum-arabic, in powder, 4 oz.
          boiling water, 8 oz.
  Triturate the gum with a small portion of the water until
  it be dissolved.

  It is necessary to pass the mucilage through linen, in
  order to free it from pieces of wood and other impurities,
  which always adhere to the gum: the linen may be placed in
  a funnel.

  Mucilage of gum-arabic is very useful in making up medicines, &c.
  it also possesses the powers of a _mucilaginous demulcent_ in a
  high degree; and is frequently given in _diarrhœa_, _dysentery_,
  _chin-cough_, _hoarseness_, _strangury_, _&c._


  Take of gum-arabic, in powder, 2 drams,
          sweet almonds, blanched,
          double refined sugar, each ½ dram,
          decoction of barley, 1 pint.
  Dissolve the gum in the warm decoction; and when it is
  almost cold, pour it upon the almonds, previously well
  beaten with the sugar, and at the same time triturate them
  together, so as to form an emulsion, and then filter.

  The almonds are blanched by infusing them in boiling water,
  and peeling them. The success of the preparation depends
  upon beating the almonds to a smooth pulp, and triturating
  them with each portion of the watery fluid, so as to form
  an uniform mixture before another portion be added.


  Take of marshmallow roots, bruised, 4 oz.
          sun raisins, stoned, 2 oz.
          water, 7 pints.
  Boil down to five pints; strain the decoction, and after
  the grounds have subsided, pour off the clear liquor.

  Marshmallow roots contain nothing soluble in water except mucilage,
  which is very abundant in them. This decoction is therefore to be
  considered merely as an _emollient_, rendered more pleasant by the
  acidulous sweetness of the raisins.


  Take of hepatic aloes, 1 oz.
          ginger powder, 1 dram,
          soap, ½ oz.
          essential oil of peppermint, ½ a dram.
  Let the aloes and ginger be rubbed well together, then add
  the soap and the oil so as to form a mass.

  These pills may be advantageously used for obviating the _habitual
  costiveness_ of sedentary persons. The dose is from 10 to 15 grains.


  Take of socotrine aloes, 6 drams,
          gum mastic, 2 drams.
  Reduce to powder separately; make into a mass with syrup of
  wormwood, and divide into one hundred pills, of which take
  one every night.


  Take of camphor, 1 oz.
          soap, 3 oz.
          spirit of rosemary, 1 pint.
  Digest the soap in the spirit of rosemary until it be
  dissolved, and add to it the camphor.


  Dissolve 2 lbs. of white soap, and 1 lb. of yellow ditto,
  in 3 pints of water.
  Now dissolve 4 oz. of camphor,
               1 oz. of oil of rosemary, and
               6 drams of oil of origanum, in
               3 pints of spirit of wine.
  Mix both solutions, and then add 3 oz. of water of ammonia.

  This liniment is extensively used to allay the inflammation
  of _bruises_, _sprains_, &c.


  Take of almond soap, 2 ounces,
          alcohol, 1 pint,
          camphor, 1 ounce,
          cajeput oil, 2 ounces.
  First dissolve the soap and camphor in the alcohol, and
  when the solution is about to congeal, or becomes nearly
  cold, add the oil of cajeput: shake them well together, and
  put it into bottles to congeal.

  This composition is a great improvement on the opodeldocs in general
  use, and in cases of _rheumatism, paralytic numbness, chilblains,
  enlargement of joints, and indolent tumours_; where the object is to
  rouse the action of absorbent vessels, and to stimulate the nerves,
  it is a very valuable external remedy.


  Take of water of ammonia, ½ an ounce,
          olive oil, 1½ ounces.
  Shake them together in a phial till they are mixed.

  In the _inflammatory quinsey_, a piece of flannel, moistened
  with this mixture, applied to the throat, and renewed every
  four or five hours, is one of the most efficacious remedies.


  Take of lime water, and olive oil, each three ounces.
  Mix them by shaking in a phial.

  This solution is thick, of a white colour, and devoid of
  acrimony. It is very advantageously applied to burns and
  scalds. The soapy matter separates from the water when it has
  been made some time, and therefore it is always better to
  prepare it only when it is wanted.


  Dissolve ten or twelve grains of white soap in four ounces of
  rectified spirit of wine; after which, strain the solution. A dram of
  rectified oil of amber is then added, and the whole filtered: with
  this solution should be mixed such a proportion of the strongest
  volatile spirit of ammonia, in a clear glass bottle, as will, when
  sufficiently shaken, produce a beautiful milk-white liquor. If a kind
  of cream should settle on the surface, it will be requisite to add a
  small quantity of the spirituous solution of soap. Those who may wish
  to have this liquor perfumed, may employ lavender or Hungary water,
  instead of the spirit of wine.

  It is employed for curing the _bites of adders_, _wasps_, _bees_,
  _gnats_, _ants_, and other insects, and for _burns_.


  Mix together, 4 ounces of spirit of wine,
                1 dram of Friar’s balsam,
                2 do. of tincture of saffron.

  This balsam is used for _sprains_ and _bruises_.


  Fomentations are applied externally, and as warm as the patient can
  conveniently bear, in the following manner: Two flannel cloths are
  dipped into the heated liquor, of one which is wrung as dry as the
  necessary speed will admit then immediately applied to the part
  affected. The flannel lies on, until the heat begins to go off, and
  the other is in readiness to apply at the instant in which the first
  is removed:—thus these flannels are alternately applied, so as to
  keep the affected part constantly warm. This is continued fifteen or
  twenty minutes, and repeated two or three times a day, or as often as
  occasion may require. The degree of heat should never exceed that of
  producing a pleasing sensation; great heat sometimes produces effects
  very opposite to that intended by the use of the fomentation.


  Take of the leaves of southernwood, dried,
          tops of sea-wormwood, do.
          camomile flowers, ditto, each 1 oz.
          bay leaves, do. ½ oz.
          distilled water, 6 pints.
  Boil them a little, and strain.

  In making these decoctions the aromatic substances should
  not be added until the decoction is nearly completed, for
  otherwise their flavour would be entirely dissipated.


  Take two poppy heads, boil them in a quart of milk, and use this as a
  fomentation. It is excellent in _inflamed eyes_, also to relieve the
  pain of inflammation from a blister or other cause.


  Take of mustard-seed, powdered, ½ lb.
          crumb of bread, ½ do.
          vinegar, as much as is sufficient.
  Mix, and make a cataplasm.

  Cataplasms of this kind are employed as _stimulants_: they
  often inflame the part, and raise _blisters_, but not so
  perfectly as cautharides. They are frequently applied to the
  soles of the feet, in the low state of acute diseases, for
  _raising the pulse_ and relieving the head.


  Take of olive oil, 5 ounces,
          white wax, 2 ounces.

  This is an useful emollient ointment for _softening the skin_.


  Take of prepared hog’s lard, 2 lbs.
          rose water, 3 oz.
  Beat the lard with the rose-water until they be mixed; then
  melt the mixture with a slow fire, and set it apart that
  the water may subside; after which, pour off the lard from
  the water, constantly stirring until it be cold.

  This ointment may be used for _softening the skin_, and _healing


  Take of white wax, 4 oz.
          spermaceti, 3 oz.
          olive oil, 1 pint.
  Mix them together over a gentle fire, and then stir them
  very briskly, without ceasing, till they are cold.


  Take of spermaceti, 6 drams,
          white wax, 2 do.
          olive oil, 3 oz.
  Melt all together over a gentle fire, stirring briskly,
  without intermission, till the ointment becomes cold.

  These two ointments are supposed only to supple the parts,
  and hinder the rag or lint from sticking to the granulating
  flesh, and they also keep the air from wounds, which is known
  to irritate them, from the oxygen in the atmosphere; but they
  have, otherwise, no peculiar healing virtue.


  Melt together 2½ oz. of white wax,
                3 oz. of spermaceti,
                7 oz. of oil of almonds,
                1 dram of balsam of Peru, and
                1½ oz. of alkanet root, wrapped up in a linen bag.
  Pour the salve into small gallipots or boxes, and cover
  with bladder and white leather.


  Bruise a sufficient quantity of isinglass, and let it soak for
  twenty-four hours in a little warm water; expose it to heat over the
  fire, to dissipate the greater part of the water, and supply its
  place by colourless brandy, which will mix the gelatine of the glue.
  Strain the whole through a piece of open linen: on cooling, it will
  form a trembling jelly.

  Now extend a piece of black silk on a wooden frame, and fix it in
  that position by means of tacks, or pack-thread. Then, with a brush
  made of badger’s hair, apply the glue, after it has been exposed
  to a gentle heat, to render it liquid. When this stratum is dry,
  which will soon be the case, apply a second, and then a third, if
  necessary, to give the plaster a certain thickness; as soon as the
  whole is dry, cover it with two or three strata of a strong tincture
  of balsam of Tolu.

  This is the real English court plaster: it is pliable, and never
  breaks, characters which distinguish it from so many other
  preparations sold under the same name.


  This plaster is generally used to cover slight abrasions and
  excoriations of the skin. When used for small cuts, from sharp
  instruments, bring the lips of the wound together, and lay over it
  a piece of goldbeater’s skin; then fix this by means of a piece of
  court plaster. The wound will generally heal without further trouble.


  Take of rhubarb, sliced, 3 oz.
          lesser cardamom seeds, bruised, ½ oz.
          liquorice root, bruised, ½ oz.
          saffron, 2 drams,
          proof spirit of wine, 2 pints.
  Digest for seven days, and strain. Dose, ½ an oz. as a _purge_,
  or 2 dr. as a _stomachic_.


  Take of rhubarb, sliced, 2 oz.
          liquorice root, bruised, ½ oz.
          ginger, powdered,
          saffron, each 2 drams;
          distilled water, 1 pint,
          proof spirit of wine, 12 oz. by measure.
  Digest for 14 days, and strain. Dose, ½ an oz. as an _aperient_,
  or 1 oz. in violent diarrhœa.


  Take of cinnamon, bruised,
          lesser cardamom seeds, each 1 oz.
          long pepper, in powder, 2 drams,
          diluted alcohol, 2½ lbs.
  Digest for seven days, and filter through paper.

  A tea-spoonful or two may be taken in wine, or any other
  convenient vehicle, in _languors_, _weakness of the
  stomach_, _flatulencies_, and other similar complaints; and
  in these cases it is often employed with advantage.


  Take of senna leaves, 2 oz.
          jalap root, 1 oz.
          coriander seeds, ½ oz.
          proof spirit, 2½ pints.
  Digest for seven days, and to the strained liquor add 4 oz.
  of sugar-candy.

  This tincture is an useful _carminative_ and _cathartic_,
  especially to those who have accustomed themselves to the
  use of spirituous liquors; it often relieves _flatulent
  complaints_ and _colics_, where the common cordials have
  little effect: the dose is from 1 to 2 ounces.


  Take of senna, 2 lbs.
          rhubarb shavings, 2 lbs.
          jalap root, 1 lb.
          caraway seeds, 1 lb.
          aniseeds, 2 lbs.
          sugar, 4 lbs.
          shavings of red sanders wood, ½ lb.
  Digest these in 10 gallons of spirit of wine, for 14 days,
  and strain for use. This elixir possesses almost the same
  qualities as the _Compound Tincture of Senna_. The above
  quantities may be reduced to as small a scale as may be


  Dissolve ½ an oz. of opium,
           1 dram of oil of sassafras, in
           2 ounces of spirit of wine.
  Now mix 4 lbs. of treacle, with
           1 gallon of boiling water, and when cold, mix both

  This is generally used to soothe the _pains of children_, &c.


  Take of balsam of tolu, 2 oz.
          gum storax, 2 drams,
          opium, 2 do.
          honey, 8 oz.
  Dissolve these in a quart of spirit of wine.

  This balsam is useful in allaying the irritation of _cough_.

  Dose, 1 or 2 tea-spoonsful in a little tea, or warm water.


  Take of balsam of Tolu, 1 oz.
          alcohol, 1 pint.
  Digest until the balsam be dissolved, and then strain the
  tincture through paper.

  This solution of the balsam of Tolu possesses all the virtues
  of the balsam itself. It may be taken internally, with the
  several intentions for which that balsam is proper, to the
  quantity of a tea-spoonful or two, in any convenient vehicle.

  Mixed with simple syrup, it forms an agreeable balsamic syrup.


  Take of Peruvian bark, 4 oz.
          proof spirit, 2 pints.
  Digest for 10 days, and strain.

  It may be given from a tea-spoonful to ½ an ounce, or an
  ounce, according to the different purposes it is intended to


  Take of Peruvian bark, powdered, 2 oz.
          the peel of Seville oranges, dried, 1½ do.
          Virginian snake root, bruised, 3 drams,
          saffron, 1 do.
          cochineal, powdered, 2 scruples,
          proof spirit, 20 oz.
  Digest for 14 days, and strain.

  As a _corroborant_ and _stomachic_, it is given in doses
  of two or three drams; but when employed for the cure of
  _intermittent fevers_, it must be taken to a greater extent.


  Take of guaiacum, 4 oz.
          rectified spirit of wine, 2 pints.
  Digest for seven days, and filter.

  This solution is a powerful stimulating sudorific, and may
  be given in doses, of about ½ an ounce, in _rheumatic and
  asthmatic cases_.


  Take of resin of guaiacum, in powder, 4 oz.
          ammoniated alcohol, in powder, 1½ lb.
  Digest for seven days, and filter through paper.

  In _rheumatic cases_, a tea, or even table-spoonful, taken
  every morning and evening, in any convenient vehicle,
  particularly in milk, has proved of singular service.


  Take of benzoin, 3 oz.
          purified storax, 2 oz.
          balsam of Tolu, 1 oz.
          socotrine aloes, ½ oz.
          rectified spirit of wine, 2 pints.
  Digest for seven days and filter.

  The dose is a tea-spoonful in some warm water four times a
  day, in _consumptions and spitting of blood_. It is useful,
  also, when applied on lint, to _recent wounds_, and serves
  the purposes of a scab, but must not be soon removed.


  Take extract of catechu, 3 oz.
       cinnamon, bruised, 2 oz.
       diluted alcohol, 2 pints.
  Digest for seven days, and strain through paper.

  The cinnamon is a very useful addition to the catechu, not
  only as it warms the stomach, but likewise as it covers its
  roughness and astringency.

  This tincture is of service in all kinds of _defluxions_,
  _catarrhs_, _looseness_, and other disorders where astringent
  medicines are indicated. Two or three tea-spoonsful may be
  taken occasionally.


  Take of the root of ipecacuan, bruised, 2 oz.
          Spanish white wine, 2 pints.
  Digest for ten days and strain.

  This wine is a very mild and safe _emetic_, and nearly
  equally serviceable in _dysenteries_, with the ipecacuan in
  substance; this root yielding nearly all its virtues to the
  Spanish white wine. The common dose is an ounce, more or
  less, according to the age and strength of the patient.


  The common mode of preparing this, is to put three drams of the
  essential oil of lavender, and a dram of the essence of ambergris,
  into 1 pint of spirit of wine.


  Take of the fresh tops of rosemary, 1½ lb.
          proof spirit, 1 gallon.
  Distil off in a water-bath, 5 pints.


  Take of aniseed,
          angelica-seed, each bruised, ½ lb.
          proof-spirit, 1 gallon,
          water, sufficient to prevent a bad taste or flavour.
  Draw off 1 gallon by distillation.

  This compound is often employed with advantage, in cases of
  _flatulent colic_.


  Take of extract of liquorice,
          gum arabic, each 4 oz.
          white sugar, 8 oz.
  Dissolve them in warm water, and strain; then evaporate
  the mixture over a gentle fire, till it be of a proper
  consistence for being formed into lozenges, which are to be
  cut out of any shape.


  Take of fine sugar, 1 lb.
          gum arabic, 4 oz.
          starch, 1 oz.
          flowers of benzoin, ¾ dram.
  Having beat them all in a powder, make them into a proper
  mass with rose-water, so as to form lozenges.

  These compositions are calculated for softening _acrimonious
  humours_, and allaying the _tickling in the throat_ which
  provokes coughing.


  Take of nitre, purified, 3 oz.
          double-refined sugar, 9 oz.
  Make them into lozenges with mucilage of gum tragacanth.

  This is a very agreeable form for the exhibition of nitre,
  as a _diuretic or febrifuge_, though, when the salt is thus
  taken, without any liquid (if the quantity be considerable),
  it is apt to occasion uneasiness about the stomach, which can
  only be prevented by a large dilution with aqueous liquors.


  Take of dried red rose-buds, 4 oz.
          boiling distilled water, 3 pints,
          clarified honey, 5 lbs.
  Macerate the rose-leaves in the water for six hours; then
  mix the honey with the strained liquor, and boil the
  mixture to the thickness of a syrup.

  This preparation is not unfrequently used as a mild, cooling
  detergent, particularly in gargles for _ulcerations and
  inflammation of the mouth and tonsils_.


  Take of the heads of white poppies, dried, 3½ lbs.
          double-refined sugar, 6 lbs.
          distilled water, 8 gallons.
  Slice and bruise the heads, then boil them in the water to
  three gallons, and press out the decoction. Reduce this, by
  boiling, to about 4 pints, and strain it while hot through
  a sieve, then through a thin woollen cloth, and set it
  aside for twelve hours, that the grounds may subside. Boil
  the liquor poured off from the grounds to three pints, and
  dissolve the sugar in it, that it may be made a syrup.

  This syrup, impregnated with the narcotic matter of the
  poppy-head, is given to _children_ in doses of two or three
  drams, and to adults of from half an ounce to one ounce and
  upwards, for _easing pain_, _procuring rest_, and answering
  the other intentions of _mild operations_.


  Take of fresh flowers of the violet, 1 lb.
          boiling distilled water, 3 pints.
  Macerate for 25 hours, and strain the liquor through a cloth,
  without pressing, and add double-refined sugar, to make the

  This is an agreeable _laxative medicine_ for young children.


  Take of clarified honey, 3 lbs.
          vinegar of squills, 2 pints.
  Boil them in a glass vessel, with a slow fire, to the
  thickness of a syrup.

  Oxymel of squills is an useful _aperient, detergent, and
  expectorant_, and of great service in _humoral asthmas_,
  _coughs_, and other disorders where _thick phlegm_ abounds.
  It is given in doses of two or three drachms, along with some
  aromatic water, as that of cinnamon, to prevent the great
  nausea which it would otherwise be apt to excite. In large
  doses it proves _emetic_.


  Take of squills, recently dried, 1 pound,
          vinegar, 6 pints,
          proof spirit, ½ pint.
  Macerate the squills with the vinegar, in a glass vessel,
  with a gentle heat, for 24 hours; then express the liquor,
  and set it aside until the fæces subside. To the decanted
  liquor add the spirit.

  Vinegar of squills is a very powerful stimulant; and hence
  it is frequently used with great success as a _diuretic and
  expectorant_. The dose of this medicine is from a dram to
  half an ounce.


  Take of tar, 2 pints;
          water, 1 gallon.
  Mix, by stirring them with a wooden rod for a quarter of an
  hour, and, after the tar has subsided, strain the liquor, and
  keep it in well corked phials.

  Tar-water should have the colour of white wine, and an empyreumatic
  taste. It is, in fact, a solution of empyreumatic oil, effected by
  means of acetous acid. It acts as a _stimulant raising the pulse_,
  and increasing the discharge by the skin and kidneys. It may be drank
  to the extent of a pint or two in the course of a day.


  Take of sarsaparilla root, cut, 6 oz.
          distilled water, 8 pints.
  After macerating for two hours, with a heat about 195
  degrees, then take out the root, and bruise it; add it
  again to the liquor, and macerate it for two hours longer;
  then boil down the liquor to 4 pints, and strain it. The
  dose is from 4 oz. to half a pint, or more, daily.


  Take of sarsaparilla root, cut and bruised, 6 oz.
          the bark of sassafras root,
          the shavings of guaiacum wood,
          liquorice root, each 1 oz.
          the bark of mezereon root, 3 drams,
          distilled water, 10 pints.
  Digest with a gentle heat for six hours, then boil down
  the liquor to one half (or 5 pints) adding the bark of the
  mezereon root towards the end of boiling. Strain off the
  liquor. The dose is the same as the last, and for the same


  Take of guaiacum raspings, 3 oz.
          raisins, stoned, 2 oz.
          sassafras root, sliced,
          liquorice root, bruised, each 1 oz.
          water, 10 lbs.
  Boil the guaiacum and raisins with the water, over a gentle
  fire, to the consumption of one half, adding, towards the
  end, the sassafras and liquorice, and strain the decoction
  without expression.


  Take of dried red roses, ½ oz.
          diluted vitriolic acid, 3 drams,
          boiling distilled water, 2½ pints,
          double refined sugar, 1½ oz.
  First pour the water on the petals, in a close vessel, then
  add the diluted vitriolic acid, and macerate for half an
  hour. Strain the liquor when cold, and add the sugar.


  Take of ipecacuan wine, 7 drams,
          antimonial wine, 1 do.
          syrup of violets, 1 do.
          rose-water, 3 do.
  Make into a draught to be taken at eight in the evening;
  or, for an infant, give a tea-spoonful every five minutes
  until it operates, and half of it for a child of ten or
  twelve years. It has no taste.


  Take senna leaves, an ounce and a half,
       ginger, sliced, 1 dram,
       boiling water, 1 pint.
  Macerate for an hour, and strain the liquor.

  Two or three tea-spoonsful of Epsom salts dissolved in a
  wine-glassful of warm water, with 3 table-spoonsful of the
  above infusion of senna, and a tea-spoonful of tincture of
  senna, or cardamoms, will act as a mild aperient. It should
  be taken early in the morning, and a plentiful supply of tea,
  afterwards, at breakfast.


  Take of manna, 1 oz.
          mucilage of gum arabic,
          oil of almonds,
          syrup of lemons, each 2 drams.

  Of this mixture give a tea-spoonful to a child at bed-time.


  Take of camphor, 1 dram,
          rectified spirit of wine, ten drops,
          double-refined sugar, half an ounce,
          boiling distilled water, one pint.
  Rub the camphor first with the spirit of wine, then with
  the sugar; lastly, add the water by degrees, and strain the

  In the common form of camphor emulsion the union is effected, by
  triturating the camphor with a few almonds, the unctuous quality of
  which serves in a considerable degree to cover the pungency of the
  camphor without diminishing its activity. Camphor under the present
  form, as well as that of emulsion, is very useful in _fevers_, taken
  to the extent of a table-spoonful every three or four hours.


  Take of prepared chalk, 1 oz.
          refined sugar, ½ an oz.
          mucilage of gum arabic, 2 oz.
  Rub them together and then add by degrees,
          water, 2 pints,
          spirituous cinnamon-water, 2 ounces.

  This is a very elegant form of exhibiting chalk, and is a
  useful remedy in diseases arising from or accompanied with
  _acidity in the stomach_, &c. It is frequently employed in
  _diarrhœa_ proceeding from that cause.


  The person ought to be immediately carried into the open air, and the
  temples should be rubbed with strong vinegar and brandy, and volatile
  salts or spirits held to the nose. The patient should then be laid
  on the back with the head low, and have a little wine or other
  cordial poured into the mouth. If subject to hysteric fits, castor or
  assafœtida should be applied to the nose, or burnt feathers, horn, or


  Dry lint put up the nostrils, pledgets of lint dipped in spirits, or
  weak solution of blue vitriol, or from ten to twenty drops of oil of
  turpentine taken in water, generally stop discharges of blood.


  Water for a warm bath should be rather more than a blood heat, or
  from 90 to 100 of the thermometer, and if a portable tin bath is not
  at command, and a warm bath is suddenly wanted, the quickest mode of
  making one, is to knock in the head of a beer or wine cask, according
  to the size of the patient, and every neighbourhood will supply
  these, as well as sufficient quantities of hot water, clean or dirty.


  In cases of substances being stopt between the mouth and the stomach,
  where they cannot be extracted by the fingers or otherwise, the
  person should swallow a piece of meat or tow tied to a thread,
  which should be immediately drawn up again. Emetics are sometimes
  serviceable, and injections of warm milk and water frequently remove
  the obstructions. When animation is suspended by noxious vapours, the
  usual methods in fainting should be employed, and lemonade or vinegar
  and water given to the patient as soon as he can swallow.

  When it proceeds from extreme cold, the part affected should be
  immersed in cold water, or rubbed with snow till they recover their
  natural warmth.


  Every method should be taken to lessen the circulation of blood
  towards the head; the patient should be kept easy and cool, the
  head raised high, and the feet suffered to hang down. The clothes
  should be loosened and fresh air admitted into the room, and medical
  assistance procured immediately for bleeding.

  Apoplexy is preceded by giddiness, pain, and swimming of the head,
  loss of memory, &c. and on the symptoms appearing, bleeding,
  slender diet, and opening medicines are advisable, and often act as


  Most head-aches arise from imperfect digestion, either from acidity,
  or from accumulations of bile. The first cause may be removed by half
  a tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda, or by a dessert spoonful of
  magnesia, in a small tumbler of water. But if the cause is bilious,
  then two or three antibilious pills, or a pill of from two to five
  grains of calomel, is the best remedy, and this may be assisted in
  its operation by half an ounce of salts in a large tumbler of water,
  in the morning. Washing the head with cold water, is always salutary
  in habitual head-aches, particularly at rising in the mornings.


  One part of red lead, in fine powder, and two parts of
  hog’s-lard.—Spread on lint, and dress the sore twice a day.


  Three drams of prepared natron (which may be obtained for
  three-pence) in a quart of soft cold water, and take half of it in
  the course of the day; continue it for a few days, and the complaint
  will subside. It may be taken at any hour, but it is best after a


  A large tea-cupful of linseed, two pennyworth of stick-liquorice, and
  a quarter of a pound of sun raisins, put to two quarts of soft water,
  and simmered over a slow fire, till reduced one-third or more; add
  thereto a quarter of a pound of sugar-candy pounded, a table-spoonful
  of old rum, and a table-spoonful of white wine vinegar, or
  lemon-juice. Note—the rum and vinegar should be added only to the
  quantity which is about to be taken immediately. Drink half a pint
  at going to bed, or a small quantity at any time when the cough is


  Take of almond emulsion, 7½ ounces; syrup of white poppies, oxymel
  of squills, of each two drams; compound powder of gum tragacanth, one
  dram. Two table-spoonsful to be taken frequently.


  Inhale the steam of hot vinegar, through the spout of a tea-pot, or
  a funnel, for about half an hour just before you go to bed:—also
  two or three times in the course of the day, and keep at home. A
  piece of flannel dipped in hartshorn will be serviceable, applied
  when going to bed. In a relaxed sore throat, a few lumps of sugar
  dipped in brandy, and gradually dissolved in the mouth, will be very


  Bathe the legs and feet in warm water at night, and take, going into
  bed, a drink of hot whey, with 4 grains of nitre.

  If a sore throat, tie round it three or four folds of flannel
  sprinkled with spirits.


  This is an excellent remedy in all cases of colds, coughs,
  hoarseness, pains and head-aches; for in the above-mentioned
  complaints, inflammation, or undue determination of blood to the
  part affected, is present. After this operation the patient should
  instantly go to bed.


  One ounce of myrrh, in fine powder, two spoonsful of the best honey,
  and a little sage, in fine powder, mixed together, with which rub the
  teeth and gums night and morning.


  After having washed your mouth with water, rinse the mouth with a
  tea-spoonful of lavender water mixed with an equal quantity of warm
  or cold water, to diminish its activity.


  To a table-spoonful of any spirit, and the same quantity of vinegar,
  add a tea-spoonful of salt. When mixed, hold the liquid in your
  mouth, so as to enter the cavity of the tooth.


  Red spurge destroys warts and corns.


  Cut an apple, and rub it for a few minutes over the wart; the juice
  of the apple will loosen the wart, and in a few days it will drop
  off. Any strong acid, either vegetable or mineral, has the same


  Mr. Cooper, in his Dictionary of Surgery, gives the following recipe
  as infallible for the cure of corns:—Take two ounces of gum ammoniac,
  two ounces of yellow wax, six drams of verdigris, melt them together,
  and spread the composition on a piece of soft leather or linen; cut
  away as much of the corn as you can with a knife before you apply the
  plaster, which must be renewed in a fortnight, if the corn is not by
  that time gone.


  When the blisters are open, dress them with a simple white ointment
  spread thinly on the smooth side of lint, the first day, and every
  day after sprinkle a little powder of prepared chalk, and dress it as
  before. To alleviate the immediate pain, apply any quick evaporating
  fluid, as æther, spirits of wine, or brandy; or better than all, if
  at hand, spirits of turpentine, or rags dipped in vinegar and water,
  and often renewed.


  Rub the part burnt every two or three hours with spirits of
  turpentine, or with vinegar if the skin be not broken, or vinegar
  and cold water. Half a pound of alum dissolved in a quart of water,
  likewise makes an admirable wash for a burn or scald; bathe the part
  with a linen rag dipped in the mixture, then bind the rag upon it
  with a slip of linen, and keep it moist with the alum water for two
  or three days, without removing the bandage.


  The mischief which arises from this accident is owing to the party
  standing in an erect position, because flame ascends, and feeds
  and accumulates in intensity during its ascent. The first remedy
  is, therefore, to lay the child or other person on the floor, in
  which position the flames will not only make no progress, but will
  do little or no harm to the person. The fatal consequences of this
  accident arise from the ascent of the flame to the throat, head, and
  sensitive organs, an effect which cannot take place if the body is
  instantly placed in an horizontal position. Sir Richard Phillips,
  who first promulgated this treatment, proved its efficacy by taking
  two strips of muslin, a yard long, and one of them, which was set
  on fire at the end, and held perpendicularly, burnt out with an
  intense flame in less than half a minute; but the other piece, laid
  hollow and horizontally, on being set on fire at the end, burnt even
  with difficulty, and twenty minutes elapsed before it was entirely
  consumed; the flame at the same time being inconsiderable and

  After the person on fire has been laid horizontally, the best method
  of extinguishing the fire, is an immediate covering of any kind,
  and when every spark has been extinguished, spirits and water, or
  vinegar and water, should be applied to affected parts till the pain
  is removed. Adult females, whose clothes take fire, should have the
  presence of mind instantly to throw themselves on the floor, and in
  that case, no serious injury can ever arise, and if this precaution
  were generally known, many families would have been relieved from the
  unavailing affliction of the loss of dear connexions, and from the
  heart-rending scenes which, under other circumstances, they have been
  fated to witness.


  Take conserve of red roses and rotten apple in equal quantities, wrap
  them in a fold of thin cambric, or old linen, and apply it to the
  eye; it will relieve the bruise and remove the blackness.


  Foment it with warm vinegar for five minutes every four hours, wet it
  afterwards with rectified spirit of wine, and rub it gently. Sit with
  the foot on a low stool, and occasionally rest upon the ancle, and
  move it gently backwards and forwards.


  A heaped table-spoonful of magnesia, mixed in a middling sized
  tumbler of water, and drank immediately after oxalic acid has been
  swallowed, will save life.


  Take a spoonful of common salt, add as much water as will make it
  damp; apply it like a poultice every six hours, and it will be sure
  to stop the hydrophobia.


  Over the spot where the sting has entered, apply the pipe of a
  key, press it for a minute or two, and the pain and swelling will


  A wasp or bee swallowed, may be killed before it can do harm, by
  taking a tea-spoonful of common salt dissolved in water. It kills the
  insect and cures the sting. Salt, at all times, is the best cure for
  external stings; sweet oil, pounded mallows, or onions, or powdered
  chalk made into a paste with water, are also efficacious.

  If bees swarm upon the head, smoke tobacco, and hold a empty hive
  over the head, and they will go into it.


  Olive oil is an absolute specific for the bite (or sting, as it is
  erroneously called,) of the adder; the oil should be well rubbed upon
  the part bitten: in case of violent symptoms a glass or two should be
  taken inwardly. If olive oil is not at hand, common sweet oil will
  answer the purpose.


  Avoid all rough usage. Do not hold up the body by the feet, or roll
  it on casks, or rub it with salt, or spirits, or apply tobacco. Lose
  not a moment, carry the body, the head and shoulders raised, to the
  nearest house. Place it in a warm room. Let it be instantly stripped,
  dried, and wrapped in hot blankets, which are to be renewed when
  necessary. Keep the mouth, nostrils, and the throat free and clean.
  Apply warm substances to the back, spine, pit of the stomach, arm
  pits, and soles of the feet. Rub the body with heated flannel, or
  warm hands.—Attempt to restore breathing, by gently blowing with
  bellows into one nostril closing the mouth and the other nostril.
  Keep up the application of heat. Press down the breast carefully with
  both hands, and then let it rise again, and thus imitate natural
  breathing. Continue the rubbing, and increase it when life appears,
  and then give a tea-spoonful of warm water, or of very weak wine or
  spirits and warm water. Persevere for six hours. Send quickly for
  medical assistance.

                     THE LAND STEWARD AND BAILIFF.

To form a complete LAND STEWARD, it is requisite that theory and
practice should be combined. By consulting books we profit by the
experience of other men, enlarge our own sphere of thinking, and add
more, perhaps, to our stock of knowledge in a short space of time, than
could be acquired by long and laborious practice. No land steward or
even ordinary farmer should be without _Young’s Farmer’s Calendar_,
the last edition of which, improved by Middleton, contains a body of
valuable information; but Mr. Lawrence on this subject, with great
propriety, recommends the reading of Tull and Miller, as the great
originals on tillage; Ellis on sheep and other live stock; and the
Surveys of the several Counties of the Kingdom, made, and published by
the Board of Agriculture.

To these, for a further knowledge in the treatment of live stock, may
be recommended a perusal of our best veterinary treatises. We must also
recommend Sir John Sinclair’s Code of Agriculture, as a companion to
Middleton’s edition of Young’s Calendar, and these, with Mackenzie’s
Receipt Book, ought to be the standing literary furniture of every
steward’s room.

The land steward should never undertake more business than he can
faithfully and properly execute, and therefore should have no other
occupation or profession to attend; the mere collecting of rents and
giving discharges being the least considerable part of his duty.

On his first entering into office, he should make a general survey of
all the estates and property entrusted to his care:—he should also form
an inventory, and open a set of books on a clear and perspicuous plan,
if not already done by his predecessor, taking care to enter in them a
correct list of all the books, writings, deeds, schedules, court-rolls,
&c. From this survey, whether left by his predecessor, or taken by
himself, regular memorandums should be made in a book, of every thing
necessary to be remarked or executed, of the places where deficiencies
are found, or improvements may be made; of buildings and repairs
necessary; insurances, dates of leases, rates, nuisances, trespasses,
live and dead stock, game, timber, fencing, draining, paths, and roads,
culture, commons, rivers, and sea coasts, and of every other specific
article relative to his trust, which deserves attention, and therefore
ought not to be committed to loose papers, or left to memory.

He should endeavour to gain a practical knowledge of the characters and
conduct of inferior servants, taking nothing upon trust; but observing
with his own eyes their performances early and late. A faithful steward
will lose no time in detecting the peculations, and counteracting the
combinations among those servants who are under his controul, which may
be prejudicial to the estate of his principal; and of replacing them
with servants of fair character, to whom ample wages should be allowed;
and the job work, or more profitable kinds of labour, should be
impartially dealt out to them, that so, all may be equally benefited,
and equally satisfied.

Every farm, when surveyed, should be correctly described in a map, of
which the tenant should have a copy. A Terrier should also be kept
of the commonfield-lands, for the satisfaction of the tenant as well
as the lord, and where the bounds of any parcel of land are dubious,
they should be fixed, and properly marked out, by a jury impannelled
at the manor court. The boundaries of the parish and precincts should
also be ascertained, and the particular property of the lord kept
entire, by the annual custom of perambulation on Holy Thursday, and its
concomitant ceremonies. The steward should frequently ride round and
make an eye survey of the estates, in order to obviate any disputes,—to
prevent encroachments, and to afford timely advice and assistance if
necessary. He should see that all repairs are duly and substantially
performed according to covenant, ditches cast and scoured, water
courses kept free, common rights fairly enjoyed, according to the
custom of the manor, the commons not overstocked by one, in prejudice
to others, observe that the underwood be cut at the stated periods,
that the trees are properly lopped and topped without damage to the
lord, that the wood-wards do watch and report all trespasses by cattle
and otherwise, and to discourage poaching and the destruction of game,
by all fair, moderate, and rational means.

The tenants should not be suffered to let their lands be over-run by
moles—nor the commons and woodlands by swine unrung.

The strictest caution should be used to prevent all the produce of the
estates, that is fit for manure or other useful purposes, from being
alienated or carried off.

An eye ought always to be kept on the surveyor of the highways of the
neighbouring parishes, to see that no nuisance exists, or bridge or
highway be neglected.

Trespasses from stray cattle ought to be prevented, and if necessary
punished, as well as the depredations of dogs, which often do much
injury to the farmer.

It behoves the steward to support, and cause to be recognized, all the
ancient manorial rights and privileges that are usually respected.

Heriots accruing from copyhold estates, ought not to be taken in kind,
but a moderate fine should be levied in lieu thereof.

Encouragement should be given to improvements in cultivation. The
best heads of cattle should be introduced, and any successful mode of
culture recommended among the tenantry. They should also be stimulated
to plant fruit-trees, as means of adding to the produce without
encumbering the land.

The transactions of the steward should always be pure, incorruptible,
and free even from suspicion. He ought not to sell preference, either
for money or for any indirect consideration, such concession to him
being in effect a robbery on the tenant, or on his employer, who is
entitled to all the advantages which can accrue from his estate. If
a sum of money is covertly given for preference in a lease, then
the lease is worth so much more, and the proprietor is defrauded of
the difference. Nothing can be more pernicious to an estate than
such underhand transactions. Modest industry and merit are thereby
subverted by the audacity of knaves, and the steward, from the
moment he has thus sold himself becomes a dependent on the honour of
the parties. Preference given to kin ought also to be avoided, and
every nobleman and gentleman is justified in being jealous of the
introduction of his steward’s kindred upon his estate, often to the
great prejudice of his old and attached tenants.

Many stewards become the tyrants of their vicinity by an impertinent
interference with the domestic economy of the families of the
tenants, presuming to prescribe in regard to their dress, habits, and
amusements, seeming thereby to consider them as vassals, instead of
freemen, to whose industry their landlord is indebted for his ease
and luxury. With these affairs the steward has no concern, and every
farmer and his family should be left to their own discretion in such
particulars, if they pay with regularity the average rent of their
vicinity, and do not manifestly deteriorate the estate; they are, and
ought to be, in all their domestic and personal concerns, and also in
their opinions, religious and political, as independent of the steward,
or of his employer, as these parties are of them. His interference
has, in truth, tended to retard the civilization of the agricultural
classes, and, in many districts, placed them one or two centuries
behind the inhabitants of towns. The steward, therefore, who forbears
to meddle with what does not properly concern him, will enjoy the love
of tenantry, and that affection will always best promote the interest
of his employers.

Whilst the steward is not unmindful of every possible improvement, he
should keep in view every appearance of the existence of minerals or
metals, that so the needful essays or experiments may be made under the
superintendance of persons of experience and fidelity. Proximity to the
sea coast, navigable rivers, canals, or great towns, will much enhance
the value of such discoveries.

Every opportunity should be embraced of letting land on building
leases, as a means of greatly improving the value of estates; the
fitness by means of water and roads for the establishment of a
manufactory, or a village, or, by being near the sea coast, for a
fishery, are objects too important to be overlooked by a faithful and
intelligent agent.

It has already been remarked, that the land steward should not be
engaged in any business that would detract from that attention which
is required in the faithful discharge of the duties of his office;
and even in performing those engagements, he should occasionally
be assisted, in cases of importance, where he may consider his own
knowledge not sufficient, by an able professional adviser. He will most
require this aid in the making of leases, deeds, agreements, and other
legal instruments.

The balance of cash, which may often be considerable, ought not be
allowed to lie idle in the house. All money is part of the vital blood
of society, and should be kept in circulation. This may be effected
either by lodging it at a country bank, where moderate interest will
be allowed for it, or by discounting the notes of respectable tenants,
who, at certain turns of the season, are often in want of ready money,
and their notes will, in many cases, serve as cash payments for other
purposes, or they may be made to fall due at periods when cash will be
wanted, while it will thus be accumulating at five per cent. No risk
need be incurred in such transactions, while the accommodation would
add much to the prosperity of the estate. If the steward reside in
London, spare cash may, in like manner, be employed at a full rate of
interest, by discounting such good bills as are always to be met with
at the principal brokers in and about Lombard Street; and these bills
will be received by the bankers as they arrive at maturity. By this
means 3 or 4 per cent may always be added to the income of a nobleman
or gentleman, or sufficient to pay the wages of all the servants.

In the business of accounts, the first objects are, arrangement,
perspicuity, and security. In all accounts of property, there are
certain general rules which must be attended to, the chief of which
are the following: 1st. Trust as little as possible to memory, but
make memorandums of payments, receipts, bargains, agreements, &c. on
the instant. 2d. Pay no money without receiving a proper discharge.
3d. Give up no security, lease, agreement, or other valuable property,
without taking in return a written acknowledgement. 4th. Let all
contingent, undecided, or uncertain transactions be forthwith entered,
with every necessary remark, voucher, and reference. 5th. Post all the
various transactions under their proper heads as soon as possible. 6th.
Fold, label, date, and class all papers, the most valuable of which
are to be deposited at the end of every year, in a secure place, with
the date on the outside. Perhaps the two principal books necessary to
be kept, are a DAY-BOOK or JOURNAL, and a LEDGER, with two other books,
to be called the MEMORANDUM-BOOK, and GENERAL INVENTORY. A portable
POCKET MEMORANDUM-BOOK will also be found to be convenient. Every
servant in trust under the land steward ought to be provided with an
account book appropriately ruled: this book should be examined and
passed monthly by the steward and an abstract of it transcribed into
his journal.

                         FORM OF THE JOURNAL.

         _Journal belonging to the Right Hon. Lord Viscount A.
                         X. Y. Steward. 1825._

                                                         _Dr._  _Cash_   _Cr._
| Date |Fol. in|                               || £ |_s._|_d._|| £  |_s._|_d._|
| 1825.| Ledger|                               ||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|Jan. 6|       |Agreed this day with R. P. to  ||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|      |       | accept as a compensation for  ||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|      |       | a Heriot, due on the death of ||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|      |       | his father, £30.              ||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|      |       +-------------------------------+|   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|    17|       |Rec^d. of C. L. for half year’s||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|      |       | rent, due at Christmas last   || 25|   0|   0||    |    |    |
|      |       +-------------------------------+|   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|    21|       |Rec^d. of S. R. for one year’s ||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|      |       | rent in full, to do.          || 75|   0|   0||    |    |    |
|      |       +-------------------------------+|   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|    31|       |Paid the following persons     ||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|      |       | their bills:—                 ||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|      |       |T. M. saddler, as pr. bill to  ||   |    |    ||    |    |    |
|      |       | Xmas.                         ||   |    |    ||  22|   5|   0|
|      |       |W. R. Smith     do.     do.    ||   |    |    ||  29|   6|   0|
|      |       |                               |+---+----+----++----+----+----+
|      |       |                               ||100|   0|   0|   51|  11|   0|
|      |       |                               || 51|  11|   0|     |    |    |
|      |       |                               |+---+----+----+     |    |    |
|      |       |           Balance this month. ||£48|   9|   0|     |    |    |

The journal, spoken of, should be kept as a book of reference for every
transaction that occurs, and which is to be entered daily, precisely
as it occurs; and if it be afterwards found necessary, is to be entered
in the ledger as a distinct and separate account—from all others. This
journal will, of course, include every cash transaction, and save the
trouble of keeping a separate cash-book. The cash account may be posted
regularly in the ledger, under a general head, bearing that title.

In the ledger will, of course, be opened an account with every tenant,
and as a consequence with _Dr._ and _Cr._; also an account _Dr._ and
_Cr._ of every article, the increase, decrease, and actual state of
which, it is necessary to ascertain with precision.

The MEMORANDUM LEDGER being paged, and having an alphabet, is for
the purpose of containing the head title of every memorandum of
consequence, and pointing out the page, in the journal, where the
particulars are to be found. This ought to be examined frequently,
and the items that are become useless, marked out; those remaining
unmarked, should, if numerous, be carried forward. The regular,
or occasional deposits of leases, deeds, and other documents of
importance, are invariably to be pointed out by a memorandum, as it may
be of great import to successors and survivors.

From these original sources, transcripts may be made in any form
required, for the use of the principal or lord. An account current of
cash received and paid should be made out annually, half-yearly, or
otherwise, to be examined, passed, and signed by the principal.

                           THE HOUSE STEWARD.

This is the most important officer in domestic establishments, and is
seldom adopted except in the families of noblemen or gentlemen of great
fortunes, by whom he is appointed as their _locum tenens_, not only to
superintend such necessary business as, from their rank and condition,
or other circumstances, they cannot undertake, but also to control and
manage, generally, all the most important concerns of the household. It
follows, therefore, that he ought to be a man of great experience in
household affairs, steady and attentive in his conduct, and of approved
principles and integrity. His character must be irreproachable and
exemplary, that he may be regarded with confidence and satisfaction by
his employers, and respected by those around him.

His chief business will be to hire, manage, and direct, and discharge
every servant of every denomination. To appropriate to every
domestic his proper and express business, and to see that it be done
accordingly. He ought to make it a point never to take a servant
without strict enquiry as to his moral character, orderly conduct, and
abilities for his situation, nor ought he to withhold a fair character
from any servant he discharges.

The House Steward, by the suavity of his manners, and equable
deportment, has it in his power to sustain the reputation of his
master in high estimation, and to make his whole household comfortable
and happy.

For further hints respecting servants we refer to the Address to the
_Mistresses of Families_, in the dedication, p. 10, 11, and 12; and to
those given to the _Housekeeper_, p. 52, 53, and 54.

Ability to provide for the family in the best manner, is another
qualification indispensably necessary in the _House Steward_. He
is expected to be a competent judge of the nature and qualities of
provisions, their comparative values, the best seasons for purchasing
the several articles, and the cheapest and most economical markets or
places to attend. The best way to go to market is with _ready money_;
or to deal with tradesmen of probity, and to settle their accounts
early and at regular and stated periods, but never to disappoint them,
at the expected times, which makes his custom nearly equivalent to
cash, and he will consequently be served with the best articles and on
the lowest terms. A conscientious and honest discharge of his duty in
this respect, will tend greatly to the satisfaction of his employers,
and redound to his own credit. Other hints on the subject will be
found under the head Housekeeper, p. 54 and 55; and directions for
marketing, which may afford some hints, even to an expert and an adroit
practitioner, may be found p. 75 to 88.

The abilities of the House Steward, as an accountant, are not required
to be very considerable. He is merely to keep an account of monies
received by him, on one page, and of monies paid or disbursed by him,
on the opposite page; and these two pages being cast up, and the
amount of one side being deducted from the amount of the other, will,
if the account has been correctly kept, shew at once the exact balance,
belonging to his employer, remaining in his hands. It will be the
business of the housekeeper to examine, weigh, and compare the several
articles, as they are brought in, with the tickets sent with them by
the respective tradesmen, and these tickets, so examined and signed,
will enable the Steward to check the tradesmen’s bills when brought in,
previously to their being paid. An upright and trust-worthy Steward
will discharge this part of his duty, as well as every other, with
zeal, fidelity, impartiality, and integrity; bearing for ever on his
mind this pleasing truth, that, “every man’s station is honourable or
otherwise, as his own conduct makes it.”

Salary from 100l. to 250l. and upwards.

                        THE STEWARD’S ROOM BOY.

There is seldom a lad of this description kept, except in families
where there is a house steward, or comptroller of the household, when
the servant is appointed to attend on him, run on errands, carry
messages, &c. He waits at table, or makes himself otherwise useful in
the steward’s-room; trims the lamps that are in use below stairs, and
cleans the servants’ boots and shoes. Wages from 8l. to 12l. per annum.

                              THE BUTLER.

At first rising, it is the duty of the Butler, where no valet is kept,
to manage and arrange his master’s clothes, and carry them to his
dressing-room, his boots and shoes being cleaned by the footman or
under butler.

It is his proper business to see that the breakfast is duly set, the
under butler or footman carrying up the tea urn, and the butler the
eatables; he, or the under butler waiting during breakfast.[19] On
taking away, he removes the tea-tray, and the under butler or footman
the urn, cloth, &c.

The breakfast things being taken away, and the plate, &c. cleaned and
put away under his directions, the Butler then gets his own breakfast
with the housekeeper, unless the servants all breakfast together at an
earlier hour.

If no valet is kept, he then attends in his master’s dressing-room,
sets it in order, carries down his clothes to be brushed by the under
butler or footman, and attends to every thing connected with his
master’s clothes, linen, &c. or sees that what is wanted is done by

He now cleans himself to attend company or visitors at the door, which
he is to answer, receive cards, deliver messages, &c.

At luncheon time, the cloth being laid by the under butler or footman,
it is the duty of the Butler to carry in the tray, or arrange the
table, and when there is company, he waits in the room assisted by the
other servants.

If wine is wanted for the luncheon, it is his duty to fetch it from the
cellar; and if ale, to draw or bring it up when wanted.

The keys of the wine and ale cellars are specially kept by him, and
the management of the wine, the keeping the stock book, and also of
ale in stock, or in brewing, are in his particular charge. This duty
he generally performs in the morning before he is drest to receive
company, and he then brings out such wine as is wanted for the day’s
use. It is his duty to fine wine as it comes in the pipe, and to
superintend the bottling, sealing it himself, and disposing it in binns
so as to know its age and character. While these duties and those of
brewing are in hand, he leaves the parlour and waiting duties to the
under butler and footman.

Where no steward is kept, he pays all bills for wine, spirits, ale,
malt, coals, and in general, all bills not in the housekeeper’s or
kitchen department. Sometimes, also, he pays the other male servants.

At dinner time, the under butler or footman lays the cloth, and carries
up the articles wanted, under the direction of the Butler, who gives
out the necessary plate, kept by him under lock, and generally in an
iron chest.

He sets and displays the dinner on the table, carrying in the first
dish, waits at the side-board, hands wine round or when called for;
removes every course, and sets and arranges every fresh course on the
table according to his bill of fare, which is placed on the side-board
for reference; and does not leave the dinner room till the dessert and
wine have been placed on the table by him or under his direction.[20]

It is then his business to see that the plate, glasses, &c. are carried
to the pantry, cleaned, and wiped by the under butler and footman, and
the whole carefully put in their proper places.

Having taken his own dinner with the other servants out of livery,
generally at one o’clock, he gets his tea while the family in the
parlour are taking their wine and dessert, and in the mean time, the
under butler or footman prepares the tea things for the parlour.

If the bell rings during the dessert, the Butler answers, and does the
same for the remainder of the evening.

The under butler is now engaged in cleaning the plate and arranging the

The tea tray is carried up by the Butler, assisted by the footman; and
in waiting at tea, the Butler hands round the cups on the tray, the
footman assisting with the eatables. The Butler removes the tea-tray,
and the footman the urn, &c. The footman carries in coals, but the
Butler manages the candles.

When tea is made below, it is done by the housekeeper, but carried up
and handed round by the Butler and footman.

If there is company, the refreshments, wine, ices, &c. are carried up
by the Butler, assisted and followed by the footman.

When there is supper, the under Butler or Butler arranges the same, and
it is managed like the dinner.

Slippers, dressing gown, night candles, &c. are carried up and disposed
by the Butler.

After his master has gone to bed, he goes to his dressing-room, takes
down such things as want cleaning or brushing, and gives them to the
footman. He then looks over the plate, locks it up, sees that all the
men servants are gone to bed, the doors locked, and windows fastened,
and then retires to rest himself.

This business is strictly domestic, but he goes out to order things in
his department, and he is sometimes employed abroad in any confidential
business, to which the under servants are considered unequal.

The wages of regular Butlers, in large families, are from 50 to 80l.
per annum; but in smaller families, from 30 to 50l. The perquisites,
if he perform the duty of valet, are his master’s cast off clothes;
and as Butler, he gets the pieces of wax candles, the second hand
cards, compliments on paying tradesman’s bills, or Christmas boxes and
wine for his own use. He finds his own clothes, washing, &c. and is
expected to be genteel and clean in his person.

In all things connected with the establishment, he is supposed, when
no steward is kept, to represent his master; and as various accounts
are under his direction, he ought to be able to write a fair hand, and
to be ready in the first rules of arithmetic. From this display of his
duties, it will appear that his office is no sinecure; and as the good
order and economy of an establishment depends much on the vigilance of
the Butler, when no steward is kept, so a Butler who knows his duties,
and performs them with zeal, integrity, and ability, cannot be too
highly prized by judicious heads of families.

                      _To manage foreign Wines._

The principal object to be attended to in the management of foreign
wine vaults, is to keep them of a temperate heat. Care must be taken,
therefore, to close up every aperture or opening, that there may be
no admission given to the external air. The floor of the vault should
likewise be well covered with saw-dust, which must not be suffered to
get too dry and dusty, but must receive now and then an addition of
new, lest, when bottling or racking wine, some of the old dust should
fly into it. At most vaults, in the winter, it is necessary to have a
stove or chafing-dish, to keep up a proper degree of warmth. In the
summer time it will be best to keep them as cool as possible.

  _To Fit up a Cellar of Wines and Spirits._

  Provide a good rope and tackling, to let down the casks into the
  vault or cellar, and a slide, ladder, or pulley for the casks to
  slide or roll on;

  A pair of strong slings;

  A pair of can hooks and a pair of crate hooks;

  A block of wood to put under the pipes when topping them over in a
  narrow passage, or in casing them;

  A small valinch to taste wine;

  A crane, and a small copper pump to rack off;

  Two or three gallon cans, made of wood;

  A large wooden funnel;

  Two or three copper funnels from a quart to a gallon each;

  Two racking cocks;

  Two wine bottling cocks;

  A brace and various bits;

  Two small tubs;

  A square basket to hold the corks;

  Two small tin funnels;

  A small strainer;

  Two cork screws;

  Two or three baskets;

  A wisk to beat the finings;

  Three flannel or linen bags;

  A strong iron screw to raise the bungs;

  A pair of pliers;

  Bungs, corks, and vent pegs;

  Two frets or middle sized gimblets;

  Some sheet lead and tacks to put on broken staves;

  Brown paper to put round cocks and under the lead, when stopping

  A staff with a chain at one end to rumage the wines, &c.

  Shots and lead canister, or bristle brush, and two cloths to wash

  Two large tubs;

  Some small racks that will hold six dozen each;

  A cooper’s adze;

  An iron and a wooden driver to tighten hoops;

  Two dozen of wooden bungs of different sizes;

  A thermometer, which is to be kept in the vault, a stove or
  chafing-dish, to keep the heat of the vault to a known temperature;

  A few dozen of delf labels;

  A cup-board to hold all the tools;

  A spade, two good stiff birch brooms, and a rake to level the

  _To restore pricked British Wines._

  Rack the wines down to the lees into another cask, where the lees of
  good wines are fresh; then put a pint of strong aqua vitæ, and scrape
  half a pound of yellow bees-wax into it, which by heating the spirit
  over a gentle fire, will melt; after which dip a piece of cloth into
  it, and when a little dry, set it on fire with a brimstone match, put
  it into the bung-hole, and stop it up close.

  _Another Method._

  First prepare a fresh empty cask, that has had the same kind of wine
  in it which is about to be racked, then match it, and rack off the
  wine, putting to every ten gallons two ounces of oyster-shell powder,
  and half an ounce of bay salt, then get the staff and stir it well
  about, letting it stand till it is fine, which will be in a few days;
  after which rack it off into another cask, (previously matched) and
  if the lees of some wine of the same kind can be got, it will improve
  it much.—Put likewise a quart of brandy to every ten gallons, and if
  the cask has been emptied a long time, it will match better on that
  account; but if even a new cask, the matching must not be omitted. A
  fresh empty cask is to be preferred.

  This method will answer for all made wines.

  _To rack Foreign Wine._

  The vault or cellar should be of a temperate heat, and the casks
  sweet and clean. Should they have an acid or musty smell, it may be
  remedied by burning brimstone matches in them; and if not clean,
  rinse them well out with cold water, and after draining rinse with a
  quart of brandy, putting the brandy afterwards into the ullage cask.
  Then strain the lees or bottoms through a flannel or linen bag. But
  put the bottoms of port into the ullage cask without going through
  the filtering bag. In racking wine that is not on the stillage, a
  wine-pump is desirable.

  _To manage and improve poor Red Port._

  If wanting in body, colour, and flavour, draw out thirty or forty
  gallons, and return the same quantity of young and rich wines. To a
  can of which put three gills of colouring, with a bottle of wine or
  brandy. Then wisk it well together, and put it into the cask stirring
  it well. If not bright in about a week or ten days, fine it for use;
  previous to which put in at different times a gallon of good brandy.
  If the wine is short of body, put a gallon or two of brandy in each
  pipe, by a quart or two at a time, as it feeds the wine better than
  putting it in all at once. But if the wines are in a bonded cellar,
  procure a funnel that will go to the bottom of the cask, that the
  brandy may be completely incorporated with the wine.

  _To manage Claret._

  Claret is not a wine of a strong body, though it requires to be of
  a good age before it is used, and, therefore, it should be well
  managed; the best method is to feed it every two or three weeks with
  a pint or two of French brandy. Taste it frequently, to know what
  state it is in, and use the brandy accordingly, but never put much in
  at a time, while a little incorporates with the wine, and feeds and
  mellows it.

  If the claret is faint, rack it into a fresh-emptied hogshead, upon
  the lees of good claret; and bung it up, putting the bottom downwards
  for two or three days, that the lees may run through it.

  _To colour Claret._

  If the colour be not yet perfect, rack it off again into a hogshead
  that has been newly drawn off, with the lees; then take a pound of
  turnsole, and put it into a gallon or two of wine; let it lie a day
  or two, and then put it into the vessel; after which lay the bung
  downwards for a night, and the next day roll it about.

  Or, take any quantity of damsons or black sloes, and strew them with
  some of the deepest coloured wine and as much sugar as will make it
  into a syrup. A pint of this will colour a hogshead of claret. It is
  also good for red port wines, and may be kept ready for use in glass

  _To restore Claret that drinks foul._

  Rack it off from the dregs on some fresh lees of its own kind, and
  then take a dozen of new pippins, pare them, and take away the
  cores or hearts: then put them in the hogsheads, and if that is not
  sufficient, take a handful of the oak of Jerusalem, and bruise it;
  then put it into the wine, and stir it well.

  _To make Claret and Port rough._

  Put in a quart of claret or port two quarts of sloes; bake them in a
  gentle oven, or over a fire, till a good part of their moisture is
  stewed out, then pour off the liquor, and squeeze out the rest. A
  pint of this will be sufficient for 30 or 40 gallons.


  Take a bottle of red port that is pricked, add to it half an ounce
  of tartarised spirit of wine, shake the liquor well together, and
  set it by for a few days, and it will be found much altered for the
  better. If this operation be dexterously performed, pricked wines may
  be absolutely recovered by it, and remain saleable for some time; and
  the same method may be used to malt liquors just turned sour.

  _To manage Hermitage and Burgundy._

  Red hermitage must be managed in the same way as claret, and the
  white likewise, except the colouring, which it does not require.
  Burgundy should be managed in the same manner as red hermitage.

  _To manage Lisbon Wine._

  If the Lisbon is dry, take out of the pipe thirty-five or forty
  gallons, and put in the same quantity of calcavella, stir it well
  about, and this will make a pipe of good mild Lisbon: or, if it be
  desired to convert mild into dry, take the same quantity out as above
  mentioned, before, and fill the pipe with Malaga sherry, stirring it
  about as the other. The same kind of fining used for Vidonia will
  answer for Lisbon wines; or it may be fined with the whites and
  shells of sixteen eggs, and a small handful of salt; beat it together
  to a froth, and mix it with a little of the wines; then pour it into
  the pipe, stir it about, and let it have vent for three days; after
  which bung it up, and in a few days it will be fine. Lisbon when
  bottled should be packed either in saw-dust or leather in a temperate

  _To manage Bucellas Wine._

  In fining it, proceed in the same way as with the Madeira; only
  observe, that if not wanted very pale, keep the milk out of the
  finings. This tender wine should be fed with a little brandy, for if
  kept in a place that is either too hot or too cold, it will be in
  danger of turning foul.

  _To improve Sherry._

  If the sherry be new and hot, rack it off into a sweet cask, add five
  gallons of mellow Lisbon, which will take off the hot taste, then
  give it a head, take a quart of honey, mix it with a can of wine, and
  put it into the cask when racking. By this method, Sherry for present
  use will be greatly improved, having much the same effect upon it as

  _To improve White Wines._

  If the wine have an unpleasant taste, rack off one half; and to the
  remainder add a gallon of new milk, a handful of bay-salt, and as
  much rice; after which take a staff, beat them well together for half
  an hour, and fill up the cask, and when rolled well about, stillage
  it, and in a few days it will be much improved.

  If the white wine is foul and has lost its colour, for a but or pipe
  take a gallon of new milk, put it into the cask, and stir it well
  about with a staff; and when it has settled, put in three ounces of
  isinglass made into a jelly, with a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar
  scraped fine, and stir it well about. On the day following, bung it
  up, and in a few days it will be fine and have a good colour.


  Add a little chalk to the _must_, when it is somewhat sour; for the
  acidity arising from citric and tartaric acids, there is thus formed
  a precipitate of citrate and tartrate of lime, while the _must_
  becomes sweeter, and yields a much finer wine. Too much chalk may
  render the wine insipid, since it is proper to leave a little excess
  of acid in the _must_. Concentrate the _must_ by boiling, and add the
  proper quantity of chalk to the liquor, while it is still hot. Even
  acid wine may be benefited by the addition of chalk. Oyster-shells
  may be used with this view; and when calcined are a cleaner carbonate
  of lime than common chalk.

  _To Renovate Sick Wine._

  Wines on the fret should be racked; if their own lees indicates decay
  they should be racked on the sound lees of another wine of similar,
  but stronger quality, to protract their decline; if this be done at
  an early period, it may renovate the sick wine; on these occasions,
  giving the sick wine a cooler place, will retard its progress to
  acidity; if convenient, such wines should be forced and bottled.
  Previous to bottling, or rather at the forcing, give it one, two, or
  three table-spoonsful of calcined gypsum finely pulverised. This will
  check its tendency to acidity, without exciting much intumescence,
  without injuring the colour of the red wine, and without retarding
  its coating to the bottle, which it rather promotes. The proper
  forcing for red wines are, the whites of ten or twelve eggs, beat up
  with one or two tea-spoonsful of salt per hogshead, and well worked
  into the wine with a forcing-rod; the gypsum should be first boiled
  in a little water. This is intended to check the acetous process. To
  retard the vinous, the French are in the habit of burning sulphur
  immediately under the cask, and possibly the sulphuric acid evolved
  by the combustion, may check its progress and prevent the necessity
  of an _admixture_.

  _To Mellow Wine._

  Cover the orifices of the vessels containing it with bladders closely
  fastened instead of the usual materials, and an aqueous exhalation
  will pass through the bladder, leaving some fine crystallizations on
  the surface of the wine, which, when skimmed off, leaves the wine
  in a highly improved state of flavour. Remnants of wine covered in
  this manner, whether in bottles or casks, will not turn mouldy, as
  when stopped in the usual way, but will be improved instead of being

  _German method of restoring sour Wines._

  Put a small quantity of powdered charcoal in the wine: shake it, and
  after it has remained still for forty-eight hours, decant steadily.

  _To Concentrate Wines by Cold._

  If any kind of wine be exposed to a sufficient degree of cold in
  frosty weather, or be put into any place where ice continues all the
  year, as in ice-houses, and there suffered to freeze, the superfluous
  water contained in the wine will be frozen into ice, and will leave
  the proper and truly essential part of the wine unfrozen, unless
  the degree of cold should be very intense, or the wine but weak and
  poor. When the frost is moderate, the experiment has no difficulty,
  because not above a third or fourth part of the superfluous water
  will be frozen in a whole night; but if the cold be very intense, the
  best way is, at the end of a few hours, when a tolerable quantity of
  ice is formed, to pour out the remaining fluid liquor, and set it in
  another vessel to freeze again by itself.

  The frozen part, or ice, consists only of the watery part of the
  wine, and may be thrown away, and the liquid part retains all the
  strength, and is to be preserved. This will never grow sour, musty,
  or mouldy, and may at any time be reduced to wine of the common
  strength, by adding to it as much water as will make it up to the
  former quantity.


  Take an ounce of isinglass, beat it into thin shreds with a hammer,
  and dissolve it, by boiling in a pint of water; this, when cold,
  becomes a stiff jelly. Whisk up some of this jelly into a froth with
  a little of the wine intended to be fined, then stir it well among
  the rest in the cask, and bung it down tight; by this means it will
  become bright in eight or ten days.


  Take whites of eggs beat up to a froth, and mix in the same manner as
  in white wines.

  _Another Method._

  Put the shavings of green beech into the vessel, having first taken
  off all the rind, and boil them for an hour in water to extract their
  rankness, and afterwards dry them in the sun, or in an oven. A bushel
  serves for a tun of wine; and being mashed, they serve again and

  Mortimer recommends to gather the grapes when very dry, pick them
  from the stalks, press them, and let the juice stand twenty-four
  hours in a covered vat. Afterwards to draw it off from the gross
  lees, then put it up in a cask, and to add a pint or quart of strong
  red or white port to every gallon of juice, and let the whole work,
  bunging it up close, and letting it stand till January; then bottling
  it in dry weather.

  Bradley chooses to have the liquor when pressed, stand with the
  husks and stalks in the vat, to ferment for fifteen days.

  _To fine a hogshead of Claret._

  Take the whites and shells of six fresh eggs, and proceed as with
  port finings. Claret requires to be kept warm in saw-dust when

  _To fine Sherry._

  Take an ounce and a half of isinglass, beat it with a hammer till
  it can be pulled into small pieces, then put it into three pints of
  cider or perry, and let it remain twenty-four hours, till it becomes
  a jelly. After which mix it with a quart or two of wine, and whisk it
  well with the whites and shells of six fresh eggs. Take four or five
  gallons out to make room for the finings, and stir the wine well.
  Then nearly fill the can of finings with wine, whisk it well, and put
  it in the butt, stirring it well for about five minutes; afterwards
  fill it up, and put the bung in loose. In two days bung it up, and in
  eight or ten it will be fit for bottling.

  _To fine pale Sherry._

  Put three pints of skim-milk with the whites of eight eggs, beat well
  together in a can; then put in finings, in the same manner as for
  common sherry. If the sherry be thin and poor, feed them with good
  brandy, as other wines.

  _To fine Madeira._

  Take three ounces of isinglass, and dissolve it, but if old wine two
  ounces will be enough, also one quart of skim-milk, and half a pint
  of marble sand: whisk these in a can with some wine. If the pipe is
  full, take out a canful, and stir the pipe well; then put in the can
  of finings, and stir that with a staff for five minutes; after which,
  put the other can of wine into it, and let it have vent for three
  days. Then close it up, and in ten days or a fortnight it will be
  fine and fit for bottling and stowing with saw-dust in a warm place.

  _To improve Madeira which has been round to the Indies._

  Madeira should be kept in a warmer place than port wine, and
  therefore requires a good body, and to be fed with brandy, but if
  deficient in flavour or mellowness, add to it a gallon or two of good

  _To fine Vidonia Wine._

  When first imported, Vidonia has a harsh and acid taste; but if
  properly managed it more resembles Madeira wine than any other. To
  take off the harshness, fine it down, and then rack it off upon the
  lees of Madeira or white Port, fining it again with a light fining;
  and if 20 or 30 gallons of good Madeira wine be added, it will pass
  for Madeira. For the finings, dissolve two ounces of isinglass, and
  the whites and shells of six fresh eggs; beat them well up together
  with a whisk and add a gill of marble sand.

  _To fine Malmsey and other Wines._

  Take 20 fresh eggs, beat the whites, yolks, and shells together, and
  manage it the same as other finings.—Calcavella, Sweet Mountain,
  Paxaretta, and Malaga, should be managed and fined in the same manner
  as Lisbon.—Tent, Muscadine, Sack, and Bastard, should be managed the
  same as Malmsey, and fined with 16 or 20 fresh eggs, and a quart or
  three pints of skim-milk. Old Hock, and Vin de Grave, are thin, but
  pleasant wines, and should be fed with a little good brandy, and
  fined, if necessary, with the whites and shells of six or eight eggs.

  _To fine Port Wine._

  Take the whites and shells of eight fresh eggs, beat them in a wooden
  can or pail, with a whisk, till it becomes a thick froth; then add a
  little wine to it, and whisk it again. If the pipe is full take out
  four or five gallons of the wine to make room for the finings. If the
  weather be warmish, add a pint of fresh-water sand to the finings.
  Stir it well about; after which put in the finings, stirring it for
  five minutes; put in the can of wine, leaving the bung out for a few
  hours, that the froth may fall: then bung it up, and in eight or ten
  days it will be fine and fit for bottling.

  _To make and apply Finings._

  Put the finings into a can or pail, with a little of the liquor
  about to be fined, whisk them altogether till they are perfectly
  mixed, and then nearly fill the can with the liquor, whisking it
  well about again; after which, if the cask be full, take out four or
  five gallons to make room; then take the staff, and give it a good
  stirring; next whisk the finings up, and put them in; afterwards stir
  it with the staff for five minutes. Then drive the bung in, and bore
  a hole with a gimblet, that it may have vent for three or four days,
  after which drive in a vent peg.

  _To convert White Wine into Red._

  Put four ounces of turnesole rags into an earthen vessel, and pour
  upon them a pint of boiling water; cover the vessel close, and leave
  it to cool; strain off the liquor, which will be of a fine deep red
  inclining to purple. A small portion of this colours a large quantity
  of wine. This tincture may either be made in brandy, or mixed with
  it, or else made into a syrup, with sugar, for keeping.

  In those countries which do not produce the tinging grape which
  affords a blood-red juice, wherewith the wines of France are often
  stained, in defect of this, the juice of elderberries is used, and
  sometimes logwood is used at Oporto.

  _To force down the Finings of all White Wines, Arracks, and
  Small Spirits._

  Put a few quarts of skimmed milk into the cask.

  _To render Red Wine White._

  If a few quarts of well-skimmed milk be put to a hogshead of red
  wine, it will soon precipitate the greater part of the colour, and
  leave the whole nearly white; and this is of known use in the turning
  red wines, when pricked, into white; in which a small degree of
  acidity is not so much perceived.

  Milk is, from this quality of discharging colour from wines, of
  use also to the wine-coopers, for the whitening of wines that have
  acquired a brown colour from the cask, or from having been hastily
  boiled before fermenting; for the addition of a little skimmed milk,
  in these cases, precipitates the brown colour, and leaves the wines
  almost limped, or of what they call a water whiteness, which is much
  coveted abroad in wines as well as in brandies.

  _To preserve new Wine against Thunder._

  Thunder will turn and often change wines. Cellars that are paved,
  and the walls of stone, are preferable to boarded floors. Before a
  tempest of thunder, it will be advisable to lay a plate of iron on
  the wine-vessels.

  _To make Wine settle well._

  Take a pint of wheat, and boil it in a quart of water, till it burst
  and become soft; then squeeze it through a linen cloth, and put a
  pint of the liquor into a hogshead of unsettled white wine; stir it
  well about, and it will become fine.

  _To make a Match for sweetening Casks._

  Melt some brimstone, and dip into it a piece of coarse linen cloth;
  of which, when cold, take a piece of about an inch broad and five
  inches long, and set fire to it, putting it into the bung-hole, with
  one end fastened under the bung, which must be driven in very tight:
  let it remain a few hours before removing it out.

  _To make Oyster Powder._

  Get some fresh oyster-shells, wash them and scrape off the yellow
  part from the outside; lay them on a clear fire till they become red
  hot; then lay them to cool, and take off the softest part, powder it,
  and sift it through a fine sieve; after which use it immediately, or
  keep it in bottles well corked up, and laid in a dry place.

  _To make a Filtering Bag._

  This bag is made of a yard of either linen or flannel, not too fine
  or close, and sloping, so as to have the bottom of it run to a point,
  and the top as broad as the cloth will allow. It must be well sewed
  up the side, and the upper part of it folded round a wooden hoop, and
  well fastened to it; then tie the hoop in three or four places with
  a cord to support it; and when used, put a can or pail under it to
  receive the liquor, filling the bag with the sediments; after it has
  ceased to run, wash out the bag in three or four clear waters, then
  hang it up to dry in an airy place, that it may not get musty. A wine
  dealer should always have two bags by him, one for red, and the other
  for white wines.

  _To bottle Wine._

  When wine is made fine and pleasant, it may be bottled, taking care
  afterwards to pack it in a temperate place with saw-dust or leather.
  After which it will not be fit to drink for at least two months.
  Never use new deal saw-dust, as that causes the wine to fret, and
  often communicates a strong turpentine smell through the corks to the

  _To Detect Adulterated Wine._

  Heat equal parts of oyster-shells and sulphur together, and keep them
  in a white heat for fifteen minutes, and when cold, mix them with an
  equal quantity of cream of tartar; put this mixture into a strong
  bottle with common water to boil for one hour, and then decant into
  ounce phials, and add 20 drops of muriatic acid to each; this liquor
  precipitates the least quantity of lead, copper, &c. from wines in a
  very sensible black precipitate.

  _To Detect Alum in Wine._

  Wine merchants add alum to red wine, to communicate to it a rough
  taste and deeper colour; but this mixture produces on the system the
  most serious effects. For the discovery of the fraud in question,
  adopt the following means:—The wine is to be discoloured by means of
  a concentrated solution of chlorine; the mixture is to be evaporated
  until reduced to nearly the fourth of its original volume; the liquor
  is to be filtered; it then possesses the following properties when
  it contains alum:—1st. It has a sweetish astringent taste; 2d. it
  furnishes a white precipitate (sulphate of barytes) with nitrate
  of barytes, insoluble in water and in nitric acid; 3d. caustic
  potass rise to a yellowish white precipitate of alumine, soluble
  in an excess of potass; 4th. the sub-carbonate of soda produces a
  yellowish white precipitate (sub-carbonate of alumine) decomposable
  by fire into carbonic acid gas, alumine, easily recognisable by its


  When the briskness of small liquors in the cask fails, and they
  become vapid and dead, which they generally do soon after they are
  tilted, let them be bottled.


  Set fire to some in a spoon; if good it will burn brightly away,
  without leaving any moisture in the spoon.


  Dip a cloth in cold water and wrap it two or three times round the
  bottle and place it in the sun. Repeat this once or twice.


  Procure some soft straw or hay to pack them in, and if they are to be
  sent a long way, and are heavy, the hay or straw should be a little
  damp, which will prevent them slipping about. Let the largest and
  heaviest things be always put undermost in the box or hamper. Let
  there be plenty of straw, and pack the articles tight; but never
  attempt to pack up glass or china which is of much consequence, till
  you have seen it done by some used to the job. The expense will be
  but trifling to have a person to do it who understands it, and the
  loss may be great if articles of much value are packed up in an
  improper manner.


  Cut some brown paper into very small bits, so as to go with ease into
  the decanters; then cut a few pieces of soap very small, and put some
  water, _milk-warm_, into the decanters, upon the soap and paper:
  put in also a little pearl ash; by well working this about in the
  decanters it will take off the crust of the wine, and give the glass
  a fine polish. Where the decanters have had wine left to stand in
  them a long time, take a small cane with a bit of sponge tied tight
  at one end: by putting this into the decanters any crust of the wine
  may be removed. When the decanters have been properly washed, let
  them be thoroughly dried, and turned down in a proper rack.

  If the decanters have wine in them when put by, have some good corks
  always at hand to put in instead of stoppers; this will keep the wine
  much better.


  Be careful not to shake or disturb the crust when moving it about, or
  drawing the cork, particularly Port wine. Never decant wine without
  a wine-strainer, with some fine cambric in it, to prevent the crust,
  and bits of cork going into the decanter. In decanting Port wine do
  not drain it too near; there are generally two-thirds of a wine glass
  of thick dregs in each bottle, which ought not to be put in; but in
  white wine there is not much settling; pour it out however slowly,
  and raise the bottle up gradually, the wine should never be decanted
  in a hurry, therefore always do it before the family sit down to
  dinner. Do not jostle the decanters against each other when moving
  them about, as they easily break when full.


  Always inquire before you mix a salad, how your master or mistress
  would like to have it done. If no particular method be pointed out
  to you, adopt the following, which has been much approved of. Let
  the salad be well washed and dried in a cloth before you cut it up;
  save a part of the celery with a little beet-root and endive for
  ornament in the middle of the dish: cut the rest small as well as the
  lettuce and mustard and cresses, and put to it the following mixture:
  take the yolk of an egg boiled hard, rub it quite smooth with a
  table-spoonful of oil and a little mustard; when they are well mixed
  together add six spoonsful of milk or cream, and when these are well
  mixed, put six or seven spoonsful of vinegar to the whole, and mix it
  all together with the salad. Never make the salad long before it is
  wanted, as it becomes flat with standing.


  Put 40 grains of citric acid,
       7 full drops of essence of lemon,
       7 oz. of lump sugar,
  in a quart mug; pour over 1 pint of boiling water, when the
  sugar is melted, stir; then add ½ pint of rum, and ¼ pint
  of brandy.


  Soda water is prepared (from powders) precisely in the same manner as
  ginger beer, except that, instead of the two powders there mentioned,
  the two following are used: for one glass, 30 grains of carbonate of
  soda; for the other, 25 grains of tartaric (or citric) acid.


  Take an ounce of powdered ginger, half an ounce of cream of tartar,
  a large lemon sliced, two pounds of lump sugar, and one gallon of
  water; mix all together, and let it simmer over the fire for half
  an hour, then put a table-spoonful of yeast to it, let it ferment a
  little time, and then put it into stone pint bottles, and cork it
  down closely for use.


  Take 2 drams of fine loaf sugar, 8 grains of ginger, and 26 grains
  of carbonate of potass, all in fine powder; mix them intimately in
  a Wedgwood’s-ware mortar. Take also 27 grains of citric or tartaric
  acid, (the first is the pleasantest but the last the cheapest.) The
  acid is to be kept separate from the mixture. The beer is prepared
  from the powders thus: take two tumbler glasses, each half filled
  with water, stir up the compound powder in one of them, and the acid
  powder in the other, then mix the two liquors, when an effervescence
  takes place, the beer is prepared and drank off immediately.


  Put into a kettle of hot water any quantity of fresh shelled green
  peas, and after just letting them boil up, pour them into a large
  thick cloth, cover them with another, make them quite dry, and set
  them once or twice in a cool oven to harden a little; after which put
  them into paper bags, and hang them up in the kitchen for use.—To
  prepare them when wanted, they are first to be soaked well for an
  hour or more, and then put into warm water, and boiled with a little


  The juice of garlick, pounded in a stone mortar, is said to be the
  strongest cement to mend broken glass.


  To ensure the sweetness of fish conveyed by land carriage, the belly
  of the fish should be opened, and the internal parts sprinkled with
  powdered charcoal. The same material will restore impure or even
  putrescent water to a state of perfect freshness.


  Nothing has been found so effectual for preserving water sweet as
  charring the insides of the casks well before they are filled.
  When the water becomes impure and offensive, from ignorance of the
  preservative effect produced on it by charring the casks previous to
  their being filled, it may be rendered perfectly sweet by putting a
  little fresh charcoal in powder into the cask, or by filtering it
  through fresh burnt and coarsely pulverized charcoal.


  A mop and a pail of water are generally the most efficacious
  remedies, but if it has gained head, then keep out the air, and
  remove all ascending or perpendicular combustibles, up which the fire
  creeps and increases in force as it rises.


  Shut the doors and windows, throw water on the fire in the grate, and
  then stop up the bottom of the chimney.

  _Another Method._

  The mephitic vapour produced by throwing a handful of flour of
  sulphur on the burning coals, where a chimney is on fire, will
  immediately extinguish the flames.

                               THE VALET.

The duties of this servant are not so various nor so important as those
of the footman; indeed, they are very frequently, and particularly in
small families, a part of the business of a footman. The particular
province of the valet is to attend to the personal accommodation of
his master. He waits on him when dressing and undressing, has the care
of his wardrobe, brushes and keeps his clothes in good order and ready
to put on when wanted. For this purpose every garment or other article
of wearing apparel, should be carefully examined, cleaned or brushed
on the first opportunity that offers, and then put away in its proper

He should chuse the earliest part of the morning to clean the boots and
shoes, unless it be otherwise arranged, and brush the clothes, and to
do all such work, so as to be able to get to his master’s dressing-room
time enough to make the necessary arrangements there before he expects
him to rise. He will see that the housemaid has lighted the fire, and
cleaned out and dusted the rooms; will prepare the washing-stand,
fill the ewer with clean soft water, and the caroft with fresh spring
water.—The basin and towels, the hair, nail, and tooth-brushes clean,
and in their proper places; hot water, and all the necessary apparatus
for shaving, quite ready; his dressing-gown and slippers airing before
the fire; and his clean linen perfectly well aired by himself, before
it be considered as fit to be put on. The coat, trowsers, &c. intended
to be worn must be taken out and placed at length across the backs of
chairs, the sleeves and outsides turned inward, with a clean linen or
brown Holland wrapper thrown over them, to save them from dust. Having
once ascertained the way in which these things are to be done, he will
find it easy in future, and will be sure to please. The best way to
hang up a coat is, to fold it once at full length, with the inside
outward, the sleeves put straight, and the two fronts together, and
then hang it on a cloak-pin by the inside of the shoulder.

If the wardrobe be sufficiently large to hold each kind of garment
separately, it will be so much the better, as the coats and other
articles may then be laid in smoothly and at length, as soon as they
are brushed and cleaned, and a brown Holland cloth may be spread over
each drawer or shelf, to preserve them from the dust.

Gentlemen who shave themselves, usually strop their own razors
immediately after the operation, whilst the metal is yet warm, which
is the best way: but if it be left to the valet to do, the razor must
be dipped in warm water and wiped dry with a clean cloth or rag; then
laying it flat on the strop, draw it diagonally, from the heel to the
point, the whole length of the strop, turning the elbow in and out
every time the razor is turned; half a dozen or half a score strokes
backwards and forwards, as often as it is used, will keep it in good
order for a considerable time. Good razors are made concave, or hollow,
between the back and the edge, on both sides, for the greater security
in shaving, and for the purpose of giving them a better edge in setting
or stropping.

Having attended his master while dressing, combed his hair, &c. the
valet will take the first opportunity, after he is gone, to set the
room in order, by looking over his things, folding away his night
clothes, washing the brushes and combs occasionally, when necessary,
with warm water and soap, wiping them clean, and drying them at an easy
distance from the fire, and then putting them away in their places.—The
dressing-stand must be wiped clean and dry, the basin washed and wiped,
the ewer and caroft rinsed out and filled again with clean water, the
towels taken away and replaced with clean ones, the fire stirred, the
room dusted, and every thing put in order, as if immediately to be used
again. This must always be done as soon as possible after his master is
dressed or re-dressed, and every garment or other article that has been
taken off, must be brushed, folded, and put away in its proper place.

In case of the master’s coming home wet from a ride, or otherwise, an
immediate change of warm dry clothes must be provided, and the wet or
damp things taken away and dried at a proper distance from the fire;
after having wiped the coat, or other woollen garments, with a sponge,
the way of the nap, or, if only spotted, with a silk handkerchief, in
the same manner, which will effectually smooth the grain of the cloth,
and remove all the spots.

When preparing for a journey, care should be taken to ascertain the
probable time of absence, that sufficient change of linen, &c. may be
provided—nor must the shaving and dressing apparatus be forgotten. When
arrived at an inn, or visiting place, all his master’s things must be
carried into his dressing-room, and set in order for dressing, or for
the night, as nearly as possible in the same order as at home. If the
footman be not there, the valet will have to attend to his master’s
accommodation below stairs also.

The valet is to be always in attendance, in case of his master’s coming
home unexpectedly—and he is to assist in waiting at table at all

As the valet is much about his master’s person, and has the opportunity
of hearing his off-at-hand opinions on many subjects, he should
endeavour to have as short a memory as possible, and, above all, keep
his master’s council; and he should be very cautious of mischief-making
or tale-bearing, to the prejudice of other persons, as calculated to
involve his master in disputes, and ruin himself, if by chance he is

The usual salary is from 30l. to 60l. per annum, but in some situations
much more. Perquisites, his master’s cast-off clothes.


  Rub it with a soft brush dipped in roche alum burnt, sifted to a very
  fine powder.


  Boil a good handful of fig-leaves in two quarts of water till reduced
  to a pint. Bombazine, crape, cloth, &c. need only be rubbed with
  a sponge dipped in the liquor, and the effect will be instantly


  Mix up with the brush, in prepared lather, one tea-spoonful of
  finely pounded best lump whiting, without the smallest danger to the
  razor’s edge or the surface of the chin. Perhaps the very best edge
  may be given to the razor also, by throwing a pinch of whiting on a
  moderately oiled or soaped strop.


  Dip a soft brush in water, rub a little soap on it, and brush the
  article for a minute or two, then wash it clean, wipe it; place it
  near the fire till dry, and brush it with burnt bread finely powdered.


  Keep them moderately moist with a drop or two of sweet oil; a little
  crocus martis and a few drops of sweet oil, rubbed well in with a
  glass bottle, will give the razor a fine edge; pass it afterwards
  on the inside of your hand when warm, and dip it in hot water just
  before using.


  If a black, blue, or brown coat, dry 2 ounces of Fuller’s earth, and
  pour on it sufficient boiling water to dissolve it, and plaster with
  it the spots of grease; take a pennyworth of bullock’s gall, mix with
  it half a pint of stale urine; and a little boiling water; with a
  hard brush, dipped in this liquor, brush spotted places. Then dip the
  coat in a bucket of cold spring water. When nearly dry, lay the nap
  right, and pass a drop of oil of olives over the brush to finish it.

  If grey, drab, fawns, or maroons, cut yellow soap into thin slices,
  and pour water upon it to moisten it. Rub the greasy and dirty spots
  of the coat. Let it dry a little, and then brush it with warm water,
  repeating, if necessary, as at first, and use water a little hotter;
  rinse several times, in warm water, and finish as before.


  Lay the gloves upon a clean board, make a mixture of dried
  fulling-earth and powdered alum, and pass them over on each side
  with a common stiff brush: then sweep it off, and sprinkle them well
  with dry bran and whiting, and dust them well; this, if they be not
  exceedingly greasy, will render them quite clean; but if they are
  much soiled, take out the grease with crumbs of toasted bread, and
  powder of burnt bone: then pass them over with a woollen cloth,
  dipped in fulling-earth or alum powder; and in this manner they can
  be cleaned without wetting, which frequently shrinks and spoils them.


  Dry, pulverize, and sift the following ingredients:
        6 lbs. of fuller’s earth,
        1 lb. of pipe-clay, and
        4 oz. of French chalk.
  Make a paste of the above with the following:—
        1 oz. of rectified oil of turpentine,
        2 oz. of spirit of wine, and
        1½ lbs. of melted oil soap.
  Make up the compound into cakes, which are to be kept in
  water, or in small wooden boxes.


  Wrap up yellow or turpentine soap in paper, or place an open bottle,
  containing spirits of turpentine within the wardrobe. But as the
  smell of the latter may be unpleasant, sprinkle bay leaves, lavender,
  or walnut-leaves, black pepper in grains, or Russia leather shavings.


  Having cleaned it well, boil two or three ounces of logwood for half
  a hour. Dip it in warm water and squeeze it dry, then put it into the
  copper, and boil half an hour. Take it out and add a small piece of
  green copperas, and boil it another half hour. Hang it in the air for
  an hour or two, then rinse it in two or three cold waters, dry it and
  let it be regularly brushed over with a soft brush, over which a drop
  or two of oil of olives has been rubbed.


  Dip a brush in warm gall, apply it to greasy places, and rinse it
  off in cold water; dry by the fire, then lay the coat flat, strew
  damp sand over it, and with a brush beat the sand into the cloth;
  then brush it out with a hard brush, and the sand will bring away the
  dirt. Rub a drop of oil of olives over a soft brush, to brighten the


  Mix 1 pound of Bath brick, 2 pounds of pipe-clay, 4 ounces of pumice
  stone powder, and six ounces of ox gall; colour them with rose pink,
  yellow ochre, umber, Irish slate, &c. to the desired shade.


  Mix 2 pounds of pipe clay, 4 ounces of Fuller’s earth, 4 ounces of
  whiting, and a quarter of a pint of ox galls.


  The white of an egg applied to the injured part, and dried in the
  sun, will effectually answer this purpose.

  _Another Method._

  To two table spoonsful of spirit of turpentine, put half an ounce of
  mealy potatoes, add some of the best Durham mustard, with a little
  vinegar; let them dry, and when well rubbed, the spots will be
  entirely removed.


  Take of French yellow ochre, 1 lb.
          sweet oil, a dessert spoonful
  Mix well together, so that the oil may not be seen: then
  take of pipe-clay, 1 lb.
          starch, ¼ lb.
  Mix with boiling water, when cold, lay it on the leather;
  and rub and brush it well when dry.


  Portable balls for removing spots from clothes, may be thus
  prepared. Fuller’s earth perfectly dried, (so that it crumbles
  into a powder,) is to be moistened with the clear juice of lemons,
  and a small quantity of pure pearl-ashes is to be added. Knead the
  whole carefully together, till it acquires the consistence of a
  thick elastic paste: form it into convenient small balls, and dry
  them in the sun. To be used, first moisten the spot on the clothes
  with water, then rub it with the ball, and let the spot dry in the
  sun; after having washed it with pure water, the spot will entirely


  For this purpose alkaline liquors are not to be used; for while they
  clean the gold they corrode the silk, and change or discharge its
  colour. Soap also alters the shade, and even the species of certain
  colours. But, spirit of wine may be used without any danger of
  its injuring either colour or quality; and, in many cases, proves
  as effectual for restoring the lustre of gold, as the corrosive
  detergents. But, though spirit of wine is the most innocent material
  employed for this purpose, it is not in all cases proper. The golden
  covering may be in some parts worn off; or the base metal, with which
  it has been alloyed, may be corroded by the air, so as to leave the
  particles of gold disunited; while the silver underneath, tarnished
  to a yellow hue, may continue a tolerable colour to the whole: so it
  is apparent that the removal of the tarnish would be prejudicial, and
  make the lace or embroidery less like gold than it was before.


  Take soap wort, bruise it, strain out the juice, and add to it a
  small quantity of black soap; wash the stains a few times with this
  liquor, suffering it to dry between whiles, and in a day or two they
  will disappear.


  Boil a large handful of fig-leaves in two quarts of water until
  reduced to a pint. Squeeze the leaves, and put the liquor into a
  bottle for use. The articles need only be rubbed with a sponge in the
  liquor, and the stains will instantly disappear.

                             THE MAN COOK.

The man Cook, now become a requisite member in the establishment of a
man of fashion, is in all respects the same as that of a female Cook.
He is generally a foreigner, or if an Englishman, possesses a peculiar
tact in manufacturing many fashionable foreign delicacies, or of
introducing certain seasonings and flavours in his dishes, which render
them more inviting to the palate of his employer, than those produced
by the simply healthful modes of modern English Cooks.

The man Cook has the entire superintendance of the kitchen, while his
several female assistants are employed in roasting, boiling, and all
the ordinary manual operations of the kitchen. His attention is chiefly
directed to the stew-pan, in the manufacture of stews, fricassees,
fricandeaux, &c. At the same time, his situation is one of great labour
and fatigue, which, with the superior skill requisite for excellence in
his art, procures him a liberal salary, frequently twice or thrice the
sum given to the most experienced female English Cook.

As the scientific preparations of the man cook would themselves fill
a large volume, and are not generally useful in English families, it
is not deemed necessary to give place to them in this work; but the
following useful receipts having, inadvertently, been omitted under
the head Cook, they are inserted in this place rather than omitted

As the art of Cookery, or _gourmanderie_, is reduced to a regular
science in France, where an egg may be cooked half a hundred ways, so
those who can afford large families of servants, and give frequent
entertainments, consider a man-cook as economical, because he produces
an inexhaustible variety without any waste of materials, and that
elegance and piquancy of flavours which are necessary to stimulate
the appetites of the luxurious. In France, all culinary business
is conducted by men, and there are, at least, as many men cooks as
considerable kitchens; but in England, men cooks are kept only in about
3 or 400 great and wealthy families, and in about 40 or 50 London
hotels. But it is usual in smaller establishments to engage a man cook
for a day or two before an entertainment.[21]


  Let the fowl, duck, rabbit, meat, fish, or vegetable, &c. be cut
  up into small pieces, sprinkling a little flour thereon, fried in
  butter, (with two middle-sized onions sliced fine,) or what is called
  drawn in a pan, then stewed in the gravy from a pound of beef (though
  water is as frequently used) over a brisk fire, for about twenty
  minutes, with two or three table-spoonsful of the mixture, as below,
  stirring the whole occasionally; or the powder may be rubbed well
  over the fowl, &c. and fried with it, adding two ounces of butter,
  the juice of a fine lemon, or half a wine glass of lemon juice,
  or lemon pickle,—two cloves of garlic, chopped very fine, and one
  tea-spoonful of salt. If any of the ingredients predominate too much,
  or an insufficiency prevail, subtract or add according to taste. For
  a larger quantify of meat than the weight of a large fowl, use more
  of the mixture in proportion. The curry will be much improved by the
  mixture being made into a thin paste with a few spoonsful of cream,
  and then rubbed over the meat, previously to its being put into the


  Thirteen ounces coriander seed, three ounces cumin seed, two ounces
  black pepper, four ounces China turmeric, or curcuma root, half an
  ounce Cayenne pepper, one quarter of an ounce powdered cassia, one
  quarter of an ounce powdered white ginger, also one half of an ounce
  of cardamums, one quarter of an ounce of cloves, and one quarter of
  an ounce of allspice.

  The above quantities are enough for twenty curries, but it should be
  kept dry in a tin canister.

  The curried fowl, &c. as above, will require three quarters of a
  pound of rice to be a sufficiency for curry eaters. The curry and the
  rice should be served in separate dishes, with covers, the dishes
  having heaters, or in hot water dishes, such as those used for

  N. B.—Two or three sour apples cut into quarters, as well as a few
  fresh mushrooms, are great improvements to all curries; as are
  truffles. If the latter are used, the liquor in which they are boiled
  should be added to the curry.


  Cut up a fowl, duck, rabbit, beef, or mutton, boil the same
  in two quarts of water for a quarter of an hour; then mix the
  under-mentioned therein, previously bruising the spices in a mortar,
  rejecting the husk. For a larger quantity of meat than the weight of
  a large fowl, use more of the mixture in proportion.

  Two table spoons over-filled of the curry powder or ingredients,
  answers the purpose, and better, adding the butter, onions, garlic,
  pease-flour, acid, &c.

  One quarter of an ounce China turmeric, one sixth of an ounce Cayenne
  pepper, one ounce and a quarter coriander seed, one third of an ounce
  of powdered cassia, two drams two scruples black pepper.

  One table-spoon of butter; juice from a fine lemon, or equal quantity
  of lemon-pickle, three middle sized onions cut fine, six cloves of
  garlic chopped very fine, six tea-spoons of pease-flour, high-dried
  or baked; then pour thereon half a pint of boiling-water, strain the
  ingredients through a fine cloth or sieve, then put the same with
  fowl, &c. over the fire, adding at this time the butter and onions
  previously fried together, boil the same for half an hour, adding, in
  the last five minutes, the acid, when the Mulga-tawney will be ready
  for the table; which eaten as soup and bouilli, mixing rice therein,
  will prove not only palatable, but an excellent stomachic. The
  Mulga-tawney, or soup, when done, should be nearly the consistency of
  cream; if it should prove otherwise, when proceeding as above, more
  or less water should be used on the onset, but not afterwards added.
  The soup with the meat to be served in a tureen, and sent to table
  quite hot; the rice in a dish having hot water below and a cover.

  A prejudice may exist against Curry and Mulga-tawney, but there can
  be no doubt of both being perfectly wholesome; as, to wit, throughout
  the East Indies, it is the daily food of millions of all ages.


  The following is different from that adopted generally in England,
  but was followed by an old Indian officer when here, and found to
  answer perfectly well; but the object to be accomplished is, that the
  rice should be well done, as white as possible, and perfectly free
  from water: the rice used should be Patna; the Carolina, though much
  whiter, is not so good either for Curry or Mulga-tawney.

  Take a pound of Patna rice, have the same well washed, looking over
  each grain for small stones, husks, &c. then put the rice into a
  saucepan, and pour thereon boiling water, put on the cover, and let
  the saucepan remain off the fire about a quarter of an hour; in that
  time, if the water was full boiling, the rice will be sufficiently
  softened for use; pour the water off, and to dry the rice, set it
  over the fire for a couple of minutes, stirring it well during the
  time with a fork. Proceeding as above the rice will be as dry and as
  well cooked as that prepared by the natives in the East Indies; great
  care to be taken that it does not become hard by the heat.

  Another way of boiling the rice is, to soak it an hour in cold water,
  then put it into a saucepan and cover it with hot water, adding one
  tea-spoonful of salt to every tea-cup full of rice. Place it over the
  fire, and when it has boiled about ten minutes, the water should be
  poured off. Then cover the saucepan close down, and let it stand by
  the fire for a few minutes, when the rice will become dry, and fit to
  serve up with your curry.

                           THE HEAD COACHMAN.

On the sobriety, steady conduct, and respectable appearance of this
important servant, depend the exterior appearance of the family with
which he resides. Every genuine Coachman has his characteristic
costume. His flaxen curls or wig, his low cocked hat, his plush
breeches, and his benjamin surtout, his clothes being also well
brushed, and the lace and buttons in a state of high polish. Care in
driving his horses so as to preserve his own family and not injure
other passengers on horse or foot, that he may not involve his master
in law-suits, and wound the feelings of those he is driving, is of the
utmost consequence. It is his business to have the carriage kept in
repair, and to prevent his master being imposed upon by wanton charges;
and in like manner to advise and assist in the purchase of horses, and
in this delicate business, protect the interest of his employer. Much
depends on his zeal, as to the annual expenditure of a carriage, with
reference to the coach-maker, the horse-dealer, and the farrier; and
he will do well always to make special contract, and leave as little
as possible to the conscience of others. When only one coachman is
kept, his duties generally include the whole of the stable business,
as well as the cleaning, greasing, and examining the carriage; about
which latter, he should never trust to chance; and consult the smith
or coach-maker as often as he apprehends a possibility of danger. The
following instructions apply to the coachman’s duty when assisted by
an establishment, but they apply to the coachman alone when there is
no stable establishment, and whether the horses are jobbed or not, his
anxious attention to their welfare is equally required.

If not fatigued by late hours on the preceding night, he rises to
take care of his horses, at the same hour as the other men on the
establishment, and they are attended in the same manner, by himself and
his assistants, as is hereafter described, under the head _Groom_.

The necessary morning business of the stable usually occupies the
servants till breakfast time, after which they all return to the
stable, shake down the litter on each side of the horses, and put the
stable in good order, in expectation of their master, who probably,
pays them a visit after breakfast to inspect the horses, give orders,
or make enquiries.

The helpers and assistants are now busily employed in looking over and
cleaning such of the harness as was last used, and remains uncleaned.
This, having been washed from the wet dirt, and clean sponged
over-night, after the arrival of the carriage, and being now dry, is
first brushed with a dry hard brush, and the brass ornaments cleaned,
for which purpose see the receipts; or the silver ornaments may be
cleaned with finely-powdered charcoal, and polished off with a soft

The ornaments being cleaned, the leathers are to be blacked with the
liquid mixture, which is a very valuable and excellent receipt for
that purpose; the brushes to be used are, 1, a hard brush for taking
off the dirt; 2, a soft brush for laying on the mixture; and 3, a
polishing brush.

After breakfast, the coachmen, with their assistants, or each, if
more than one, proceed to clean their respective coaches; first, well
washing the carriage part and wheels with a mop and a water brush. The
back straps and straps of the springs are to be blacked, and in short,
all the parts, that are of leather, are to be blacked in the same way
as the harness, the brass or other ornaments being first cleaned. The
wheels and bed of the carriage are next to be greased or oiled, and the
linch-pins securely put in.

The inside of the coach is then to be brushed, the glasses cleaned, and
the lamps cleaned and trimmed.

The carriage, horses, harness, and the whole equipage being now ready,
the coachman attends his master or mistress for _orders_, if not
previously received.

When the time is nearly arrived at which the coach is ordered, the
helper or assistants harness the horses and _put them to_, while the
coachman is dressing himself. He then narrowly inspects the whole
equipage—sees that the coach, horses, harness, and all things are in
order; when taking his whip and the reins in his left hand, a man
standing at the heads of the horses, he mounts the box, on the _near
side_, and drives off to the door.

In due time, the coach and other carriages, as well as the saddle
horses, return, when the coachman alights, unbuckles the reins, and
giving the horses into the care of the helpers, takes his whip with
him into the stable, and deposits it in its proper place. He then, if
there be time and day-light, washes and cleans his coach.

At eight o’clock, if not otherwise engaged, he attends the regular
stable duties, and waters, feeds, rubs down, litters, and racks up his
horses, in the usual manner.

The wages of the head or upper coachman, is from 25 to 36 guineas per
annum, with generally two suits of livery—a box coat once in two or
three years, two hats, and two pair of boots; also one or two stable
dresses, consisting of overalls, jackets, waistcoats, and undress frock


  Take half a pint of turpentine, ¼ of a pound of rotten stone,
  ¼ of a pound of charcoal, finely powdered, and ½ a pint of the
  drippings of sweet oil. Mix them, and apply the paste with leather,
  and polish it off with powdered charcoal.


  The colour of harness that has become rusty or brown by wear, may be
  restored to a fine black after the dirt has been sponged and brushed
  off, by using the following mixture: viz.

  Boil logwood chips in three quarts of soft water, to which add three
  oz. of nut-galls, finely powdered, and one oz. of alum; simmer the
  whole together for half an hour, and it will be fit for use.


  Take two oz. of mutton suet, melted, 6 oz. of purified bees wax,
  melted; ¼ lb. lamp black; 1 gill of turpentine; 2 oz. of Prussian
  blue, powdered; 1 oz. of indigo blue, ground; 6 oz. of sugar-candy,
  melted in a little water; and 2 oz. of soft soap. Mix, and simmer
  over the fire 15 minutes, when add a gill of turpentine. Lay it on
  the harness with a sponge, and then polish it.


  Throw the saddle or harness to which it has been used over its back,
  and it will come out of the stable as tractably as usual.

                              THE FOOTMAN.

The business of the Footman is so multifarious and incessant, that in
most families, if he be industrious, attentive, and disposed to make
himself useful, he will find full employment in the affairs of the
house, and the more useful he can make himself, in a general way, the
more acceptable will be his services to the whole house, the greater
will be his reward, and the more comfortable he will be himself.

In many genteel small families, the footman is the only man servant,
in which case he is expected to make himself generally useful; but his
particular departments are, the cleaning of the knives, shoes, plate,
and furniture; answering the door, going of errands, waiting at table,
and answering the parlour bell. The footman finds himself merely in
linen, stockings, shoes, and washing; but if silk stockings, or any
extra articles are expected to be worn, they are found by the family.
On quitting service, every livery servant is expected to leave behind
him any livery had within six months; the last new livery is usually
reserved for Sundays and dress occasions.

For the better dispatch of his own particular business, it is
indispensably necessary that the footman should _rise early_, and as
every moment of his time will be appropriated, he must endeavour to get
that part of his business, which depends upon himself, done before the
family are stirring, as interruptions may then occur, and his necessary
labours be unavoidably delayed, or made to interfere with other
business, not less necessary.

The footman should endeavour to get the dirtiest part of his work done
first; such as cleaning the shoes and boots, knives and forks, brushing
and cleaning clothes, hats and gloves, and cleaning the furniture, &c.
&c. For these purposes, his working dress should be generally a pair of
overalls, a waistcoat and fustian jacket, and a leather apron, with a
white apron to put on occasionally, when called from these duties.[22]

The business of the footman below stairs being done, he next proceeds
to clean the lamps in the best rooms. The oil in them should be fine
and good, and changed once a week or ten days, and the cottons should
be thick and closely woven, always kept dry, and cut even at the top,
and soaked a little when fresh put in, by letting down the oil to them
for a short time.

For cleaning boots and shoes, he takes care to provide himself with
proper brushes and good blacking. In boots he will not clean the tops
till he has finished the feet and legs, when it will be necessary to
cover the legs whilst he is cleaning the tops.

Ladies’ shoes are to be cleaned with milk, and other liquids, according
to their colour, and merely the edges of the soles are to be blacked
and polished, but in cleaning these and gentlemen’s dress shoes, great
care must be taken not to soil the inside linings.

Afterwards, the next business in rotation in the morning, will be to
clean the mahogany and other furniture, in the parlour and best rooms.
Whether the tables, side-boards, cellerets, chairs, &c. be of a light
or dark colour, they must be cleaned with a preparation or oil of an
appropriate colour.

In using the different compositions, have two pieces of woollen cloth
for each, one to put it on with, and the other for polishing. Sometimes
a hard brush will be required to lay on the paste, and a piece of soft
cork to rub out the stains. Always rub the wood the way of the grain,
and remember to dust the furniture before you begin to clean it.

If oil be used, let it be rubbed off as quickly as possible, and then
polished with another cloth. When wax is used, let it be applied very
sparingly, and polished off with another cloth.

The brass rods or other ornaments to side-boards, cellarets, &c. should
be cleaned before the mahogany is touched. The dirt on these ornaments
may be removed with flannel well soaped, and polished off with the
plate leather. If any brass work has the lacquer worn off, it may be
cleaned with brick-dust and leather.

Every article of furniture should be cleaned and rubbed in the middle
of the room, when convenient, to prevent smearing and injuring the

_Looking Glasses_ being very costly, should be cleaned with great
care. First, take a clean soft sponge, just squeezed out of water,
and then dipped in spirits of wine; rub the glass over with this,
and then polish it off with fine powder blue, or whiting tied up in
muslin, quickly laid on, and then well rubbed off, with a clean cloth,
and afterwards with a silk handkerchief. If the glass be very large,
no more of it should be wetted with the spirit at a time, than can be
cleaned off quickly.

The frames must never be touched with any thing wet or damp.
Cotton-wool is the best thing to rub them with, as it will take off the
stains and dirt without doing any injury;[23] or, if the frames are
varnished, they may be rubbed with the spirits of wine, which will at
once take out the spots and dirt, after which they may be re-varnished.

Pictures are best cleaned lightly with a wet sponge, but should never
be touched with a cloth.

The attendance of the footman will now be required in the breakfast
parlour, for which purpose, he must prepare by washing himself, and
throwing off his working dress.

In the directions to the butler, we have given sufficiently at large,
setting out the breakfast table, and waiting at breakfast, which in
small families becomes solely the business of the footman.

After breakfast, he sets the parlour to rights by sweeping up the
crumbs, shaking the green cloth, and laying it again on the table,
making up the fire and sweeping up the hearth.

The footman now carries out such messages and cards as he is charged to

When the footman is obliged to go out with the carriage, the butler or
under butler usually undertakes to do such things in his absence, as he
necessarily leaves undone.

In large families, the footman lays the cloth for dinner, and the
knives and forks and glasses, and the butler arranges the silver
articles, and sees that the whole is correctly laid out. When the hour
of dinner approaches, notice is usually given, by the ringing of a bell
by the footman, ten or fifteen minutes before the time; and during this
time he is busy in carrying up every thing that he thinks may or can be
wanted during dinner, so as to have every thing at hand, at that time.
Again he rings the dinner bell, to announce to the family that dinner
is going up, when the butler takes the first dish, and is followed by
the under butler and footman with the remainder of the fish and soups,
which the butler places on the table, and removing the covers, gives
them to the footman and under butler, who convey them out of the room.
The servants then take their respective stations,—the butler at the
side-board, to serve the wines or beer when called for; the footman
at the back of his master’s chair, and the lady’s footman, if any,
behind his lady. When the soups and fish have been served round, the
butler rings the dining-room bell to warn the cook to be ready with
the removes, which are generally, solid joints of meat, or the first
course, if no removes; the butler then removes the dishes from the
table, and hands them to the footman or under butler, who carries them
away. If wine or beer is asked for, the footman or under butler puts
the empty glasses on a waiter, and the butler fills them. When a clean
plate is wanted, the butler hands it to the footman, with a clean knife
and fork, and the footman puts the dirty one in the proper place to be
taken away.

When the butler sees that the first course is nearly done with, he
again gives notice to the cook, and proceeds to take all the dishes off
the table, and the footman and under butler take them away, and fetch
the second course. The butler being employed, in the mean time, in
setting the table in order, laying the mats, clean spoons, glasses, &c.
The footman, with the assistance of the house-maids and others, having
brought up the next course, the butler places the dishes on the table,
takes off the covers, hands them to the footman, to be taken away, and
again takes his station at the side-board, and during the whole dinner,
the same kind of etiquette as before, is observed by every servant in
attendance, (of which, in some cases, there are several besides the
butler, under butler, and footman; namely, the lady’s footman, valet,
and on particular occasions, waiters hired for the purpose.) The third
course, (consisting of pastry, viz. pies, tarts, &c. with game at
the top and bottom of the table, and the cheese and salads placed on
the side-board) which being removed, as before, the butler with a
napkin wipes off the stains and marks of the hot dishes on the tables,
and places the dessert, as it is brought up by the footman and under
butler. He also puts the wine on the table, and the under butler the
wine-glasses, while the footman places the finger glasses before each
person, and a plate, with a knife and fork and spoon on each plate, the
butler putting other spoons for serving the fruits, jellies, &c. The
butler takes his place behind his master’s chair, at the foot of the
table, and the lady’s footman, behind his lady’s chair at the head, to
hand the wines, &c. and all the other servants leave the room, taking
with them all the things that have been used.

The footman, as soon as all the things are carried down, repairs
to the drawing-room, makes up the fire, sweeps up the hearth, and
otherwise prepares that room. The butler also taking occasion to see
that the lamps and candles are lighted, and the card tables set out,
with candles and two packs of cards on each, and the chairs and sofas
properly arranged by the footman.

The butler and footman then retire to their several avocations in the
butler’s pantry, where the footman is employed in washing and wiping
the glasses, and the under butler cleaning the plate, (which the
kitchen maid generally washes.) When the ladies have retired from the
dining-room, and the drawing-room bell rings for coffee, the footman
enters with the tray, the coffee being made below stairs, and the bread
and butter, cakes, toast, &c. the under butler, or some other servant
following, to take away the empty cups and saucers on a waiter or
tray. At tea time, the butler carries up the tea-tray, and the footman
the toast, muffins, &c. (which are prepared by the kitchen maid). Tea
is announced to the gentlemen by the footman, and the gentlemen having
joined the ladies, the tea and coffee is handed round by the butler,
bread and butter, toast, &c. by the footman, the under butler following
to take away the cups and saucers.

If there be no supper, the wine, when ordered, is carried in by the
butler, and the glasses, &c. on a tray, by the footman; if sandwiches
are introduced, they are carried up on a tray, covered with a clean
cloth, by the footman, the butler attending in the room to hand the
wines, &c.

The company being gone, the bed-room candlesticks are brought by the
footman, and are handed to each person respectively as he wishes to
retire to bed.

The footman then shuts up all the lower part of the house, if not
before done, and retires to bed himself. The butler follows last, sees
all safe, and retires also.

In going out with the carriage, the footman should be dressed in his
best livery, his shoes and stockings being very clean, and his hat,
great coat, &c. being well brushed; nothing being so disgraceful as a
slovenly exterior. He should be ready at receiving directions at the
carriage door, and accurate in delivering them to the coachman, and
though he may indicate the importance of his family by his style of
knocking at a door, he ought to have some regard to the nerves of the
family and the peace of the neighbourhood. When the carriage waits at
routs or public places, he should abstain from drinking with other
servants, and take care to be within call when wanted. His expertness
in letting down the steps and putting them up again, and his caution in
shutting the door, so as not to injure any one, or the dresses of the
ladies, are expected.

When he walks out behind his mistress, he should preserve a modest
demeanour, and protect her, if necessary, from intrusion or insult;
and on this duty he is expected to be particularly attentive to every
part of his dress. In answering the door it is his duty to behave
respectfully to all enquirers after his master or mistress, and never
to presume on his knowledge of persons whom they ought to see or ought
not to see, except in obedience to positive instructions.

The Footman’s wages are from 20 to 30 guineas, with two suits of
livery, and two undress suits.


  Mix in a phial, one drachm of oxy-muriate of potass, with two ounces
  of distilled water; and when the salt is dissolved, add two ounces
  of muriatic acid. Then shake well together, mix in another phial,
  three ounces of rectified spirit of wine with half an ounce of the
  essential oil of lemon, unite the contents of the two phials, and
  keep the liquid thus prepared, closely corked for use. This chemical
  liquid should be applied with a clean sponge, and dried in a gentle
  heat; after which, the boot-tops may be polished with a proper brush,
  so as to appear like new leather.

  _Another Method of Cleaning Boot-Tops._

  Take of white vitriol, powdered, one ounce,
          acid of sugar one ounce,
          water, one quart.
  Mix together.
  Put a label on it, “Rank Poison.”

  Sponge the tops with water first: then mix with the liquid,
  and then with water again.


  Take two ounces of bees’ wax, scrape it fine, put it into a pot or
  jar, and pour over it enough of spirits of turpentine to cover it;
  let it stand a little while, and it will be ready for use. If the
  furniture is to be kept a dark colour, mix a very small quantity of
  alkanet root or rose-pink, with it.


  Take a pint of cold-drawn linseed oil, and if you wish to colour
  it, take a little alkanet root or rose-pink, and mix with it: put a
  little on the furniture, and rub it well with a woollen cloth; do not
  let the oil stand long on the table before it is rubbed off.


  Melt a quarter of a pound of yellow wax and an ounce of black resin,
  well beaten, in an earthen pipkin. Then pour in by degrees two ounces
  of spirit of turpentine. When the whole is thoroughly mixed, put it
  into an earthen jar, and keep it covered for use. Spread a little of
  it on the furniture with a woollen cloth, rub it well in, and in a
  few days the polish will be as hard and as bright as varnish.


  Convey into it a stone bottle of boiling water, or for the feet a
  single glass bottle of boiled water, wrapped in flannel.


  Brass ornaments, when not gilt or lackered, may be cleaned, and a
  fine colour may be given to them by two simple processes. The first
  is to beat sal ammoniac into a fine powder, then to moisten it with
  soft water, rubbing it on the ornaments, which must be heated over
  charcoal, and rubbed dry with bran and whiting. The second is to
  wash the brass work with roche alum boiled in strong ley, in the
  proportion of an ounce to a pint; when dry it must be rubbed with
  fine tripoli. Either of these processes will give to brass the
  brilliancy of gold.


  Soak the wick in strong vinegar, and dry it well before you use it;
  it will then burn both sweet and pleasant, and give much satisfaction
  for the trifling trouble in preparing it.

  If for want of the above mentioned preparation any should escape, a
  wet sponge suspended by a string or wire over the flame of a lamp,
  at a few inches distance, will absorb all the smoke and disagreeable
  effluvia. Rinse it in warm water when wanted the next day.


  Scour the inside well out with water and sand, and afterwards apply
  a quantity of charcoal dust. Another and better method is, to rinse
  them with a pretty strong solution of oil of vitriol and water, which
  will entirely deprive them of their foulness.


  Mix 6 ounces of spirit of salts, and ½ an ounce of rock salt of
  lemons (powdered) together. Drop a little on the stains, and rub it
  with a cork till it disappear. Wash off with cold water.


  Spots of grease may be removed by a diluted solution of potash,
  but this must be cautiously applied, to prevent injury to the
  cloth. Stains of white wax, which sometimes fall upon clothes from
  wax-candles, are removed by spirits of turpentine, or sulphuric
  ether. The marks of white paint may also be discharged by the
  above-mentioned agents.


  If silver or plated, care must be taken that they are not scratched
  in getting off the wax or grease; therefore never use a knife for
  that purpose, nor hold them before the fire to melt the wax or
  grease, as in general the hollow part of the candlesticks, towards
  the bottom, is filled with a composition that will melt if made too
  hot. Pour boiling water over them; this will take all the grease off
  without injury, if wiped directly with an old cloth, and save the
  brushes from being greased: let them in all other respects be cleaned
  like the rest of the plate.


  Never hold them near the fire, nor scrape them with a knife; the best
  way is to pour water upon them just hot enough to melt the grease;
  then wipe them with a cloth, and if they look smeared, sprinkle a
  little whiting or flour upon them, and rub it clean off.

  Be very particular in cleaning the patent snuffers, as they go with a
  spring, and are easily broken. The part which shuts up the snuffings
  has in general a small hole in it, where a pin can be put in to keep
  it open while cleaning it; be sure to have them well cleaned, that
  the snuff may not drop about when using them. The extinguishers
  likewise must be cleaned in the inside, and put ready with the
  snuffers, that the candlesticks may not be taken up without them.


  Keep the furniture paste or oil in a proper can or jar, that there
  may be no danger of upsetting when using it. Have two pieces of
  woollen cloth, one for rubbing it on, the other for rubbing it
  dry and polishing; also an old linen cloth to finish with, and a
  piece of smooth soft cork to rub out the stains: use a brush if the
  paste be hard. Always dust the table well before the oil or paste
  is put on; and if it should be stained rub it with a damp sponge,
  and then with a dry cloth. If the stain does not disappear, rub it
  well with the cork, or a brush the way of the grain, for if rubbed
  cross-grained, it will be sure to scratch it. Be careful to keep the
  cork and brush free from dust and dirt. When the dust is cleaned off
  and the stains have been got out, put on the oil or paste, but not
  too much at a time; rub it well into the wood; if oil, be as quick
  as possible in rubbing it over the table, and then polish it with
  another woollen cloth. If wax, put a little bit on the woollen cloth,
  with the finger, or a small stick; rub it well with this till the
  table has a high polish, then have another cloth to finish it with.
  Be very careful to have the edges of the tables well cleaned, and the
  oil and wax well rubbed off.


  Have a wooden horse to put the clothes on, and a small cane or small
  hand-whip to beat the dust out of them; also a board or table long
  enough for them to be put their whole length when brushing them. Have
  two brushes, one hard and the other soft: use the hardest for the
  great coats, and the others when spotted with dirt. Fine cloth coats
  should never be brushed with too hard a brush, as this will take off
  the nap, and make them look bare in a little time. Be careful in the
  choice of your cane; do not have it too large, and be particular not
  to hit too hard; be careful also not to hit the buttons, for it will
  scratch, if not break them.

  If a coat be wet, and spotted with dirt, let it be quite dry before
  you brush it; then rub out the spots with the hands, taking care not
  to rumple it. If it want beating, do it as before directed; then lay
  the coat at its full length on a board; let the collar be towards the
  left hand, and the brush in the right; brush the back of the collar
  first, between the two shoulders next, and then the sleeves, &c.
  observing to brush the cloth the same way that the nap goes, which is
  towards the bottom of the coat. When both sides are properly done,
  fold them together; then brush the inside, and last of all the collar.


  Have a hot iron with some thick brown paper: lay the paper on the
  part where the grease is, then put the iron upon the spot; if the
  grease comes through the paper, put on another piece, till it does
  not soil the paper. If not all out, wrap a little bit of cloth or
  flannel round the finger, dip it into spirit of wine, and rub the
  grease spot; this will take it entirely out. Be careful not to
  have the iron too hot; but try it on a piece of white paper, and
  if it turn the paper brown, or scorch in the least, it is too
  hot. If paint should get on the coats, always have spirit of wine
  or turpentine ready, which, with a piece of flannel or cloth, will
  easily take it off, if not left to get quite dry.


  Do not pour boiling water over them, particularly on japanned ones,
  as it will make the varnish crack and peel off; but have a sponge
  wetted with warm water and a little soap, if the tray be very dirty,
  then rub it with a cloth; if it looks smeary, dust on a little flour,
  then rub it with a dry cloth. If the paper tray gets marked, take
  a piece of woollen cloth, with a little sweet oil, and rub it over
  the marks; if any thing will take them out this will. Let the urn be
  emptied, and the top wiped dry, particularly the outside, for if any
  wet be suffered to dry on, it will leave a mark.


  Nothing more is necessary than to wash the mahogany with lime-water,
  which may be readily made by dropping a nodule of lime into a bason
  of water.


  Wash them in soap and water till the dirt is got out, then stretch
  them on wooden hands, or pull them out in their proper shape. Never
  wring them as that puts them out of form and makes them shrink; put
  them one upon another and press the water out. Then rub the following
  mixture over the outside of the gloves. If wanted quite yellow, take
  yellow ochre; if quite white, pipe clay; if between the two, mix a
  little of each together. By proper mixture of these any shade may be
  produced. Mix the colour with beer or vinegar.

  Let them dry gradually, not too near the fire nor in too hot a sun;
  when they are about half dried rub them well, and stretch them out
  to keep them from shrinking and to soften them. When they are well
  rubbed and dried take a small cane and beat them, then brush them;
  when this is done iron them rather warm, with a piece of paper over
  them, but do not let the iron be too hot.


  When the frost begins to set in, cover the water-pipes with hay or
  straw bands, twisted tight round them. Let the cisterns and water
  butts be washed out occasionally; this will keep the water pure and

  In pumping up water into the cistern for the water-closet, be very
  particular, in winter-time, as in general the pipes go up the
  outside of the house. Let all the water be let out of the pipe when
  you have done pumping; but if this be forgotten, and it should get
  frozen, take a small gimblet and bore a _hole_ in the pipe, a little
  distance from the place where it is let off, which will prevent its
  bursting. Put a peg in to the hole when the water is let off. Pump
  the water up into the cistern, for the closet every morning, and once
  a week take a pail of water, and cast it into the basin, having first
  opened the trap at the bottom; this will clear the soil out of the


  Hats require great care, or they will soon look shabby. Brush them
  with a soft camel-hair brush, which will keep the fur smooth. Have
  a stick for each hat, to keep it in its proper shape, especially if
  the hat be wet: put the stick in as soon as the hat is taken off, and
  when dry put it into a hat-box, particularly if not in constant use,
  as the air and dust soon turn hats brown. If the hat is very wet,
  handle it as lightly as possible; wipe it dry with a cloth or silk
  handkerchief; then brush it with the soft brush.


  Take gum sandarac, 6 oz.
       shell lac, 2 oz.
       colophonium, or resin,
       white glass pounded,
       clear turpentine, each 4 oz.
       pure alcohol, 32 oz.
  Dissolve the varnish according to the directions given
  for compound mastic varnish.

  This varnish is sufficiently durable to be applied to
  articles destined to daily and continual use. Varnishes
  composed with copal ought, however, in these cases, to be


  Melt over a moderate fire, in a very clean vessel, two ounces of
  white or yellow wax; and, when liquefied, add four ounces of oil of
  turpentine. Stir the whole until it is entirely cool, and the result
  will be a kind of pomade fit for waxing furniture, and which must be
  rubbed over them according to the usual method. The oil of turpentine
  is soon dissipated; but the wax, which by its mixture is reduced to a
  state of very great division, may be extended with more ease, and in
  a more uniform manner. The essence soon penetrates the pores of the
  wood, calls forth the colour of it, causes the wax to adhere better,
  and the lustre which thence results is equal to that of varnish,
  without having any of its inconveniences.


  Take of gum sandarac, 4 oz.
       seed lac, 2 oz.
       Benjamin in tears, each 1 oz.
       pounded glass, 4 oz.
       Venice turpentine, 2 oz.
       pure alcohol, 32 oz.

  The gum sandarac and lac render this varnish durable; it
  may be coloured with a little saffron or dragon’s blood.


  Take of ivory-black and treacle, each 12 oz.
          spermaceti oil, 4 oz.
          white wine vinegar, 4 pints.

  This blacking, (recommended by Mr. Gray, lecturer on the
  materia medica,) is superior in giving leather a finer polish
  than any of those that are advertised, as they all contain
  sulphuric acid, (oil of vitriol,) which is necessary, to give
  it the polishing quality, but it renders leather rotten and
  very liable to crack.


  Take of vinegar, No. 18, (the common,) 1 quart,
          ivory-black, and treacle, each 6 oz.
          vitriolic acid, and spermaceti, (or common oil,)
            each 1½ oz.
  Mix the acid and oil first, afterwards add the other
  ingredients; if, when it is used, it does not dry quick
  enough on the leather, add a little more of the vitriol, a
  little at a time. When there is too much of the vitriolic
  acid, which is various in its strength, the mixture will
  give it a brown colour.

  _Liquid Japan Blacking._

  Take 3 ounces of ivory-black, 2 ounces of coarse sugar, one ounce
  of sulphuric acid, one ounce of muriatic acid, one table-spoonful
  of sweet oil and lemon acid, and one pint of vinegar. First mix the
  ivory-black and sweet oil together, then the lemon and sugar, with a
  little vinegar, to qualify the blacking; next add the sulphuric and
  muriatic acids, and mix them all well together.

  _A Cheap Method._

  Ivory-black, two ounces; brown sugar, one ounce and a half; and sweet
  oil, half a table spoonful. Mix them well, and then gradually add
  half a pint of small beer.

  _Another Method._

  A quarter of a pound of ivory-black, a quarter of a pound of moist
  sugar, a table spoonful of flour, a piece of tallow about the size of
  a walnut, and a small piece of gum arabic. Make a paste of the flour,
  and whilst hot, put in the tallow, then the sugar, and afterwards mix
  the whole well together in a quart of water.

  _Bailey’s Composition for Blacking Cakes._

  Take gum tragacanth, one ounce; neat’s-foot oil, super-fine
  ivory-black, deep blue, prepared from iron and copper, each two
  ounces; brown sugar-candy, river water, each four ounces. Having
  mixed well these ingredients, evaporate the water, and form it into

  _Blacking Balls for Shoes._

  Take mutton suet, four ounces; bees’ wax, one ounce; sweet oil, one
  ounce; sugar-candy and gum arabic, one dram each in fine powder;
  melt these well together over a gentle fire, and add thereto about
  a spoonful of turpentine, and lamp black sufficient to give it a
  good black colour. While hot enough to run, make it into a ball, by
  pouring the liquor into a thin mould; or let it stand till almost
  cold; when it may be moulded by the hand.


  This is done by rubbing or brushing into the leather a mixture of
  drying oils, and any of the oxides or calxes of lead, copper, or
  iron: or by substituting any of the gummy resins, in the room of the
  metallic oxides.


  Scrape four ounces of bees’-wax into a basin, and add as much oil of
  turpentine as will moisten it through. Then powder a quarter of an
  ounce of resin, and add as much Indian red as will bring it to a deep
  mahogany colour. When the composition is properly stirred up, it will
  prove an excellent cement or paste for blemishes in mahogany, and
  other furniture.

  _Another Method._

  Scrape four ounces of bees’-wax, as before. To a pint of oil of
  turpentine, in a glazed pipkin, add an ounce of alkanet-root. Cover
  it close, and put it over a slow fire, attending it carefully that
  it may not boil over, or catch fire. When the liquid is of a deep
  red, add as much of it to the wax as will moisten it through, also a
  quarter of an ounce of powdered resin. Cover the whole close, and let
  it stand six hours, when it will be fit for use.

  _Furniture Oil._

  Put some linseed-oil into a glazed pipkin, with as much alkanet root
  as it will cover. Let it boil gently, and it will become of a strong
  red colour: when cool it will be fit for use.


  Take half a tea-spoonful of black pepper, in powder, one tea-spoonful
  of brown sugar, and one table-spoonful of cream; mix them well
  together, and place them in the room, on a plate, where the flies are
  troublesome, and they will soon disappear.

  _Another Way._

  Dissolve two drams of extract of quassia in half a pint of boiling
  water, sweeten it, and pour it into plates to be set about the room.
  This mixture, though fatal to the flies, is not otherwise pernicious.


  Put a wet blanket over the whole front of the fire-place, which will
  stop the current of air, and thus extinguish the flames.


  Take an ounce of oxalic acid, dissolve it in a pint of soft water,
  and keep it in a bottle well corked; dip a soft sponge into the
  mixture to clean the tops with, and if there are any spots which
  refuse to disappear, rub them with a little fine Bath brick dust:
  sponge the tops afterwards with clean water. Take particular care
  always to have any mixtures, or powders for boot-tops, labelled with
  the word poison in large letters, as fatal accidents have arisen from
  oxalic acid, being so like Epsom salts in appearance, as to be often
  taken for them in mistake.


  Take a pint of skimmed milk, half an ounce of spirits of salt, half
  an ounce of spirits of lavender, one ounce of gum Arabic, and the
  juice of two lemons; mix them well together, and keep them in a
  bottle closely corked; rub the tops with a sponge, but use no brick
  dust; and when they are dry, polish them with a brush or piece of


  The unpleasant smell of new paint is best removed by time, and
  atmospheric ventilation: but tubs of water placed in the apartment
  will act more rapidly; with this inconvenience, however, that
  the gloss of the paint will be destroyed. Unpleasant smells from
  water-closets, or all articles of furniture connected with them, may
  be modified by the application of quick-lime, to which may be added
  the soap-suds that have been used in washing, which neutralize the
  pungently offensive salts. A little quick-lime put into a night-chair
  will destroy all disagreeable effluvia.

  Aromatic pastiles of the following composition may be burned
  with great success: take of camphor, flowers of benzoin, powdered
  charcoal, powdered cascarilla bark, powdered Turkey myrrh, and
  powdered nitre, each equal quantities; beat them with syrup
  sufficient to form a mass, and divide into pastiles of conical
  shape. They may be mixed up with spirit of turpentine, or any thing


  Procure a smooth board, free from knots, or one covered with leather.
  If the latter, melt a sufficient quantity of mutton suet, and put it
  hot upon the leather with a piece of flannel; then take two pieces
  of soft Flanders brick, and rub them one against the other over the
  leather till it is covered with the powder, which rub in until no
  grease comes through, when a knife is passed over the leather, which
  may easily be known by the knife keeping its polish.

  If only a plain board, rub the brick two or three times over it; for
  if too much be put on at once it will make the blades of the knives
  look rough and scratched. Let the board be of a proper height, and
  set so that you may be in a sloping position while cleaning the
  knives. Take a knife in each hand, holding them back to back; stand
  opposite the middle of the board; lay the knives flat upon it, and
  do not bear too hard upon them; by this method it will be easier to
  clean two knives at a time than one, and they will be less liable to
  be snapped or broken, when pressed on too heavily.

  Be careful to keep a good edge on the knives. Carving knives in
  particular ought to be kept sharp, which may easily be done by taking
  one in each hand, back to back when cleaning, scarcely letting them
  touch the board when expanding the arms, but when drawing the hands
  together again, bearing a little hard on the edge of the knives; this
  will give them not only a good edge and a fine polish, but is much
  better than sharpening them with a steel.

  The best way to clean steel forks is to fill a small oyster barrel
  with fine gravel, brick dust, or sand, mixed with a little hay or
  moss: make it moderately damp, press it well down, and let it always
  be kept damp. By running the prongs of the forks a few times into
  this, all the stains on them will be removed. Then have a small
  stick, shaped like a knife, with leather round it to polish between
  the prongs, &c. having first carefully brushed off the dust from them
  as soon as they are taken out of the tub. A knife board is often
  spoiled by cleaning forks, and the backs of the knives, upon it; to
  prevent this, fasten a piece of old hat or leather on the board where
  the forks and backs of knives are to be cleaned.

  Always turn the back of the knives towards the palm of the hand in
  wiping them, which will prevent all danger from cutting. In wiping
  the forks put the corner of the cloth between the prongs, to remove
  any dirt or dust that may not have been thoroughly brushed out;
  and if there be silver ferules on the knives and forks, or silver
  handles, they must be rubbed with a piece of leather and plate
  powder, keeping the blades covered while the handles are cleaning.

  Wipe the knives and folks as soon as possible after being used, as
  the longer they are left with grease and stains on them the harder
  they will be to clean; particularly if they have been used for acids,
  salads, tarts, &c. Have then a jug of hot water ready to put them
  into as soon as done with, and wipe them as before directed.

  In order to keep knives and forks in good condition when they are not
  in use, rub the steel part with a flannel dipped in oil; wipe the oil
  off after a few hours, as there is often water in it; or dust the
  blades and prongs with quick-lime, finely powdered, and kept in a
  muslin bag.


  Plated articles require even more care than silver ones; they should
  be cleaned with soft brushes, not too often, and never with any thing
  but plate powder, not even whiting by itself; do not wet them more
  than can be helped or they will tarnish; nor brush them more than is
  necessary, or the silver will come off; the best thing for them is
  spirit of wine or oil, and take care that no plated articles remain
  long dirty or damp, for if they do they will rust, in case they are
  plated on steel, and canker if plated on copper.

  Wash the brushes after the plate is cleaned with warm water and soap,
  and then set them to dry, with the wooden side uppermost.

                           THE UNDER BUTLER.

Is entirely under the controul and direction of the Butler. He cleans
all the plate—the parlour knives and forks—lays the cloths—sets out
the side-board, and assists to wait at table. As he is supposed to be
busily employed, after dinner, in the Butler’s pantry, cleaning the
plate, he is not usually expected to answer the bells at that period.
He trims the lamps belonging to the dining and drawing-rooms, and
is frequently required to assist the Butler in cleaning his master’s
clothes and shoes. The Under Butler, generally looking to the situation
of Butler, and as even in his present station he will have occasion for
more particular directions, he will do well frequently to refer to the
hints to the Butler, where he will find the immediate duties of the
Butler and _himself_ more particularly given.

A chief part of his duty consists in assisting in the rough work of the
butler, such as brewing, bottling, and cellar business in general, in
all which he should be as expert as the butler himself.

Wages 16 to 25 guineas.


  The best material for cleaning either porcelain or glass-ware is
  fullers’ earth, but it must be beaten into a fine powder, and
  carefully cleared from all rough or hard particles, which might
  endanger the polish of the brilliant surface.


  Wash the plate in boiling water to free it from grease, and if it
  has wrought edges, brush it well before you begin to clean it. The
  leathers ought to be soft and very thick, and the sponges well soaked
  in water.

  _Another Way._

  Boil an ounce of prepared hartshorn-powder in a quart of water. While
  on the fire, put as much plate into it as the vessel will hold; let
  it boil a little time, then take it out, drain it over the saucepan,
  dry it before the fire, and rub it bright with leather. Then put more
  into the pan in the same manner until it is all boiled. Put clean
  linen rags into the pan to soak up the remainder, and when dry, they
  will give a beautiful polish to the plate merely by rubbing it with
  them. They are likewise admirable for cleaning brass locks, and the
  finger-plates of doors.—This method will only suit small articles of


  Take an ounce of killed quicksilver, which you may buy at the
  chemist’s, and half a pound of the best whiting sifted; mix them with
  spirits of wine when used. Hartshorn-powder may be used instead of
  whiting; but whiting is quite as good, when dried and pounded.


  Dissolve alum in strong ley, skim it carefully, mix it with soap and
  wash your silver utensils with it, using a linen rag.


  Steep the plate in soap leys for the space of four hours; then cover
  it over with whiting wet with vinegar, so that it may stick thick
  upon it, and dry it by a fire; after which, rub off the whiting, and
  pass it over with dry bran, and the spots will not only disappear,
  but the plate will look exceedingly bright.


  Take of unslaked lime and alum, a pound each, of aqua vitæ and
  vinegar, each a pint, and of beer grounds, two quarts; boil the plate
  in these, and they will set a beautiful gloss upon it.


  Let the spotted part of the cloth imbibe a little water without
  dipping, and hold the part over a lighted common brimstone match at
  a proper distance. The sulphurous gas which is discharged, will soon
  cause the spot to disappear.

  _Plate Powder._

  Whiting properly purified from sand, applied wet, and rubbed till
  dry, is one of the easiest, safest, and, certainly the cheapest, of
  all plate powders.


The business of the _Under Coachman_, is precisely the same as that of
the _Head Coachman_, as before detailed. He attends with the assistance
of the helper, to the care and dressing of his horses, washing and
cleaning the harness and the coach, which is always the second best,
and is driven by him at night; whereas the best coach and the best
horses, are driven by the Head Coachman by day.

Wages from 20_l._ to 24 guineas, with two suits of livery, a box coat
occasionally, hat and boots—also one or two stable dresses.

He is sometimes required to ride as postillion, or as courier, when the
family travel _post_.

                          THE UNDER COACHMAN.

If there be other Coachmen kept, their duties are similar to those of
the first and second Coachmen, but their wages are somewhat lower, and
the liveries, &c. not always quite so costly.

                          THE LADY’S FOOTMAN.

The chief business of this servant is to wait on his lady only, for
whom he performs all the offices of a footman. He carries out all her
messages and cards of invitation. He prepares the breakfast, and waits
behind her chair both at breakfast and dinner—must be ready at all
times to go out with his lady, either behind her carriage or on foot.
For his more general duties, see the Directions to the Footman.

A genteel exterior and a good figure are principal recommendations of
this servant; to which he should add great cleanliness in his person,
and studied neatness in his dress. He is, of course, expected to assist
the other servants in waiting at the dinner table, and to receive
instructions through the lady’s maid, in whose out-door concerns he
must officiate when required.

Wages 18l. to 25 Guineas—two liveries and a working dress.

                           THE UNDER FOOTMAN.

In families where two or more footmen are kept, the under footman is
expected, and indeed, engages to do that part of the business of a
footman, which is deemed the most laborious; that is, he cleans knives
and forks—boots and shoes—carries up the coals and attends all the
fires above stairs during the day. He likewise carries out cards,
messages, &c. and assists to carry up and wait at dinner, &c. &c.
Wages, 16 to 20 guineas, with liveries.

                            THE HALL PORTER.

The duties of this servant are confined to the entrance-hall, and
the door, where he is continually stationed. He answers every knock
and ring, takes in all messages, parcels, letters, cards, &c. and
immediately hands them to the butler, who conveys them to his master or

He trims the great hall and passage lamps, and opens and fastens up the
doors and shutters every morning and night.

The public character of a nobleman or gentleman often depends on this
servant. Rude or contemptuous language, to the meanest applicant,
will frequently prove injurious to the interests of his master, in
ways of which he cannot be a competent judge; and, therefore, his
best qualities are patience and good temper, to which may be added,
secrecy in regard to the affairs, connexions, and intercourse of the
family. A close tongue, and an inflexible countenance, are, therefore,
indispensable, and he should practise the maxim of hearing and seeing
all, but saying nothing. It is recorded of the porter of a minister of
state, who died in the morning, that, on being asked in the afternoon
if the fact were true, he replied that really he could not tell, but if
the party would give him his card, he would make enquiry, and let him
know. This was a well-trained porter, and such should be the system of
all porters.

Wages from 24_l._ to 30_l._ per annum.

                               THE GROOM.

This, and indeed, every other person in the stable department, must
rise about five in the summer, and six in the winter.

When the Groom has two or more horses under his care, with a chaise, or
other vehicle or vehicles, he is generally allowed a boy to assist him
in the stable.

We shall here insert the _general care and management of horses_,
because in every stable establishment, however _small_, or however
_large_, a Groom is to be found; and he ought to be fully competent
to this branch of stable experience. In order to avoid repetition, we
shall refer every other servant in this department, to this description
of the usual care and management of horses.

The first thing, on entering the stable, is to give to each horse about
a gallon of clean water in a clean bucket; then to shake up the best
litter, under the manger, sweep out each stall, and clean out the whole
stable. Every Coachman and Groom feeds his own horses;[24] and during
the time of their feeding, he proceeds to _dress_ them: thus each horse
is first curried all over, with the curry-comb, to loosen the dirt and
dust on its skin; then brushed with a whalebone brush, to take the
dust off; next whisped with straw, to smooth and cleanse its coat; and
again brushed with the brush and curry-comb, to take off what dust may
remain; after which the horse is whisped again with a damp lock of hay,
and finally, rubbed down with a woollen rubber, or a clean cloth. The
horse is then turned round in the stall, and his head is next brushed
well and whisped clean and smooth, with a damp lock of hay. After
this, his ears are drawn through the hands, for several minutes, till
made warm, and then the insides of the ears are wiped out with a damp
sponge, to remove such dust and filth as may have accumulated there.
The sponge after being washed clean, is then applied to the eyes, to
cleanse them from dust, and any exudation that may have arisen in them.
The nostrils are also sponged clean, and the whole head is afterwards
finished by rubbing it with a cloth, in the same manner as the body
had previously been cleaned. The horse is then turned round into
its proper situation, the head stall put on, and the dirt and filth
that may have accumulated under its tail, are then washed away with a
sponge. The mane and tail are next cleaned and laid with a mane comb
and water brush, used alternately with both hands; the head and body
are again wiped over, and the body clothes are put on and fastened with
a surcingle.

The Groom next examines the horse’s heels, picks out the dirt from the
feet, and washes its heels, with a water brush and plenty of water.
If any horse has bad feet, they are then to be dressed and stuffed.
Lastly, a due portion of hay,[25] (about three or four pounds) is
shaken into the rack, and then the horse is considered as completely

This is a summary of the whole process of cleaning and dressing horses
of every description.

Horses thus attended to, and regularly managed, under the humane
superintendance of a diligent and conscientious Groom or Coachman, will
have healthy and beautiful appearance, and in a great measure escape
from many diseases to which they would otherwise be liable.

When the master rides out before breakfast, the Groom rises so much
the earlier, so as to be able to get the horses for himself and master
ready, and at the time appointed. In this case, he gives the horses
not more than two quarts of water each, and about half their usual
feed of corn. On their return from the morning ride, the Groom sponges
the eyes and nostrils of the horses, and under their tails; picks out
their feet, washes their feet and heels, and then otherwise cleans and
dresses them in the usual way, as already described. When thus far
dressed, it is necessary to hand-rub their legs, downwards, for about
ten minutes, to prevent wind-galls, and to strengthen the back sinews.

When horses have been ridden hard, or have been a long journey,
bandages must be wrapped round their legs, (from the knee to the
fetlock joint) to prevent their swelling.

If their feet are heated, they must be stopped with the following
mixture, called stopping: viz.

  Mix equal quantities of cow-dung, clay, tar, and kitchen grease with
  urine, to the consistency of a stiff paste. This is usually kept in a
  small tub, or box, with a handle, to be ready when wanted.

The horses are then watered, fed, and littered down.

All horses when they come in, if they have sweated, or are very hot,
must have their feet and legs first washed, and then be walked about
ten or fifteen minutes, in the open air, till they are properly cool
and dry; when they are to be well rubbed, and afterwards cleaned in the
usual way. They should be encouraged to stale as soon as may be, by
shaking a little straw under them, and whistling to them.

The saddles and bridles, with the bits and stirrups, are to be wiped
when they are taken off, and are so left till the first opportunity,
when they are to be thoroughly cleaned and put away.

If a gig, chaise, or other carriage has been used in the morning, it
will require to be cleaned and got ready as soon as possible.

Such horses as are at home at twelve o’clock, are, at that hour, to be
watered and fed again, and just wiped over, but not thoroughly cleaned,
as in the morning; their manes and tails are, however, to be combed and
properly _laid_ with the mane-comb and water brush.

When the Groom’s horses and carriages come in, in the evening, he
attends to his horses first, washes their feet and legs and rubs them
quite dry, before he cleans them. He afterwards cleans his gig, or
whatever it may be by day-light, if there be time, or at any rate, he
has to get his harness cleaned. About eight o’clock the stable man
repairs to the stable, for the last time, cleans it out, waters, feeds,
and rubs down the horses, litters them up, bandages their legs, stops
their feet, (if necessary) and racks them up for the night.

Wages 22_l._ to 25_l._ with, generally, two livery suits, and two
stable dresses a year.


  Instead of grinding the oats, break them in a mill; and the same
  quantity will prove doubly nutritious. Another method is, to boil the
  corn, and give the horses the liquor in which it has been boiled;
  the result will be, that instead of six bushels in a crude state,
  three bushels, so prepared, will be found to answer, and to keep the
  animals in superior vigour and condition.


  Over the whole sore, or where the part is bruised, or where there is
  a tendency to suppuration, a poultice should be applied and kept on
  by suitable bandages. The poultice may be made of any kind of meal,
  fine bran, bruised linseed, or of mashed turnips, carrots, &c. The
  following has been found useful as a common poultice: Fine bran, 1
  quart; pour on it a sufficient quantity of boiling water to make a
  thin paste; to this add of linseed powder enough to give it a proper
  consistence. The poultice may be kept on for a week or ten days,
  or even longer, if necessary, changing it once or twice a day; and
  cleaning the wound, when the poultice is removed, by washing it by
  means of a soft rag or linen cloth, with water not more than blood
  warm, (some sponge is too rough for this purpose); or, where the
  wound is deep, the water may be injected into it by a syringe, in
  order to clean it from the bottom.


  In the course of a few days, when the wound, by care and proper
  management with the poultices, begins to put on a healthy appearance,
  and seems to be clean and of a reddish colour, not black or bloody;
  then there may be applied an ointment made of tallow, linseed oil,
  bees’ wax, and hog’s lard, in such proportion as to make it of a
  consistence somewhat firmer than butter. The ointment should be
  spread on some soft clean tow, and when applied to the sore, it ought
  never to be tied hard upon it, (which is done too frequently and
  very improperly,) but only fixed by a bandage of proper length and
  breadth, (for a mere cord is often improper,) so close and securely
  as to keep it from slipping off. This application may be changed once
  a day; or when nearly well, and discharging but little, once in two

  _Treatment according to the appearance of the part._

  When the wounded part begins to discharge a whitish, thick matter,
  and is observed to fill up, the general treatment and dressings to
  the sore, now mentioned, should be continued; and in the course of
  the cure, the animal, when free of fever, may be allowed better
  provision, and may take gentle exercise. If the animal be feeble,
  from the loss of blood originally, or from the long continuance of
  a feverish state produced by the inflammation attending the wound,
  or from weakness arising from confinement, or connected with its
  constitution naturally; and if the wound appear to be in a stationary
  state, very pale and flabby on its edges, with a thin discharge,
  then better food may be given to it; and if still no change should
  be observed, with the better food, the wound may be treated somewhat
  differently from what has been already advised. The ointment may be
  made more stimulant, by adding to it some resin and less bees’ wax,
  or what would be still more stimulant, some common turpentine; for it
  is only in very rare cases that oil of turpentine can be requisite.
  The effects of an alteration in the mode of treatment should be
  particularly remarked, and stimulants should be laid aside, continued
  or increased, according as may be judged proper. Before changing
  the dressings applied to the wound, or before rendering them more
  stimulant and active by using heating applications, the effect of
  closer bandaging may be tried; for sometimes by keeping the parts a
  little more firmly together, the cure is promoted.

  _Food and Regimen._

  In the case of severe wounds, attention should be paid to the
  condition of the animal in other respects. There being always when
  such happen, a tendency to violent inflammation and fever, that may
  end fatally, means should be employed to moderate both. The apartment
  should be cool and airy, and so quiet that the animal should not
  be disturbed; the drink should not be warm, but rather cold, and
  given freely, though not in too large quantities at a time; the food
  should be sparingly given and of a poorer quality than usual, and
  should be rather succulent and laxative, than dry or apt to produce
  costiveness; bleeding may be employed either generally from a vein,
  or, in some cases, when it can be done, by cupping from the injured
  part, as in the case of a bruise (though this last will be seldom
  requisite or found convenient,) and it may be done more than once or
  twice, as may seem proper; laxative medicines also ought to be given
  and repeated, as there may be occasion.


  Bleeding is often the most useful and efficacious means of curing
  diseases in horses, &c. In inflammatory affections, it is generally
  the first remedy resorted to, and its immediate salutary effects are
  often surprising.

  When it is necessary to lessen the whole quantity of blood in the
  system, open the jugular or neck vein. If the inflammation is
  local, bleed where it can be conveniently done, either from the
  part affected, or in its vicinity, as by opening the plate vein,
  superficial vein of the thigh, or temporal arteries.

  In fevers of all kinds, and when inflammation attacks any important
  organ, as the brain, eyes, lungs, stomach, intestines, liver,
  kidneys, bladder, &c. bleeding is of the greatest use. It diminishes
  the quantity of blood in the body; and by this means prevents the ill
  effects of inflammation. The quantity of blood to be taken varies
  according to the age, size, condition, and constitution of the horse,
  and urgency of the symptoms.

  From a large or strong horse, four or six quarts will be requisite,
  and may be repeated in smaller quantities if symptoms demand it. The
  blood, in these diseases, must flow from a large orifice made in the
  vein. A horse should _never be suffered to bleed upon the ground,
  but into a measure_, in order that the proper quantity may be taken.
  Young horses, also, while shedding their teeth, have sometimes much
  constitutional irritation, which bleeding relieves. But in these
  affections it is very rarely necessary to bleed to the same extent
  as in fevers, &c.; two or three quarts generally suffice to be
  taken away.

  _Fulness of Blood._

  Moderate bleeding, from two to three or four quarts, is also used
  to remove fulness of habit, or plethora, attended with slight
  inflammatory symptoms. In this case the eyes appear heavy, dull, red
  or inflamed, frequently closed as if asleep; the pulse small and
  oppressed; the heat of the body somewhat increased; the legs swell;
  and the hairs rub off. Horses that are removed from grass to a warm
  stable, and full fed on hay and corn, and not sufficiently exercised,
  are very subject to one or more of these symptoms. Regulating the
  quantity of food given to him, proper exercise and occasional
  laxatives, as the following powder, will be commonly found sufficient
  after the first bleeding, and operation of an aloetic purge. In
  slight affections of this kind, a brisk purge will often alone be

  _Laxative and Diaphoretic Powder._

  Take of crocus of antimony, finely levigated,
          nitre, cream of tartar, and flour of sulphur, of
          each, 4 ounces:
  Powder and mix them well together for use.

  One table-spoonful of this mixture may be given every night
  and morning, in a mash of scalded bran, or a feed of corn
  moistened with water, that the powders may adhere thereto.

  This powder will be found excellent for such horses as are
  kept on dry meat, whether they be in the stable, or travel on
  the road; also for stallions in the spring of the year, as
  they not only keep the body cool and open, but cause them to
  cast their coat, and make the skin appear as bright as silk.


  In obstinate grease and swellings of the legs, accompanied with
  lameness of the joints, dry coughs, worms, diseases of the skin,
  farcy, apoplexy or staggers, affections of the liver, &c. &c.,
  mercurial purges are of the greatest service. They purge; destroy
  worms; generally increase the flow of urine; operate upon the skin,
  liver, and other viscera in a peculiar manner; cause a healthful
  action in these parts; and remove many chronic complaints incident
  to the horse. Great caution is necessary during their operation,
  lest the horse take cold. The water given him must be warm, and when
  exercised he should be properly clothed.

  Horses that are kept on dry meat, and are full fed, with little or no
  exercise, require regular purging every six months, with two or three
  doses each time, allowing proper intervals between each.

                    THE GROOM AND VALET, OR FOOTMAN.

In small families, a servant is sometimes hired in the capacities of
_groom and valet, or groom and footman_. The duties of this servant
are given under the respective heads of GROOM, VALET, and FOOTMAN. The
wages out of the house, about 50l. a year, with the cast off clothes.

                            THE POSTILLION.

When the family travels post, the helper in the stables, and the
stable-boy, generally ride as postillions: on other occasions, the boy
or helper, rides and drives the chariot and other carriages; or if he
be a regular servant, he has the care of a pair of horses. Wages from
16 to 20 guineas.—His clothing is nearly the same as the grooms, only
that he has a cap, and generally a jacket instead of a frock coat.

                      THE COURIERS, OR OUTRIDERS.

Are generally selected from some of the persons employed in the
stables—Often, the under coachman and groom. Their business is to ride
with the family when travelling, to guard them on the road—to ride
forward with orders, and to pay the turnpikes, &c. &c.

The outriders always take care of their own horses.

                            THE STABLE BOY.

Assists the coachman and groom, under whose direction he is occupied in
cleaning out the stables, cleaning the horses, washing and cleaning the
harness and carriages, and making himself generally useful. The wages,
when in the house, is from 8 to 12l. per annum, and clothing, as may be

                        HELPERS IN THE STABLES.

The helpers are subordinate to the regular stable servants, and their
business is to assist in cleaning the horses, harness, saddles, and
carriages, cleaning out the stables, and assisting the coachman and
groom in all the business of the stable that may be required of them.
They are generally hired by the week, at from 16 to 21 shillings, out
of doors, and have no liveries. If hired as regular stable servants,
they are boarded in the house, and their wages and clothing are nearly
the same as the groom’s.

When the family travels, the helper is sometimes taken either as
postillion or outrider.

                           THE HEAD GARDENER.

The gardener, to understand his business well, and to be capable of
undertaking the management of a gentleman’s garden and grounds, should
not only be perfect in the ordinary business, and the regular routine
of digging, cropping, and managing a kitchen garden, but should be also
well versed in the nature of soils, manures, and composts, the best
methods of propagating plants, shrubs, and trees, the management of the
hot-house, green-house, conservatory, hot-beds; and the culture, not
only of indigenous, but also of foreign and exotic productions.

The gardener, on first coming to his situation, will endeavour to
ascertain the nature and present state of the soil. There are scarcely
any of the ordinary esculent or culinary vegetables that will not
require, at least, a depth of two spits of well cultivated earth;
shrubs and trees much more; and this depth he should accordingly give
it by proper digging, trenching, and other means. The sub-strata, or
under soil, must also be considered, and articles fond of moisture
should be planted where the sub-stratum is of a clayey nature, and will
not suffer the moisture imbibed from above to pass off; while those
which require warm and dry situations, should be planted where the
under soil consists of sand or gravel, and will the more readily absorb
the moisture from above.

In small families, or in gardens not exceeding an acre, with a paddock
of three or four acres for a horse or cow, it is usual to keep but one
gardener, who, at an out-door salary of a guinea a week, performs all
the necessary work in the garden, milks the cow, feeds the poultry,
and, sometimes, takes care of the horse, his assistant being a jobbing
labourer during a few weeks of particular duty. These gardeners
generally consist of under gardeners from large establishments, or from
market gardeners near large towns; and the only questions which arise
between them and their employer, are the difficulties which they feel
at first in accommodating the practice on a large scale to that on a
small and economical one; but, when reconciled to this, no situation
is more independent and comfortable than that of the solitary and
accommodating gardener.

Gardeners generally prefer a sandy loam, of a nature not too binding in
summer, nor too retentive in winter.

Perhaps the best practical rules that can be given are the following,
from the best Treatise on Gardening.

  1. _Perform every operation in the proper season._

  2. _Perform every operation in the best manner._

  This is to be acquired in part by practice, and partly also by
  reflection. For example, in digging over a piece of ground, it is a
  common practice with slovens, to throw the weeds and stones on the
  dug ground, or on the adjoining alley or walk, with the intention of
  gathering them off afterwards. A better way is to have a wheelbarrow,
  or a large basket, into which to put the weeds and extraneous
  matters, as they are picked out of the ground. Some persons in
  planting or weeding, whether in the open air, or in hothouses, throw
  down all seeds, stones, and extraneous matters on the paths or
  alleys, with a view to pick them up, or sweep or rake them together
  afterwards; it is better to carry a basket or other utensil, either
  common or subdivided, in which to hold in one part the plants to be
  planted, in another the extraneous matters, &c.

  3. _Complete every part of an operation as you proceed._

  4. _Finish one job before beginning another._

  5. _In leaving off working at any job, leave the work and tools in an
  orderly manner._

  6. _In leaving off work for the day, make a temporary finish, and
  carry the tools to the tool-house._

  7. _In passing to and from the work, or on any occasion, through any
  part of what is considered under the charge of the gardener, keep a
  vigilant look out for weeds, decayed leaves, or any other deformity,
  and remove them._

  8. _In gathering a crop, remove at the same time, the roots, leaves,
  stems, or whatever else is of no farther use, or may appear slovenly,
  decaying, or offensive._

  9. _Let no crop of fruit, or herbaceous vegetables, go to waste on
  the spot._

  10. _Cut down the flower-stalks of all plants._

  11. _Keep every part of what is under your care, perfect in its kind._

  Attend in spring and autumn to _walls and buildings_, and get them
  repaired, jointed, glazed, and painted, where wanted. Attend at all
  times to _machines, implements, and tools_, keeping them clean,
  sharp, and in perfect repair. See particularly that they are placed
  in their proper situations in the tool-house. House every implement,
  utensil, or machine not in use, both in winter and summer. Allow _no
  blanks_ in edgings, rows, single specimens, drills, beds, and even
  where practicable, in broad-cast sown pieces. Keep edgings and edges
  cut to the utmost nicety. Keep the shapes of the _wall-trees_ filled
  with wood according to their kinds, and let their training be in the
  first style of perfection. Keep all walks in perfect form, (whether
  raised or flat,) free from weeds, dry, and well rolled. Keep all _the
  lawns_ by every means, of a close texture, and dark-green velvet
  appearance. _Keep water clear and free from weeds_, and let not
  ponds, lakes, or artificial rivers, rise to the brim in winter, nor
  sink very far under it in summer.


  This is the first operation of rearing. Where seeds are deposited
  singly, as in rows of beans, or large ruts, they are said to be
  planted; where dropt in numbers together, to be sown. The operation
  of sowing is either performed in drills, patches, or broadcast.
  Drills are small excavations formed with the draw-hoe, generally in
  straight lines parallel to each other, and in depth and distance
  apart, varying according to the size of the seeds. In these drills,
  the seeds are strewed from the hand of the operator, who, taking a
  small quantity in the palm of his hand and fingers, regulates its
  emission by the thumb. Some seeds are very thinly sown, as the pea,
  and spinage; others thick, as the cress, and small salad.

  Patches are small circular excavations made with the trowel; in these
  seeds are either sown or planted, thicker or thinner, and covered
  more or less, according to their nature. This is the mode adopted in
  sowing in pots, and generally in flower-borders.

  In broad-cast sowing, the operator scatters the seed over a
  considerable breadth of surface, previously prepared by digging, or
  otherwise being minutely pulverized. The seed is taken up in portions
  in the hand, and dispersed by a horizontal movement of the arm, to
  the extent of a semi-circle, opening the hand at the same time, and
  scattering the seeds in the air, so as they may fall as equally as
  possible over the breadth taken in by the sower at once, and which is
  generally six feet; that being the diameter of the circle in which
  his hand moves through half the circumference. In sowing broad-cast
  on beds, and narrow’ strips or borders, the seeds are dispersed
  between the thumb and fingers, by horizontal movements of the hand in
  segments of smaller circles.

  Dry weather is essentially requisite for sowing, and more especially
  for the operation of covering in the seed, which in broad-cast
  sowing, is done by treading or gently rolling the surface, and then
  raking it; and in drill-sowing, by treading in the larger seeds, as
  peas, and covering with the rake; smaller seeds, sown in drills, are
  covered with the same implement, without treading.


  Planting, as applied to seeds, or seed-like roots, as potatoes,
  bulbs, &c. is most frequently performed in drills, or in separate
  holes made with the dibber; in these, the seed or bulb is dropped
  from the hand, and covered with or without treading, according to
  its nature. Sometimes planting is performed in patches, as in pots or
  borders, in which case, the trowel is the chief instrument used.

  Quincunx is a mode of planting in rows, by which the plants in one
  row are always opposed to the blanks in the other, so that when a
  plot of ground is planted in this way, the plants appear in rows in
  four directions.

  Planting, as applied to plants already originated, consists generally
  in inserting them in the soil of the same depth, and in the same
  position as they were before removal, but with various exceptions.
  The principal object is to preserve the fibrous roots entire; to
  distribute them equally around the stem among the mould or finer
  soil, and to preserve the plant upright. The plant should not be
  planted deeper than it stood in the soil before removal, and commonly
  the same side should be kept towards the sun. Planting should, as
  much as possible, be accompanied by abundant watering, in order to
  consolidate the soil about the roots; and where the soil is dry,
  or not a stiff clay, it may be performed in the beginning of wet
  weather, in gardens; and in forest planting, on dry soils, in all
  open weather during autumn, winter, and spring.


  Watering becomes requisite in gardens for various purposes, as
  aliment to plants in a growing state, to support newly transplanted
  plants, for keeping under insects, and keeping clean the leaves of
  vegetables. One general rule must be ever kept in mind during the
  employment of watering a garden; that is, never to water the top or
  leaves of a plant when the sun shines. All watering should be carried
  on in the evening or early in the morning, unless it be confined to
  watering the roots, in which case, transplanted plants, and others in
  a growing state, may be watered at any time; and if they are shaded
  from the sun, they may also be watered over their tops. Watering over
  the tops is performed with the _rose_, or dispenser attached to the
  spout of the watering-pot, or by the syringe or engine. Watering the
  roots is best done with the rose; but in the case of watering-pots
  in haste, and where the earth is hardened, it is done with the naked

  Many kitchen-crops are lost, or produced of very inferior quality,
  for want of watering. Lettuces and cabbages are often hard
  and stringy; turnips and radishes do not swell, onions decay,
  cauliflowers die off, and, in general, in dry soils. Copious
  waterings in the evenings, during the dry season, would produce that
  fulness of succulency, which are found in the vegetables produced in
  the low countries, and in the Marsh Gardens at Paris; and in this
  country at the beginning and latter end of the season.

  Watering the foliage of small trees to prevent the insects, and
  of strawberries, and fruit shrubs, to swell the fruit, is also of

The principal tools used by gardeners are, a light handy spade, a
shovel, rake, with iron teeth, hoe, three-pronged fork, dibber, or
setting-stick, line and reel, usually called a skillet, wheelbarrow,
baskets, trowel, a pair of shears, scythe, hay-rake, hook, ladder,
besom, or broom, beater, garden-roller, turfing-iron, hatchet, and
hammer. The gardener usually wears a blue woollen apron, which, when he
is pruning, he ties up before him, and then serves to hold his nails,
shreds, scissors, hammer, and pruning-knife. He should also be provided
with a light measuring rod, flat and narrow, painted and divided on
one side into feet and half feet, and on the other into yards and
half yards; with this he will be able to measure distances, to lay
out his beds for sowing and planting, and to measure and lay down his
gravel-walks, grass-plats, &c. A table, that will be very useful to him
in laying out beds, or any quantity of ground, large or small, will be
found in the APPENDIX.

                       THE GARDENER’S CALENDAR.

     _Containing useful Information for every Month in the Year._

  _January._ If the weather be open and dry, sow, upon warm
  compartments, small portions of peas, beans, cabbage, spinage,
  carrots, parsley, radish, lettuce, and onions, and preserve them
  from the cold by mats. Also, in hot-beds, cucumbers, melons, small
  salading, best early and red cabbage, kidney beans, and cauliflowers.
  Plant cabbages, horse-radish, beans, and mint roots. The cucumbers
  and melons this month require particular attention. They ought to
  receive air by small degrees, as often as possible.

  _February._ Sow small salading, radishes, onions, parsley, spinage,
  lettuce, peas, beans, cabbage, cauliflowers, carrots, parsnips,
  fennel, &c. Plant cabbages, &c. as last month. The cucumber and melon
  plants raised last month, should be transplanted about the middle of
  this into new hot-beds. The ground should be prepared for planting
  asparagus next month.

  _March._ Sow, in this month, principal crops of carrots, early
  turnips, radishes, onions, cabbage, celery, cauliflowers, spinage,
  lettuce, asparagus, peas, and beans. Sow asparagus for the new
  plantations of the next year. Make new asparagus beds, and fork the
  old ones.

  _April._ Sow and plant, as in the former month, for a later crop.
  Towards the middle of the month dung should be prepared for ridges of
  melons and cucumbers. Snails and slugs ought to be killed, and weeds
  kept down; otherwise they will increase so fast as to render their
  destruction difficult.

  _May._ The principal crops sowed and planted in the spring will now
  require weeding, hoeing, and thinning, and some transplanting. The
  melon beds require an equal degree of heat; and the glasses must be
  covered every night through the month with mats; but in the middle of
  the day they must be raised to the breadth of two or three fingers.
  Cucumbers in frames must receive a moderate supply of water, and be
  planted out under hand-glasses.

  _June._ Particular attention is now required in weeding, hoeing,
  thinning, and watering the principal crops, and pricking out and
  transplanting for autumn and winter. Sow savoys, brocoli, borecole,
  cabbages, turnips, carrots, spinage, coleworts, kidney beans,
  lettuce, endive, celery, cucumbers, radishes, peas, beans, and small
  salading. Plant cabbages, colewort, savoys, brocoli, borecole, leeks,
  beans, lettuce, endive, celery, cucumbers, radishes, peas, and beans.
  Melon plants must be shaded in the heat of the day, and receive a
  large portion of fresh air. Transplant endive for blanching, and
  prick out young brocoli plants, which were sown in April or May.

  _July._ Prepare ground for the reception of succession crops, and
  some main crops for autumn and winter, and sow turnips, &c. as at
  the beginning of the year. The common radishes sown now will be fit
  to draw the beginning of September; and the cauliflowers sown in
  May must be planted out in spots where they are to remain. The beds
  of carrots sown now will be fit to draw early in April. Spinage for
  winter may now be sown, and onions taken up if the leaves wither.

  _August._ Asparagus beds planted in March must now be cleared; celery
  transplanted and earthed, and the heads or suckers taken from the
  March artichokes. The early cabbage seed must not be sown later than
  the 12th of this month; but lettuce seed may be put in as late as
  the 24th. The cauliflower seed will not do without covering, and the
  spinage sown last month will require hoeing.

  _September._ Sow spinage, lettuce, onions, radishes, cabbages,
  colewort, chervil, corn-salad, borage, coriander, turnips, and
  successions of small salading. Plant savoys, cabbages, coleworts,
  brocoli, borecole, lettuces, leeks, celery, endive, and perennial,
  aromatic, and pot-herbs. Make mushroom beds, and cut down the haulm
  of asparagus, clean the beds and dung them if necessary. Hoe your
  turnips, and weed onions. The cauliflowers of last month must be
  weeded out, and cabbage-plants pricked. Of the lettuces sown last
  month some may be put into warm borders for spring use, and others
  planted under frames for pulling in December and January. The
  different seeds must be gathered as they ripen.

  _October._ Sow a small crop of radishes and lettuces, successions of
  small salading, and a few early peas to come in next summer. Plant
  crops of cabbage, cauliflowers, late brocoli, celery, lettuce, early
  beans. Keep uncovered night and day, for the greater part of this
  month, such cauliflowers as are planted in frames. All spare ground
  should be dunged and trenched.

  _November._ Most of the processes used last month will also be
  appropriate for this. Such as giving air to lettuce and cauliflower
  plants that are under frames. Cut down the leaves of artichokes and
  earth up the plants.

  _December._ Forward the digging, manuring, or trenching vacant
  ground, preparing hot dung, making hot-beds, and earthing and tying
  up plants. Sow a few early peas and radishes on warm borders, and
  small salading and cucumbers in hot-beds. Plant early beans, strong
  cabbage-plants, and coleworts; and plant in hot-beds, cucumbers,
  mint, tarragon, and asparagus. The small salads may be sown every
  ten days, under frames; and such radish seed as may be put into the
  ground this month, should be covered on cold nights with fern, or
  long litter.

Salary from 50l. to 100l. a year,—a cottage, generally, and vegetables
and fuel allowed.

                          THE UNDER GARDENERS.

These men are entirely under the controul and direction of the _head
gardener_, and are employed by him, for the most part, in digging and
trenching, wheeling, dunging, gravelling, hoeing, mowing, and other
laborious work.

They are engaged as weekly servants, and are paid according to their
abilities, from 16 to 20 or 21 shillings per week, and vegetables. Some
_under gardeners_ have a cottage assigned for themselves and families,
and others have also fuel allowed them for their fires.

                          THE SERVANTS’ HALL.

In large establishments, the housekeeper, the lady’s maid, and the men
servants out of livery, usually take their meals by themselves, in
the housekeeper’s or steward’s room; but when they take their dinner
together, they preserve an order at table like the following:—The
housekeeper usually takes her seat at the head, and the butler at the
lower end of the table; the cook at the right of the housekeeper, and
the lady’s maid on her left; the under butler on the right, and the
coachman on the left of the butler; the house-maid next to the cook,
and the kitchen-maid next to the lady’s-maid; and the men servants
always occupying the lower end of the table. The dinner is set on the
table by the cook, and the beer is drawn by the under butler.

The servants’ table is usually provided with solid dishes, and with
ale and table beer; and it is the business of the superior servants to
see that their accommodation is comfortable and in plenty, but without
extravagance, or waste and riot. In well-regulated families, the
servants’ hall is distinguished by its decorum, good order, and even
good manners, which the servants who wait in the parlour imbibe, and
convey to the kitchen. Servants of coarse manners, vulgar habits, or
profane discourse, and malicious dispositions, are shunned by others,
and never make good their footing or rise in first-rate families, where
all the good and bad qualities which belong to the superior ranks of
society operate as much to their advantage or disadvantage as in any
station of life. In truth, the servants’ hall is a little world by
itself, in which the passions, tempers, vices, and virtues, are brought
into play, and contribute their full share in promoting that welfare
and happiness, which it is the object of this work to fix and improve.


When a youth in the City of London is bound apprentice he is presented
to the Chamberlain, who puts into his hands for his guide, the
following instructions, and as they proceed from such high authority,
they are thought worthy of being preserved in this volume as a body of
instruction to apprentices generally.


  _This Indenture witnesseth, That
  Son of                late of                    , doth
  put himself Apprentice to         Citizen and        of_
  London, _to learn his art, and with him (after the manner
  of an Apprentice) to serve from the day of the date hereof,
  unto the full end and term of seven years, from thence next
  following to be fully complete and ended; during which term
  the said Apprentice his said Master faithfully shall serve,
  his secrets keep, his lawful commands every where gladly
  do. He shall do no damage to his said Master, nor see it
  to be done of others; but that he to his power shall let
  or forthwith give warning to his said Master of the same.
  He shall not waste the goods of his said Master, nor lend
  them unlawfully to any. He shall not commit fornication, nor
  contract matrimony within the said term. He shall not play
  at cards, dice, tables, or any other unlawful games, whereby
  his said Master may have any loss. With his own goods or
  others, during the said term, without licence of his said
  Master, he shall neither buy nor sell. He shall not haunt
  taverns nor play-houses, nor absent himself from his said
  Master’s service day or night unlawfully; but in all things,
  as a faithful Apprentice, he shall behave himself towards
  his said Master, and all his, during the said term. And the
  said Master in consideration, of
  his said Apprentice in the same art which he useth, by the
  best means that he can, shall teach and instruct, or cause to
  be taught and instructed, finding unto his said Apprentice,
  meat, drink, apparel, lodging, and all other necessaries,
  according to the custom, of the City of_ London, _during the
  said term. And for the true performance of all and every the
  said covenants and agreements, either of the said parties
  bindeth himself unto the other by these presents. In witness
  whereof, the above named to these Indentures, interchangeably
  have put their hands and seals, the           day of        ,
  in the                    year of the Reign of our Sovereign,
                        of the United Kingdom of_ Great Britain
  _and_ Ireland,             _Defender of the Faith, and in the
  year of our Lord, &c._


  This _Indenture witnesseth, That_ R. B.
           _Son of_ J. B.             , _Citizen of_ London,
  _doth put himself_ (that is, by his own free and voluntary
  choice) _apprentice to_ A. A. _Citizen and
                  of_ London, _to learn his Art, and with him
  after the manner of an Apprentice to serve_ (that is, to live
  with him in the capacity of a learner and servant, doing all
  such work as belongs to his trade, and as Apprentices by
  custom are obliged to do) _from the date hereof, unto the
  full end and term of                years from thence next
  following to be fully complete and ended;_ that is, not at
  the beginning only, or for part of the time, but so long as
  his Indenture shall continue in force, which must be for
  seven years at least.

  _During which term the said Apprentice his said Master
  faithfully shall serve;_ that is, he shall be true and just
  to his Master in all his dealings, both in word and deed;
  he must not only keep his hands from picking and stealing,
  and his tongue from lying and slandering; he must not only
  abstain from doing him any manner of injury, by idleness,
  negligence, or carelessness; by deceiving, defaming, or any
  kind of evil speaking: but, he must learn and labour to do
  him true and real service.

    Ye must be faithful in all things. 1 Tim. i.

    In all your labours let no iniquity be found. Hosea xii. 8.

    Ye shall not steal, neither deal falsely, neither lie one
    to another. Lev. xix. 11.

    Speak every man truth to his neighbour. Eph. iv. 25.

    All that do unrighteously are an abomination to the Lord
    thy God. Deut. xxv. 16.

    He that uttereth a slander is a fool. Prov. x. 18.

    The lip of truth shall be established for ever, but a lying
    tongue is but for a moment; for the mouth of them who speak
    lies shall be stopped. Chap. xii. 19.

    To do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the Lord
    than sacrifice; (for) they who deal truly are his delight.
    Chap. xxi. 3, chap. xii. 22.

  _His secrets keep;_ that is, conceal the particular secrets
  of his art, trade, or science, without divulging or making
  any one privy to them to the detriment of his Master, whose
  interest may very much depend on a peculiar management and
  knowledge of his business. To behave thus, is to serve
  faithfully; and fidelity is the glory and perfection of a
  Servant, as his want of it is his greatest discredit and

    Discover not a secret to another, lest he that heareth it
    putteth thee to shame, and the infamy turn not away. Prov.
    xxv. 9, 10.

  _His lawful commands every where gladly do;_ that is, he
  shall readily and cheerfully obey him in all things lawful,
  without murmuring, hesitation, or reluctance; for obedience
  from a Servant to his Master, is a duty established by all
  laws, human and divine; and is founded likewise in the
  very nature of things; it being impossible to preserve any
  superiority in the one over the other, unless the inferior
  submits himself to the direction of his superior in all such
  things as he has a right to command him to do; that is, all
  things lawful: he is indeed, properly speaking, no longer a
  Servant than while he obeys his Master’s commands; so that
  the covenanted obedience of an Apprentice is on all accounts
  indispensably necessary; and the more cheerfully he performs
  it, the more perfectly he fulfils his duty, and the greater
  will be the reward as well as pleasure of his obedience;
  for his Master will doubtless take all opportunities of
  encouraging him on account of his willingness; he will
  contrive to make his work as easy to him as he can; he
  will treat him with all the kindness, and shew him all the
  favour that is consistent with the relation between them;
  whereby his servitude will be rendered a kind of freedom;
  the necessary labours of it a delight; and the time of
  its duration short and pleasant: he will beside gain the
  advantage of being trusted and confided in by his Master,
  which must necessarily give him a quick and thorough insight
  into his trade, whereby he will become duly qualified for the
  power and dignity of a Master himself, and establish such
  a reputation and character as will gain him the esteem and
  friendship of all who know him; and can therefore have no
  other than a comfortable prospect of advancing his station
  and fortune in the world. The quite contrary of all which
  must be the lot of the disobedient, churlish, and murmuring
  Servant; who will, in all probability, end his days as a
  Master (if ever he arrives at that honour) in the same
  discontented, uneasy, and disregarded manner, in which he
  lived as a Servant; feared by very few, beloved by none.

    Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own Masters, and
    to please them well in all things, _not answering again_.
    Titus ii. 9.

    His servants ye are whom ye obey. Rom. vi. 16.

    Servants, obey in all things your Masters, according to
    the flesh; not only to the good and gentle, but also the
    froward. Col. iii. 22.

    And when ye be buffeted for well-doing, take it patiently;
    for this is thank-worthy and acceptable with God. 1 Pet.
    ii. 20.

    With good-will doing service. Ephes. vi. 7.

    Not with eye-service, as men-pleasers, but in singleness of
    heart, fearing God. Col. iii. 22.

    If any would not work, neither should he eat. 2 Thes. iii.

    In all labour there is profit; and the thoughts of the
    diligent tend only to plenteousness. Prov. xiv. 23.

    The hand of the diligent maketh rich.—An idle soul shall
    suffer hunger. Chap. x. 4.—Chap. xix. 15.

    Seest thou a man diligent, he shall stand before kings, he
    shall not stand before mean men. A slothful man is compared
    to a filthy stone, and every one will hiss him out to his
    disgrace. Chap. xxii. 29. Eccl. xxii. 1.

    They that plough iniquity, and sow wickedness, shall reap
    the same. Job iv. 8.

    The Lord will make them contemptible and base, before all
    the people, according as they have not kept his ways.
    Malachi ii. 9.

  _He shall do no damage to his said Master, nor see it to be
  done of others, but that he to his power shall let_ (that is,
  prevent or hinder) _or forthwith give warning to his said
  Master of the same. He shall not waste the goods of his said
  Master, or lend them unlawfully to any._ It is not sufficient
  that the Apprentice does not wrong his Master himself, by
  cheating, pilfering, purloining, wasting, spoiling, lending,
  or giving away any of his goods; by sloth and idleness, by
  neglecting his business, and loitering away his time; it
  is not enough that he does his Master no kind of damage
  himself; but he must be watchful that he is not injured in
  any kind by his fellow-servants and others; and be sure to
  do what in him lies to prevent or discover it to his Master;
  for he cannot be indifferent or careless in such a case, or
  connive and conceal any thing of this kind, without breach of
  covenant, and incurring the guilt and shame that is due to

    Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness,
    but rather reprove them. Ephes. v. 11.

    Beware of evil workers, and be not thou partaker with them.

    Thou shalt not suffer sin in thy brother, but by any means
    reprove him. Phil. iii. 2.

    When thou sawest a thief thou consentedst with him. Psalm
    l. 18.

  _He shall not commit fornication._ This vice has been the
  bane of so many young men in all ages and places, that every
  one’s memory must furnish him with divers instances of its
  fatal effects; the Sessions papers are filled with numberless
  accounts of unhappy persons who are brought by it to public
  shame and infamous ends; and indeed nothing is so destructive
  to the morals and happiness of youth, as the having any
  kind of commerce with lewd and shameless women; for such
  conversation infallibly destroys the health, consumes the
  fortune, blasts the credit, and extinguishes that modesty
  which is the principal ornament and surest preservative of
  youth from the vices and dangers they are most exposed to.

    Flee fornication: He that committeth fornication, sinneth
    against his own body. 1 Cor. vi. 18.

    Keep thee from the evil woman, from the flattery of the
    tongue of the strange woman: lust not after her beauty in
    thy heart, neither let her take thee with her eye-lids;
    lest thou give thine honour to others: lest strangers
    be filled with thy wealth; and thou mourn at the last,
    when thy flesh and thy body are consumed. Prov. vi. 24,
    25.—Prov. v. 10, 11.

    Let not thy heart decline to her ways, for her house is the
    way to hell. Thou goest after her as an ox goeth to the
    slaughter, till a dart strike through thy liver; as a bird
    hasteth to the snare, and knoweth not that it is for his
    life. Prov. vii. 25, 27, 22, 23.

    Neither fornicators nor adulterers shall inherit the
    kingdom of God. 1 Cor. vi. 9.

    Whoremongers and adulterers God will judge. Heb. xiii. 4.

    Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.
    Matt. v. 8.

  _Nor contract matrimony within the said term._ Marriage is a
  very improper state for Apprentices, but is too often entered
  into rashly without consideration, or the consent of friends
  and relations; and therefore is very seldom advantageous,
  and generally unhappy. The necessary expense and charge
  which attends a growing family, must quite consume a small
  fortune, very much lessen a good one, and entail heavy debts
  and lasting misery on the generality of married Apprentices,
  who cannot hope to avoid a jail; and it is well if that is
  their worst misfortune. At best such a marriage is an act of
  great disobedience and contempt towards parents and friends,
  of injustice towards the Master, and must be attended with
  the loss of their esteem and friendship, if not with their
  heavy displeasure. It is a direct violation of this covenant,
  _a forfeiture of their right to the freedom of_ London, and
  tends to unsettle and alienate the mind from business, and to
  disable the Apprentice from ever becoming a complete master
  of his trade.

  _He shall not play at cards, dice, tables, or any other
  unlawful game, whereby his said Master may have any loss._
  All sorts of gaming for money is prohibited by this covenant;
  it being a habit of the most pernicious consequence. Those
  who have an itch for gaming, very rarely have any relish for
  business; the dispositions and qualifications for the one,
  being quite inconsistent with the other. Modesty, caution,
  industry, frugality, and strict integrity, are indispensably
  necessary to the forming a good and successful tradesman;
  but no man ever made his fortune by play, without corrupting
  his morals and forfeiting his character; for the gamester
  must be bold and adventurous, extravagant and profuse,
  fraudulent, tricking, and deceitful, of scandalous life, and
  infamous reputation; and such will the unwary and thoughtless
  Apprentice soon become, who is addicted to this vice; who
  begins with it under pretence of amusement, but suffers the
  love of it to grow on him till it becomes habitual; and what
  assurance has he, that the loss of his own money, and the
  flattering hopes of better fortune, will not tempt him to
  steal and hazard what is his Master’s? What hopes can he have
  that he shall escape the rock on which so many have perished?
  The Apprentice therefore who would not expose himself to
  guilt, to shame, punishment, and ruin, must religiously
  observe this prohibition.

    Wo onto him that buildeth his house by unrighteousness, and
    his chambers by wrong. Jer. xxii. 13.

    Wo unto them that have made dishonest gain of their
    neighbours, by extortion, or by the iniquity of their
    traffic. Ezek. xxii. 12.

    My soul come not thou into their secrets, unto their
    assemblies my honour be not thou united. Gen. xlix.

    We have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty,
    therefore let us not walk in craftiness. (For) better is
    a little with righteousness, than great revenues without
    right. 2 Cor. iv.

    Wealth got by vanity shall be diminished: but he that
    gathereth by labour shall increase. Prov. xiii. 11.

    If sinners entice thee, consent thou not. Walk not then in
    the way with them; lest thou learn their ways, and get a
    snare to thy soul. Prov. i. 10, 15.—Chap. xxii.

  _With his own goods, or others, during the said term, without
  license of his said Master, he shall neither buy nor sell._
  The apprenticeship is a time of labour and improvement, not
  of gain; it is the season wherein youth are to acquire a
  thorough knowledge of trade, and to establish in themselves
  such habits as will enable them to carry it on hereafter with
  pleasure and profit. A liberty for the Apprentice to trade
  on his own account, would, in most instances, be rather a
  snare than an advantage to him; it would oftener increase his
  acquaintance and expenses than his fortune; it would furnish
  him with excuses for absenting himself from his Master’s
  house and business, under pretence of promoting his own; and
  lead him into company-keeping, and a large acquaintance,
  before he hath judgment to make a proper choice; and it
  is to be feared, would sometimes be the occasion of his
  being unfaithful, and create continual jealousies and
  misunderstandings between him and his Master. Upon all which
  accounts this prohibition is for their mutual advantage;
  and the breach of it on no account to be connived at by the
  Master, nor practised by the Apprentice.

    If ye have not been faithful in that which is another
    man’s, who shall give you that which is your own?

  _He shall not haunt taverns or play-houses, nor absent
  himself from his said Master’s service day or night
  unlawfully._ I have joined these three prohibitions together,
  because of the connexion they have; the Apprentice cannot
  commit the two first without being guilty of the last,
  which is a great act of injustice; for the Master has not
  a better title to his own money or goods than to the time
  of his Apprentice. He therefore must not upon any pretence
  whatsoever absent himself day or night from his Master’s
  house, without his consent. He must not, when the common
  business of the day is over, think himself at his own
  disposal, and take the liberty of going on his pleasure,
  without permission. Many things may occur which require
  his presence: business sometimes offers very unexpectedly;
  and the Apprentice should be always ready for his Master’s
  service. Add to this, that the house, the shop, and effects
  of his Master, are continually under his care, and the
  looking well after them a duty always incumbent on him;
  which such a one can never faithfully discharge who lists
  himself in clubs, or haunts taverns, or any other kind of
  tippling houses, or who frequents play-houses, and such like
  diversions. These habits are not only attended with a great
  waste of the Master’s time, but with an expense which few
  Apprentices can afford, and will probably lead him from wrong
  to robbery, when the Master’s money becomes as necessary
  to his pleasures as his time; for, he who scruples not to
  waste the one, will not be long before he makes free with the
  other. It is therefore the interest and happiness of youth,
  to be restrained from frequenting these places, where they
  can only associate themselves with the young and giddy, the
  raw and inexperienced, the loose and disorderly; for discreet
  and prudent persons will not encourage Apprentices in such
  unlawful haunts, by keeping them company. And what must be
  the fruits of such society? what, but noisy empty mirth;
  loose and licentious discourse, riot, intemperance, and
  disorder; of the same pernicious kind are the pleasures they
  receive from plays, interludes, and such like diversions.
  These, to youthful and unsettled judgments, are but vain
  and airy entertainments, which fill the head with romantic
  and unnatural ideas of life and the world, and tend only
  to alienate the mind from business, which is its proper,
  and ought to be its chief entertainment; and to expose
  youth to the danger of being corrupted by lewd and vicious
  persons of both sexes, who always crowd such places. Upon
  the whole, then, it is evident, the Apprentice cannot haunt
  taverns, that is, any kind of public tippling-houses, or
  frequent play-houses, nor absent himself day or night from
  his Master’s service, without breach of covenant, nor indeed
  without exposing himself to the loss of reputation (for such
  as his companions and pleasures are, such will his character
  be) and contracting vicious and expensive habits, which
  will probably bring him to want and misery, to shame and

    He that is faithful in that which is least, is faithful
    also in much; and he that is unjust in the least, is unjust
    also in much. Luke vi. 10.

    That which is altogether just shalt thou follow. Deut. xvi.

    Blessed are those servants, whom their Lord, when he
    cometh, shall find watching. Luke xii. 37.

    Be ye therefore ready also. Luke xii. 40.

    I wrote unto you not to accompany with fornicators. 1 Cor.
    v. 9, 11.

    If a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater,
    or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner, with such a
    one eat not.

    Be not among wine bibbers, amongst riotous eaters of flesh.
    Prov. xxiii. 20.

    He that is a companion of riotous men, shameth his father.
    Prov. xxviii. 7.

    Look not thou on the wine when it is red, when it giveth
    its colour in the cup, when it moveth itself aright; at the
    last it biteth as a serpent, and stingeth like an adder.
    Prov. xxiii. 31.

    Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging. Prov. xx. 1.

    Withdraw yourself from every brother that walketh
    disorderly. Thes. iii. 6.

    He that followeth vain persons is void of understanding.

    Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil. Exod. xxiii.

    Cease to hear instructions that causeth to err from the
    words of knowledge. Prov. xix. 27.

    He that loveth pleasure shall be a poor man: he that loveth
    wine and oil shall not be rich. Prov. xxi. 17.

    Who hath woe? who hath sorrow? who hath contention? who
    hath babbling? who hath wounds without a cause? who hath
    redness of eyes? they who tarry long at the wine! they who
    go to seek mixed wine: and men of strength to mingle strong
    drink: that rise up early in the morning, that they may
    follow strong drink.

    It is better to hear the rebuke of the wise, than for a man
    to hear the song of fools. Prov. xxiii. 29.—Isaiah v. 22.

  _But in all things, as a faithful Apprentice, he shall behave
  himself towards his said Master, and all his, during the said

  That is, he shall faithfully and diligently perform the
  covenants in this Indenture, and demean himself humbly,
  dutifully, and obligingly to his Master and Mistress, with
  civility and respect to their children, friends, relations,
  and customers, and all who belong to them.

  _And the said Master in consideration of
                                             being the money
  given with the said Apprentice, his said Apprentice, in the
  same art and mystery which he useth, by the best means that
  he can, shall teach, or instruct, or cause to be taught and
  instructed, finding unto his said Apprentice, meat, drink,
  apparel, lodging, and all other necessaries, according to
  the custom of the City of_ London, _during the said term._

  The end and design of Apprenticeship, is for the training
  up of youth to the knowledge and practice of some art or
  business; whereby they may learn to get their own living, and
  become useful to the public; and for the promoting this good
  and laudable design, the Master here covenants to furnish
  the Apprentice with all necessaries during the term of his
  Indenture, and to take especial care of his instruction and
  improvement in the trade he follows. It is, therefore, the
  indispensable duty of every Master to use _his best means_,
  that is, to take all proper methods for performance of these
  covenants. He must endeavour to render his Apprentice skilful
  and industrious, by due information and constant employment:
  he must enforce the duties of diligence, frugality, and
  honesty, by his own example, by kind and gentle usage, and
  by instilling into his mind the necessity and usefulness
  of these and all other good and virtuous habits. He must
  restrain him from whatever interferes with his duty or
  obstructs his improvement, by advice, by exhortation,
  by reproof, and (if need be) by moderate and reasonable
  correction; and if all these prove ineffectual, he must apply
  to the magistrate, and call to his assistance the authority
  of the Chamberlain, who will judge indifferently between the
  Master and the Apprentice, and oblige both parties to perform
  the covenants of their Indentures.

    Let as many servants as are under the yoke, count their own
    masters worthy of all honour. 1 Tim.

    Let not the child behave proudly against the ancients,
    nor the base against the honourable. For by pride cometh
    contention. Isai. iii. 5.

    Honour widows. 1 Tim. v. 3.

    A _soft answer_ turneth away wrath, and _yielding_
    pacifieth great offences; (but) grievous words stir up
    anger. Prov. xv. 1.—Eccl. x. 4.

    Please them well in all things, _not answering again_.

    Whereas thy servant worketh truly, treat him not evil.
    Eccl. vii. 20.

    Let my soul love a good servant. Ver. 21.

    Masters, give unto your servants that which is just and
    equal, forbearing threatening; knowing that ye have also a
    Master in Heaven: neither is there respect of persons with
    him. Gal. iv. 1.—Eph. vi. 9.

    Despise not the cause of thy servants when they contend
    with thee. Did not He that made thee in the womb, make him:
    And did not one fashion us all in the womb? Job. xxxi.
    13.—Ver. 15.

    Be not hasty in thy spirit to be angry. Eccl. vii. 9.

    Ye shall not rule over one another with rigour, for ye are
    brethren. Lev. xxv. 49.

    Be thou an example of the believers, in word, in
    conversation, in charity, in faith, in purity. 1 Tim. iv.

    Six days in the week shalt thou labour, and do all thy work.

    Remember the Sabbath Day, to keep it holy. In it thou shalt
    not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor
    thy servant, &c.

    Why is the house of God forsaken?

    Unto his habitation shall ye seek, and thither shall ye
    come, ye and your households.

    That ye may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the
    Lord their God, and observe to do all the words of his law.

    According to the sentence of the law which they shall
    teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall
    tell thee, thou shalt do: thou shalt not decline from the
    sentence which they shall shew thee, to the right hand or
    to the left. Deut. xxxi. 12.

  _And for the true performance of all and every the said
  covenants and agreements, either of the said parties bindeth
  himself unto the other by these presents. In witness whereof,
  the parties above named of these Indentures, interchangeably
  have put their hands and seals, the              of
  in the                  year of the Reign of our Sovereign,_
                      of the United Kingdom of _Great Britain_
  and _Ireland,                                Defender of the
  Faith_, and in the year of our Lord, _&c._


                           MARKETING TABLES,

                    BY THE POUND, YARD, STONE, _&c._

  =TABLE I.= From Five-farthings to Two-pence three-farthings
             per pound, yard, &c.
  No. | 1¼_d._| 1½_d._| 1¾_d._| 2_d._ | 2¼_d._| 2½_d._| 2¾_d._
      |_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._
    1 | 0  1¼ | 0  1½ | 0  1¾ | 0  2  | 0  2¼ | 0  2½ | 0  2¾
    2 | 0  2½ | 0  3  | 0  3½ | 0  4  | 0  4½ | 0  5  | 0  5½
    3 | 0  3¾ | 0  4½ | 0  5¼ | 0  6  | 0  6¾ | 0  7½ | 0  8¼
    4 | 0  5  | 0  6  | 0  7  | 0  8  | 0  9  | 0 10  | 0 11
    5 | 0  6¼ | 0  7½ | 0  8¾ | 0 10  | 0 11¼ | 1  0½ | 1  1¾
    6 | 0  7½ | 0  9  | 0 10½ | 1  0  | 1  1½ | 1  3  | 1  4½
    7 | 0  8¾ | 0 10½ | 1  0¼ | 1  2  | 1  3¾ | 1  5½ | 1  7¼
    8 | 0 10  | 1  0  | 1  2  | 1  4  | 1  6  | 1  8  | 1 10
    9 | 0 11¼ | 1  1½ | 1  3¾ | 1  6  | 1  8¼ | 1 10½ | 2  0¾
   10 | 1  0½ | 1  3  | 1  5½ | 1  8  | 1 10½ | 2  1  | 2  3½
   11 | 1  1¾ | 1  4½ | 1  7¼ | 1 10  | 2  0¾ | 2  3½ | 2  6¼
   12 | 1  3  | 1  6  | 1  9  | 2  0  | 2  3  | 2  6  | 2  9
   13 | 1  4¼ | 1  7½ | 1 10¾ | 2  2  | 2  5¼ | 2  8½ | 2 11¾
   14 | 1  5½ | 1  9  | 2  0½ | 2  4  | 2  7½ | 2 11  | 3  2½
   15 | 1  6¾ | 1 10½ | 2  2¼ | 2  6  | 2  9¾ | 3  1½ | 3  5¼
   16 | 1  8  | 2  0  | 2  4  | 2  8  | 3  0  | 3  4  | 3  8
   17 | 1  9¼ | 2  1½ | 2  5¾ | 2 10  | 3  2¼ | 3  6½ | 3 10¾
   18 | 1 10½ | 2  3  | 2  7½ | 3  0  | 3  4½ | 3  9  | 4  1½
   19 | 1 11¾ | 2  4½ | 2  9¼ | 3  2  | 3  6¾ | 3 11½ | 4  4¼
   20 | 2  1  | 2  6  | 2 11  | 3  4  | 3  9  | 4  2  | 4  7
   21 | 2  2¼ | 2  7½ | 3  0¾ | 3  6  | 3 11¼ | 4  4½ | 4  9¾
   22 | 2  3½ | 2  9  | 3  2½ | 3  8  | 4  1½ | 4  7  | 5  0½
   23 | 2  4¾ | 2 10½ | 3  4¼ | 3 10  | 4  3¾ | 4  9½ | 5  3¼
   24 | 2  6  | 3  0  | 3  6  | 4  0  | 4  6  | 5  0  | 5  6
   25 | 2  7¼ | 3  1½ | 3  7¾ | 4  2  | 4  8¼ | 5  2½ | 5  8¾
   26 | 2  8½ | 3  3  | 3  9½ | 4  4  | 4 10½ | 5  5  | 5 11½
   27 | 2  9¾ | 3  4½ | 3 11¼ | 4  6  | 5  0¾ | 5  7½ | 6  2¼
  *28 | 2 11  | 3  6  | 4  1  | 4  8  | 5  3  | 5 10  | 6  5
  †42 | 4  4½ | 5  3  | 6  1½ | 7  0  | 7 10½ | 8  9  | 9  7½
  ‡56 | 5 10  | 7  0  | 8  2  | 9  4  |10  6  |11  8  |12 10
  §84 | 8  9  |10  6  |12  3  |14  0  |15  9  |17  6  |19  3
  ‖112|11  8  |14  0  |16  4  |18  8  |21  0  |23  4  |25  8
    * A quarter of a hundred weight, or 2 stones.
    † Three stones.
    ‡ Half a hundred weight, or 4 stones.
    § Three quarters of a hundred weight, or 6 stones.
    ‖ One hundred weight, or 8 stones.

  =TABLE II.= From Three-pence to Five-pence
              per pound, yard, &c.
  No. |  3_d._| 3¼_d._| 3½_d._| 3¾_d._|  4_d._| 4½_d._|  5_d._
      |_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._
    1 | 0  3  | 0  3¼ | 0  3½ | 0  3¾ | 0  4  | 0  4½ | 0  5
    2 | 0  6  | 0  6½ | 0  7  | 0  7½ | 0  8  | 0  9  | 0 10
    3 | 0  9  | 0  9¾ | 0 10½ | 0 11¼ | 1  0  | 1  1½ | 1  3
    4 | 1  0  | 1  1  | 1  2  | 1  3  | 1  4  | 1  6  | 1  8
    5 | 1  3  | 1  4¼ | 1  5½ | 1  6¾ | 1  8  | 1 10½ | 2  1
    6 | 1  6  | 1  7½ | 1  9  | 1 10½ | 2  0  | 2  3  | 2  6
    7 | 1  9  | 1 10¾ | 2  0½ | 2  2¼ | 2  4  | 2  7½ | 2 11
    8 | 2  0  | 2  2  | 2  4  | 2  6  | 2  8  | 3  0  | 3  4
    9 | 2  3  | 2  5¼ | 2  7½ | 2  9¾ | 3  0  | 3  4½ | 3  9
   10 | 2  6  | 2  8½ | 2 11  | 3  1½ | 3  4  | 3  9  | 4  2
   11 | 2  9  | 2 11¾ | 3  2½ | 3  5¼ | 3  8  | 4  1½ | 4  7
   12 | 3  0  | 3  3  | 3  6  | 3  9  | 4  0  | 4  6  | 5  0
   13 | 3  3  | 3  6¼ | 3  9½ | 4  0¾ | 4  4  | 4 10½ | 5  5
   14 | 3  6  | 3  9½ | 4  1  | 4  4½ | 4  8  | 5  3  | 5 10
   15 | 3  9  | 4  0¾ | 4  4½ | 4  8¼ | 5  0  | 5  7½ | 6  3
   16 | 4  0  | 4  4  | 4  8  | 5  0  | 5  4  | 6  0  | 6  8
   17 | 4  3  | 4  7¼ | 4 11½ | 5  3¾ | 5  8  | 6  4½ | 7  1
   18 | 4  6  | 4 10½ | 5  3  | 5  7½ | 6  0  | 6  9  | 7  6
   19 | 4  9  | 5  1¾ | 5  6½ | 5 11¼ | 6  4  | 7  1½ | 7 11
   20 | 5  0  | 5  5  | 5 10  | 6  3  | 6  8  | 7  6  | 8  4
   21 | 5  3  | 5  8¼ | 6  1½ | 6  6¾ | 7  0  | 7 10½ | 8  9
   22 | 5  6  | 5 11½ | 6  5  | 6 10½ | 7  4  | 8  3  | 9  2
   23 | 5  9  | 6  2¾ | 6  8½ | 7  2¼ | 7  8  | 8  7½ | 9  7
   24 | 6  0  | 6  6  | 7  0  | 7  6  | 8  0  | 9  0  |10  0
   25 | 6  3  | 6  9¼ | 7  3½ | 7  9¾ | 8  4  | 9  4½ |10  5
   26 | 6  6  | 7  0½ | 7  7  | 8  1½ | 8  8  | 9  9  |10 10
   27 | 6  9  | 7  3¾ | 7 10½ | 8  5¼ | 9  0  |10  1½ |11  3
  *28 | 7  0  | 7  7  | 8  2  | 8  9  | 9  4  |10  6  |11  8
  †42 |10  6  |11  4½ |12  3  |13  1½ |14  0  |15  9  |17  6
  ‡56 |14  0  |15  2  |16  4  |17  6  |18  8  |21  0  |23  4
  §84 |21  0  |22  9  |24  6  |26  3  |28  0  |31  6  |35  0
  ‖112|28  0  |30  4  |32  8  |35  0  |37  4  |42  0  |46  8

  =TAB. III.= From Fivepence-halfpenny to
  No. | 5½_d._|  6_d._| 6½_d._|  7_d._| 7½_d._|  8_d._| 8½_d._
      |_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._
    1 | 0  5½ | 0  6  | 0  6½ | 0  7  | 0  7½ | 0  8  | 0  8½
    2 | 0  11 | 1  0  | 1  1  | 1  2  | 1  3  | 1  4  | 1  5
    3 | 1  4½ | 1  6  | 1  7½ | 1  9  | 1 10½ | 2  0  | 2  1½
    4 | 1 10  | 2  0  | 2  2  | 2  4  | 2  6  | 2  8  | 2 10
    5 | 2  3½ | 2  6  | 2  8½ | 2 11  | 3  1½ | 3  4  | 3  6½
    6 | 2  9  | 3  0  | 3  3  | 3  6  | 3  9  | 4  0  | 4  3
    7 | 3  2½ | 3  6  | 3  9½ | 4  1  | 4  4½ | 4  8  | 4 11½
    8 | 3  8  | 4  0  | 4  4  | 4  8  | 5  0  | 5  4  | 5  8
    9 | 4  1½ | 4  6  | 4 10½ | 5  3  | 5  7½ | 6  0  | 6  4½
   10 | 4  7  | 5  0  | 5  5  | 5 10  | 6  3  | 6  8  | 7  1
   11 | 5  0½ | 5  6  | 5 11½ | 6  5  | 6 10½ | 7  4  | 7  9½
   12 | 5  6  | 6  0  | 6  6  | 7  0  | 7  6  | 8  0  | 8  6
   13 | 5 11½ | 6  6  | 7  0½ | 7  7  | 8  1½ | 8  8  | 9  2½
   14 | 6  5  | 7  0  | 7  7  | 8  2  | 8  9  | 9  4  | 9 11
   15 | 6 10½ | 7  6  | 8  1½ | 8  9  | 9  4½ |10  0  |10  7½
   16 | 7  4  | 8  0  | 8  8  | 9  4  |10  0  |10  8  |11  4
   17 | 7  9½ | 8  6  | 9  2½ | 9 11  |10  7½ |11  4  |12  0½
   18 | 8  3  | 9  0  | 9  9  |10  6  |11  3  |12  0  |12  9
   19 | 8  8½ | 9  6  |10  3½ |11  1  |11 10½ |12  8  |13  5½
   20 | 9  2  |10  0  |10 10  |11  8  |12  6  |13  4  |14  2
   21 | 9  7½ |10  6  |11  4½ |12  3  |13  1½ |14  0  |14 10½
   22 |10  1  |11  0  |11 11  |12 10  |13  9  |14  8  |15  7
   23 |10  6½ |11  6  |12  5½ |13  5  |14  4½ |15  4  |16  3½
   24 |11  0  |12  0  |13  0  |14  0  |15  0  |16  0  |17  0
   25 |11  5½ |12  6  |13  6½ |14  7  |15  7½ |16  8  |17  8½
   26 |11 11  |13  0  |14  1  |15  2  |16  3  |17  4  |18  5
   27 |12  4½ |13  6  |14  7½ |15  9  |16 10½ |18  0  |19  1½
  *28 |12 10  |14  0  |15  2  |16  4  |17  6  |18  8  |19 10
  †42 |19  3  |21  0  |22  9  |24  6  |26  3  |28  0  |29  9
  ‡56 |25  8  |28  0  |30  4  |32  8  |35  0  |37  4  |39  8
  §84 |38  6  |42  0  |45  6  |49  0  |52  6  |56  0  |59  6
  ‖112|51  4  |56  0  |60  8  |65  4  |70  0  |74  8  |79  4

  =TABLE IV.= From Nine-pence to One Shilling
              per pound, yard, &c.
  No. |  9_d._ | 9½_d._ | 10_d._ | 10½_d._| 11_d._ | 11½_d._| 12_d._
      | _s. d._| _s. d._| _s. d._| _s. d._| _s. d._| _s. d._| _s. d._
    1 |  0  9  |  0  9½ |  0 10  |  0 10½ |  0 11  |  0 11½ |  1  0
    2 |  1  6  |  1  7  |  1  8  |  1  9  |  1 10  |  1 11  |  2  0
    3 |  2  3  |  2  4½ |  2  6  |  2  7½ |  2  9  |  2 10½ |  3  0
    4 |  3  0  |  3  2  |  3  4  |  3  6  |  3  8  |  3 10  |  4  0
    5 |  3  9  |  3 11½ |  4  2  |  4  4½ |  4  7  |  4  9½ |  5  0
    6 |  4  6  |  4  9  |  5  0  |  5  3  |  5  6  |  5  9  |  6  0
    7 |  5  3  |  5  6½ |  5 10  |  6  1½ |  6  5  |  6  8½ |  7  0
    8 |  6  0  |  6  4  |  6  8  |  7  0  |  7  4  |  7  8  |  8  0
    9 |  6  9  |  7  1½ |  7  6  |  7 10½ |  8  3  |  8  7½ |  9  0
   10 |  7  6  |  7 11  |  8  4  |  8  9  |  9  2  |  9  7  | 10  0
   11 |  8  3  |  8  8½ |  9  2  |  9  7½ | 10  1  | 10  6½ | 11  0
   12 |  9  0  |  9  6  | 10  0  | 10  6  | 11  0  | 11  6  | 12  0
   13 |  9  9  | 10  3½ | 10 10  | 11  4½ | 11 11  | 12  5½ | 13  0
   14 | 10  6  | 11  1  | 11  8  | 12  3  | 12 10  | 13  5  | 14  0
   15 | 11  3  | 11 10½ | 12  6  | 13  1½ | 13  9  | 14  4½ | 15  0
   16 | 12  0  | 12  8  | 13  4  | 14  0  | 14  8  | 15  4  | 16  0
   17 | 12  9  | 13  5½ | 14  2  | 14 10½ | 15  7  | 16  3½ | 17  0
   18 | 13  6  | 14  3  | 15  0  | 15  9  | 16  6  | 17  3  | 18  0
   19 | 14  3  | 15  0½ | 15 10  | 16  7½ | 17  5  | 18  2½ | 19  0
   20 | 15  0  | 15 10  | 16  8  | 17  6  | 18  4  | 19  2  | 20  0
   21 | 15  9  | 16  7½ | 17  6  | 18  4½ | 19  3  | 20  1½ | 21  0
   22 | 16  6  | 17  5  | 18  4  | 19  3  | 20  2  | 21  1  | 22  0
   23 | 17  3  | 18  2½ | 19  2  | 20  1½ | 21  1  | 22  0½ | 23  0
   24 | 18  0  | 19  0  | 20  0  | 21  0  | 22  0  | 23  0  | 24  0
   25 | 18  9  | 19  9½ | 20 10  | 21 10½ | 22 11  | 23 11½ | 25  0
   26 | 19  6  | 20  7  | 21  8  | 22  9  | 23 10  | 24 11  | 26  0
   27 | 20  3  | 21  4½ | 22  6  | 23  7½ | 24  9  | 25 10½ | 27  0
  *28 | 21  0  | 22  2  | 23  4  | 24  6  | 25  8  | 26 10  | 28  0
  †42 | 31  6  | 33  3  | 35  0  | 36  9  | 38  6  | 40  3  | 42  0
  ‡56 | 42  0  | 44  4  | 46  8  | 49  0  | 51  4  | 53  8  | 56  0
  §84 | 63  0  | 66  6  | 70  0  | 73  6  | 77  0  | 80  6  | 84  0
  ‖112| 84  0  | 88  8  | 93  4  | 98  0  |102  8  |107  4  |112  0


  The figures in the first column of each table denote the number
  of pounds, yards, &.; and the money columns are headed with the
  respective prices of the article. So, if you want to know what
  19 lbs. of beef come to at 5½d. per lb. look for the column headed
  5½d. (Table III.) and opposite to 19 in the first column, under
  that head you will find 8s. 8½d., which is the amount. In this
  manner the price of any quantity of goods, at any price, may be
  instantly ascertained.

                      A TABLE OF WAGES OR INCOME,

  Shewing, at one View, the amount of any INCOME, SALARY, or WAGES,
  from One Pound to Five Hundred Pounds per annum, by the Calendar
  Month, Week, or Day.

   Per Yr.   Per Mon.  |  Per Week  |   A Day
    _l. s._ _l. s. d._ | _l. s. d._ | _l. s. d._
     1  0 is 0  1  8   |  0  0  4½  |  0  0  0¾
     1 10    0  2  6   |  0  0  7   |  0  0  1
     2  0    0  3  4   |  0  0  9¼  |  0  0  1¼
     2  2    0  3  6   |  0  0  9¾  |  0  0  1½
     2 10    0  4  2   |  0  0 11½  |  0  0  1¾
     3  0    0  5  0   |  0  1  1¾  |  0  0  2
     3  3    0  5  3   |  0  1  2½  |  0  0  2
     3 10    0  5 10   |  0  1  4¼  |  0  0  2¼
     4  0    0  6  8   |  0  1  6½  |  0  0  2¾
     4  4    0  7  0   |  0  1  7½  |  0  0  2¾
     4 10    0  7  6   |  0  1  8¾  |  0  0  3
     5  0    0  8  4   |  0  1 11   |  0  0  3¼
     5  5    0  8  9   |  0  2  0¼  |  0  0  3½
     5 10    0  9  2   |  0  2  1½  |  0  0  3¾
     6  0    0 10  0   |  0  2  3¾  |  0  0  4
     6  6    0 10  6   |  0  2  5   |  0  0  4¼
     6 10    0 10 10   |  0  2  6   |  0  0  4¼
     7  0    0 11  8   |  0  2  8¼  |  0  0  4½
     7  7    0 12  3   |  0  2 10   |  0  0  4¾
     7 10    0 12  6   |  0  2 10½  |  0  0  5
     8  0    0 13  4   |  0  3  1   |  0  0  5¼
     8  8    0 14  0   |  0  3  2¾  |  0  0  5½
     8 10    0 14  2   |  0  3  3¼  |  0  0  5½
     9  0    0 15  0   |  0  3  5½  |  0  0  6
     9  9    0 15  9   |  0  3  7½  |  0  0  6¼
    10  0    0 16  8   |  0  3 10   |  0  0  6½
    10 10    0 17  6   |  0  4  0½  |  0  0  7
    11  0    0 18  4   |  0  4  3   |  0  0  7¼
    11 11    0 19  3   |  0  4  5¼  |  0  0  7½
    12  0    1  0  0   |  0  4  7½  |  0  0  8
    12 12    1  1  0   |  0  4 10   |  0  0  8¼
    13  0    1  1  8   |  0  5  0   |  0  0  8½
    13 13    1  2  9   |  0  5  3   |  0  0  9
    14  0    1  3  4   |  0  5  4½  |  0  0  9¼
    14 14    1  4  6   |  0  5  8   |  0  0  9¾
    15  0    1  5  0   |  0  5  9   |  0  0 10
    15 15    1  6  3   |  0  6  0½  |  0  0 10¼
    16  0    1  6  8   |  0  6  2   |  0  0 10½
    16 16    1  8  0   |  0  6  5½  |  0  0 11
    17  0    1  8  4   |  0  6  6½  |  0  0 11¼
    17 17    1  9  9   |  0  6 10½  |  0  0 11¾
    18  0    1 10  0   |  0  6 11   |  0  0 11¾
    18 18    1 11  6   |  0  7  3   |  0  1  0½
    19  0    1 11  8   |  0  7  3½  |  0  1  0½
    20  0    1 13  4   |  0  7  8   |  0  1  1¼
    30  0    2 10  0   |  0 11  6   |  0  1  7¾
    40  0    3  6  8   |  0 15  4½  |  0  2  2¼
    50  0    4  3  4   |  0 19  3   |  0  2  9
    60  0    5  0  0   |  1  3  0¾  |  0  3  3½
    70  0    5 16  8   |  1  6 11   |  0  3 10
    80  0    6 13  4   |  1 10  9   |  0  4  4½
    90  0    7 10  0   |  1 14  7¼  |  0  4  11
   100  0    8  6  8   |  1 18  5½  |  0  5  5¾
   200  0   16 13  4   |  3 16 11   |  0 10 11½
   250  0   20 16  8   |  4 16  2   |  0 13  8½
   500  0   41 13  4   |  9 12  3½  |  1  7  5¾

  EXPLANATION.—The Wages by the Year is given in the first Column, and
  opposite to it is the amount for a Calendar Month, a Week, or a Day,
  at that rate.

  _N.B. This Table also gives the rate of_ INCOME, _and of_ EXPENSES
  _of any kind, by the Year, Month, Week, or Day; and the contrary._


             _From One Day to One Hundred Days, inclusive._

  Days| 100_l._ |  90_l._ |  80_l._ |  70_l._ |  60_l._ |
      | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ |
  100 | 22  0   | 19  8   | 17  6   | 15  4   | 13  2   |
   90 | 19  9   | 17  9   | 15  9   | 13 10   | 11 10   |
   80 | 17  6   | 15  9   | 14  0   | 12  3   | 10  6   |
   70 | 15  4   | 13 10   | 12  3   | 10  9   |  9  2   |
   60 | 13  2   | 11 10   | 10  6   |  9  2   |  7 11   |
   50 | 11  0   |  9 10   |  8  9   |  7  8   |  6  7   |
   40 |  8  9   |  7 11   |  7  0   |  6  2   |  5  3   |
   30 |  6  7   |  5 11   |  5  3   |  4  7   |  3 11   |
   20 |  4  5   |  3 11   |  3  6   |  3  1   |  2  8   |
   10 |  2  2   |  2  0   |  1  9   |  1  6   |  1  4   |
    9 |  2  0   |  1  9   |  1  7   |  1  5   |  1  2   |
    8 |  1  9   |  1  7   |  1  5   |  1  3   |  1  1   |
    7 |  1  6   |  1  5   |  1  3   |  1  1   |  0 11   |
    6 |  1  4   |  1  2   |  1  1   |  0 11   |  0  9   |
    5 |  1  1   |  1  0   |  0 11   |  0  9   |  0  8   |
    4 |  0 11   |  0  9   |  0  8   |  0  7   |  0  6   |
    3 |  0  8   |  0  7   |  0  6   |  0  6   |  0  5   |
    2 |  0  5   |  0  5   |  0  4   |  0  4   |  0  3   |
    1 |  0  3   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |

  Days|  50_l._ |  40_l._ |  30_l._ |  20_l._ |  10_l._ |
      | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ |
  100 | 11  0   |  8 10   |  6  6   |  4  4   |  2  2   |
   90 |  9 10   |  7 11   |  5 11   |  3 11   |  2  0   |
   80 |  8  9   |  7  0   |  5  3   |  3  6   |  1  9   |
   70 |  7  8   |  6  2   |  4  7   |  3  1   |  1  6   |
   60 |  6  7   |  5  3   |  3 11   |  2  8   |  1  4   |
   50 |  5  6   |  4  5   |  3  3   |  2  2   |  1  1   |
   40 |  4  5   |  3  6   |  2  8   |  1  9   |  0 11   |
   30 |  3  3   |  2  8   |  2  0   |  1  4   |  0  8   |
   20 |  2  2   |  1  9   |  1  4   |  0 11   |  0  5   |
   10 |  1  1   |  0 11   |  0  8   |  0  5   |  0  3   |
    9 |  1  0   |  0  9   |  0  7   |  0  5   |  0  2   |
    8 |  0 11   |  0  8   |  0  6   |  0  4   |  0  2   |
    7 |  0  9   |  0  7   |  0  6   |  0  4   |  0  2   |
    6 |  0  8   |  0  6   |  0  5   |  0  3   |  0  2   |
    5 |  0  7   |  0  5   |  0  4   |  0  3   |  0  1   |
    4 |  0  5   |  0  4   |  0  3   |  0  2   |  0  1   |
    3 |  0  4   |  0  3   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |
    2 |  0  3   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    1 |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  0   |

  Days|  9_l._  |  8_l._  |  7_l._  |  6_l._  |  5_l._  |
      | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ |
  100 |  2  0   |  1 10   |  1  6   |  1  4   |  1  2   |
   90 |  1  9   |  1  7   |  1  5   |  1  2   |  1  0   |
   80 |  1  7   |  1  5   |  1  3   |  1  1   |  0 11   |
   70 |  1  5   |  1  3   |  1  1   |  0 11   |  0  9   |
   60 |  1  2   |  1  1   |  0 11   |  0  9   |  0  8   |
   50 |  1  0   |  0 11   |  0  9   |  0  8   |  0  7   |
   40 |  0  9   |  0  8   |  0  7   |  0  6   |  0  5   |
   30 |  0  7   |  0  6   |  0  6   |  0  5   |  0  4   |
   20 |  0  5   |  0  4   |  0  4   |  0  3   |  0  3   |
   10 |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |
    9 |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    8 |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    7 |  0  2   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    6 |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    5 |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    4 |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    3 |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  0   |  0  0   |
    2 |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |
    1 |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |

  Days| 4_l._| 3_l._| 2_l._| 1_l._|
      | _d._ | _d._ | _d._ | _d._ |
  100 | 10   |  8   |  6   |  2   |
   90 |  9   |  7   |  5   |  2   |
   80 |  8   |  6   |  4   |  2   |
   70 |  7   |  6   |  4   |  2   |
   60 |  6   |  5   |  3   |  2   |
   50 |  5   |  4   |  3   |  1   |
   40 |  4   |  3   |  2   |  1   |
   30 |  3   |  2   |  2   |  1   |
   20 |  2   |  2   |  1   |  1   |
   10 |  1   |  1   |  1   |  0   |
    9 |  1   |  1   |  0   |  0   |
    8 |  1   |  1   |  0   |  0   |
    7 |  1   |  1   |  0   |  0   |
    6 |  1   |  0   |  0   |  0   |
    5 |  1   |  0   |  0   |  0   |
    4 |  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |
    3 |  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |
    2 |  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |
    1 |  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |

  No notice is taken of the fractional part of any sum under a
  halfpenny; but a halfpenny, or three farthings, is called a penny.


             _From One Day to One Hundred Days, inclusive._

  Days|  100_l._ |   90_l._ |   80_l._ |  70_l._ |  60_l._ |
      |_l. s. d._|_l. s. d._|_l. s. d._| _s. d._ | _s. d._ |
  100 |  1  7  4 |  1  4  8 |  1  2  0 |  19  2  |  16  4  |
   90 |  1  4  8 |  1  2  2 |  0 19  9 |  17  3  |  14 10  |
   80 |  1  1 11 |  0 19  9 |  0 17  6 |  15  4  |  13  2  |
   70 |  0 19  2 |  0 17  3 |  0 15  4 |  13  5  |  11  6  |
   60 |  0 16  5 |  0 14  9 |  0 13  2 |  11  6  |   9 10  |
   50 |  0 13  8 |  0 12  4 |  0 11  0 |   9  7  |   8  2  |
   40 |  0 11  0 |  0  9 10 |  0  8  9 |   7  8  |   6  7  |
   30 |  0  8  3 |  0  7  5 |  0  6  7 |   5  9  |   4 11  |
   20 |  0  5  6 |  0  4 11 |  0  4  5 |   3 10  |   3  3  |
   10 |  0  2  9 |  0  2  6 |  0  2  2 |   1 11  |   1  8  |
    9 |  0  2  6 |  0  2  3 |  0  1 11 |   1  9  |   1  6  |
    8 |  0  2  2 |  0  2  0 |  0  1  9 |   1  6  |   1  4  |
    7 |  0  1 11 |  0  1  9 |  0  1  6 |   1  4  |   1  2  |
    6 |  0  1  8 |  0  1  6 |  0  1  4 |   1  2  |   1  0  |
    5 |  0  1  4 |  0  1  3 |  0  1  1 |   1  0  |   0 10  |
    4 |  0  1  1 |  0  1  0 |  0  0 11 |   0  9  |   0  8  |
    3 |  0  0 10 |  0  0  9 |  0  0  8 |   0  7  |   0  6  |
    2 |  0  0  7 |  0  0  6 |  0  0  5 |   0  5  |   0  4  |
    1 |  0  0  3 |  0  0  3 |  0  0  3 |   0  2  |   0  2  |

  Days|  50_l._ |  40_l._ |  30_l._ |  20_l._ |  10_l._ |
      | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ |
  100 | 13  8   | 11  0   |  8  2   |  5  6   |  2  8   |
   90 | 12  4   |  9 10   |  7  5   |  4 11   |  2  6   |
   80 | 11  0   |  8  9   |  6  7   |  4  5   |  2  2   |
   70 |  9  7   |  7  8   |  5  9   |  3 10   |  1 11   |
   60 |  8  3   |  6  7   |  4 11   |  3  3   |  1  8   |
   50 |  6 10   |  5  6   |  4  1   |  2  9   |  1  4   |
   40 |  5  6   |  4  5   |  3  3   |  2  2   |  1  1   |
   30 |  4  1   |  3  3   |  2  6   |  1  8   |  0 10   |
   20 |  2  9   |  2  2   |  1  8   |  1  1   |  0  7   |
   10 |  1  4   |  1  1   |  0 10   |  0  7   |  0  3   |
    9 |  1  3   |  1  0   |  0  9   |  0  6   |  0  3   |
    8 |  1  1   |  0 11   |  0  8   |  0  5   |  0  3   |
    7 |  1  0   |  0  9   |  0  7   |  0  5   |  0  2   |
    6 |  0 10   |  0  8   |  0  6   |  0  4   |  0  2   |
    5 |  0  8   |  0  7   |  0  5   |  0  3   |  0  2   |
    4 |  0  7   |  0  5   |  0  4   |  0  3   |  0  1   |
    3 |  0  5   |  0  4   |  0  3   |  0  2   |  0  1   |
    2 |  0  3   |  0  3   |  0  2   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    1 |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |  O  1   |  0  0   |

  Days|   9_l._ |   8_l._ |   7_l._ |   6_l._ |   5_l._ |
      | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ | _s. d._ |
  100 |  2  6   |  2  2   |  1 10   |  1  8   |  1  4   |
   90 |  2  3   |  2  0   |  1  9   |  1  6   |  1  3   |
   80 |  1 11   |  1  9   |  1  6   |  1  4   |  1  1   |
   70 |  1  9   |  1  6   |  1  4   |  1  2   |  1  0   |
   60 |  1  6   |  1  4   |  1  2   |  1  0   |  0 10   |
   50 |  1  3   |  1  1   |  0 11   |  0 10   |  0  8   |
   40 |  1  0   |  0 11   |  0  9   |  0  8   |  0  7   |
   30 |  0  9   |  0  8   |  0  7   |  0  6   |  0  5   |
   20 |  0  6   |  0  5   |  0  5   |  0  4   |  0  3   |
   10 |  0  3   |  0  3   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |
    9 |  0  3   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |
    8 |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |
    7 |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    6 |  0  2   |  0  2   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    5 |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    4 |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |
    3 |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  1   |  0  0   |
    2 |  0  1   |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |
    1 |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |  0  0   |

  Days|  4_l._  | 3_l._| 2_l._| 1_l._|
      | _s. d._ | _d._ | _d._ | _d._ |
  100 |  1  2   | 10   |  6   |  4   |
   90 |  1  0   |  9   |  6   |  3   |
   80 |  0 11   |  8   |  5   |  3   |
   70 |  0  9   |  7   |  5   |  2   |
   60 |  0  8   |  6   |  4   |  2   |
   50 |  0  7   |  5   |  3   |  2   |
   40 |  0  5   |  4   |  3   |  1   |
   30 |  0  4   |  3   |  2   |  1   |
   20 |  0  3   |  2   |  1   |  1   |
   10 |  0  1   |  1   |  1   |  0   |
    9 |  0  1   |  1   |  1   |  0   |
    8 |  0  1   |  1   |  0   |  0   |
    7 |  0  1   |  1   |  0   |  0   |
    6 |  0  1   |  1   |  0   |  0   |
    5 |  0  1   |  0   |  0   |  0   |
    4 |  0  1   |  0   |  0   |  0   |
    3 |  0  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |
    2 |  0  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |
    1 |  0  0   |  0   |  0   |  0   |

  No notice is taken of the fractional part of any sum under a
  halfpenny; but a halfpenny, or three farthings, is called a penny.


             _From One Shilling to Two Shillings per Mile._

    Miles.  | 12_d._| 13_d._| 14_d._| 15_d._| 16_d._| 17_d._| 18_d._|1_s._ 9_d._| 2_s._ |
            |_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|_s. d._|  _s. d._  |_s. d._|
  Five      |  5  0 |  5  5 |  5 10 |  6  3 |  6  8 |  7  1 |  7  6 |    8  9   | 10  0 |
  Six       |  6  0 |  6  6 |  7  0 |  7  6 |  8  0 |  8  6 |  9  0 |   10  6   | 12  0 |
  Seven     |  7  0 |  7  7 |  8  2 |  8  9 |  9  4 |  9 11 | 10  6 |   12  3   | 14  0 |
  Eight     |  8  0 |  8  8 |  9  4 | 10  0 | 10  8 | 11  4 | 12  0 |   14  0   | 16  0 |
  Nine      |  9  0 |  9  9 | 10  6 | 11  3 | 12  0 | 12  9 | 13  6 |   15  9   | 18  0 |
  Ten       | 10  0 | 10 10 | 11  8 | 12  6 | 13  4 | 14  2 | 15  0 |   17  6   | 20  0 |
  Eleven    | 11  0 | 11 11 | 12 10 | 13  9 | 14  8 | 15  7 | 16  6 |   19  3   | 22  0 |
  Twelve    | 12  0 | 13  0 | 14  0 | 15  0 | 16  0 | 17  0 | 18  0 |   21  0   | 24  0 |
  Thirteen  | 13  0 | 14  1 | 15  2 | 16  3 | 17  4 | 18  5 | 19  6 |   22  9   | 26  0 |
  Fourteen  | 14  0 | 15  2 | 16  4 | 17  6 | 18  8 | 19 10 | 21  0 |   24  6   | 28  0 |
  Fifteen   | 15  0 | 16  3 | 17  6 | 18  9 | 20  0 | 21  3 | 22  6 |   26  3   | 30  0 |
  Sixteen   | 16  0 | 17  4 | 18  8 | 20  0 | 21  4 | 22  8 | 24  0 |   28  0   | 32  0 |
  Seventeen | 17  0 | 18  5 | 19 10 | 21  3 | 22  8 | 24  1 | 25  6 |   29  9   | 34  0 |
  Eighteen  | 18  0 | 19  6 | 21  0 | 22  6 | 24  0 | 25  6 | 27  0 |   31  6   | 36  0 |
  Nineteen  | 19  0 | 20  7 | 22  2 | 23  9 | 25  4 | 26 11 | 28  6 |   33  3   | 38  0 |
  Twenty    | 20  0 | 21  8 | 23  4 | 25  0 | 26  8 | 28  4 | 30  0 |   35  0   | 40  0 |

  _Note_—Two pairs of horses are charged double, and a single horse at
         half the price of a pair.



    The nature of the contract between Masters and Servants, is
    simple, and may be clearly defined by the existing laws; of which
    the following are the most material points; and ought to be well
    understood, both by masters and servants.

  _Hiring Servants._

    The contract between a master and his domestic servant is called
    the _Hiring_, and may be made either in writing, or by verbal
    agreement; but, in the latter case, there should be a witness.

  _General Hiring._

    If the hiring of a servant be _general_, without any particular
    time specified, the law construes it to be a hiring _for a year
    certain_. But, before the expiration of the year, three months’
    notice, at least, _must_ be given by either party, or the service
    is continued for another year, and so on; as under a general
    hiring, the servant can never become a servant _at will_.

  _Particular Hiring._

    In London, and other great towns, the common mode of hiring is by
    _a month’s warning, or a month’s wages_; that is, the parties agree
    to separate on either of them giving to the other a month’s notice
    of his intention; or, in lieu of that, the party requiring the
    separation is to pay or give up a month’s wages: and this kind of
    hiring is sanctioned by law. But the contract may be made for any
    longer or shorter time; 5 Eliz. c. 4.

  _A yearly Servant is intitled to his Wages for the time of
                      actual Service._

    If a servant be hired in a general way, he is considered as hired
    with reference to the general understanding on the subject, and
    shall be entitled to his wages for the time he has served, though
    he do not continue in the service during the whole year; and if
    he die before the end of the year, his representatives will be
    entitled to so much wages as was due to him at the time of his

  _Of Discharging Servants._

    A yearly servant cannot leave his place, nor be discharged,
    without a quarter’s warning, or wages, under the penalty of 40s.

    If a servant be hired for a year certain, or for any indefinite
    time, which is construed in law, to be for a year, his master
    cannot discharge him either before, or at the end of the term, nor
    afterwards, without giving a quarter of a year’s previous warning,
    before a witness;—unless for some cause which shall be deemed
    sufficient by a magistrate, under the forfeiture of 40s.

    And, as a master cannot discharge a yearly servant without a
    quarter’s warning, given previous to the expiration of the year;
    neither can a servant leave his place without a similar notice,
    under pain of imprisonment, and of losing all his wages.

    A servant leaving his place without giving regular notice, or
    neglecting his master’s business, or disobeying his orders,
    (which is considered as a departure from his service,) or being
    guilty of any other misconduct, may be punished by three months’
    imprisonment, or in lieu thereof, with the loss of a part or the
    whole of his wages, _at the discretion of a justice_.

  _The Parties may part by mutual consent._

    A master and his servant may part by mutual consent, without any
    forfeiture on either part;—or, for a cause to be allowed by a

  _A Servant may be discharged for any moral Crime._

    If a servant be guilty of any moral infamy whilst in his master’s
    service, he may discharge him without application to a justice.

    Also, if he be taken into custody for any offence, and legally
    detained, so that he cannot attend to his duties, the master is
    authorized to discharge him. But, if the offence of which the
    servant is accused was committed before the time of hiring, the
    master cannot discharge him without the order of a justice.

  _A yearly Servant cannot be discharged for any act of God._

    A master cannot discharge his yearly servant within the year, by
    reason of illness, or of any hurt by which he may be disabled from
    doing his usual business, nor even for insanity, without an order
    from a justice; nor can his wages be abated for such reason.

  _A Servant may be discharged by a Justice if his Wages be
     not paid, or sufficient Maintenance be denied him._

    The master detaining a servant’s wages, or not allowing him
    sufficient meat and drink, or otherwise ill-treating him, is a good
    cause for a servant’s leaving his place; _but it must be allowed by
    a justice_.

  _Punishment for insolence after Warning given._

    If, after warning given, a servant is insolent, or refuses to do
    his duty, a magistrate may commit him to prison for the time he has
    to serve; but the master must pay him his wages whilst there.

  _Punishment for an assault on the Master or Mistress._

    If a servant assault his master or mistress, or any other person
    having charge over him, he may be bound to his good behaviour; or
    be committed to prison, for a year or less, at the discretion of
    two magistrates.

  _Agreement by a Servant under age not to operate against him._

    No agreement made by a servant, with his master, whilst he is under
    the age of 21 years, can be made to operate against him.

  _A married Woman must serve her term._

    A woman who is married, or shall marry during her servitude, must,
    in either case, serve out her time; nor can her husband take her
    out of her master’s service.

  _A Woman with Child may be discharged by a Justice._

    Should a woman with child be hired for a term, and her master knew
    not of it, or should she prove with child during her servitude, he
    may discharge her, with the concurrence of a magistrate.

    But if, when he knows it, he does not discharge her before a
    magistrate, but keeps her on, he must provide for her till her
    delivery, and for one month after; when she is to be sent to her
    place of settlement.

  _Servants must go to Church._

    Masters can insist on their servants going to church; and every
    person whose servant shall be absent from church, for one month,
    at a time, without a reasonable excuse, forfeits 10_l._ for every
    month he so keeps that servant.

  _Punishment for gaming._

    A servant gaming at a public house, with cards, dice, draughts, or
    at any game, is liable to be taken before a magistrate, and fined
    from 5_s._ to 20_s._ one-fourth of which goes to the informer; and
    he may be committed to hard labour for a month, or till the penalty
    is paid.

  _Punishment for getting Drunk._

    Every person convicted of having been drunk, within six months
    previous to the information, before one justice, on the oath of
    one witness, forfeits 5_s._ for the first offence, or may be set
    in the stocks six hours; and for the second offence must give good
    security not to offend again.

  _Punishment for Cursing and Swearing._

    Any servant who may be convicted of cursing and swearing, within
    eight days of the offence, before one justice, shall forfeit 1_s._
    for the first offence; 2_s._ for the second; and 3_s._ for the
    third; or be committed to hard labour for ten days.

  _The Interest a Master has in his Servant._

    The master can maintain an action for injury done to his servant;
    or for enticing him away, or for detaining him.

    From the interest that a master acquires in his servant, by reason
    of the wages he pays him, if the servant be maimed or disabled
    in his master’s service through the fault of another, the master
    may recover from that other, for loss of his service. Also, for
    this reason, a man may maintain an action against another for
    enticing away his servant; or for detaining him after demanded;—or
    for retaining him with a knowledge of his having left him
    clandestinely: for this latter offence an action is maintainable
    against the servant also, or against both.

  _A Master may protect his Servant, and may assist him to
                 prosecute a Stranger._

    A master may be justified in assaulting another in protection
    of his servant; or, he may assist his servant in supporting the
    expense of an action at law against a stranger; though in general
    it is deemed an offence against public justice to encourage
    animosities by such assistance.

  _A Servant is bound to defend his Master._

    The master may demand the aid of his servant, and the servant may
    stand up in his master’s or mistress’s defence without being liable
    to punishment.

  _The Master is liable for the Acts of his Servant._

    The acts of servants are, in most instances, deemed the acts
    of their masters. In fact, every man ought to transact his own
    business; and though by the indulgence of the law, he can delegate
    the power of acting for him to another, yet, it is with reason,
    that the acts of his substitute, being pursuant to his authority,
    should be considered as the acts of himself. It is, therefore, a
    rule of law, that whatever trespass a servant commits by the order,
    encouragement, or with the tacit consent of his master, the master
    shall be answerable for it. Generally, a master is responsible
    for all acts done by his servant in the course of his ordinary
    and proper business, even though he has given him no express
    commands. The master is also liable for any fault or neglect of his
    servant whilst executing his _lawful_ commands. But, in all such
    inexcusable cases, the servant is punishable by the criminal laws,
    and is also liable to civil actions.

  _Servants not answerable but for wilful Neglect, or Fraud._

    A servant cannot be made answerable to his master for any loss that
    may happen without his wilful neglect; but if he be guilty of fraud
    or gross negligence, an action will lie against him by his master.
    Therefore, if a master give money or other thing to a servant to
    carry to a certain place, and he is robbed, the servant is not
    answerable.—But if it be lost through his neglect he is punishable.

  _Servants setting fire to a House._

    A servant negligently setting fire to a house, shall, on the
    oath of one witness, be made to pay one hundred pounds, to be
    distributed among the sufferers; or be committed to hard labour, in
    prison, for eighteen months.

  _Embezzlement of a Master’s property is Felony._

    If money, goods, bills, bonds, notes, bankers’-drafts, or other
    valuable security, or effects, be delivered to a servant, or
    clerk, to keep, and he go away with them, or embezzle, secrete, or
    otherwise convert either, or any of them, to his own use, it is
    felony; if he be more than 18 years of age.

    If any servant shall purloin, or make away with his master’s goods
    to the value of 40_s._ it is felony, and he shall, himself, his
    aider, or abettor, on conviction, be transported for 14 years. Or,
    if a master deliver the key of a room to a servant, and he steal
    therein to the amount of 12_d._ it is felony.

  _Servants pawning their Master’s property._

    Servants pawning their master’s goods without orders, shall forfeit
    40_s._ and the value of the goods so pawned; or be sent to the
    House of Correction for three months, and be publickly whipped.

  _Mode of settling disputes for Wages, and other matters._

    Disputes with servants for wages under 10_l._ a year, and other
    matters, may be referred to a magistrate, who is authorized to
    redress such complaints. But magistrates in the metropolis can take
    no cognizance of the wages of coachmen, grooms, &c. as they come
    within the jurisdiction of the Commissioners of Hackney-Coaches, &c.

                         OF FALSE CHARACTERS.

  _Punishment for bringing false Characters._

    If any person shall falsely personate any master or mistress, or
    his or her representative, and shall either verbally or in writing,
    give a false, forged, or counterfeit character to any person,
    offering him or herself to be hired as a servant; or, if any
    person shall pretend or assert, in writing, that any servant had
    been hired for any period of time, or in any station whatsoever,
    other than the true one, or that he was discharged, or left his
    service; or that such servant had not been hired in any previous
    service contrary to the truth.-Or, if any person shall offer him
    or herself as a servant, pretending that he hath served in any
    service, in which he hath not served; or with a false, forged, or
    counterfeit certificate of character; or shall in anywise add to,
    or alter, efface, or erase any word, date, matter, or thing, in any
    certificate given to him by his last or former actual master, or
    person authorized by him; or, if any person, having before been in
    service, shall, when offering himself to hire, falsely pretend not
    to have been hired in any former service; such person convicted of
    any, or either, of these offences, by the oath of one witness, (the
    informer to be deemed a competent witness,) before two justices,
    shall forfeit 20_l._ one half to go to the informer, and the other
    half to the poor of the parish, together with 10_s._ the costs of
    conviction; or on failure, be committed to hard labour in the House
    of Correction, for not less than one month, nor more than three,
    or, till the penalty and costs be paid.

    And, if any servant so offending, shall give information against
    any accomplice, so that he be convicted, such servant shall be

  _No Action will lie against a Master for a bad Character
              unless it be maliciously given._

     No action can be maintained by a servant against his former
    master for a bad character, given either verbally or in writing,
    unless it can be proved that the character given was not only
    _false_ but _malicious_.

                         HACKNEY COACH FARES.

  _General Rules for Distances._

                                _s. d._
    Not exceeding one mile  ...  1  0
    One mile and a half     ...  1  6
    Two miles               ...  2  0
    Two miles and a half    ...  3  0
    Three miles             ...  3  6
    Three miles and a half  ...  4  0
    Four miles              ...  4  6
    Four miles and a half   ...  5  6
    Five miles              ...  6  0
    Five miles and a half   ...  6  6
    Six miles               ...  7  0
    Six miles and a half    ...  8  0
    Seven miles             ...  8  6
    Seven miles and a half  ...  9  0
    Eight miles             ...  9  6
    Eight miles and a half  ... 10  6
    Nine miles              ... 11  0
    Nine miles and a half   ... 11  6
    Ten miles               ... 12  0
    Ten miles and a half    ... 13  0
    Eleven miles            ... 13  6
    Eleven miles and a half ... 14  0
    Twelve miles            ... 15  0

  And so on at the rate of 6d. for every half mile, and
  an additional 6d. for every two miles completed.

  _For Time._

                                                   _s. d._
    Not exceeding thirty minutes               ...  1  0
    Forty-five minutes                         ...  1  6
    One hour                                   ...  2  0
    One hour and twenty minutes                ...  3  0
    One hour and forty minutes                 ...  4  0
    Two hours                                  ...  5  0
    Not exceeding two hours and twenty minutes ...  6  0
    Two hours and forty minutes                ...  7  0
    Three hours                                ...  8  0
    Three hours and twenty minutes             ...  9  0
    Three hours and forty minutes              ... 10  0
    Four hours                                 ... 11  0

  And so on at the rate of sixpence for every fifteen minutes
  further time.


  _The Commissioners’ List for Regulating the Price and Measurement of
  One Shilling, Eighteen-penny, and Two Shilling Fares, according to
  the late Act of Parliament._

                          ONE SHILLING FARES.

                 The distance not exceeding one mile.

  _Palace Yard, Westminster._                                _m. f. p._

    First coach, to the end of Catherine Street, Strand       0  7 28
    Ditto, to Derby Court, Piccadilly                         0  7 26

  _Charing Cross._

    The Golden Cross, to White Horse Street, Piccadilly       0  7 27
    Ditto, to Serjeant’s Inn, Fleet Street                    0  7 22


     Catherine Street, to Watling Street, St. Paul’s          0  7 33

  _Temple Bar._

      To the second Scotland Yard, Whitehall                  0  7 21
      Ditto, to Mercer’s Chapel, Cheapside                    0  7 30

  _Bridge Street, Fleet Street._

    First coach, to St. Peter’s Church, Cornhill              0  7 34
    Ditto, to Newcastle Street, Strand                        0  7 26

  _St. Paul’s Church-yard._

    First coach, to Beaufort Buildings, Strand                0  7 25
    Ditto, to Billiter Lane, Leadenhall Street                0  7 26


    Gutter Lane, to Featherstone Buildings, Holborn           0  7 29
    Ditto, to Whitechapel Bars                                0  7 30


    The centre of the Royal Exchange, to Great Garden}        0  7 27
      Street, Whitechapel                            }
    Ditto, to Water Lane, Fleet Street                        0  7 32
    Ditto, to Hatton Garden, Holborn                          0  7 33


    First coach, next the Three Nuns, to Cheapside conduit    0  7 28
    Ditto, to the Old ’Change, Cheapside                      0  7 22


    The end of Hatton Garden, to the Royal Exchange           0  7 33
    The end of Red Lion Street, to Buckingham St., Strand     0  7 30

  _Oxford Street._

    The end of Rathbone Place, to Orchard Street              0  7 16
    Ditto, to Gray’s Inn Gate, Holborn                        0  7 20
    The end of Park Street, to Dean Street, Holborn           0  7 26


    The Golden Lion, to Panton Street, Haymarket              0  7 32
    The end of St. James’s Street, to Cecil Street, Strand    0  7 28

  _King Street, Cheapside._

    Gatestone Street, to St. Dunstan’s Church, Fleet Street   0  7 32


    Opposite the Close, to Bread Street, Cheapside            0  7 29

  _Buckingham Gate._

    Opposite the Gate, to the Treasury, Whitehall             0  7 17

                         EIGHTEEN-PENNY FARES.

            The distance not exceeding one mile and a half.

  _Palace Yard, Westminster._                                _m. f. p._

    First coach, to Serjeant’s Inn, Fleet Street              1  3 15
    Ditto, to White Horse Street, Piccadilly                  1  3 21

  _Charing Cross._

    The Golden Cross, to the end of Grosvenor Place, Hyde}
      Park Corner                                        }    1  3 19
    Ditto, to Watling Street, St. Paul’s Church Yard          1  3 28


    Catherine Street, to Bank Street, Cornhill                1  3 30

  _Temple Bar._

    To Little Abingdon Buildings, Westminster                 1  3 19
    To Billiter Lane, Leadenhall Street                       1  3 31

  _Bridge Street, Fleet Street._

    First coach, to Somerset Street, Whitechapel              1  3 27
    Ditto, to Downing Street, Parliament Street               1  3 26

  _St. Paul’s Church Yard._

    First coach, to the end of Pall Mall, Cockspur Street     1  3 35
    Ditto, Brick Lane, Whitechapel                            1  3 31


    Gutter Lane, to Dyot Street, St. Giles’s                  1  3 29
    Ditto, to Whitechapel Workhouse                           1  3 27


    The centre of the Royal Exchange, to Dog-row, Mile-end    1  3 21
    The centre of the R. Exchange, to Somerset-place, Strand  1  3 26
    Ditto, to the Bull and Gate, Holborn                      1  3 26


    First coach, next the Three Nuns, to Ely Place, Holborn   1  3 31
    Ditto, to Salisbury Court, Fleet Street                   1  3 32


    The end of Hatton Garden, to Houndsditch, Whitechapel     1  3 28
    The end of Southampton Buildings, to the Treasury,}
      Whitehall                                       }       1  3 28
    Ditto, to St. Mary Axe, Leadenhall Street                 1  3 27
    The end of Red Lion St. to Downing St., Westminster       1  3 27

  _Oxford Road._

    The end of Bond Street, to Brownlow Street, Holborn       1  3 29
    The end of Park Street, to opposite the Coal Yard,}
      High Holborn                                    }       1  3 30


    The Golden Lion, to Adam Street, Strand                   1  3 29
    Ditto, to Whitehall Chapel                                1  3 20
    The end of St. James’s St. to Temple Lane, Fleet St.      1  3 28


    First coach, to Fetter Lane, Fleet Street                 1  3 21

  _King Street, Cheapside._

    Cateaton Street, to Burleigh Street, Strand               1  3 22
    Ditto, to Newton Street, Holborn                          1  3 30


    Opposite the Close, to opposite Leadenhall Market         1  3 31

  _Buckingham Gate._

    Opposite the Gate, to Bedford Street, Strand              1  3  2

                          TWO SHILLING FARES.

                 The distance not exceeding two miles.

  _Palace Yard, Westminster._                                _m. f. p._

    First coach, to the end of Watling Street, St. Paul’s}
      Church Yard                                        }    1  7 32
    Ditto, to opposite the Horse Guards at Knightsbridge      1  7 25


    From the Horse Guards, to Mercer’s Chapel, Cheapside      1  7 28
    Ditto, to Bear Court, Knightsbridge                       1  7 28

  _Charing Cross._

    The Golden Cross, to Smith’s Manufactory, Knightsbridge   1  7  4
    Ditto, to Bank Street, Cornhill                           1  7 27


    Catherine Street, to Poor Jewry, Aldgate                  1  7 30

  _Temple Bar._

    To the end of Millbank Street, Westminster                1  6 13
    To the Red Lion and Spread Eagle, Whitechapel             1  7 16

  _Bridge Street, Fleet Street._

    First coach, to New Road, Whitechapel Road                1  7 32
    Ditto, to the turning to Queen Square, Westminster        1  7 33

  _St. Paul’s Church Yard._

    First coach, to St. James’s Palace Gate                   1  6 25
    Ditto, to the sign of the London Hospital                 1  7  3


    Gutter Lane, to the end of Poland Street, Oxford Street   1  7 34
    Ditto, to the end of Mutton Lane, Mile-End Road           1  7 26


    The centre of the Royal Exchange, to the Rose and}
      Crown, Mile-End Road                           }        1  7 30
    Ditto, to the end of St. Martin’s Lane, Strand            1  7 21
    Ditto, to the end of Denmark Street, St. Giles’s          1  7 21


    First coach, next to the Three Nuns, to the Bull and}
    Gate, Holborn                                       }     1  7 33
    First coach next to the Three Nuns, to Somerset House     1  7 33

  _King’s Road, Gray’s Inn Lane._

    First coach, to the Blue Bear, Whitechapel                1  7 20
    Ditto, to Park Street, Oxford Road                        1  7 27


    The end of Hatton Garden, to the end of Garden Street,}
      Whitechapel Road                                    }   1  7 25
    Ditto, to the end of Duke Street, Oxford Road             1  7 31
    The end of Red Lion Street, to the King’s Head, Lambeth}
      Marsh                                                }  1  7 33
    The Vine Tavern, to the end of Poor Jewry, Aldgate        1  7 30

  _Oxford Street._

    The end of Rathbone Place, to the end of Bigg’s Lane,}
      in the road to Bayswater                           }    1  7 19
    Ditto, to the end of the Old Jewry, Poultry               1  7 31

    The end of Bond Street, to the end of Cow Lane,}
      Snow Hill                                    }          1  7 26
    The end of Park Street, to Gray’s Inn Gate, Holborn       1  7 25


    The Golden Lion, to Palsgrave Head Court, Temple Bar      1  7 28
    Ditto, to the end of Wood Street, Millbank Street,}
      Westminster                                     }       1  7 33
    End of St. James’s Street, to the first coach in}
      St. Paul’s Church Yard                        }         1  7 28


    To the centre of Exeter ’Change, Strand                   1  7 31

  _King Street, Cheapside._

    Cateaton St. to the end of Suffolk Street, Cockspur St.   1  7 25
    Ditto, to the Boar and Castle, Oxford Road                1  7 15


    Opposite the Close, to the Talbot Inn, Whitechapel        1  7 29

  _Buckingham Gate_.

    Opposite the Gate, to the end of Essex Street, Strand     1  7 29

                     FARES FROM REMARKABLE PLACES.

  _Admiralty to_
                                  _s. d._
    Islington Church               4  0
    India House                    3  0
    Mile-End Turnpike              4  6
    Ratcliffe                      5  6
    Shoreditch Church              4  0
    Tower                          3  6
    Union Street, Borough          3  6

  _Bank to_

    Berkeley Square                3  6
    Haymarket                      3  0
    Hyde Park Corner               4  0
    Islington Church               3  0
    Piccadilly                     3  0
    Pantheon, Oxford Street        3  0
    Ratcliffe                      3  0
    Tyburn Gate                    4  0

  _Berkeley Square to_

    Clerkenwell Green              3  6
    Foundling Hospital             3  0
    Guildhall                      3  6
    Islington Church               4  0
    India House                    4  0
    Lincoln’s Inn (near side)      3  0
    Mile-End Gate                  5  6
    Newgate                        3  0
    Obelisk, Fleet Street          3  0
    Ratcliffe                      6  0
    St. Paul’s (west end)          3  0
    Shoreditch Church              4  6
    Tower                          4  0
    Union Street, Borough          4  6

  _Bishopsgate Street Within to_

    Bermondsey Church              1  6
    Charter-House Square           1  6
    Catherine Street, Strand       2  0
    City Lying-in Hospital         1  6
    Chancery Lane                  1  6
    King’s Bench                   1  6
    Haymarket                      3  0

  _Bishopsgate Street Without to_

    Bethnall Green                 1  6
    Hatton Garden                  1  6
    Charing Cross                  3  0
    Haymarket                      3  0
    Leicester Square               3  0

  _Clerkenwell to_

    Hyde Park Corner               4  0
    Mile-End Gate                  3  6
    Ratcliffe                      4  0
    Shoreditch Church              3  0
    Tyburn Gate                    3  6
    Union Street, Borough          3  0

  _Foundling Hospital to_

    Hyde Park Corner               3  6
    India House                    3  0
    Mile-End Gate                  4  0
    Ratcliffe                      5  6
    Shoreditch Church              4  0
    Tower                          3  6
    Tyburn Gate                    3  0
    Union Street, Borough          3  6

  _Guildhall to_

    Haymarket                      3  0
    Hyde Park Corner               4  0
    Islington Church               3  0
    Piccadilly                     3  0
    Pantheon, Oxford Street        3  0
    Tyburn                         3  6

  _Hyde Park Corner to_

    Islington Church               5  6
    India House                    4  0
    Lincoln’s Inn (west side)      3  0
    Mile-End Gate                  6  0
    Newgate                        3  6
    Obelisk, Fleet Street          3  0
    Ratcliffe Cross                6  6
    St. Paul’s (west end)          3  6
    Shoreditch Church              5  6
    Temple                         3  0
    Tower                          4  6
    Union Street, Borough          4  6

  _Islington Church to_

    India House                    3  6
    Lincoln’s Inn (west side)      3  0
    Mile-End Gate                  4  6
    Piccadilly                     4  0
    Haymarket                      4  0
    Pantheon, Oxford Street        3  6
    Ratcliffe Cross                5  6
    Temple Bar                     3  6
    Tower                          4  0
    Tyburn Gate                    4  6
    Union Street, Borough          4  0

  _India House to_

    Piccadilly                     3  6
    Haymarket                      3  6
    Pantheon                       3  6
    Tyburn                         4  0

  _Mile-End Turnpike to_

    Newgate                        3  0
    Obelisk, Fleet Street          3  0
    Piccadilly                     4  6
    Haymarket                      4  6
    Pantheon                       4  6
    Temple Bar                     3  0
    Tyburn                         6  6
    Union Street, Borough          3  0

  _Ratcliffe Cross to_

    St. Paul’s (west end)          3  6
    Shoreditch Church              3  6
    Temple Bar                     4  0
    Tyburn                         6  6
    Union Street, Borough          3  0

  _St. Ann’s Church, Dean St. to_

    Ratcliffe                      4  6
    Shoreditch Church              3  6
    Bank                           3  0
    Whitechapel                    3  0
    India House                    3  0
    Islington Church               4  0
    Mile-End Gate                  4  6
    Guildhall                      3  0
    Union Street, Borough          3  0
    Somerset House                 1  6
    Westminster Hall               1  0
    Temple Bar                     1  0
    St. Paul’s                     1  9
    Stones-End, Borough            3  0
    Tyburn Gate                    1  0
    Hyde Park                      1  6
    Grosvenor Gate                 1  6
    Horse Guards                   1  0
    Marsh Gate                     1  6

  _From Paddington to_

    St. Paul’s                     3  6
    Bank                           4  0
    Westminster Hall               2  0
    India House                    4  6
    Islington Church               3  0
    Somerset House                 3  0
    Union Street                   4  6
    Foundling                      3  0
    Temple Bar                     3  0
    Horse Guards                   2  0
    Ratcliffe                      5  6
    Tower                          5  6
    Aldersgate                     3  0

           _Fares to the Opera House, Drury Lane, and Covent
                           Garden Theatres._

                                       | _Opera  |_Drury Lane|_Cov. Gar.
              From                     | House._ | Theatre._ | Theatre._
                                       | _s. d._ |  _s. d._  |  _s. d._
  Aldersgate Street                    |  3  0   |   2  0    |   2  0
  Bishopsgate Street within            |  3  0   |   2  0    |   2  0
  Bishopsgate Street without           |  3  0   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Blackman Street, over London Bridge  |  3  6   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Ditto, over Blackfriars              |  3  6   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Ditto, over Westminster              |  3  0   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Bloomsbury Square                    |  1  6   |   1  0    |   1  0
  Buckingham Gate                      |  1  6   |   2  0    |   2  0
  Charing Cross                        |  1  0   |   1  0    |   1  0
  Cheapside, Foster Lane end           |  2  0   |   1  6    |   1  6
  Cheapside, end of King Street        |  2  0   |   1  6    |   2  0
  Chelsea College                      |  3  0   |   3  6    |   3  0
  Cornhill                             |  3  0   |   2  0    |   2  0
  Fenchurch Street                     |  3  0   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Fleet Street, Obelisk                |  1  6   |   1  0    |   1  0
  Gracechurch Street                   |  3  0   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Hackney Church                       |  5  6   |   5  0    |   5  0
  Holborn, end of Leather Lane         |  1  6   |   1  0    |   1  0
  Hyde Park Corner                     |  1  6   |   2  0    |   2  0
  Islington                            |  3  0   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Knightsbridge                        |  2  0   |   2  6    |   2  6
  Mile-End Turnpike                    |  3  6   |   3  0    |   3  6
  Minories                             |  3  0   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Moorfields                           |  3  0   |   2  0    |   2  0
  Oxford Street, Pantheon              |  1  0   |   1  6    |   1  6
  Oxford Street, end of Orchard Street |  1  6   |   2  0    |   2  0
  Palace Yard and St. Margaret’s Church|  1  0   |   1  0    |   1  0
  Ratcliffe Cross                      |  5  0   |   3  6    |   4  0
  St. Anne’s Church, Soho              |  1  0   |   1  0    |   1  0
  St. James’s Palace Gate              |  1  0   |   1  0    |   1  0
  St. Paul’s Church Yard               |  2  0   |   1  0    |   1  0
  Shoreditch Church                    |  3  6   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Smithfield                           |  2  0   |   1  6    |   1  6
  Temple Bar                           |  1  0   |   1  0    |   1  0
  Tottenham Ct. Road, end of Goodge St.|  1  6   |   1  0    |   1  0
  Tower Gate                           |  3  0   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Union Street, end of the Borough     |  3  0   |   3  0    |   3  0
  Whitechapel Bars.                    |  3  0   |   3  0    |   3  0

         _Fares to Vauxhall, Sadler’s Well’s, Astley’s, and the

            From               |_Vauxhall._|_Sad. Wells._|_Astley’s._|_Circus._
                               |  _s. d._  |   _s. d._   |  _s. d._  |  _s. d._
  Aldersgate Street            |   3  6    |    1  6     |   2  0    |   2  0
  Arundel Street, Strand       |   3  0    |    2  0     |   1  6    |   2  0
  Bedford Street, Covent Garden|   3  0    |    3  0     |   1  6    |   2  0
  Bishopsgate Street within    |   3  0    |    3  0     |   3  0    |   2  0
  Blackman Street, Borough     |   2  0    |    3  0     |   1  6    |   1  0
  Bloomsbury Square            |   3  6    |    2  0     |   2  0    |   3  0
  Bond Street, Piccadilly      |   3  0    |    3  0     |   1  6    |   2  0
  Buckingham Gate              |   3  0    |    3  6     |   1  6    |   2  0
  Charles Street, Covent Garden|   3  0    |    2  0     |   1  6    |   2  0
  Cheapside, end of Foster Lane|   3  0    |    1  6     |   2  0    |   1  6
  Chelsea College              |   4  6    |    5  0     |   3  0    |   3  0
  Cornhill, Freeman’s Court    |   3  0    |    2  0     |   2  0    |   2  0
  Fleet Street Obelisk         |   3  0    |    1  6     |   2  0    |   1  6
  Gracechurch Street           |   3  6    |    2  0     |   2  0    |   2  0
  Haymarket, Piccadilly end    |   4  6    |    3  0     |   1  6    |   2  0
  Holborn, end of King Street  |   3  6    |    2  0     |   2  0    |   3  0
  Hyde-park Corner             |   5  0    |    3  6     |   2  0    |   3  0
  Islington                    |   5  0    |    1  0     |   3  6    |   3  0
  Leicester Square             |   3  0    |    3  0     |   1  6    |   2  0
  Mile-End Turnpike            |   4  6    |    3  0     |   3  6    |   3  6
  Minories                     |   3  6    |    3  0     |   3  0    |   3  0
  Moorfields                   |   4  6    |    1  0     |   3  0    |   2  0
  Newgate                      |   3  6    |    1  0     |   2  0    |   1  6
  Oxford Street, end of Charles|
    Street                     |   3  6    |    3  0     |   2  0    |   3  0
  Oxford Street, Pantheon      |   3  6    |    3  0     |   2  0    |   3  0
  Oxford Street, Bond Street   |   3  6    |    3  0     |   3  0    |   3  0
  Ditto, Orchard Street        |   4  0    |    3  6     |   3  0    |   3  6
  Palace Yard, & St. Margaret’s|
    Church                     |   3  0    |    3  6     |   1  0    |   1  6
  Ratcliffe Cross              |   5  6    |    3  6     |   4  6    |   3  6
  St. Ann’s Church, Soho       |   3  0    |    5  0     |   1  6    |   3  0
  St. James’s Palace           |   3  0    |    3  0     |   1  6    |   3  0
  St. Paul’s Church Yard       |   3  6    |    2  0     |   2  0    |   1  6
  Shoreditch Church            |   4  6    |    2  0     |   3  6    |   3  0
  Smithfield                   |   3  6    |    1  0     |   3  0    |   2  0
  Strand, Catherine Street     |   3  0    |    3  0     |   1  6    |   2  0
  Temple Bar                   |   3  6    |    2  0     |   2  0    |   2  0
  Tottenham-Court Road,        |
    Goodge St.                 |   4  6    |    3  0     |   2  0    |   3  0
  Tower Gate                   |   4  6    |    3  0     |   3  0    |   2  0
  Union Street, Borough        |   2  0    |    3  0     |   1  6    |   1  0
  Whitechapel Bars             |   4  0    |    3  0     |   3  0    |   2  0

  _Number of Passengers._—Coaches are not compellable to take more
  than four adults in the inside, and a servant out; but if the
  coachman agree to take more, the fare will be 1s. for each extra
  person, of whatever age he or she may be, not being a child in
  arms, or less; and if taken in the country, 1s. for going, and 1s.
  for returning.—Chariots are not compellable to take more than two
  adults or grown up persons, and children in arms or less, but if the
  coachman should agree to carry, or should actually carry, above that
  number, he shall be paid at the same rate as in the preceding article
  respecting coaches.

  _Abusive Language._—The drivers of coaches and carriers of chairs, on
  demanding more than their fare, or giving abusive language, are to
  forfeit not more than 5l., and in default of the payment, they are to
  be sent to the house of correction seven days.

  _Extortion._—Coachmen refusing to go on, or extorting more than their
  fare, are to forfeit not more than 3l., nor less than 10s. Not only
  commissioners, but also justices, may determine offences, and inflict

  _Returning from the Country._—Coaches hired to go into the country,
  in the day-time, are to have for their return empty, for ten miles
  5s.; eight miles 4s.; six miles 3s.; and for four miles 2s.; but
  there is no allowance for less than four miles.

  _Obligation to go on._—They shall be compellable on every day, and at
  any hour of the night (unless they shall have been out twelve hours,
  or have other reasonable excuse), to go upon all turnpike roads, any
  where within two miles and a half from the end of the carriage-way

  _Tickets or Certificates._—By 54 Geo. III. c. 147, before any driver
  of a coach or chariot shall be entitled to receive the amount of his
  fare, he shall deliver as many tickets marked on some “one shilling,”
  and on others “one shilling and sixpence,” (and having his Majesty’s
  arms, with the words “Hackney-Coach Office,” the number of his coach
  and chariot, and dated,) as shall by the sums printed thereon, in the
  aggregate, make the full amount of such fare.

  _Option of Fares or Distance._—Fares to be calculated for time or
  distance, at the option of the coachman, and not by the day, as

  _Time of Sunset._—As the period of sunset has been found constantly
  liable to dispute, it is therefore now regulated that the sunset
  hours shall be after eight in the evening between Lady-day and
  Michaelmas, and after five in the evening between Michaelmas and
  Lady-day; and the back-carriage after such hours shall be taken to
  the carriage-way pavement, or next standing beyond which the coach
  was hired from, (if hired at any stand off the pavement) at the full
  fare back to either, at the option of the party discharging.

  _Articles left in a Coach._—By a late Act, all parcels, &c. left in a
  hackney coach are to be taken to the Hackney-Coach Office, on pain of
  paying 20l.; to be recovered on application to the commissioners or a

  The coachman can demand his fare from the place he is taken from,
  either for time, if he be kept waiting, or for distance. He is to
  take the shortest way, and to charge accordingly; but if he, from
  choice or ignorance, does otherwise, he can make no extra charge.

  The coachman may refuse to take heavy luggage, unless he be paid
  something more than the fare; but he must object to it before it be
  put into the coach; he cannot, however, object to take small trunks,
  or parcels that may be carried in the hand.

  If a coach be drawn off the stand to the side of the pavement, the
  coachman may be made to go with you, if not hired, or if he refuses,
  he is liable to be fined.

  _Note_—When a coach is intended to be kept waiting, notice should be
  taken of the time when it is called, in order to prevent disputes;
  and the coachman may demand a deposit.

  Always take the number of the coach you hire, that, in case any thing
  be left in it, or the coachman conduct himself improperly, he may be

                     LAWS RESPECTING SEDAN CHAIRS.

  By 7 Geo. III. 44, the following rates of fares are allowed to be
  taken by licensed hackney chairs; viz.
                                       _s.  d._
    For One Mile .................      1   0
    For One Mile and Four Furlongs      1   6
    For every Four Furlongs further     0   6

  By the time, for every hour one shilling and sixpence, and for every
  half hour after sixpence.

                       LAWS RESPECTING PORTERAGE.

  By 39 Geo. 3. c. 58, no more shall be taken for the porterage of
  packages, _not exceeding 56 lbs._ for any distance _not exceeding
  half a mile_ from the end of the carriage-way pavement of the
  streets, than the rates following:

    Not exceeding 1 quarter of a mile                        3
    Above 1 quarter, and not exceeding half a mile           4
    ————— half a mile, and not exceeding one mile            6
    ————— 1 mile, and not exceeding 1 mile and a half        8
    ————— 1 mile and a half, and not exceeding 2 miles      10
    And for every other half mile                            3

    On pain of a fine of not more than _20s._ nor less than _5s._

    Tickets are to be delivered from the inn with the name of the
    porter and charge for porterage, on pain of a fine of not more
    than _40s._ nor less than _5s._ Porters not bringing tickets, or
    altering the same, forfeit _40s._ For demanding or receiving more
    than marked, _20s._ Parcels brought by coaches, are to be sent from
    the inn within six hours after their arrival, unless between four
    and seven in the evening; and then within six hours after such
    hours in the morning; on pain of a fine not exceeding _20s._ nor
    less than _10s._

    Parcels brought by waggon, are to be delivered within twenty hours,
    under a like penalty.

    Parcels directed to be left till called for, are to be delivered on
    the payment of the carriage and warehouse room, of _2d._ for the
    first week, and _1d._ for every subsequent week, on pain of a fine
    not exceeding _20s._ nor less than _10s._

    Parcels not directed to be left till called for, shall be delivered
    to the party, if sent for, at the same charge, under the like

    Porters, employed in porterage, guilty of misbehaviour, may be
    brought by a warrant before any justice, and fined a sum not
    exceeding _20s._ nor less than _10s._

    Persons refusing to pay Porterage may be brought by warrant before
    any justice, and compelled.

                           FARES OF WATERMEN.

                     FROM LONDON BRIDGE, WESTWARD.

              The following distances are chargeable: for

  Oars 6d.—Sculler 3d.

    From London Bridge        to  Paul’s Wharf, or Mason’s Stairs.
         Alhallow Stairs      to  Blackfriars’ Bridge, either side.
         Three Cranes         to  Temple, or Old Barge House.
         Paul’s Wharf         to  Arundel Stairs.
         Blackfriars’ Bridge,     Somerset House, or Cupar’s
           either side        to    Bridge.
         Temple               to  Whitehall, or King’s Arms Stairs.
         Strand Lane          to  Westminster Bridge.
         Westminster Bridge,
           either side        to  Lambeth Stairs, or Horse Ferry.
         Lambeth Stairs, or
           Horse Ferry        to  Vauxhall, or Feathers’ Stairs.

  Oars 8d.—Sculler 4d.

    From London Bridge        to  Temple, or Old Barge House.
         Three Cranes         to  Strand Lane, or Surrey Stairs.
         Queenhithe           to  Somerset Stairs, or Cupar’s Bridge.
         Paul’s Wharf         to  Adelphi.
         Blackfriars’ Bridge  to  Whitehall, or King’s Arms Stairs.
         Temple               to  Westminster Bridge.
         Hungerford           to  Lambeth Stairs, or Horse Ferry.
         Lambeth Stairs       to  Nine Elms.

  Oars 1s.—Sculler 6d.

    From London Bridge        to  Westminster Bridge, or Wooden
         Blackfriars’ Bridge  to  Lambeth Stairs, or Horse Ferry.
         Strand Lane          to  Vauxhall, or Feathers’ Stairs.
         Hungerford           to  Nine Elms.
         Nine Elms            to  Chelsea Bridge.

  Oars 1s. 6d.—Sculler 9d.

    From London Bridge        to  Lambeth Stairs, or Horse Ferry.
         Allhallows           to  Vauxhall, or Feathers’ Stairs.
         Paul’s Wharf         to  Nine Elms.
         Westminster Bridge   to  Chelsea Bridge.

  Oars 2s.—Sculler 1s.

    From London Bridge        to  Nine Elms.
         Temple               to  Chelsea Bridge.

  Oars 2s. 6d.—Sculler 1s. 3d.

    From London Bridge        to  Chelsea Bridge.

                                                       _With Company._
  _From London Bridge, on either side above._  _Oars._  _Each Person._

                                               _s. d._     _s. d._
    To Chelsea Bridge                             2  6        0  4
    To Wandsworth                                 3  0        0  6
    To Putney, Fulham, or Barn Elms               4  0        0  8
    To Hammersmith, or Chiswick                   5  0        0  9
    To Barnes, or Mortlake                        6  0        1  0
    To Brentford                                  7  0        1  3
    To Twickenham, or Tide End Town               9  0        1  6
    To Hampton Court, or Hampton Town            12  0        1  9
    To Sunbury, or Walton upon Thames            13  0        1  9
    To Shepperton, Weybridge, Chertsey, Laylem   15  0        2  0
    To Staines                                   18  0        2  6
    To Datchet, or Windsor                       21  0        3  0

                     FROM LONDON BRIDGE, EASTWARD.

  Oars 6d.—Sculler 3d.

    From London Bridge        to  St. Catherine’s, or George’s Stairs.
         Somer’s Quay Stairs  to  Union Stairs, or East Lane Stairs.
         Iron Gate            to  Wapping New Stairs, Rotherhithe
                                    Stairs, or King’s Stairs.
         Hermitage Stairs     to  Church Stairs, King Edward Stairs,
                                    or Hanover Stairs.
         Wapping Old Stairs   to  New Crane Stairs, or King James’s
         Wapping New Stairs   to  Shadwell Dock Stairs.
         Execution Dock       to  Bell Wharf, or King and Queen St.
         Church Stairs        to  Great Stone Stairs.
         New Crane Stairs     to  Ratcliffe Cross, or Globe Stairs.
         Shadwell Dock Stairs to  Duke Shore Stairs, or Pageants.

  Oars 8d.—Sculler 4d.

    From London Bridge        to  Union Stairs, or East Lane Stairs.
         Somer’s Quay Stairs  to  Wapping Old Stairs, or Fountain
         Tower Stairs         to  Wapping New Stairs, Rotherhithe
                                    Stairs, or King’s Stairs.
         Iron Gate            to  Execution Dock, Prince’s Stairs,
                                    or Elephant Stairs.
         St. Catherine’s      to  Church Stairs, King Edward Stairs,
                                    or Hanover Stairs.
         Hermitage Stairs     to  New Crane Stairs, or King James’s
         Union Stairs         to  Shadwell Dock Stairs.
         Wapping Old Stairs   to  Bell Wharf, or King and Queen St.
         Wapping New Stairs   to  Ratcliffe Cross, or Globe Stairs.
         New Crane Stairs     to  Duke Shore Stairs, or Pageants.

  Over the water directly to the opposite shore, from any place between
  Windsor and Greenwich, with a sculler, two-pence, or a penny for each
  person, if more than one.

  The waterman may demand payment at the rate of three-pence (sculler,)
  and six-pence (oars,) for every half hour, _in lieu_ of the above
  fares, when detained by passengers on his way to the place at which
  they choose ultimately to be set down. For detention after having set
  down his company, he is paid three-pence (sculler,) and six-pence
  (oars,) for every half hour after the first, in addition to the above

  Note.—Oars in all cases are double the scullers’ fare.

                        POST OFFICE REGULATIONS.

                             GENERAL POST.

  Letters, to go the same day, must be put into the Post-offices at the
  west end of the town before five, and at the General Post Office, in
  Lombard Street, before seven o’clock; but those put into the General
  Post Office before half-past seven, will go that evening, paying 6d.
  with each.

  The West-India and America packet is made up the first Wednesday
  in every month; and the Leeward-Island packet, the first and third
  Wednesday in every month.

  The packet for Calais is made up every Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday,
  and Friday.

  For Ostend, Holland, and Cuxhaven, every Tuesday and Friday.
  For Sweden, every Friday. For Lisbon, every Tuesday. For the
  Mediterranean and the Brazils, first Tuesday in every month.

  For Gibraltar, Malta, and Corfu, the first Tuesday in each month. For
  Madeira and Brazils, ditto.

  All foreign letters must be paid for, except those for the British
  West Indies.

  A clerk regularly attends at the Money Order Office from nine o’clock
  in the morning till six in the evening, and guarantees the safe
  conveyance of any sum, payable at sight by the Deputy Post Masters in
  the country, Edinburgh, or Dublin; who will also receive any money,
  and give an order at sight on the Money Order Office in London.

  Allowances made for Surcharges from eleven to five o’clock.

  N.B. Any person sending or conveying Letters, otherwise than by Post,
  incurs a penalty of five pounds for every offence.

            _Table of the Rates of Postage in Great Britain,
              (From any Post Office in England or Wales)._

  For any distance not exceeding 15 miles ...  4d.
           Above 15, and not exceeding 20 ...  5d.
           Above 20,       ————        30 ...  6d.
                 30,       ————        50 ...  7d.
                 50,       ————        80 ...  8d.
                 80,       ————       120 ...  9d.
                120,       ————       170 ... 10d.
                170,       ————       250 ... 11d.
                250,       ————       300 ... 12d.

  And so in proportion; the postage increasing progressively one penny
  for a single letter for every excess of distance of 100 miles.

  All double, treble, and other letters and packets whatever, pay in
  proportion to the respective rates of single letters; but no letter
  or packet to or from places within the kingdom of Great Britain,
  together with the contents thereof, shall be charged more than as a
  treble letter, unless the same shall weigh _an ounce_, in which case
  it is to be rated as _four_ single letters, and so on in proportion
  for every quarter of an ounce above that weight, reckoning each
  quarter as a single letter.

                        A LIST OF MAIL COACHES,

      _Which set out on the Week-days at Eight, and on Sundays at
                      Six o’Clock in the Evening._

  BATH and BRISTOL, continued to Exeter, from Swan, Lad Lane.

  BARTON, from Golden Cross, Charing Cross, and Spread Eagle,
    Gracechurch Street.

  BOSTON, from Bell and Crown, Holborn.

  BRIGHTON, from Golden Cross, Charing Cross.

  CAMBRIDGE, every night, and on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday,
    to ST. IVES and WISBEACH, from Golden Cross, Charing Cross, and
    White Horse, Fetter Lane.

  CARLISLE, EDINBURGH, and GLASGOW, from Bull and Mouth, Bull and
    Mouth Street.

  CHESTER and HOLYHEAD, from Golden Cross, Charing Cross.


  DOVER, from Angel, behind St. Clement’s.

  EXETER and FALMOUTH, from Swan, Lad Lane.

  EDINBURGH, from Bull and Mouth, Bull and Mouth Street.

  GLOUCESTER, CARMARTHEN, and MILFORD, from the Angel, behind St.
    Clement’s Church, and Gloucester Coffee House, Piccadilly.

  HOLYHEAD, from the Bull and Mouth, through BIRMINGHAM and

  HARWICH, from Spread Eagle, Gracechurch Street.

  HULL, from Spread Eagle, Gracechurch Street.

  LEEDS, from Bull and Mouth.

  LIVERPOOL, from Swan, Lad Lane.

  MANCHESTER and CARLISLE, from Swan, Lad Lane.

  NORWICH, by IPSWICH, from Swan, Lad Lane.

  NORWICH, by NEWMARKET, from Swan, Lad Lane, and Golden Cross,
    Charing Cross.

  OXFORD, from Golden Cross, Charing Cross, and Angel, behind St.

  PORTSMOUTH, from Angel, behind St. Clement’s.

  PLYMOUTH and FALMOUTH, from Swan, Lad Lane.

  SOUTHAMPTON and POOLE, from Bell and Crown, Holborn.


  SWANSEA and NEATH, from Swan, Lad Lane.

  WORCESTER and LUDLOW, from Golden Cross, Charing Cross, and Bull
    and Mouth, Bull and Mouth Street.

  YARMOUTH, from White Horse, Fetter Lane.

  YORK, EDINBURGH, ABERDEEN, and INVERNESS, from Bull and Mouth.

                            TWO-PENNY POST.

  There are _Two Principal Post Offices_, one in the _General
  Post-Office Yard, Lombard-street_, and the other in _Gerrard-street,
  Soho_. There are, besides, numerous Receiving Houses for Letters,
  both in Town and Country.

  There are SIX Collections and Deliveries of Letters, in Town daily,
  (Sundays excepted) and there are two Dispatches _from_ and Three
  Deliveries _at_ most places in the Country, within the Limits of this

  The Hours by which Letters should be put into the Receiving Houses in
  Town, for each delivery, are as follow:


    Over Night by            8 o’Clock for the First
    Morning                  8 ...             Second
    ...                     10 ...             Third
    ...                     12 ...             Fourth
    Afternoon                2 ...             Fifth
    ...                      5 ...             Sixth


    The preceding Evening by 5 o’Clock for the First
    Morning                  8 ...             Second
    Afternoon                2 ...             Third

  But Letters, whether in Town or Country, may be put in at either of
  the Two Principal Offices, an Hour later for each Dispatch.

  Letters put in on Saturday Evening are delivered in the Country on
  Sunday Morning.

  The date Stamp, or, if there are Two, that having the latest Hour,
  shews also the Time of Day by which the Letters were dispatched for
  Delivery from the Principal Offices.

  The Postage of a Letter from one part of the Town to another, both
  being within the Delivery of the General Post Office, is Two pence;
  and to and from parts beyond that Delivery, Three pence; and the
  Postage of this Office on each Letter passing to or from the General
  or Foreign Post-Offices, is Two pence.

  The Two-penny Postage of all Letters, such as are for Parts out of
  His Majesty’s Dominions excepted, may or may not be paid at putting
  in, at the option of the senders.

  No Two-penny Post Letter must weigh more than Four Ounces.

  The Delivery of this Office extends to the following and intermediate
  Places; viz.:—

  In _KENT_—Woolwich; Plumstead; Shooter’s Hill; Eltham;
    Mottingham; South End; Lewisham; Beckenham; and Sydenham.

  In _SURREY_—Croydon; Beddington; Carshalton; Mitcham; Morden;
    Merton; Wimbledon; Ham; Petersham; and Richmond.

  In _MIDDLESEX_ and _HERTS_—Twickenham; Teddington; Hampton;
    Hampton-Court; Hampton-Wick; Sunbury; Whitton; Isleworth;
    Brentford; Ealing; Hamwell; Wembly; Willsdon; Kingsbury;
    The Hyde; Mill-Hill; Highwood-Hill; Totteridge; Whetstone;
    Friern-Barnet; East-Barnet; Southgate; Winchmore-Hill; and

  In _ESSEX_—Chingford; Sewardstone; High-Beach; Loughton; Chigwell
    and Row; Wanstead; Ilford; and Barking.

  Cash, in Gold or Silver, or other articles of Value enclosed in
  Letters (Notes or Drafts for Money excepted) to be mentioned to the
  Office-keeper at putting in; but it is recommended that Bank Notes,
  or others payable to Bearer, be cut in half and sent at twice,
  the Second Part not to be sent till the Receipt of the First is
  acknowledged. This Office however is not liable to make good the loss
  of any Property sent by Post.

  It is earnestly requested that Persons receiving Letters will not
  detain the Letter-Carriers at their doors longer than can be avoided.

  Letters for this Delivery are frequently by mistake put into the
  General Post, by which they are unavoidably delayed; It is therefore
  recommended that they be put into the Two-penny Post Offices or
  Receiving Houses, in order that they may be regularly forwarded by
  their proper conveyance.

  BYE-POST. A Bye Post is established on each Road within the
  Country-Delivery of this Office, by which Letter are transmitted from
  one part to another of the same district, direct, and without coming
  to London.

  Any irregularity in the Delivery of Letters, communicated to the
  Comptroller, will be duly attended to, and if the Covers bearing the
  date Stamp are produced they will assist materially in discovering
  where the fault lies.



  70 -| Water           }  Health and Wealth.
      |                 }
  60 -| Milk and Water  }  Serenity of Mind.
      |                 }
  50 -| Small Beer      }  Reputation, long Life, & Happiness.
  40 -| Cider and Perry }
      |                 }  Cheerfulness, Strength, and Nourishment,
  30 -| Wine            }
      |                 }    when taken after meals, and
  20 -| Porter          }
      |                 }    in moderate quantities.
  10 -| Strong-Beer     }
   0 -|
      |                    INTEMPERANCE.
      |                     _Vices._        _Diseases._       _Punishments._
  10 -| Punch           } Idleness and  { Sickness, Puking, }
      |                 } Peevishness.  {   and Trembling   }    Debt;
      |                 }               {of the Hands in the}
      |                 }               {     Morning;      }
  20 -| {Toddy and      }               {                   } Black Eyes;
      | {Crank          }  Quarreling,  {   Bloatedness     }
      |                 }               {  Inflamed Eyes,   }    Rags;
      |                 }     and       { Red Nose & Face;  }
      |                 }               {                   }   Hunger;
  30 -| Grog            }  Fighting,    { Sore and swelled  }
      |                 }               {       Legs;       }  Hospital;
      |              {  }    Lying,     {                   }
  40 -| Flip         {  }     and       { Jaundice, Pains   }   Jail;
      |              {  }   Swearing,   { in the Limbs, and }
      |                 }               {  burnings in the  }  Whipping;
      | {Bitters        }  Obscenity;   {palms of the hands,}
  50 -| {infused in     }               { and the soles of  }
      | {Spirits        }  Swindling,   {     the feet;     } The Hulks;
      |                 }               {                   }
      | {Brandy, Rum,   }   Perjury,    {     Dropsy;       }
  60 -| {and Whiskey, in}               { Epilepsy, Palsy;  }
      | {the morn^g.    }   Burglary,   {    Melancholy;    } Botany Bay;
      |                 }    Murder,    {     Madness;      }
      | {D^o during the }     and       {    Apoplexy;      }    The
  70 -| {day and night. }   Suicide.    {      DEATH.       }  Gallows.

  The Footman should study the following Tables of Priority of Rank
  among Persons of distinction,—a knowledge of which will enable him
  to evince peculiar Tact in his situation, and save his Master or
  Mistress much trouble in directing him, when waiting at Table.

          _A Table of Precedency among Gentlemen,—who ought to
            be served according to their respective Ranks._

  1. King’s Sons.
  2. King’s Brothers.
  3. King’s Uncles.
  4. King’s Grandsons.
  5. King’s Nephews.
  6. Archbishop of Canterbury.
  7. Lord high Chancellor.
  8. Archbishop of York.
  9. Lord Treasurer.
  10. Lord President of the Privy Council.
  11. Lord Privy Seal.
  12. Lord High Constable.
  13. Lord Great Chamberlain of England.
  14. Earl Marshall.
  15. Lord High Admiral.
  16. Lord Steward of the Household.
  17. Dukes according to their Patents.
  18. Marquesses.
  19. Dukes’ eldest Sons.
  20. Earls.
  21. Marquesses’ eldest Sons.
  22. Dukes’ younger Sons.
  23. Viscounts.
  24. Earls’ eldest Sons.
  25. Marquesses’ eldest Sons.
  26. Bishop of London.
  27. Bishop of Durham.
  28. Bishop of Winchester.
  29. Bishops according to their seniority of consecration.
  30. Barons.
  31. Speaker of the House of Commons.
  32. Viscounts’ eldest Sons.
  33. Earls’ younger Sons.
  34. Barons’ eldest Sons.
  35. Knights of the Garter.
  36. Privy Councillors.
  37. Chancellor of the Exchequer.
  38. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
  39. Lord Chief Justice of the King’s Bench.
  40. The Master of the Rolls.
  41. The Vice-Chancellor.
  42. Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
  43. Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer.
  44. Judges and Barons of the Exchequer according to seniority.
  45. Knights Bannerets royal.
  46. Viscounts’ younger Sons.
  47. Barons’ younger Sons.
  48. Baronets.
  49. Knights Bannerets.
  50. Knights of the Bath Grand Crosses.
  51. Knights Commanders of the Bath.
  52. Knights Bachelors.
  53. Eldest Sons of the eldest Sons of Peers.
  54. Baronets’ eldest Sons.
  55. Knights of the Garter’s eldest Sons.
  56. Bannerets’ eldest Sons.
  57. Knights of the Bath’s eldest Sons.
  58. Knights’ eldest Sons.
  59. Baronets’ younger Sons.
  60. Sergeants at Law.
  61. Doctors, Deans, and Chancellors.
  62. Masters in Chancery.
  63. Companions of the Bath.
  64. Esquires of the King’s Body.
  65. Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber.
  66. Esquires of the Knights of the Bath.
  67. Esquires by creation.
  68. Esquires by office or commission.
  69. Younger Sons of the Knights of the Garter.
  70. Younger Sons of Bannerets.
  71. Younger Sons of Knights of the Bath.
  72. Younger Sons of Knights Bachelors.
  73. Gentlemen entitled to bear arms.
  74. Clergymen not dignitaries,
  75. Barristers at Law.
  76. Officers of the Navy.
  77. Officers of the Army.
  78. Citizens.
  79. Burgesses.
  80. Married Men and Widowers, before Single Men of the same rank.

                       _Precedency among Ladies._

  1. Daughters of the King.
  2. Wives of the King’s Sons.
  3. Wives of the King’s Brothers.
  4. Wives of the King’s Uncles.
  5. Wives of the eldest Sons of Dukes of the blood royal.
  6. Wives of the King’s Nephews.
  7. Duchesses.
  8. Marchionesses.
  9. Wives of the eldest Sons of Dukes.
  10. Daughters of Dukes.
  11. Countesses.
  12. Wives of the eldest Sons of Marquesses.
  13. Daughters of Marquesses.
  14. Wives of the younger Sons of Dukes.
  15. Viscountesses.
  16. Wives of the eldest Sons of Earls.
  17. Daughters of Earls.
  18. Wives of the younger Sons of Marquesses.
  19. Wives of Archbishops.
  20. Wives of Bishops.
  21. Baronesses.
  22. Wives of the eldest sons of Viscounts.
  23. Daughters of Viscounts.
  24. Wives of the younger Sons of Earls.
  25. Wives of the Sons of Barons.
  26. Maids of Honour.
  27. Wives of the younger Sons of Viscounts.
  28. Wives of the younger Sons of Barons.
  29. Wives of Baronets.
  30. Wives of the Knights of the Garter.
  31. Wives of Bannerets.
  32. Wives of Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath.
  33. Wives of Knights Commanders of the Bath.
  34. Wives of Knights Bachelors.
  35. Wives of the eldest Sons of the younger Sons of Peers.
  36. Wives of the eldest Sons of Baronets.
  37. Daughters of Baronets.
  38. Wives of the eldest Sons of Knights of the Garter.
  39. Wives of the eldest Sons of Bannerets.
  40. Daughters of Bannerets.
  41. Wives of the eldest Sons of Knights of the Bath.
  42. Daughters of Knights of the Bath.
  43. Wives of the Eldest Sons of Knights Bachelors.
  44. Daughters of Knights Bachelors.
  45. Wives of the younger Sons of Baronets.
  46. Daughters of Knights.
  47. Wives of the Companions of the Order of the Bath.
  48. Wives of the Esquires of the King’s Body.
  49. Wives of the Esquires of the Knights of the Bath.
  50. Wives of Esquires by creation.
  51. Wives of Esquires by office.
  52. Wives of younger Sons of Knights of the Garter.
  53. Wives of the younger Sons of Bannerets.
  54. Wives of the younger Sons of Knights of the Bath.
  55. Wives of the younger Sons of Knights Bachelors.
  56. Wives of Gentlemen entitled to bear arms.
  57. Daughters of Esquires entitled to bear arms.
  58. Daughters of Gentlemen entitled to bear arms.
  59. Wives of Clergymen.
  60. Wives of Barristers at Law.
  61. Wives of Officers in the Navy.
  62. Wives of Officers in the Army.
  63. Wives of Citizens.
  64. Wives of Burgesses.
  65. Widows.
  66. Daughters of Citizens.
  67. Daughters of Burgesses.

            _In Addition to the above Regulations, observe_:

  1. That Preference is to be given to Persons of superior Age of
     the same Rank.
  2. That Ladies of all Ranks are to be served before their
  3. That, among Ladies—Wives Rank first,—Widows next,—and
     unmarried Ladies last.
  4. That Strangers are, in all Cases, to be served first, and the
     Young Ladies of your own Family last.

  Note also,—That at Public Meetings in the Country, preference is
  usually given to the Lady of the greatest Landholder.

              _Modes of Address in Writing and Speaking._


  To the King’s Most Excellent Majesty:—_Sire_, or _May it please your

  To his Royal Highness Frederick, Duke of York:—_May it please your
  Royal Highness_. And so to all the rest of the Royal Family, male and
  female, changing their names and titles.


  To His Grace the Duke of Wellington:—_My Lord Duke_—_Your Grace_. To
  the most Noble The Marquis of B.:—_My Lord Marquis_—_Your Lordship_.
  To the Rt. Hon. The Earl of D. To the Right Hon. Lord Viscount F. To
  the Right Hon. Lord G.:—_My Lord_—_Your Lordship_.

  Note.—Noblemen’s Wives are to be addressed in the same style.

  Note also, that by courtesy of England, all the Sons of _Dukes_ and
  _Marquesses_ and the _eldest Sons_ of Earls, have the titles of
  _Lord_ and _Right Honourable_; and their _daughters_ have the title
  of _Honourable_, but without any other addition. Every _gentleman_,
  in any place of honour or trust, is styled _Honourable_.

  The Members of His Majesty’s Privy Council, the Lord Mayors of
  London, York, and Dublin, and the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, for the
  time being, are styled _Right Honourable_.

  Every considerable Servant to his Majesty, or any other of the Royal
  Family, is, while on the _Civil_, _Naval_, or _Military List_,
  distinguished by the title of Esquire.

  Every Member of Parliament is an _Esquire_, but if he has a higher
  title, remember always to address him and every Gentleman by his
  highest title.


  To the Right Hon. the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in the Imperial
  Parliament of the United Kingdom, Assembled:—_My Lords_—_May it
  please Your Lordships_.


  To the Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses, in the Imperial Parliament
  of the United Kingdom, Assembled:—_Gentlemen_—_May it please Your
  Honourable House_. To the Right Hon. Sir A. B. Speaker of the
  Honourable House of Commons.—As he is generally a member of the Privy
  Council—Right Honourable Sir.


  To the most Reverend Father in God, A. Lord Archbishop of C.:—_My
  Lord_—_Your Grace_. To the Right Reverend Father in God, B. Lord
  Bishop of L.:—_Right Reverend Sir_. To the very Reverend Mr. or Dr.
  C. D. Dean of E. To the Reverend Mr. or Dr. F.
  Chancellor of G. }
  Archdeacon of H. }
  Prebendary of I. } _Reverend Sir._
  Rector of K.     }
  Vicar of L.      }
  Curate of M.     }

  Note.—All Clergymen are styled Reverend.


  The Officers of His Majesty’s Household are generally addressed
  according to their Quality, and sometimes according to their Office,
  or both; as
  To My Lord Steward.
     My Lord Chamberlain.
     The Rt. Hon. The Earl of B.
     Lord Privy Seal—Lord President of the Council, &c. &c.—One of His
  Majesty’s Principal Secretaries of State, &c.—_My Lord_. To the Right
  Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury—of the Admiralty,
  &c. _My Lords_—_or May it please Your Lordships_. To the Honourable
  the Commissioners of His Majesty’s Board of Customs—Excise, &c.:—_May
  it please Your Honours_.


  To the Right Hon. The Earl of B. Captain of His Majesty’s first
  Troop of Horse Guards, &c. To A. B. Esq. Lieut. General of ——,
  Surveyor-General of the Ordnance.


  To His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence:—Lord High Admiral of
  Great Britain:—_May it please Your Royal Highness_. To Vice-Admirals,
  or Rear-Admirals:—_Sir_—or _Your Honour_—except they be Noblemen.


  To His Excellency Sir A. B. Bart. Envoy Extraordinary from His
  Britannic Majesty to ——; Ambassador to ——; Resident at, &c.:—_Your
  Excellency_. To the Secretaries and Consuls:—_Sir_.


  To the Right Honourable A. Baron of B.—Lord High Chancellor—Lord
  Chief Justice of the King’s-Bench, &c.:—_My Lord_—_Your Lordship_.

  N.B.—All the other Judges, in their Official Capacities, are styled
  _Lords_, &c. and every Barrister is styled _Esquire_. Private
  Gentlemen in the Commission of the Peace, Sheriffs and Recorders,
  are also styled Esquires, with the appellation of _Worshipful_. But,
  the Aldermen and Recorder of the City of London, and all Mayors of
  Corporations, have the title of _Right Worshipful_.

  Bodies Corporate are styled _Honourable_, and sometimes _Worshipful_.

                _Abbreviations in Writing and Printing_

  A.B. or B.A. Bachelor of Arts.
  A.M. or M.A. Master of Arts.
  A.M. _Anno Mundi._ In the year of the world.
  A.D. _Anno Domini._ In the year of our Lord.
  A. M. _Ante Meridiem._ Before noon.
  Acc^{t}. Account.
  Ann. _Annum._ Yearly. _Per Annum._ By the year.
  Ans^{r}. Answer.
  Abp. Archbishop.
  Adm^{l}. Admiral.
  Adm^{r}. Administrator.

  B.V.M. Blessed Virgin Mary.
  Bar^{t}. Baronet.

  C.C.C. Corpus Christi College.
  Ct. or _Cent._ An hundred.
  Capt. Captain.
  Col. Colonel.
  Co. Company, County.
  C.S. _Custos Sigili._ Keeper of the Seal.
  Cr. Creditor.

  Dr. Debtor. Doctor.
  D.D. Doctor in Divinity.
  D. Duke.
  Do. _Ditto_, the same.

  E.G. _exempli gratia._ For example.
  E. Earl.
  Esq^{r}. Esquire.
  Ext^{r}. Executor.

  F.R.S. Fellow of the Royal Society.
  F.S.A. Fellow of the Society of Arts.

  G.R. _Georgius Rex_, King George.
  Gen^{l}. General.
  Gent. Gentlemen.
  Gov^{r}. Governor.

  Hum. Humble.
  Hon^{ble}. Honourable.

  Imp. _Imprimis_, first.
  Ins^{t}. Instant.
  It. _Item_, also.
  Id. _Idem_, Ibid. _Ibidem_, the same.
  i.e. _id est_, that is.

  J.H.S. _Jesus Hominum Salvator._ Jesus Saviour of Men.

  K.G. Knight of the Garter.
  K.B. Knight of the Bath.
  Kn^{t}. Knight.

  Ld. Lord.
  Lp. Lordship.
  LL.D. Doctor of Laws.
  Lday. Lady-day.
  Lieut. Lieutenant.
  L.C.J. Lord Chief Justice.

  M.D. Doctor in Medicine.
  M.S. _Memoria Sacrum._ Sacred to the Memory.
  M. Marquis.
  M^{r}. Master.
  M^{rs}. Mistress.
  Mem. _Memento._ Remember.
  Mich. Michaelmas.
  Mids^{r}. Midsummer.
  Mad^{m}. Madam.
  Mess^{rs}. Masters, or Gentlemen.
  Mons^{r}. Monsieur.
  MS. Manuscript.
  Math. Mathematics, or Mathematician.

  N.B. _Nota Bene_, Mark well.
  N.S. New Style.
  N^{o}. _Numero._ Number.

  O.S. Old Style.
  Obed^{t}. Obedient.

  P. M. _Post Meridiem_, Afternoon.
  _Philo. Math._ Lover of Learning.
  P^{d}. Paid.
  _Per._ By.
  _Penult._ Last except one.
  P.S. Postscript.

  Qty. Quantity.
  Q.E.D. which is demonstrated.
  q.d. _quasi dicat_, as much as to say.

  _Rex._ King.
  _Regina._ Queen.
  R^{t}. Hon. Right Honourable.
  R^{t}. Rev^{d}. Right Reverend.
  R^{t}. Wpful. Right Worshipful.
  Rec^{d}. Received.
  Rec^{t}. Receipt.

  St. _Saint_, Holy.
  St. Street.
  Serv^{t}. Servant.

  Ult. _Ultimo._ Last.

  Viz. _Videlicet_, Namely.

  Wp. Worship.

  Xmas. Christmas.

  &c. _Et cetera_, and so forth.

     _LIST of FRENCH and other FOREIGN WORDS and PHRASES in common
            Use, with their Pronunciation and Explanation._

  Aid-de-camp (_aid-di-cong_). Assistant to a general.
  A-la-mode (_al-a-mode_). In the fashion.
  Antique (_an-teek_). Ancient, or Antiquity.
  A propos (_ap-ro-po_). To the purpose, Seasonably, or By the bye.
  Auto da fe (_auto-da-fa_). Act of faith (burning of heretics).

  Bagatelle (_ba-ga-tel_). Trifle.
  Beau (_bo_). A man drest fashionably.
  Beau monde (_bo-mond_). People of fashion.
  Belle (_bell_). A woman of fashion or beauty.
  Belles lettres (_bell-letter_). Polite literature.
  Billet doux (_bil-le-doo_). Love letter.
  Bon mot (_bon-mo_). A piece of wit.
  Bon ton (_bon-tong_). Fashion.
  Boudoir (_boo-dwar_). A small private apartment.

  Carte blanche (_cart-blansh_). Unconditional terms.
  Chateau (_shat-o_). Country-seat.
  Chef d’œuvre (_she-deuvre_). Master piece.
  Ci-devant (_see-de-vang_). Formerly.
  Comme il faut (_com-e-fo_). As it should be.
  Con amore (_con-a-mo-re_). Gladly.
  Conge d’elire (_congee-de-leer_). Permission to choose.
  Corps (_core_). Body.
  Coup de grace (_coo-de-grass_). Finishing stroke.
  Coup de main (_coo-de-main_). Sudden enterprize.
  Coup d’œil (_coo-deil_) View, or Glance.

  Debut (_de-bu_). Beginning.
  Denouement (_de-nooa-mong_). Finishing, or Winding up.
  Dernier ressort (_dern-yair-res-sor_). Last resort.
  Depôt (_dee-po_). Store, or Magazine.
  Dieu et mon droit (_dew-a-mon-drwau_). God and my right.
  Double entendre (_doo-blean-tan-der_). Double meaning.
  Douceur (_doo-seur_). A bribe.

  Eclaircissement (_ec-lair-cis-mong_). Explanation.
  Eclat (_ec-la_). Splendour.
  Eleve (_el-ave_). Pupil.
  En bon point (_ang-bon-poing_). Jolly.
  En flute (_ang-flute_). Carrying guns on the upper deck only.
  En masse (_ang-mass_). In a mass.
  En passant (_ang-pas-sang_). By the way.

  Ennui (_ang-wee_). Tiresomeness.
  Entreé (_ong-tray_). Entrance.

  Faux pas (_fo-pa_). Misconduct.

  Honi soit qui mal y pense (_ho-nee-swau kee mal e panss_). May evil
    happen to him who evil thinks.

  Ich dien (_ik deen_). I serve.
  Incógnito. Disguised, or unknown.
  In pétto. Hid, or in reserve.

  Je ne sais quoi (_ge-ne-say-kwan_). I know not what.
  Jeu de mots (_zheu-de-mo_). Play upon words.
  Jeu d’esprit (_zheu-de-sprie_). Play of wit.

  L’argent (_lar-zhang_). Money, or silver.

  Mal-a-propos (_mal-ap-ro-po_). Unseasonable, or unseasonably.
  Mauvaise honte (_mo-vaiz honte_). Unbecoming bashfulness.

  Nom de guerre (_nong des giair_). Assumed name.
  Nonchalance (_non-shal-ance_). Indifference.

  Outre (_oot-ray_). Preposterous.

  Perdue (_per-due_). Concealed.
  Petit maitre (_pette e maiter_). Fop.
  Protege (_pro-te-zhay_). A person patronized and protected.

  Rouge (_rooge_). Red, or red paint.

  Sang froid (_sang-froau_). Coolness.
  Sans (_sang_). Without.
  Savant (_sav-ang_). A learned man.
  Soi-disant (_swau-dee-zang_). Pretended.

  Tête-a-tête (_tait-a-tait_). Face to face, or private conversation of
  two persons.

  Unique (_yew-neek_). Singular.

  Valet de chambre (_val’-e-de-shamb_). Footman.
  Vive le roi (_veev-ler-wau_). Long live the king.

        _EXPLANATION of LATIN WORDS and PHRASES in common use._

 _N. B. The pronunciation is the same as if the words were English; but
        divided into distinct syllables, and accented as below_.

  Ad cap-tan′dum. _To attract_
  Ad in-fin′-i-tum. _To infinity_
  Ad lib′-it-um. _At pleasure_
  Ad ref-er-end′-um. _For consideration_
  Ad va-lo′-rem. _According to value_
  A for-ti-o′-ri. _With stronger reason_
  A′-li-as. _Otherwise_
  Al′-ib-i. _Proof of having been elsewhere_
  Al′-ma ma′ter. _University_
  Ang′-li-ce. _In English_
  A pri-o′-ri. _From a prior reason_
  Ar-ca′num, or Ar-ca′-na. _Secret, or Secrets_
  Ar-gu-men′-tum ad hom′-in-em. _Personal argument_
  Au′di al′-ter-am par′-tem. _Hear both sides_

  Bo′-na fi′-de. _In reality._

  Cac-o-e′-thes scri-ben-di. _Passion for writing_
  Com′-pos men′-tis. _In one’s senses_
  Cre′-dat Ju-dæ′us. _I do not believe it_
  Cum mul′-tis a′-li-is. _With many others_
  Cum priv-i-le′-gi-o. _With privilege_

  Da′-tum, or Da′-ta. _Point or points settled or determined_
  De fac′-to. _In fact_
  De′-i gra′-ti-a. _By the grace of God_
  De ju-re. _By right_
  Dom′-in-e di′-re-ge nos. _O Lord direct us_
  Dram′-a-tis per-so′-næ. _Characters represented_
  Du-ran′-te be′-ne pla″-ci-to. _During pleasure_
  Du-ran′-te vi′-ta. _During life_

  Er′-go. _Therefore_
  Er-ra′-ta. _Errors_
  Est′-o per-pet′-u-a. _May it last for ever_
  Ex. _Late, or out of_
  Ex of-fi″-ci-o. _Officially_
  Ex par′-te. _On one side only_

  Fac sim′-i-le. _An exact copy_
  Fe′-lo de se. _Self-murderer_
  Fi′-at. _Let it be done, or made_
  Fi-nis. _End_

  Gra′-tis. _For nothing_

  Ib-i′-dem. _In the same place_
  I′-dem. _The same_
  Id est. _That is_
  Im-pri-ma′-tur. _Let it be printed_
  Im-pri′-mis. _In the first place_
  In cœ′-lo qui′-es. _In heaven is rest_
  In-for′-ma pau′-per-is. _As a pauper_
  In com-men′-dam. _For a time_
  In pro′-pri-a per-so′-na. _In person_
  In sta′-tu quo. _In the former state_
  In ter-ro′-rem. _As a warning_
  Ip′-se dix′-it. _Mere assertion_
  Ip′-so fac′-to. _By the mere fact_
  I′-tem. _Also, or article_

  Ju′-re di-vi′-no. _By divine right_

  Lo′-cum te′-nens. _Deputy_

  Mag′-na char′-ta (kar′-ta). _The great charter of England_
  Me-men′-to mo′-ri. _Remember death_
  Me′-um and tu′-um. _Mine and thine_
  Mul-tum in par′-vo. _Much in a little_

  Ne plus ul′-tra. _Greatest extent_
  No′-lens vo′-lens. _Willing or not_
  Non com′-pos _or_ Non com′-pos men′-tis. _Out of one´s senses_

  O tem′-po-ra, O mo′-res. _O the times, O the manners_
  Om-nes. _All_
  O′-nus. _Burden_

  Pas′-sim. _Every where_
  Per se. _Alone, or by itself_
  Pro bo′-no pub′-li-co. _For the public benefit_
  Pro and con. _For and against_
  Pro for′-ma. _For form’s sake_
  Pro hac vi′-ce. _For this time_
  Pro re na′-ta. _For the occasion_
  Pro tem′-po-re. _For the time_

  Quis sep-er-a-bit. _Who shall separate us?_
  Quo an-i-mo. _Intention_
  Quon′-dam. _Former_

  Re-qui-es′-cat in pa′-ce. _May he rest in peace_
  Re-sur′-gam. _I shall rise again_
  Rex. _King_

  Scan′-da-lum mag-na-tum. _Great scandal_
  Sem′-per e-a′-dem, or sem′-per i′-dem. _Always the same_
  Se-ri-a-tim. _In regular order_
  Si′-ne di′-e. _Without naming a day_
  Si′-ne qua non. _Indispensably requisite_
  Su′-i gen-e-ris. _Unparalleled_
  Sum′-mum bo′-num. _Greatest good_

  Tri′-a junc′-ta in u′-no. _Three in one_

  U′-no vo′-ce. _Unanimously_
  U′-ti-le dul′-ci. _Utility with pleasure_

  Va′-de me′-cum. _Constant companion_
  Vel′-u-ti in spec-u-lum. _As in a glass_
  Ver′-sus. _Against_
  Vi′-a. _By the way of_
  Vi′-ce. _In the room of_
  Vi′-ce ver′-sa. _The reverse_
  Vi′-de. _See_
  Vi-vant rex et re-gi-na. _Long live the king and queen_

                            ROMAN NUMERALS.

  I.           1. One.
  II.          2. Two.
  III.         3. Three.
  IV.          4. Four.
  V.           5. Five.
  VI.          6. Six.
  VII.         7. Seven.
  VIII.        8. Eight.
  IX.          9. Nine.
  X.          10. Ten.
  XI.         11. Eleven.
  XII.        12. Twelve.
  XIII.       13. Thirteen.
  XIV.        14. Fourteen.
  XV.         15. Fifteen.
  XVI.        16. Sixteen.
  XVII.       17. Seventeen.
  XVIII.      18. Eighteen.
  XIX.        19. Nineteen.
  XX.         20. Twenty.
  XXI.        21. Twenty-one.
  XXX.        30. Thirty.
  XL.         40. Forty.
  L.          50. Fifty.
  LX.         60. Sixty.
  LXX.        70. Seventy.
  LXXX.       80. Eighty.
  XC.         90. Ninety.
  C.         100. One Hundred.
  CC.        200. Two Hundred.
  CCC.       300. Three Hundred.
  CCCC.      400. Four Hundred.
  D.         500. Five Hundred.
  DC.        600. Six Hundred.
  DCC.       700. Seven Hundred.
  DCCC.      800. Eight Hundred.
  DCCCC.     900. Nine Hundred.
  M.        1000. One Thousand.
  MM.       2000. Two Thousand.
  MDCCCXXV. 1825. One Thousand Eight Hundred and Twenty Five.

  The ancient Romans in their notation made use of the following seven
  letters; viz. I. V. X. L. C. D. and M. which singly stood for one,
  five, ten, fifty, one hundred, five hundred, and one thousand. By
  repeating and combining these any other numbers were formed.

  The _annexing_ a less number to a greater increases its value, and
  denotes the sum of both; as VI. signifies six. The _prefixing_ a less
  number to a greater lessens its value, or shews their difference;
  thus, IV. is four, &c. The word thousand is often expressed by a line
  drawn over the top of a number; thus, X̅. signifies ten thousand.

             _Abbreviations and Characters, in Common Use._

  L. S. D. _Libra_, Pounds; _Solidi_, Shillings; _Denarii_, Pence.

  Cwt. One hundred weight, or 112 lbs.

  Q. or Qrs. A quarter or quarters of a hundred, or 28 lbs.

  lb. or lbs. A pound or several pounds.

  Oz. (℥) ounce or ounces.

  Dwts. Pennyweights.

  Dr. (ʒ) Drams; ℈ scruples; grs. grains.

  Bk. Book; ch. chapter; v. verse; ¶ paragraph; § section.

  Fol. folio; 4to. quarto; 8vo. octavo; 12mo. duodecimo.

  ° ′ ″ Hours, minutes, and seconds of Time; or Degrees, minutes
    and seconds, in Geographical and Astronomical Measurement.

  Yr. Year; Qr. Quarter; Mo. Month; Wk. Week; D. Day.

  Jan. January; Feb. February; Mar. March; Ap. April;
    Aug. August; Sept. September; Oct. October; Nov. November;
    Dec. December.

  Yd. Yard; Ft. foot or feet; In. inches.

  Pt. Pint; Qt. Quart; Gal. Gallon; Fir. Firkin; Kil. Kilderkin;
    Bar. Barrel; Hhd. Hogshead; P. Pipe; B. Butt; T. Tun.

  P. Pole, Perch, Rod, or Lug; R. Rood; M. Mile; F. Furlong.

         =FORMS OF A RECEIPT, NOTES, &c.=*



  Received, January 6th, 1825, of A—— B——, Esq.
  Seventeen Pounds and Ten Shillings, for one
  Quarter’s Wages,† due Dec. 25th last.

  £17 10 0                    JAMES HANDY.



  £25 0 0                 _London, April 5th, 1825._

  On Demand,‡ I promise to pay to Mr. C—— D——,
  or Order, the sum of Twenty-Five Pounds, for value

                                    RICHARD PEARSON,
                        _No. 101, Essex St. Strand_.


                    DRAFT, OR BILL.

  £75 10 0                 _London, March 17th, 1825._

  Two Months§ after Date pay to my Order Seventy-Five
  Pounds and Ten Shillings, for value received.

                                           JAMES SMITH.

  _To Charles H. Lewis, Esq._
  _Merchant, Liverpool._
  N.B. A Draft is payable by the Person on whom it is
  drawn, it must be accepted by him, in _writing_, on
  the _face_ of it.

  * For the _Stamps_ for RECEIPTS, NOTES, &c. see page 48.
  † Rent,—on Account,—or, in full,—or, as the case may be.
  ‡ Two Months after Date, or, as the case may be.
  § On Demand,—or, at Six Months, or as the case may be.

                         MULTIPLICATION TABLE,

                        _With the Pence Added._

                      | _s. d._
  Twice     2 are   4 |  0  4
            3 ...   6 |  0  6
            4 ...   8 |  0  8
            5 ...  10 |  0 10
            6 ...  12 |  1  0
            7 ...  14 |  1  2
            8 ...  16 |  1  4
            9 ...  18 |  1  6
           10 ...  20 |  1  8
           11 ...  22 |  1 10
           12 ...  24 |  2  0
  3 times   3 are   9 |  0  9
            4 ...  12 |  1  0
            5 ...  15 |  1  3
            6 ...  18 |  1  6
            7 ...  21 |  1  9
            8 ...  24 |  2  0
            9 ...  27 |  2  3
           10 ...  30 |  2  6
           11 ...  33 |  2  9
           12 ...  36 |  3  0
  4 times   4 are  16 |  1  4
            5 ...  20 |  1  8
            6 ...  24 |  2  0
            7 ...  28 |  2  4
            8 ...  32 |  2  8
            9 ...  36 |  3  0
           10 ...  40 |  3  4
           11 ...  44 |  3  8
           12 ...  48 |  4  0
  5 times   5 are  25 |  2  1
            6 ...  30 |  2  6
            7 ...  35 |  2 11
            8 ...  40 |  3  4
            9 ...  45 |  3  9
           10 ...  50 |  4  2
           11 ...  55 |  4  7
           12 ...  60 |  5  0
  6 times   6 are  36 |  3  0
            7 ...  42 |  3  6
            8 ...  48 |  4  0
            9 ...  54 |  4  6
           10 ...  60 |  5  0
           11 ...  66 |  5  6
           12 ...  72 |  6  0
  7 times   7 are  49 |  4  1
            8 ...  56 |  4  8
            9 ...  63 |  5  3
           10 ...  70 |  5 10
           11 ...  77 |  6  5
           12 ...  84 |  7  0
  8 times   8 are  64 |  5  4
            9 ...  72 |  6  0
           10 ...  80 |  6  8
           11 ...  88 |  7  4
           12 ...  96 |  8  0
  9 times   9 are  81 |  6  9
           10 ...  90 |  7  6
           11 ...  99 |  8  3
           12 ... 108 |  9  0
  10 times 10 are 100 |  8  4
           11 ... 110 |  9  2
           12 ... 120 | 10  0
  11 times 11 are 121 | 10  1
           12 ... 132 | 11  0
  12 times 12 are 144 | 12  0

  N. B.—Any two numbers multiplied into each other produce the same
  amount. Thus: 3 times 4 are 12; and 4 times 3 are 12.—Also, 4 times 5
  are 20; and 5 times 4 are 20. And so of all others.

  USE and APPLICATION.—How much do 7 pounds of sugar come to at
  ten-pence per lb.—_Ans._ 7 times 10, or 10 times 7, are 70, and 70
  pence are five shillings and ten pence, the value of the sugar.

                             MONEY TABLES.

  4 Farthings make     1 Penny
  12 Pence             1 Shilling
  20 Shillings         1 Sovereign or a Pound


    _Pence._      _s. d._
       20    are   1  8
       30    ...   2  6
       40    ...   3  4
       50    ...   4  2
       60    ...   5  0
       70    ...   5 10
       80    ...   6  8
       90    ...   7  6
      100    ...   8  4
      110    ...   9  2
      120    ...  10  0

    _Pence._      _s. d._
       12    are   1  0
       24    ...   2  0
       36    ...   3  0
       48    ...   4  0
       60    ...   5  0
       72    ...   6  0
       84    ...   7  0
       96    ...   8  0
      108    ...   9  0
      120    ...  10  0


    _Shillings._       _£. s. d._

         20      make   1  0  0
         30       ...   1 10  0
         40       ...   2  0  0
         50       ...   2 10  0
         60       ...   3  0  0
         70       ...   3 10  0
         80       ...   4  0  0
         90       ...   4 10  0
        100       ...   5  0  0
        105       ...   5  5  0


     6      is    half
     4            1-3d
     3            1-4th
     2            1-6th
     1½           1-8th
     1            1-12th
     ¾            1-16th
     ½            1-24th
     ¼            1-48th


     _s. d._
     10  0   is               half
      6  8   ...              1-3d
      5  0   or a Crown       1-4th
      4  0   ...              1-5th
      3  4   ...              1-6th
      2  6   or half a Crown  1-8th
      2  0   ...              1-10th
      1  8   ...              1-12th
      1  0   ...              1-20th

                     THE VALUE OF GOLD AND SILVER.

  GOLD.—An ounce of Standard Gold, of 22 Carats fine, (that is,
  having 22 parts of pure Gold, and 2 parts of Alloy,) is worth £4—a
  pennyweight 4d, and a grain 2d. A sovereign weighs about a quarter of
  an ounce.

  SILVER.—An ounce is worth 5s. and a pennyweight 3d. This is, about
  one fifteenth part of the value of Gold. A crown piece weighs about
  an ounce.

        _Characters used in Accounts, for the Sake of Brevity._

    +       Plus, or More,    Addition,       thus, 3 + 4 =  7
    -       Minus, or Less,   Subtraction,          5 - 3 =  2
    ×       Multiply,         Multiplication,       3 × 4 = 12
    ÷       Divide,           Division,            12 ÷ 3 =  4
    =       Equal,            Equality,             6 + 6 = 12
    : :: :  Proportion,       Proportionality,       1:4::3:12

             _A Table of Customary Weights and Measures._

    A Firkin of Butter is              56
    A Barrel of Do. or 4 Firkins      224
    A Firkin of Soap                   64
    A Barrel of Do. or 4 Firkins      256
    A Barrel of Pot-ashes             200
    A Barrel of Anchovies              30
    A Barrel of Candles               120
    A Stone of Butchers’ Meat           8
    A Stone, Horsemen’s weight,
      or Butchers’ Meat in the
      Country                          14
    A Stone of Glass, 5 lbs. and, a
      Seam of Do. or 24 Stones        120
    A Quire of Paper is 24 Sheets.
    A Ream of Paper is 20 Quires.
    A Bundle of Paper is 2 Reams.
    A Cord or Stack of Wood is 108
      solid Feet.
    42 Feet is a Ton of Shipping.
    40 Feet of rough, or 50 Feet of hewn
       Timber is a Load or Ton.
    A Dozen is 12; a long Dozen is 13.
    A Gross is 12 Dozen, or 144.
    A Pace is 3 Feet or a Yard.

  Mathematicians conceive every Circle to be divided into 360 equal
  Parts, called Degrees, and each Degree into 60 equal parts, called
  Seconds, and each Second subdivided into 60 smaller parts, called
  thirds, and so on.

  The Diameter of a Circle is a straight line drawn from one side to
  the other through the centre; and is one-third of the circumference.



    N.B. _The Imperial Standard Troy Pound_, established in 1758,
    containing 5760 Grains, became, May 1, 1825, the ONLY _genuine
    standard weight from which all other weights are to be derived,
    computed, and ascertained_.

    24 Grains make   1 Pennyweight
    20 Pennyweights  1 Ounce
    12 Ounces        1 Pound

    The proportion that _Avoirdupois_ bears to _Troy_ Weight, from
    which it is derived, is as 7000, the number of Troy grains in a
    pound Avoirdupois, is to 5760, the grains in a pound Troy. The
    Pound _Avoirdupois_ makes 14 oz. 11 dwt. and 16 grains _Troy_; and
    9 pounds Avoirdupois are equal to nearly 11 pounds Troy.

    ⁂ By _Troy_ weight Jewels, Gold, Silver, &c. are weighed.


    N.B. This weight is derived from the _Imperial Standard Troy
    Pound_, 7000 grains Troy making one pound _Avoirdupois_, and the
    proportion it bears to _Troy_ Weight is as 7000 to 5760, the number
    of grains in each pound respectively. The Pound Troy is equal to
    13 oz. 2 drms. ⅔ Avoirdupois, and (nearly) 11 Pounds Troy are
    equal to 9 Pounds Avoirdupois.

    16 Drams make       1 Ounce
    16 Ounces           1 Pound
    28 Pounds           ¼ of a Cwt.
     4 Qrtrs. (112 lb.) 1 Cwt.
    20 Hundreds         1 Ton

    ⁂ By this weight Bread, Butter, Cheese, Meat, Grocery, Drugs, and
    all coarse goods that have _waste_, are bought and sold.


    20 Grains make  1 Scruple
    3 Scruples      1 Dram
    8 Drams         1 Ounce

    ⁂ Apothecaries compound their medicines by this weight, but they
    buy and sell by Avoirdupois Weight.


                         lbs. oz. dwts.
      A Peck Loaf weighs  17   6   2
        Half do.           8  11   1
        Quartern do.       4   5   8
        Half Quartern do.  2   2  12

    Note.—By a late act, Bakers in London and within 10 miles thereof
    are to sell bread by the _pound only_, and are obliged to keep
    scales and weights in their shops, at all times, and to weigh every
    loaf, in the presence of the customer, before they deliver it,
    whether requested so to do or not, under severe penalties. In every
    other part of the kingdom bread is sold by weight, according to the
    above table.

    By a former act, whatever is the price of the best wheat in
    shillings, so many pence must be the price of the quartern loaf,
    (with one penny more for baking.) And, when the best wheaten bread
    is sold at 8d., the standard should be sold for 7d., and the
    household for 6d.


    WINE, SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS, ALE, BEER, and _all sorts of Liquids_, as
    well as CORN, _and all kinds of Dry Goods_, are _now_ bought and
    sold by _one_ measure _only_; of which the _basis_ is the GALLON,
    containing _ten pounds_ Avoirdupois of distilled or rain water, and
    called _the Imperial Standard Gallon_.

    This new measure is _larger_ than the former WINE _Measure_ by
    about _one-fifth_; therefore a gallon of Wine, or other article,
    that is worth 5s. by the _old_ Wine Measure, is worth 6s. by _this_
    measure; and so on at the rate of 2½d. _more_ in every shilling:
    and the present _new_ gallon being _smaller_ than the former BEER
    and ALE Gallon by _one-sixtieth_ part, the difference will be 1d.
    upon 5s. _less_ than by the _old_ measure; that is one farthing
    upon 15d. _less_, whatever may be the amount.

        4 Gills make         1 Pint
        2 Pints              1 Quart
        4 Quarts             1 Gallon
        9 Gallons            1 Firkin
       10 Gallons            1 Anker
       18 Gallons (2 Fir.)   1 Kilderkin
       36 Gall. (2 Kild.)    1 Barrel
       54 Gall. (3 Kild.)    1 Hogshead
       42 Gallons            1 Tierce
       63 Gallons            1 Hhd. of Wine
       84 Gallons            1 Puncheon
      108 Gal. (2 Hhds.)     1 Butt of Beer
      126 Gal. (2 Hhds.)     1 Pipe of Wine
        2 Pipes (4 Hhds.)    1 Tun

  THE NEW MEASURE FOR CORN, and all other dry goods; (_except those
  measured by heap_.)

      2 Pints make        1 Quart
      4 Quarts            1 Gallon
      2 Gallons           1 Peck
      8 Gal. (4 Pecks)    1 Bushel
      2 Bushels           1 Strike
      4 Bushels           1 Sack or Coomb
      8 Bushel (2 Sacks)  1 Quarter
      5 Quarters          1 Load or Way

    N.B. _The Imperial Standard Gallon_, containing 10 _gallons of pure
    water_, (the same as for liquids) is the _basis_ of this measure.

    This is about a _thirty-second part_, or _one quart on a bushel_,
    _larger_ than the former Winchester Measure; therefore a Bushel
    of Oats, or _any_ quantity of _any_ thing, that is worth 2s. 8d.
    Winchester Measure, is worth 2s. 9d. by _this_;—a Bushel of Barley,
    Rye, or other thing, that would cost 5s. 4d. Winchester Measure,
    will cost 5s. 6d. by the _new_;—and a Bushel of Wheat, Malt,
    &c. worth 8s. by the Winchester Bushel is worth 8s. 3d. by the
    _Imperial Bushel_;—and so on at the rate of one farthing upon every
    8d. by the _new_ measure _more_ than by the _old_ measure.


    The Standard Measure of Capacity for COALS, COKE, CULM, LIME, FISH,
    POTATOES, FRUIT, and _all other Goods_ commonly sold by _heaped_
    measure, is _now the Imperial Standard Bushel_, containing 80
    _pounds Avoirdupois_, of pure water,—made round, with a plain and
    even bottom, and being 19½ inches from outside to outside, to be
    heaped up in the form of a cone, at least 6 inches above the outer
    edge thereof, which is to be the base of the said cone.

       4 Pecks make           1 Bushel
       3 Bushels              1 Sack
       3 Sacks,               1 Vat or Strike
      36 Bushels or 12 Sacks  1 Chaldron
      21 Chaldrons            A Score*

    * Coals bought in large quantities have an allowance of one
      Chaldron on 20; or half a Chaldron in 10; or 3 sacks in 5
      Chaldrons; which is called the Ingrain.


    N.B. The basis of _this_ and _of all other measures_ of _length_
    or extension whatsoever, is the Standard Yard, established in
    1760, which _remains unaltered_, and is _now_ called _the Imperial
    Standard Yard_.

       4 Inches                 1 Hand
       9 Inches                 1 Span
      12 Inches                 1 Foot
      18 Inches                 1 Cubit
       3 Feet _the Standard Yard_.
       6 Feet or 2 Yards        1 Fathom
       5½ Yards                 1 Pole
      40 Poles, or 220 Yards    1 Furlong
       8 Furlongs or 1760 Yds.  1 Mile
       3 Miles                  1 League
      20 Leagues, or 60 M.      1 Degree
      69½ Miles                 1 Geographical Deg.

      360 Geographical Degrees, or about 25,000 miles, is the
      circumference of the Earth.

    In measuring length, if Gunter’s Chain be used,
        20 Chains make a ¼ of a Mile
        40    Ditto      Half a Mile
    and 80    Ditto      One Mile

    N.B. Long measure relates to length only.


    N.B. The _basis_ of _this_ and of _all other measures of
    extension_, is the _Standard Yard_, established in 1760,—which
    _remains unaltered_.

      144 Square Inches, that is, 12 by 12, make 1 Square Foot
        9 Square Feet                     1 Yard
       30¼ sq. Yards, or 272¼ sq. Feet    1 Pole
       40 Sq. Poles, or Perches           1 Rood
        4 Square Roods, or 160 sq. Rods.  1 Acre
       30 Acres                           1 Yardd. of Land
      100 Acres                           1 Hide of Do.
      640 Sq. Acres                       1 Sq. M. of Land
      100 Sq. Feet                        1 Sq. of flooring, &c.
      272¼ Sq. Feet                       1 Rod of brick work

    ⁂ Land is measured by Gunter’s Chain, which is divided into 100
      links, each link 6 inches and 6-10ths long, and the whole Chain
      being 4 Rods, or 22 Yards, or 66 Feet in length; so that 10 Chains
      in length and 1 in breadth, or 4840 square Yards, make an Acre.

      By this measure not only land, but all other superficies, such as
      paving, flooring, plastering, roofing, tiling, &c. are measured.


      1728 Cubic Inches, that is, 12 long,
           12 broad, and 12 thick, make     1 Cubic Foot
      27 Cubic Feet                         1 Cubic Yard

    N.B. This measure relates to length, breadth, and thickness, and
    _remains unaltered_.


    N.B. _The basis of this measure is the Imperial Standard Yard,
    established in 1760;—and remains unaltered_.

       2¼ Inches make            1 Nail
       4 Nails, or 9 In.         1 Qr. of a Yd.
       4 Quarters, or 16 Nails   1 Yard
       5 Quarters                1 Ell English
       3 Quarters                1 Ell Flemish
       6 Quarters                1 Ell French


      36 lbs. of Straw, make 1 Truss
      56 lbs. of Old Hay     1 Truss
      60 lbs. of New Hay     1 Truss
      36 Trusses             1 Load
       2 Trusses             1 Cwt.
      20 Cwt.                1 Ton


       7 Pounds make         1 Clove
       2 Cloves (14 lbs.)    1 Stone
       2 Stones (28 lbs.)    1 Todd
       6½ Todds              1 Wey
       2 Weys                1 Sack
      12 Sacks               1 Last


      60 Seconds make                        1 Minute
      60 Minutes                             1 Hour
      24 Hours                               1 Day
       7 Days                                1 Week
       4 Weeks or 28 Days                    1 Month
      13 Months, or 12 Calendar Months, or
         365 Days and nearly 6 Hours         1 Year

    N.B. Thirty days hath September,
    April, June, and November;
    February Twenty-eight alone,
    And all the rest have Thirty-one.

    ⁂ In Leap Year, which happens every fourth Year, February hath 29


      84 lbs.   3 Qrs. of a Cwt.
      56 lbs.   2 Qrs. or half a Cwt.
      28        1 Qr. or 1-4th of a Cwt.
      16        1-7th of a Cwt.
      14        1-8th of a Cwt.
       8        1-14th of a Cwt.
       7        1-16th of a Cwt.
       3½       1-32nd of a Cwt.

                         EQUAL PARTS OF A TON.

    _cwt. qrs._
      10   0       half a Ton
       5   0       1-4th of a Ton
       4   0       1-5th of a Ton
       2   2       1-8th of a Ton
       2   0       1-10th of a Ton
       1   1       1-16th of a Ton
       1   0       1-20th of a Ton



         £              £    _s.  d._

         2 and under    5     0  2
         5             10     0  3
        10             20     0  6
        20             50     1  0
        50            100     1  6
       100            200     2  6
       200            300     4  0
       300            500     5  0
       500           1000     7  6
      1000 and upwards       10  0
      Receipt in full        10  0

    The Receiver to find the Stamp.

  _BILLS, &._

                                | At or under | Exceeding
                                | 2 months    | 2 months
                                | date or 60  | date or 60
                                | days sight. | days sight.
         £ _s._          £ _s._ |   _s. d._   |   _s. d._
         2  0 not ex.    5  5   |    1  0     |    1  6
         5  5           20  0   |    1  6     |    2  0
        20  0           30  0   |    2  0     |    2  6
        30  0           50  0   |    2  6     |    3  6
        50  0          100  0   |    3  6     |    4  6
       100  0          200  0   |    4  6     |    5  0
       200  0          300  0   |    5  0     |    6  0
       300  0          500  0   |    6  0     |    8  6
       500  0         1000  0   |    8  6     |   12  6
      1000  0         2000  0   |   12  6     |   15  0
      2000  0         3000  0   |   15  0     |   25  0
      Exceeding       3000  0   |   25  0     |   30  0

      ⁂ For the FORMS of a RECEIPT, NOTES, &c. see page 42.

                               =A TABLE=

   Showing the number of days from any day in one month to the same
             day in any other month, throughout the year.

  |        To    | Jan. | Feb. | Mar. | April | May | June |
  |      { Jan.  |  365 |   31 |   59 |    90 | 120 |  151 |
  |      { Feb.  |  334 |  365 |   28 |    59 |  89 |  120 |
  |      { Mar.  |  306 |  337 |  365 |    31 |  61 |   92 |
  |      { April |  275 |  306 |  334 |   365 |  30 |   61 |
  |      { May   |  245 |  276 |  304 |   335 | 365 |   31 |
  | From { June  |  214 |  245 |  273 |   304 | 334 |  365 |
  |      { July  |  184 |  215 |  243 |   273 | 304 |  335 |
  |      { Aug.  |  153 |  184 |  212 |   243 | 273 |  304 |
  |      { Sept. |  122 |  153 |  181 |   212 | 242 |  273 |
  |      { Oct.  |   92 |  123 |  151 |   182 | 212 |  243 |
  |      { Nov.  |   61 |   92 |  120 |   151 | 181 |  212 |
  |      { Dec.  |   31 |   62 |   90 |   121 | 151 |  182 |

  |        To    | July | Aug. | Sept. | Oct. | Nov. | Dec. |
  |      { Jan.  |  181 |  212 |   243 |  273 |  304 |  334 |
  |      { Feb.  |  150 |  181 |   212 |  242 |  273 |  303 |
  |      { Mar.  |  122 |  153 |   184 |  214 |  245 |  275 |
  |      { April |   91 |  122 |   153 |  183 |  214 |  244 |
  |      { May   |   61 |   92 |   123 |  153 |  184 |  214 |
  | From { June  |   30 |   61 |    92 |  122 |  153 |  183 |
  |      { July  |  365 |   31 |    62 |   92 |  123 |  153 |
  |      { Aug.  |  334 |  365 |    31 |   61 |   92 |  122 |
  |      { Sept. |  303 |  334 |   365 |   30 |   61 |   91 |
  |      { Oct.  |  273 |  304 |   335 |  365 |   31 |   61 |
  |      { Nov.  |  242 |  273 |   304 |  334 |  365 |   30 |
  |      { Dec.  |  212 |  243 |   274 |  304 |  335 |  365 |

  _In Leap Year, when February intervenes_, add one day _to the



  Abbreviations in writing and printing,            _Appendix_     38
  ————————————— and characters in common use,       _Appendix_     41
  Accomplishments, Educational,                                   274
  Acetous Acid, to make,                                          190
  Acquaintances, caution in forming,                               29
  Adder, for the poison of the,                                   326
  Address, modes of, in writing and speaking,       _Appendix_     36
  Adulteration of Wine, detection of,                             357
  Adulterated Provisions,                                         213
  Advice to Servants in General,                                   17
  Agreement of Servants,                            _Appendix_     11
  Almond Bloom, to make,                                          162
  —————— Paste,                                               _ibid._
  —————— Milk,                                                    309
  Aloetic Pills, to make,                                         310
  Anchovies, to imitate,                                          121
  Angelica, to candy,                                             116
  Animation, to restore Suspended,                                322
  Aniseed, Compound Spirit of,                                    317
  Ankle, for a sprained,                                          325
  Antibilious Pills, to make,                                     310
  Aperient Draught,                                               320
  Apoplectic Fit, to relieve an,                                  322
  Apprentices, _directions to_,                                   418
  Apples, to store,                                                62
  Apricots, to preserve,                                          115
  Aromatic Tincture,                                              314
  Asses’ Milk, Substitute for,                                    307

  Bacon, to choose,                                                80
  Bad Breath, remedy for,                                         247
  Bailiff, see Land Steward,                                      327
  Balsam of Honey,                                                315
  Baking, articles and joints for,                                204
  Barberries, to preserve,                                        113
  Bardolph Pimple, to remove,                                     242
  Bark, Tincture of Peruvian,                                     316
  ————, Huxham’s Tincture of,                                     316
  Barley Sugar, to make,                                          102
  Barley Water,                                                   305
  Bath, to make a warm,                                           322
  Barometer of temperance and intemperance,         _Appendix_     33
  Bechamel, or white sauce, to make,                              209
  Bed-rooms, management of,                                       289
  Beef, to choose,                                                 75
  ————, joints of,                                                 76
  Beef and Mutton, to boil,                                       197
  Beef-tea, to make,                                              306
  Bees, to avoid injury from,                                     326
  Beverages, Miscellaneous, to make,                              191
  Bible recommended,                                               37
  Bill of Fare, Cook’s,                                           219
  ————————————, Etiquette of,                                      57
  Biscuits, Fancy, to make,                                        98
  ————————, Sponge,                                                99
  Blacking, to make,                                              390
  Black Cloth, to revive,                                         366
  ———————————, to take stains out of,                             367
  Blancmanges, to make,                                           100
  Bleeding, to relieve sudden,                                    321
  Board Wages,                                                      8
  Boiling, Instructions for,                                      195
  ———————, Examples in,                                           197
  Bon Bons, to make,                                              102
  Bottle-Jack,                                                    201
  Books, choice of, in Education,                                 274
  Boot Tops, liquid for cleaning,                                 384
  —————————, to clean,                                            392
  Breeches Ball, to make,                                         366
  Brine for Pickling,                                             122
  British Wines,                                                  123
  —————————————, Management of,                                   153
  —————————————, Vatting, Fermenting, and Flavouring of,          124
  —————————————, Racking, Fining, and Bottling,                   126
  —————————————, to restore pricked,                              344
  Broiling, Instructions for,                                     205
  Broths, Soups, and Gravies, to prepare,                         208
  Browning, to make,                                              211
  Bucellas Wine, to manage,                                       351
  Buns, Common, to make,                                           96
  ————, Cross, to make,                                       _ibid._
  Burns or Scalds, to cure,                                       324
  Butchers’-Meat,                                                  74
  ——————————————, Management of,                                  214
  BUTLER, the,                                                    339
  —————— Wages,                                                   342
  ——————, sundry receipts for,                                358–360
  ——————, UNDER,                                                  394
  Butter, to choose,                                               10
  ——————, to make Salt, Fresh,                                    299
  ——————, winter store of,                                        297

  Cakes, making,                                                   89
  —————, Almond,                                                   94
  —————, Apple,                                                   100
  —————, Bambury,                                                  94
  —————, Bath,                                                     92
  —————, Cream,                                                    95
  —————, Ginger,                                                   92
  —————, Good Plain,                                               91
  —————, Iceing for,                                          _ibid._
  —————, Lemon,                                                    93
  —————, Plain Pound,                                              91
  —————, Portugal,                                                 92
  —————, Queen,                                                    93
  —————, Ratifia,                                                  91
  —————, Rice,                                                     93
  —————, Rich Plum, to make,                                       90
  —————, Rich Seed,                                                91
  —————, Saffron,                                                  93
  —————, Shrewsbury,                                               92
  Calendar, Gardeners’,                                           414
  Camphor Mixture,                                                321
  Cancer, for,                                                    323
  Candles, to Store,                                               61
  Candying, to prepare Sugar for,                                 101
  Capillaire, to make,                                            105
  Carp, Tench, and Perch, to choose,                               86
  Carpets, to sweep,                                              288
  Carriages and Harness, to clean brass ornaments on,             375
  Casks, sweeting of,                                             356
  —————, Foul, to Sweeten,                                        153
  Catechu, Tincture of,                                           316
  Caviare, to choose,                                              84
  Caudle, White and Brown, to make,                               307
  Carpets, to clean,                                              281
  Chalk Mixture,                                                  321
  CHAMBER NURSE, Duties of,                                       301
  Champaigne, British, to make,                                   129
  Chapped Lips, Balsam for,                                       205
  Character, Maintainance of,                                      32
  —————————, Recommendations of,                                   54
  Cheese, varieties of,                                            86
  Cheesecakes, fine almond, and bread, to make,                    99
  ———————————, rice,                                              100
  Cherries, to dry,                                               114
  Chickens, to manage,                                            296
  Children, washing and exercise of,                              255
  Chintz, to wash,                                                249
  Chocolate, to make,                                             193
  Chocolate Drops, to make,                                       104
  Cinnamon, Compound Tincture of,                                 314
  Claret, to manage,                                              345
  ——————, to colour,                                              346
  ——————, to restore, that drinks foul,                       _ibid._
  ——————  and Port, to make rough,                            _ibid._
  ——————, to fine,                                                354
  Cleanliness recommended,                                         29
  Cleaning rooms,                                                 292
  Cloth, to revive faded Black,                                   366
  —————, to dry clean,                                        _ibid._
  Clothes, Coats, Pelisses, &c. to scour,                         365
  ———————, Ball,                                                  366
  COACHMAN, the Head,                                             372
  ————————, UNDER,                                                396
  Coals, economy in,                                              223
  Cod-fish, to choose,                                             85
  Coffee, to make,                                                193
  Cold and Cough, for a,                                          323
  Colours in Dress,                                               243
  Company, choice of,                                              38
  Confectionary Drops, to make,                                   105
  Confectionary Receipts,                                         101
  Contagion, to prevent,                                          302
  Convulsions of Children,                                        265
  COOK, the Man,                                                  372
  ———— morning business,                                          373
  ———— evening duties,                                            375
  ———— wages,                                                 _ibid._
  ————, Duties of the,                                            194
  ————, advice to,                                                 29
  ————, UNDER,                                                    233
  ————, useful hints to,                                          221
  Cook’s Catechism,                                               224
  Corn, to increase,                                              300
  Corns, to cure,                                                 324
  ————— Plaster, to make,                                         248
  Cosmetic Juice, to make,                                        244
  Cough, a constitutional or winter one,                          323
  ————— Mixture, to make,                                         308
  Counterpanes, to Scour,                                         295
  Couriers,                                                       408
  Courses, arrangement of,                                        220
  Court Plaster,                                                  313
  —————————————, application of,                                  314
  Courtship, caution in,                                           39
  Cows, to milk and manage,                                       296
  ————, economy of,                                               299
  Cream, cold, to make,                                           160
  —————, Ice,                                                     109
  —————, Pistachio,                                           _ibid._
  —————, Raspberry,                                               110
  —————, Rose,                                                    160
  —————, Whipt,                                                   109
  Croup, remedies for,                                            269
  Cruelty, caution against,                                       232
  Crumpets, to make,                                               95
  Cucumbers and Melons, to preserve,                              115
  ————————————————————, to pickle,                                120
  Cullis, or Brown Gravy, to make,                                209
  Curry, East India, method of preparing,                         369
  ————— Powder,                                                   370
  Custards, Almond, to make,                                       97
  ————————, Baked,                                                 96
  ————————, Lemon,                                                 97
  ————————, Orange,                                                96
  ————————, Rice,                                                  97
  Cutaneous Eruptions, remedy for,                                264

  Daffy’s Elixir,                                                 315
  DAIRY-MAID, duties of,                                          295
  Damson Cheese, to make,                                         111
  Damsons, to bottle,                                             113
  Dedication to the Heads of Families,                              1
  Dentition of Children,                                          265
  Dessert, arrangement of,                                         58
  Diarrhœa, remedy for,                                           264
  Dining Tables, to clean,                                        290
  Dinner Courses, arrangement of,                                 218
  Discharging Servants,                             _Appendix_      9
  Disputed Wages, to settle,                        _Appendix_     13
  Distillation, general rules for,                                177
  Distilled Waters                                                176
  ————————————————, Alexeterial,                                  180
  ————————————————, Cinnamon,                                 _ibid._
  ————————————————, Jamaica Pepper,                               181
  ————————————————, Jasmine,                                      180
  ————————————————, Myrtle,                                       181
  ————————————————, Pennyroyal,                                   180
  ————————————————, Orange Flower,                                181
  ———————————————————————— Peel,                              _ibid._
  ————————————————, Peppermint and Portugal,                  _ibid._
  ————————————————, Rose,                                         182
  ————————————————, Rosemary,                                     179
  ————————————————, Sans Pareil,                                  180
  ————————————————, Simple Distilled,                             182
  ————————————————, Spearmint,                                    180
  ————————————————, Strawberry,                                   182
  Doses, Table of,                                                304
  Dress, art of,                                                  236
  —————, neatness in,                                              35
  Drops, Confectionary, to make,                                  105
  —————, Chocolate,                                               106
  —————, Clove,                                               _ibid._
  —————, Coffee,                                              _ibid._
  —————, Ginger,                                              _ibid._
  —————, Orange Flower,                                       _ibid._
  —————, Peppermint,                                          _ibid._
  Drowned, method of restoring Life to the apparently,            326
  Ducks, to choose,                                                82

  East India Curry, method of preparing an,                       369
  Eau de Bouquet, to make,                                        158
  —————— Cologne, to make,                                    _ibid._
  —————— Luce, to make,                                           311
  Economy enforced,                                             12–26
  Education, improved System of,                                  273
  Effervescing Draught, to mix,                                   307
  Eggs, to choose,                                                 87
  ————, to preserve,                                              300
  Emetic Draught,                                                 320
  Embezzlement, Crime of,                           _Appendix_     13
  Eringo, to candy,                                               116
  Establishments, Scales of,                                        5
  Excuse for Stopping on Errands,                                  43
  Expenses, Tables of,                                              4
  ———————————————————,                              _Appendix_      5
  Eye, for a bruised,                                             325

  False Characters, Punishment for,                 _Appendix_     14
  Family, Sketch of a well-regulated,                              15
  Feathers, to clean,                                             253
  Female Servants, advice to,                                      29
  Fermentation, Spirituous,                                       125
  Finger plates, to clean,                                        287
  Floor Cloths, to clean,                                         283
  Flannels, to scour,                                             295
  Finings for Wine,                                               355
  Fire, to extinguish,                                            325
  First Service,                                                   31
  Fish, to boil,                                                  199
  ————, to choose,                                                 84
  ————, to carve,                                                  73
  ————, to preserve by Sugar,                                     121
  Fits, to relieve fainting and other,                            321
  Flounders, to choose,                                            85
  Flour, to choose,                                               300
  Flowers, to preserve, for Distilling,                           176
  Fomentations, directions for,                                   312
  Forbearance,                                                     53
  FOOTMAN, the,                                                   376
  ———————, method of cleaning boots and shoes,                    377
  ——————————————————————————— Ladies shoes,                       378
  ——————————————————————————— furniture,                          385
  ——————————————————————————— looking glasses & pictures,         379
  ——————————————————————————— gloves,                         _ibid._
  ———————, duties for dinner,                                     380
  ————————————————————tea,                                        382
  ——————————————————— supper,                                     383
  ——————————————— in going out with the carriage,             _ibid._
  ——————— wages,                                                  384
  ———————, sundry receipts for,                               384–394
  ———————, UNDER,                                                 398
  Fowls, to choose,                                                82
  Fraud or Neglect, liability for,                  _Appendix_     13
  Freckle Wash, to make,                                          240
  Fresh Water Fish,                                                86
  Friars Balsam,                                                  316
  Frugality recommended,                                           24
  Fruit, to candy,                                                102
  —————, to gather,                                               123
  —————, to preserve,                                             113
  —————————————————— in spirits,                                  114
  —————, to scald,                                                 60
  Frying, directions for,                                         205
  Furniture Paste and Oil, to make,                               391
  Furs, to preserve,                                              248

  Game, to choose,                                                 81
  GARDENER, HEAD,                                                 409
  Geese, to choose,                                                82
  Gilt Buckles, chains, &c. to clean,                             365
  Ginger, to candy,                                               103
  Ginger Beer, to make,                                           191
  ——————————— and Powders,                                        359
  Gingerbread, plain, to make,                                     94
  Glaze, to prepare,                                              207
  Gloves, to clean without wetting,                               365
  ——————, to wash and clean,                                      388
  Godfrey’s Cordial,                                              315
  Gold Lace, to clean,                                            364
  ————————— and Embroidery, to clean,                             367
  Good Temper, qualification of,                                   28
  Gooseberries, to preserve,                                      116
  GOVERNESS, qualifications for,                                  272
  Grape Lotion, to make,                                          240
  Grapes, to preserve,                                            114
  ——————, to store,                                                62
  Gravel, for the,                                                323
  Grease Spots, to remove,                                    249–283
  ————————————, to take out,                                      387
  Griping and Flatulency, remedy for,                             263
  Grocery and Confectionery,                                       62
  GROOM, the,                                                     399
  ————— and FOOTMAN,                                              407
  Grouse, to keep,                                                 84
  Gudgeons, Roach, and Dace, to choose,                            86
  Guaiacum, Tincture,                                             316
  ————————, Ammoniated tincture of,                           _ibid._
  Gum Arabic Mucilage, to make,                                   309

  Hackney Coach Fares,                              _Appendix_     15
  ——————————————————— Laws,                         _Appendix_     23
  Haddock, to choose,                                              85
  Hair, superfluous, to remove,                                   171
  ———— Powder Perfume, to make,                                   168
  ———————————s, to perfume,                                       170
  ————, to strengthen and thicken,                                247
  HALL PORTER,                                                    398
  Hams, choice of,                                                 80
  ————, to carve,                                                  68
  ————, to salt,                                                  121
  Hangings, to restore,                                           282
  Hares, to choose,                                                81
  —————, to carve,                                                 70
  Harness, black dye for,                                         375
  ———————, Liquid Blacking for,                               _ibid._
  Hartshorn Jelly, to make,                                       108
  Head Aches, to ease or cure,                                    322
  HEAD NURSE, duties of the,                                      254
  Herbs, to preserve by drying,                                    87
  ————— used in Salads,                                           212
  Hermitage and Burgundy Wine, to manage,                         346
  Herrings, to choose,                                             85
  Hiccups, remedy for,                                            263
  Hiring Servants,                                  _Appendix_      9
  Hog’s Lard, ointment of,                                        313
  Horses, to bring out in case of fire,                           375
  ——————, management of,                                          400
  ——————, receipts relative to,                                   404
  Honesty the best Policy,                                      20–34
  Honey, to clarify,                                              114
  —————, Balsam of,                                               315
  ————— Water, to make,                                       159–190
  Honours of the Table,                                            15
  Hooping Cough, remedy for,                                      268
  Horehound, to candy,                                            103
  Household Concerns, management of,                                2
  ————————— Establishment,                                          7
  HOUSEKEEPER, qualifications of the,                              51
  ———————————, Representative of the Mistress,                     52
  ———————————, her management of the other Servants,          _ibid._
  ———————————, her accounts,                                       56
  ———————————, salary of,                                          59
  ———————————, Memorandums for                                _ibid._
  HOUSE-MAID, UPPER, duties of                                    276
  ——————————, hearths to clean,                                   277
  ——————————, management of bed-rooms,                            280
  ——————————, UNDER, duties of,                                   284
  HOUSE STEWARD, the,                                             336
  —————————————, his business to hire and discharge
    all servants,                                             _ibid._
  —————————————  Accounts,                                        337
  —————————————, Salary,                                          338
  Huxham’s Tincture of Bark,                                      316

  Iceing for Cakes, to make,                                       91
  Idleness the Source of Evil,                                     21
  Incomes, table of,                                                3
  —————————————————,                                _Appendix_      5
  Independence, how to establish,                                  25
  Industry, the duty of,                                        27–34
  ———————— the foundation of good character,                       19
  Infection, to prevent,                                          308
  INFANTS, management of,                                         256
  ———————, clothing of a,                                         257
  ———————, diseases of,                                           262
  ———————, dress of,                                              259
  ———————, exercise of,                                           257
  ———————, food of,                                               260
  ———————, sleep of,                                              261
  ———————, strengthening of,                                      259
  ———————, mild purgatives for,                                   321
  Indenture of Apprenticeship explained,                          411
  Ink Spots, to remove,                                           295
  Intemperance, ruinous effects of,                                22
  Interest of Savings,                                             27
  ————————, Tables of,                              _Appendix_      6
  Inventory, the Housekeeper’s,                                    60
  Inward Fits, remedy for,                                        266
  Ipecacuan Wine,                                                 317
  Irons, polished, to preserve,                                   283
  Iron-Moulds, to remove,                                         294
  Isinglass Jelly, to make,                                       306

  Jam, Raspberry,                                                 111
  ———, Strawberry,                                            _ibid._
  Jasmine, Essence of, to make,                                   159
  Jelly, Apple, to make,                                          110
  —————, Black Currant,                                       _ibid._
  —————, Currant,                                             _ibid._
  —————, Gooseberry,                                          _ibid._
  —————, Strawberry.                                          _ibid._
  Joints, Table of, for roasting,                                 202

  Kitchen, good order of,                                         291
  KITCHEN-MAID, directions to,                                    233
  Kitchen Maxims,                                                 224
  Knighton’s Lotion, to make,                                     241
  Knives and Forks, to clean,                                     393

  Lace or Linen, fine, to wash,                                   250
  LADY’S-MAID, duties and qualifications of,                      236
  —————— FOOTMAN,                                                 397
  Lamb, to choose,                                                 79
  ————, joints of,                                            _ibid._
  ———————————————, to carve,                                       68
  LAND STEWARD and Bailiff,                                       327
  ———————————— should have a proper set of books,                 328
  ———————————— should detect peculations, &c. in
                 servants,                                    _ibid._
  ———————————— every farm should be surveyed and
                 described in a Map,                              329
  ———————————— the covenants in each lease to be
                 strictly attended to,                        _ibid._
  ———————————— trespasses and nuisances to be
                 avoided,                                         330
  ———————————— encouragement should be given to
                 improvements,                                _ibid._
  ———————————— not to interfere in the domestic
                 concerns of the tenants,                         331
  ———————————— should have an able and professional
                 adviser,                                         332
  ———————————— balance in cash should be put out to
                 interest,                                    _ibid._
  ———————————— all accounts should be properly
                 arranged,                                        333
  ———————————— books necessary to be kept,                        334
  ———————————— form of the Journal,                           _ibid._
  ———————————————————— the Ledger, &c.,                           335
  Larder, management of,                                      214–216
  LAUNDRY-MAID, duties of,                                        294
  ————————————, economical hints to,                          _ibid._
  Lavender Water,                                                 317
  Lawns, to wash and starch,                                      250
  Laws of Masters and Servants,                     _Appendix_      9
  Leather Breeches, to take grease out of,                        366
  Leather, to clean,                                              367
  Lemon Cream, to make,                                           240
  ————— Peel, to candy,                                           104
  Lemonade, portable,                                             192
  Lemons, to store,                                                66
  Leverets, to distinguish,                                        81
  Liability of Masters,                             _Appendix_     12
  Liniments, to make,                                             311
  Lip Honey, to prepare,                                          245
  ——— Salve,                                                      313
  —————————, to make,                                             166
  Liquorice, Extract of, to make,                                 107
  ————————— Juice,                                            _ibid._
  ————————— Lozenges, to make,                                    106
  ————————— Refined, to make,                                     107
  London Female Servants’ Society,                                 30
  Looking Glasses, to clean,                                      283
  Lisbon Wine, to manage,                                         351
  Lotion for Wrinkles,                                            242
  Lozenges, Black Pectoral,                                       317
  ————————, White Pectoral,                                   _ibid._
  ————————, Nitre,                                                318
  Lye for the Hair,                                               247

  Macaroons, to make,                                              98
  Macassar Oil, to make,                                          247
  Mackerel, to choose,                                             86
  Mad Dog, for the bite of a,                                     326
  Madeira, to fine,                                               354
  Magnesia Water, to make,                                        192
  Mail Coaches, list of the,                        _Appendix_     29
  Malmsey and other Wines, to fine,                               355
  MAN COOK, the,                                                  368
  Marble, to clean,                                               283
  —————— Hearths, to clean,                                       287
  Marketing, rules for,                                         54–74
  ————————— Tables,                                 _Appendix_      1
  Marmalade, Barberry, to make,                                   108
  —————————, Orange,                                              107
  —————————, Quince,                                              108
  —————————, Scotch,                                              108
  —————————, Transparent,                                     _ibid._
  Marshmallows, decoction of, to make,                            310
  Melted Butter,                                                  210
  Men-servants, advice to,                                         28
  Measures, Graduated,                                            213
  Meat, tainted, to restore,                                      217
  Meats, various, to dress,                                       222
  Medicinal Tea, to make,                                         306
  Metals, various, to clean,                                      281
  Mildew, to remove from Linen,                                   295
  Mildness of Behaviour,                                           35
  Milk, to preserve,                                              298
  ———— and Cream, substitute for,                                 299
  ————, management of, in the Dairy,                              296
  ———— of Roses, to make,                                     159–160
  Mistresses of Families, kindness of, to Servants,                10
  Moor-Game, to keep,                                              84
  Moths, to drive away,                                           248
  ———————————————————— or prevent approach of,                    366
  Mourning Dresses, to remove stains from,                        364
  Muffins, to make,                                                95
  Mulga-Tawney, mode of preparing,                                370
  Mushrooms, to pickle,                                           120
  Musk, Tincture of, to make,                                     167
  Mustiness in Wine, to remove,                                   153
  Mutton, to choose,                                               78
  —————— Broth, to make,                                          306
  ——————, joints of,                                               79
  ————————————————— to carve,                                      67
  Must, drawing and casking of,                                   125
  Mustard Cataplasm, to make,                                     312

  Needle-work, the Lady’s maid’s,                                 239
  Negative Advice to Servants, by Dean Swift,                      42
  New services,                                                    32
  NURSE, the CHAMBER,                                             301
  —————————— UNDER,                                               271
  —————————— HEAD, directions to,                                 254
  Nursery, cautions in,                                           254
  NURSERY MAID, duties of,                                        271
  ———————————— sleeping-room,                                     256

  Obedience, duty of,                                              40
  Oils for the hair, to make,                                     247
  ————, to remove from boards,                                    284
  Omelette souffle, to make,                                      111
  Onions, to pickle,                                              118
  Opodeldoc, to make,                                             310
  Orange flowers, to candy,                                       114
  —————— marmalade, to make,                                      107
  —————— peel, to candy,                                          104
  Oranges, to preserve whole,                                     114
  ———————, to store,                                               66
  Orgeat paste, to make,                                          112
  Opiate, for the teeth,                                          165
  Ottar of Roses, to make,                                        159
  Outriders,                                                      408
  Oxalic Acid,                                                    326

  Paints, use of,                                                 243
  Palma Christi, to make,                                         247
  Panada, to make,                                                305
  Paper-hangings, to clean,                                       282
  Parlour fire, to light and manage,                              293
  Parsley and Butter,